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Innovative Low Head Hydro

The StreamDiver in Action


NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA
Agenda

1. StreamDiver Introduction
2. Design Concept and Testing
3. Nussdorf Pilot Plant Operations
4. Summary, Results and Outlook

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
Worldwide, there is still tremendous potential for the use of
low head hydropower for power generation.
Decentralized hydropower generation is sustainable, renewable
and supports economic development of remote areas.
However, decentral, low head power plants have specific
requirements regarding commercial viability, availability,
maintenance and environmental aspects.

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
StreamDiver Application Range Covers
Heads From 2 - 8 m (up to 26 ft.)
Turbine classification StreamDiver application range (single unit)
Application by head and flow range 5 different runner sizes (modules)

The StreamDiver covers the low A single unit generation ranges from below
head, low power range next to 50 kW up to above 750 kW depending on
conventional designs like Kaplan, the available head and flow.
Francis or Pelton.

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
Reduction of O&M Costs is One Key
Premise and Todays Focus

Reduction of Civil Cost

Ease of Project Execution

Reduced O&M Cost & Risk

Oil-free Plant Solution

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
Clarity: The Simplified Design of the
StreamDiver Ensures the Highest Reliability
Standard version: Non-regulated, direct-driven turbine generator unit
No dynamic seals, cooling water system, lubrication oil system, excitation system, or runner or guide vane regulation


1 Turbine housing with guide vanes

2 Radial and axial bearing

3 Shaft ends
4
PMG generator
5
Runner
1
6
Bulb nose
6 2

3
2
3 Generator & terminals
4 5
Stator vane

Runner

Housing

Shaft, bearing assembly


The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
Two Unique Features are Most Relevant:
Bearing Lifetime and Cooling Concept (1/2)

Heat transfer
Water inlet
Lubrication

Water flow

Water inlet
Heat transfer
Water flow

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
Two Unique Features are Most Relevant:
Bearing Lifetime and Cooling Concept (2/2)

1. Water exchange
Bulb fills with river water before start-up
Minimal exchange during operation (minimal sediment exchange)

2. Water circulation
Shaft rotation will circulate water in bulb to avoid hotspots
Circulation transports heat to the housing elements

3. Heat transfer
Discharged flow passes the bulb and housing
Passive, convective cooling of the bulb

4. Lubrication
River water inside the bulb generates lubrication film
Contained sediments are processed by hard coated shaft
The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
Bearing Performance and Lifetime:
Endurance Tests at the Test Rig in Heidenheim
Test rig assembly and installation Intermediate measurements of wear (interval of 6 w)
Scaled model with same drive-train dimensions Hard-coated surface at shaft, soft shells and pads

Brenz river installation >18,000 hours of operation


Low head of 2 meter results in Tested with different densities
relatively low bearing load factor of quartz in bulb1

1 Due to the high hardness rate (Brinell scale), quartz is considered as most relevant sediment which causes wear of the shaft coat
The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
Results Indicated Wear on Hard Coat with No
Significant Correlation with Quartz Density
The axial thrust bearing shows most significant wear
Degradation of hard coat on thrust ring by a factor of 2.7 compared to radial bearing at the non-driven end (NDE)

Relative wear:
7.00
3.50
axial bearing Ax 2.7
6.00
3.00
rad DE 1.7
Relative wear [%]

radial bearing DE
5.00
2.50 rad NDE 1.0
radial bearing NDE
4.00
2.00

3.00
1.50

2.00
1.00 Hydraulic force
1.00
0.50 NDE DE (runner)
0.00
0 3,000 6,000 9,000 12,000 15,000 18,000 21,000
Operating hours [hrs]
Quartz
content river water 0,5 g/l 1 g/l 2 g/l
<< 0.5 g/l Weight
(drive train)

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
Test Rig Configuration Transferred to
Nussdorf Prototype Design
Bearing lifetime influencing factors: test rig compared to prototype design Nussdorf (module size SD 13.10)
Additional factors: capacity factor (full load hours per year, number of start & stops, ambient conditions (temperatures, ...)

Factor Test rig Nussdorf


Stationary loads1 different sizes + generator
Load factor (hydraulic) Head = 2 m, 7.7 kW Head = 3.6 m, 314 kW
Water quality2 Up to 2 g/l (Quartz) < 0.5 g/l (Quartz)3

Hydraulic force Expected relative wear (average) Expected lifetime (in years, full load)
NDE DE (runner) Factor compared to test rig 75% wear allowed, max. value applied

Axial 2-3 Axial 16


Radial DE 6-7 Radial DE 11
Weight
(drive train) Radial NDE 4-5 Radial NDE 26
1 Considers design dimensions (bearing distance, clearances, size), stationary loads from drive-train
2 Due
The to the high hardness
StreamDiver rate |(Brinell
in Action NWHA scale),
Small quartz
Hydrois considered
Workshopas2016,
most Wenatchee
relevant sediment,
, WA which
USA causes wear of the shaft coat
| 2016-09-21
3 Based on assessment report about sediment transport in the Danube river
Prototype in Nussdorf (Austria) Now Completing
4 Years of Maintenance-free Operation
Turbine Data: Project Status:
Power Unit: SD 13.10 ( 1310 mm) In operation since August 2012
Power: 314 kW / max. 450 kW Operating hours: > 30,000 hrs 1
Net head: 3.58 m / max. 4.68 m Exported electricity: > 8.0 GWh 1
Flow: 9.96 cms On-site inspections: 2 (down: 3 days)
Generator speed: 333 rpm, 50 Hz Maintenance services: 0

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
Status: April 2016
Housing After 42 Months of Operation Shows
Slight Organic Layer, but Intact Coating
Generator leakage test okay, temperature and leakage sensors in function
Anti-corrosion coating intact (covered by thin organic layer)

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
The Stainless Steel Runner is in Excellent
Condition and Shows No Notable Abrasion
Runner blade condition excellent, no issue with clearances of rotating
parts (blade tip, runner housing, ...)
Guide vane coating intact with some impacts on leading edge

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
The Power Output Versus
Measured Gross Head Per Year
The performance of the machine has been stable (constant slope); tendency to have improved over the years (A)
(B): Power spread (bias of data for same gross head) mainly influenced by intake conditions (head losses due to pollution level)

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
Temperature Levels in Bulb and Generator
Stator Confirm Passive Cooling Concept
Generator phase temperature vs. power output Generator phase temperature vs. water temperature in bulb
Seasonal effects (quarter 1 to 4) Temperature rise of generator below design value (class F/B)

A. Delta of 25C between hottest A. Temperature rise of


and coldest period (river water) up to ~40C (design
class B: 80C)
B. Linear correlation of generator
temperature and power

B
B A

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
Measured Wear at the Radial Bearing (NDE)
Confirms Projections from Endurance Test
Expected replacement of the radial NDE shaft end is required after 23 years (initial projection: 26 years)
Replacement is recommended when 25% of the remaining layer is reached extrapolated: 30,000 x 75/11 = 204,000 hours = 23 yrs

Wear is not constant over measured profiles on shaft line


Relative wear with maximum of 7 - 11% after 30,000 operating hours
Additional sensors detect wear limit for predictable and planned replacement

7 11 %
Profile 1
3 2

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
Summary and Outlook

StreamDiver low head technology for heads up to 8 m


The innovative design minimizes support systems to maximize reliability
Passive cooling concept and bearing design are core features
Test and proof of design successful
Lifetime projections exceed initial design values
Full-scale Nussdorf prototype now goes into its fifth year of operation
Full load operation, no maintenance required so far
Retrieval and detailed inspection planned after 5 years

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
Bearing Lifetime Projection and Monitoring:
Project Application Band for 50 - 100 % full load
Standard design configuration (SD 7.90 SD 13.10)
Recommended replacement at 25% of the remaining hard coat layer

Application
Radial NDE Content of hard particles
< 2 g/l (e.g. quartz)
Water temperature up to 30C
Axial Maximum wear is monitored:
Maximizing lifetime
Predictive maintenance
Radial DE
Lifetime Projection (Radial DE):

Full load 3 m head 8 m head


50% 24 yrs 14 yrs
100% 12 yrs 7 yrs

The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21
The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21