AERODYNAMICS
TID4500 (15th Ed.)
AEC RESEARCH AND
research DEVELOPMENT
report
A METHOD OF CALCULATING BOUNDARYLAYER
THICKNESS IN AXISYMMETRIC NOZZLES WITH
LAMINAR HYPERSONIC FLOW
October 1959
B. Assumes any liabilities with respect to the use of, or for damages re
sulting from the use of any information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed
in this report.
October 1959
ABSTRACT
12
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ABSTRACT 1
LIST OF SYMBOLS 4
Introduction 7
Theory 7
General 7
Summary of the Calculation Method 15
Corroboration of Theory 16
Conclusions 18
APPENDIX
LIST OF REFERENCES 24
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
3. ViscosityTemperature Variation 17
3
LIST OF SYMBOLS
2i
c local skin friction coefficient, 2
sus
2
cf local skin friction coefficient in incompressible flow,
W2
Pou
1X
mean skin friction coefficient, f cfdx
cF
0
o l
c specific heat at constant pressure, ft lb(slug F)
p
H 1
H transformed form factor,  2+l
Htranfre 1 + M2
2 s
*
8i
H. form factor in incompressible flow,
Ms Mach number along "seam" joining isentropic core and boundary layer
sc
Pr Prandtl number,
3' temperature recovery factor (may ordinarily be taken as V/Pr for laminar
boundary layer)
pu x
Rx Reynolds number, Ps s
p'usx
R' Reynolds number based on reference temperature,
x
,
4
LIST OF SYMBOLS (cont)
p u x
R . Reynolds number for incompressible flow, s
xi o
5
LIST OF SYMBOLS (cont)
(1 + 2 1M2)2(71)
s/
1 dy, ft
0
corresponds to
12 7
=\712x 10 7
12 = 12 x 10~
6
A METHOD OF CALCULATING BOUNDARYLAYER
THICKNESS IN AXISYMME TRICK NOZZLES
WITH LAMINAR HYPERSONIC FLOW
Introduction
The successful design of nozzles for supersonic and hypersonic tunnels requires an ac
curate knowledge of the boundarylayer displacement thickness. Sivells and Payne1 have
assembled an apparently successful semiempirical method for calculating this thickness for
boundary layer in the nozzles; however, it is anticipated that future nozzle designs for low
In addition, the optimization of rocket nozzle contours (multistage systems at very high al
Hence, it was deemed worthwhile to adapt the SivellsPayne method to laminar flow. The
adaptation is comparatively simple but, unfortunately, there are few data available against
which to correlate the theory. Boundarylayer thicknesses calculated by the method developed
Theory
General
7
For calculation purposes, after using the transformations
y+l
A= 9 tr 1 + 2 M2 2(y1) (2)
ds = sec o dx (4)
Equation 1 simplifies to
(7+l)
2 1
dO 9 dM 9t dr c  (y
)
dx + dxs 2 +HtrI+ s = sec l1 + 2 Ms. (5)
2
+H
Now multiplying by rsMs tr, the lefthand side becomes a perfect differential if Htr is con
('y+l)
( 2+H x 2+H c 2(y1)
Atrr Ms+tr) =JrM tr sec 4( 1 + 7 M21M dx. (6)
If c (x), Ms(x), rs(x), and H r(x) are known, as well as an initial 9 (for most purposes it may
be assumed zero at the nozzle throat), the above equation can be solved to give 9tr(x)
At the beginning of a nozzle design, either the Foelsch3 method or the method of charac
teristics will be employed to determine r (x), the radius of the isentropic core. Thence, the
dr
slope x = arctan w is obtained. From these calculations will also come values of Ms' Ps
and T on this "seam" between the isentropic core and the boundary layer. The problems of
5
determining acceptable relationships cf(x) and Htr(x) remain.
To obtain cf(x), we begin with the simplest situation, incompressible flow over an in
sulated flat plate. Dimensional analysis shows that in this case cf = f(R ) only. This function
where
c = tw2 (8)
fi 1 2(
2 ou
8
and
P u x
R.= s(
xl
Experimental data show very good agreement with this equation (see, for example, Liepmann
For compressible flow, c will be a function of R, Ms, and heat transfer (as well as
shape of the surface, reflected through pressure gradient). The effect of these variables is
the replacement of the constanttemperature profile through the boundary layer by a variable
one and the altering of the shape of the velocity profile. If we may assume that the velocity
and temperature profiles are related to each other through a simple relationship (we shall
presently introduce the Crocco quadratic formula as this relationship), we need consider only
the effects of the added variables, compressibility, heat transfer, and pressure gradient in
altering a constanttemperature profile to a variable one. Now the assumption is made that
same c f(RX) relationship holds for compressible and incompressible flow, provided that we
base the compressible values of c and R on the right reference temperature, selected out of
each local velocity profile. This assumption leads to the equation for compressible laminar
flow.
0. 664 (10)
where
cf 1 2 '(11)
sp'u
p' u x
R'= ,s , (12)
Choice of the "right" reference temperature has been made by Eckert, 5 who suggests the
equation
9
Although this is empirical, it has been determined in such a way that friction factor cf JW,
calculated from boundarylayer solutions based on actual values of c , Pr, ', and T', agrees
iw
Cf = 1 2 (14)
2 "sus
and
p u x
R = s (15)
x 'As
so that
c =cf= cf (16)
T5 f
and
T5
R' sus R . (17)
x T' ' x
T
A test value of c is modified to cf = T c and a test value R is modified to R' =Z R
The data of Coles, 6 presented on the reference temperature basis (Equations 13, 16, and
17), are compared with Equation 18 in Figure 1. The data indicate that, albeit for limited condi
tions, the assumption that the same cf(R ) relationship holds for compressible and incom
pressible flow (provided that the compressible values of cf and R are based on reference
been made directly. Perhaps the reference temperature reflects some pressure influence, but
faith is mostly placed in the assumption that practical nozzle design will involve pressure
dp
gradients x small enough to exert no important influence on our results.
To obtain H(x), we will again make an approach via the incompressible value H.. H and
58 (1 Ldy
H = (=
 ()
u
0 s u
10
I0 T j ._
I
______
iTF~ ~ ITT1TTIflI~~Th
iH H
4 I
r 
1 TWVLY7
 1

_}
 I I~I Ij

I   I i i
1
__ _ TqN_1 1i
_ I
11.1.. ' PP I = If
'
.Iii n KR
i
L
P tl
I
II
I
1 I
Iii
I} i 'I 7ip
r IT71.
gil A
IT I
I I( ' l r SIT 1if'I N.
41' _ 

__ r l
__
1 n
    = S T 
}T 
 
  

ni

    
I ITI I  I i I I pil lip.1
1 IiI LI ,1
104  _   
III I III

I_ 'IfI
7 I I'1  6
_ _ _
2
zIr::jLj',
6
T771177'I
I
iI II
E _  T;T t T_
I fz
_
_
12 3 4 5 67 69 10 _ 2 3 41 5 6 78 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 891 0
O* 10,
11
J ps s d
H = = dy(20)
p~u (1 _ udy
In different form,
u=O',T=T
w
u = us' T = Tw
u=u .VT= T
,
2
T=Tw ~ (wTaw)(TawTs( ). (24)
With this relationship T(u), it can be shown (Sivells and Payne , pp. 25, 26) that
T T
H + 1 = H w a (25)
s s
Meager experimental corroboration of Equation 25 is given in Figure 2.
we see that
T T
Htr =H +Tw1. (27)
0 0
12
70
T =T
w aw
60  Equation 25
60 8
Laufer and McClellan T
w
=T aw
A Higgins and Pappas9, Tw=Taw
9
50p Higgins and Pappas, Tw/Ts=2.82
40
a)
a)
cU
30
0
ww
T/T=1. 5
20  w Ts
Tw/ Ts=O. 5
10 T /T=2. 82
ww

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Mach number (M)
13
The problem of finding Htr(x) is thus converted into that of finding H.(x).
Now we come up with a big assumption about the velocity profile, that
u u
s = F(y/8). (28)
us
where
We should admit at this point that H. will not be constant in any substantial pressure gradient.
For instance, the Pohlhausen solution shows an H. variation from 2.25 to 3. 50, corresponding
u u
s = F(y/8) (32)
ut
whence
H. = 1  1(33)
1 C2u c
1 _ 2 1  K f
l s
and
K =7.
T
O = 1 + 0.22 (35)
T s
s
14
and
to get
Ms = rsMs+tr
H9trrs
sec wi (1+0.2M2)dx
.
r and M are determined either by the Foelsch method or the method of characteristics.
5 5
Subscript "s" denotes conditions at the seam, which is at the outer edge of the boundary layer,
where
dr Ar
tan = .s

where
T
w is known or estimated
Ts(x) is taken from the calculations for the isentropic core
where
T' = 0.5 [T + T 1 + 0. 0881JPMS
15
0.664
where
T p
Rx T' us'
2+H 2
+H
trr = 9 r M tr
\tr sMs / tr s s
The integral in the first equation is evaluated by graphical integration, giving tr(x). Thence,
calculate
3
0 = 9
(1 + 0.2 M2
and
H = (Htr + 11+0.2M2)1.
Thence,
S= HO.
Corroboration of Theory
Maslach and Sherman2 have developed a method of calculating the laminar boundary
thickness (8&) at the exit of an M = 6 nozzle (lowdensity wind tunnel) of 0. 0638 foot. When the
much simpler methoddeveloped hereinis used, the calculated displacement thickness for the
same nozzle (see the appendix) is 0. 06420 foot. Maslach and Sherman do not present sufficient
data. However, comparison of the measured total boundarylayer thickness (1. 14 inches) with
Maslach and Sherman's predicted value (1. 08 inches) for the M = 6 nozzle indicates experimen
16
7
dft
For T > 199 0 R 3/2
T +C
r r L
\T/ Ir T+C
1
r = 3. 59\7 slugs (ft sec)
6 T = 492 0 R
r
C = 192 R
5 y= 8. 118\10 t
N
O
r1
10
See Coles , p. 16
U,
U 4
U
0
3
)
U,
2
1
ilu
17
Conclusions
A method has been developed for calculating the growth of the laminar boundary layer in
axisymmetric nozzles at hypersonic Mach numbers. Additional experimental data (taken over
surfacepressure gradients) are needed to corroborate the assumptions made in the derivation
of Equations 18 and 25. The validity of using Eckert's reference temperature (Equation 13) at
large total temperatures (in the range of 20000 to 400 0 R) with cold walls should be experimen
tally verified. This method does not directly account for pressure gradient since a velocity
profile was chosen to give a constant value of the incompressible form factor H.; the Pohlhausen
solution shows variation of H. with pressure gradient. Hence, this method assumes that the
effect of the favorable pressure gradients, associated with hypersonic nozzle design, on the
18
APPENDIX
19
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) 19) (20)
2(
+A+ Arl Ar/x 1+Ar 2 sec + 0.4. Tsuu 2 s2/Ts M M 2.605 T/T 0.0298M 16)  (17) 1+ 0.2M Htr
0.00 1.0000 113.2062 6.6306 432.3 0.4669 0.2180 0.5043 1.189 1.090 3.225 0.035 3.190 1.: 238 2.577
0.03 1.3300 0.03 0. 3300 0.1621 1.0263 1.0131 35. 5218 4. 1706 271.9 0.7481 0. 5597 2. 058\3 4.853 2.203 5. 127 0. 145 4.982 1. 971 2. 528
0.06 1. 9950 0.03 0.6650 0.3267 1. 1067 1.0520 14. 2328 2. 8928 188.6 0.8586 0.7372 3. 909\3 9.217 3.036 7. 391 0.275 7. 116 2. 843 2. 503
0.11 3.0400 0.05 1.0450 0.3081 1.0949 1.0464 6. 7953 2. 1522 140. 3 0.9165 0,8400 5. 987 14.12 3.7 58 9. 936 0. 421 9.515 3.1 824 2.488
\ 3
0.16 3.9050 0.05 0.8650 0.2550 1.0650 1.0320 4.4131 1.8109 118. 1 0.9420 0.8874 7.514 17.72 4.210 11.80 0. 528 11.27 4. 544 2.480
0.23 4.8450 0.07 0. 9400 0. 1979 1.0392 1.0194 2.9235 1. 5359 100. 1 0.9621 0.9256 9. 247 3 21.80 4.669 13. 93 0.65 13.28 5.;360 2.478
0.30 5. 5325 0.07 0.6875 0. 1448 1.0210 1.0104 2.2360 1. 3797 89. 96 0.9733 0. 9473 10. 53\3 24.83 4.983 15. 50 0.74 14.76 5.1 966 2.474
0.39 6. 1700 0.09 0.6375 0. 1044 1.0109 1.0054 1.7803 1.2595 82. 12 0.9818 0. 9639 11. 74 27.68 5.261 16. 98 0. 82 16. 16 6.; 536 2.472
0.48 6. 6100 0.09 0.4400 0.0721 1.0052 1.0026 1.4527 1. 1611 75.70 0.9887 0.9775 12. 91 30.47 5.520 18.41 0. 91 17.50 7.' 094 2.467
\ 3
0.59 6.9450 0.11 0.3350 0.0449 1.0020 1.0010 1.2347 1.0880 70.94 0.9939 0.9878 13.92 32.82 5.729 19. 65 0. 98 18.67 7.1 564 2.468
\ 3
0.70 7. 1400 0. 11 0. 1950 0.0261 1.0007 1.0003 1.1292 1. 0498 68.45 0.9965 0.9930 14. 51 34.21 5.849 20. 37 1. 02 19.35 7.! 842 2.467
0.83 7.2450 0. 13 0. 1050 0.0119 1.0001 1.0001 1.0328 1.0130 66. 05 0.9991 0. 9982 15. 11 35.63 5.969 21. 11 1. 06 20.05 8.1 126 2.467
1.00 7.2880 0.17 0.0430 0.0037 1.0000 1.0000 1.0018 1. 0007 65.25 1.0000 1. 0000 15.333_ 36.15 6.012 21. 36 1.08 20.28 8.: 230 2.464
(1) x+ from Table II, pp. 757; x = x/L; L = 1 457 feet; x = distance along seam of flow.
(2) r from Table II, pp. 757; r5 = rs/rit ; rit = 0. 02148 foot; rs= radius of isentropic core to seam.
Ar r. Ar
(5) tan w T L4 =+0. 01474 Ar+/Ax
+ 1 o _ 535
(10) Ts = Tse (ps) Ts e 1+0 2 1 + 0. 2 x 36 = 65.2
1+.2Mse
1
= 2380 ft sec
(11) u+ from Table II; u+ = us/use; use
2 (+)2 2(u2
2
M
(14) (4 Ms yRT = __
Ts xs (2380)21= 2358
1.4 x1716 Ts
2
(20) Htr = 1 2. 605 ,,w  0. 0298 Msj
s
20
 .. T I I I
(27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) (34) (35) (36) (37) (38) (39) (40)
(21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26)
u'
_ if  _ I I I I I I r iI
1. 089 470. 8 1005. 502. 9 3. 667 6. 533 0. 8596 0 0 0 00 00 0.03743 0. 17135 1.484 1.484 1. 898
302. 0 403. 5 63. 52 1. 045\2 6. 272\3 0. 34301 1. 55315 35.74 47. 53 6. 354\3 7. 657 0. 03944 6. 172\
1. 364 370. 9 905. 453. 0 3. 37\ 2. 226 0.6002
853. 427. 0 3. 21\ 0. 9364 0.4417 693. 5 286. 8 53. 55 1. 240\2 5. 477\3 0. 48230 2. 17180 148. 5 296.; 3 5.762\3 22.98 0.07428 11. 62
1.691 318. 9
2. 059 288. 9 823. 412. 0 3. 12 0. 4599 0. 3405 1357 212. 5 46. 10 1. 440\ 2 4.903\3 0. 57496 2. 58042 380. 6 1157 5. 129\3 55.91 0. 1061 16. 60
2. 329 275. 1 810. 405. 1 3. 07 0. 3036 0. 2915 2028 179. 5 42. 37 1. 567\2 4. 568\3 0. 62428 2.79677 626. 3 2446 4. 714\ 3 93. 83 0. 1229 19. 23
2. 635 263.8 798. 399.4 3. 03 0. 2038 0. 2506 2979 152. 1 39. 00 1. 703\2 4.268\3 0. 66922 2. 99677 992.6 4809 4. 349\ 3 154.0 0. 1358 21. 25
2. 862 257. 5 792. 396. 8 3.027 0. 1564 0. 2267 3930 139. 4 37. 34 1. 778\2 4. 0313 0.69749 3. 12057 1320 7303 4. 071\3 212.3 0. 1400 21. 91
3.076 252.6 787. 393.8 3. 01\ 0. 1249 0.2085 5154 134. 2 36.1 63 1. 813\2 3. 780\3 0.72107 3. 22463 1677 10350 3. 7 99\3 279.2 0. 1408 22. 04
3.285 248.7 783. 391. 9 3. 00\ 0. 1023 0. 1932 6388 126. 2 35. 52 1. 869\2 3. 6 11 3 0. 74194 3. 31425 2062 13630 3. 622\3 357 . 0 0. 1383 21. 64
3.462 245.6 780. 390. 3 2. 99\7 0. 08722 0. 1818 7893 125. 2 35. 38 1. 877\2 3. 412\3 0.75808 3. 38710 2438 16930 3.415\3 432. 7 0. 1336 20. 9j
3. 566 244.1 779. 389.6 2. 98 0. 08003 0. 1757 9390 132. 0 36. 33 1. 8282 3. 212\3 0.76708 3. 42655 2670 19060 3.2 12\3 482. 3 0. 1269 19. 86
3.672 242. 5 777. 388.8 2. 97\ 0. 07343 0. 1699 11160 139. 3 37. 32 1. 77 9 2 3.023\3 0.77590 3. 46595 2924 21180 3. 023\3 536.6 0. 1193 18. 67\
3.711 242.1 777. 388.6 2.97\ 0. 07125 0. 1679 13460 161. 0 40. 12 1. 655\2 2. 77 9\ 3 0.779021 3. 47755 3003 21890 2.779\3 557. 4 0. 1091 17. 07
__________I ____________I I_____ I ______ I______j_______I_____I _____ _______ _______I______II___________ I______ ______I_ ________ __I_____
2 0
(24) T' = 0. 5 Ts1
+Tw + . 075 M ) where Tw is taken as 535 R
(25) p' is read from p(T) curve at T' value (Figure 3, this report)
+ + 67.86 ++ \4 ++
(28) usx = u ue x+L = 2380 x672 usx =1.346 usx
P, psuSx T p
p'usx
(29) R' = ,us__
s
(31) c = 0. 664/
T
(32) cf T' Cf
x =fxrsMs2+H sc +C Axr rx L r Ax
055J + tr f +0.s2 s5it 0. 02148 x1. 457++++
0 0
21
Now
1 = L M2+Htr [ M2+Htr
(exitsthroat
We assume
0
tr = 0 at the throat, so that
+
11 Idx =4 4\6
Pt 0. 001901
. 2+H " (7. 2880 x 0. 02148)(3003)
exit r M tr
is s xt
where the integral is evaluated graphically from a plot of I versus x+ (Figure Al).
Thence,
and
Finally,
sexit xtrit
 r. =2. 97 x 0. 02148 = 0. 0638 foot.
i
This value is not experimental, but is calculated by a finitedifferences solution of the Karman
momentum integral form of the boundarylayer equations. Thus, the above excellent agree
ment serves at this point merely to support our simpler method of boundarylayer calculations.
*
The reference report does not give sufficient experimental data for determining $ . However,
22
20
16
I x 10 4
12
8

23
LIST OF REFERENCES
3. Foelsch, Kuno, "The Analytical Design of an Axially Symmetric Laval Nozzle for a Paral
lel and Uniform Jet, " Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, March 1949, pp. 161166.
4. Liepmann, H. W.; Dhawan, S., "Direct Measurements of Local Skin Friction in Low
Speed and HighSpeed Flow, " Proceedings of the First U. S. National Congress of Applied
Mechanics, 1951, pp. 869874.
5. Eckert, Ernst R. G., Survey on Heat Transfer at High Speeds, WADC Technical Report
5470, April 1954.
6. Coles, Donald, Measurements in the Boundary Layer on a Smooth Flat Plate in Supersonic
Flow. III. Measurements in a FlatPlate Boundary Layer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
JPL Report No. 2071, June 1, 1953.
7. Pai, ShihI, Viscous Flow Theory. I  Laminar Flow, Van Nostrand, New York, 1956,
pp. 179 and 193.
8. Laufer, J.; McClellan, R., "Measurements of Heat Transfer from Fine Wires in Super
sonic Flow, " Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1 (Part 3), September 1956, pp. 276287.
10. Coles, Donald, Measurements in the Boundary Layer on a Smooth Flat Plate in Supersonic
Flow. I. The Problem of the Turbulent Boundary Layer, JPL Report No. 2069, June 1,
1953.
24
DISTRIBUTION
25
DISTRIBUTION (cont)
26