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# STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC

(SCE)
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

## CENTRE FOR DIPLOMA STUDIES

UTHM

I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not to receive
or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in
the report is true.

______________________
Student Signature

Name :

Matric No. :

Date :
CENTRE FOR DIPLOMA STUDIES
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

REPORT
SUBJECT CODE

COURSE CODE

TESTING DATE

STUDENT NAME

GROUP

1.

2.

## GROUP MEMBER NAMES 3.

4.

5.

LECTURER/
INSTRUCTOR/ TUTOR
NAME

## REPORT RECEIVED DATE

MARKS
* Please refer laboratory
rubric attached

1.0 OBJECTIVE

## To identify the forces acting on floating body.

To calculate the position of the metacentre. and predict the result of the stability.
To describe the movement of the floating body according to the weight and forces acts to
the pontoon.

## 3.0 THEORY OF THE EXPERIMENT

When designing a vessel such as a ship, which is to float on water, it is clearly necessary to be able to
establish beforehand that it will float upright in stable equilibrium. Figure 2(a) shows such a floating
body, which is in equilibrium under the action of two equal and opposite forces, namely, its weight
acting vertically downwards through its centre of gravity and the buoyancy force of equal magnitude
acting vertically upwards at the centre of buoyancy. When in equilibrium, the points G and B lie in
the same vertical line.

## Figure 1: Derivation of conditions for Stability

The centre of gravity G may be shifted sideways by moving a jockey of weight (W j) across the width of
the body. When the jockey is moved a distance (xj) as shown in Figure 2(b), the centre of gravity of the
whole assembly moves to G. The distance GG, denoted by (x g) is given from the elementary static as

Wj xj
xg
W

The shift of the centre of gravity causes the body to tilt to a new equilibrium position, at a small angle
to the vertical, as shown in Fig 2(c), with an associate movement of the centre of buoyancy from B
B. The point B must lie vertically below G, since the body is in equilibrium in the tilted position. Let the
vertical line of the upthrust through B intersect the original line of upthrust BG at the point M, called the
metacentre. Accordingly, the equilibrium is stable if the metacentre lies above G. Provided that is
xg
small, the distance GM is given by: GM .

The dimension GM is called the metacentric height. In the experiment described below, it is measured
directly from the slope of a graph of xj against , obtained by moving a jockey across a pontoon. Which
GM = Wj . Xj
W Q

Determination of BM

The movement of the centre of buoyancy to B produces a moment of the buoyancy force about the
original centre of buoyancy B. To establish the magnitude of this moment, first consider the element of
moment exerted by a small element of change in displaced volume. An element of width x, lying at
distance x from B, has an additional depth .x due to the tilt of the body. So the volume V of the
element is:

V .x.Lx Lxx .

## And the element of additional buoyancy force is F

wV wLxx , where W is the specific weight
of water. The element of moment about B produced by the element of force is M F .x wLx x
2

The total moment about B is obtained by integration over the whole of the plan area of the body, in the

plane of the water surface: M w Lx dx wI .
2

In this, I represents the second moment, about the axis of symmetry, of the water plane area of the
body. Now this moment represents the movement of the upthrust wV from B to B, namely wV.BB.
Equating this to the expression for M, wV .BB ' wI .

From the geometry of the figure, BB, = .BM and eliminating BB between these last 2 equations gives
I
BM as BM
V
For the particular case of a body with a rectangular planform of width D and length L, the second
3
moment, I LD . Now the distance BG may be found from the computed or measured positions of B
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and of G, so the metacentric height GM can be calculated by the equation GM BM BG .

4.0 EQUIPMENT

1. Plastic Sail
2. Pontoon
3. Jockey Weight

Figure 2 : Pontoon
5.0 PROCEDURE

## 2. The pontoon is suspended from a hole at one side of sail,

as indicated in figure

## pumbline is hung from the suspension point. The height of the

centre of gravity,G of the whole suspended assembly then lies at the point where the plumbline

## each step. (Refer table 2).

8. This procedure is then repeated with the jockey traversed at a number of different heights.
6.0 RESULT & ANALYSIS

## Total weight of floating assembly, W = W p + W j = 2.821 Nm

W
Pontoon displacement, V = m3
w

## Area of pontoon in plane of water surface, A = L D = 7.267 x m2

LD 3
Second Moment of area, I = 2.466 x m4
12

## Height of centre of buoyancy B above O , OB = BC = OC/2 = 19.4 mm

2. Fill the table.

Table 1

Table 2

## Jockey Jockey Displacement from Centre, Xj (mm)

Height, yj
-45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45

Table 3:

15 30 45

## 345 92.0 2.01 16.0 88.6

Figure 3: Determine the Centre of Gravity.

7.0 QUESTIONS

## 1) Discuss about the result of this experiment.

2) How would the stability of the pontoon be affected if it were floated on a liquid with a greater
density than that water?
3) In civil engineering practice, the stability of a floating body applied in many hydraulics works.
As a potential civil engineer, describe how this experiment can be applied in this field.
4) Question by lecturer

5) Question by lecturer
8.0 Answers