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Case Map for

Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

This map was prepared by an editor at HBS Publishing, not by a teaching professor. Faculty at Harvard
Business School were not involved in analyzing the textbook or selecting the cases and articles.

Every case map provides only a partial list of relevant items from HBS Publishing. To explore
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Chapter 1: Introduction: What
is Strategy?
What Is Strategy? Today's dynamic markets and technologies have called into question
Michael E. Porter the sustainability of competitive advantage. Under pressure to improve
Type: Harvard Business productivity, quality, and speed, managers have embraced tools such
Review Article as TQM, benchmarking, and reengineering. Dramatic operational
Pub. Date: 11/01/1996 improvements have resulted, but rarely have these gains translated
Product #: 96608 into sustainable profitability. And gradually, the tools have taken the
Length: 18p place of strategy. As managers push to improve on all fronts, they
Teaching Note: N/A move further away from viable competitive positions. Michael Porter
argues that operational effectiveness, although necessary to superior
performance, is not sufficient, because its techniques are easy to
imitate. In contrast, the essence of strategy is choosing a unique and
valuable position rooted in systems of activities that are much more
difficult to match. Learning Objective: To learn how strategic
positioning enables companies to achieve sustainable competitive
advantage by carrying out unique activities in unique ways.
Chapter 2: Firm Performance
and Competitive Advantage
Matching Dell After years of success with its vaunted "Direct Model" for computer
Jan W. Rivkin, Michael E. manufacturing, marketing, and distribution, Dell Computer Corp. faces
Porter efforts by competitors to match its strategy. This case describes the
Type: HBS case evolution of the personal computer industry, Dell's strategy, and efforts
Pub. Date: 06/06/1999 by Compaq, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, and Gateway 2000 to capture the
Product #: 799158 benefits of Dell's approach. Students are called on to formulate
Length: 31p strategic plans of action for Dell and its various rivals. Learning
Teaching Note: 9704476 Objective: Permits an especially detailed examination of imitation;
illustrates how fit among activities and incompatibilities between
competitive positions can pose particularly high barriers to imitation. To
illustrate competitor analysis, the evolution of industry structure, and
relative cost analysis.
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

Chapter 3: Evaluating
Environmental Threats
The Walt Disney Co.: The The first ten pages of this case are comprised of the company's
Entertainment King history, from 1923 to 2001. The Walt years are described, as is the
Michael G. Rukstad, David J. company's decline after his death and its resurgence under Eisner.
Collis, Tyrrell Levine The last five pages are devoted to Eisner's strategic challenges in
Type: HBS case 2001: managing synergy, managing the brand, and managing
Pub. Date: 03/09/2001 creativity. Students are asked to think about the keys to Disney's mid-
Product #: 701035 1980s turnaround, about the proper boundaries of the firm, and about
Length: 27p what Disney's strategy should be beyond 2001.
Teaching Note: 5705495
Wal-Mart, 2007 In 2007, Wal-Mart faced challenges to its historically high growth rate.
David B. Yoffie, Michael Slind Lagging same-store sales and setbacks overseas led the company to
Type: HBS case consider strategic shifts. Wal-Mart was the world's largest retailer, but
Pub. Date: 03/01/2007 competition had become particularly acute as the company expanded
Product #: 707517 from rural markets, which it had long dominated, into urban and
Length: 12p suburban areas. Covers developments in Wal-Mart's merchandising
Teaching Note: 707570 strategy and its approach to store formats; its sometimes controversial
human resources practices; its efforts to improve its image through a
public relations campaign; its aggressive, though occasionally
problematic, move into international markets; and its leading
competitors, especially Target. Exhibits provide data (current as of
February 2007) on Wal-Mart's financial performance, its stock-price
performance, its international operations, and its store formats, as well
as on Target's financial performance.
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

Chapter 4: Evaluating
Environmental Opportunities
Wal-Mart's Sustainability In October 2005, in an auditorium filled to capacity in Bentonville,
Strategy Arkansas, Lee Scott, Wal-Mart's president and CEO, made the first
Erica Plambeck, Lyn Denend speech in the history of Wal-Mart to be broadcast to the company's 1.6
Type: Stanford University case million associates (employees) in all of its 6,000+ stores worldwide and
Pub. Date: 04/17/2007 shared with its 60,000+ suppliers. Scott announced that Wal-Mart was
Product #: OIT71 launching a sweeping business sustainability strategy to dramatically
Length: 50p reduce the company's impact on the global environment and thus
Teaching Note: OIT71T become "the most competitive and innovative company in the world."
He argued that, "Being a good steward of the environment and being
profitable are not mutually exclusive. They are one and the same." He
also committed Wal-Mart to three aspirational goals: "To be supplied
100% by renewable energy; to create zero waste; and to sell products
that sustain our resources and the environment." Against this
backdrop, introduces Andrew Ruben, vice president of corporate
strategy and business sustainability, and Tyler Elm, senior director of
the same group. Ruben and Elm, who were chosen by Scott to lead
the sustainability strategy, recognized that they needed to keep
environmental improvement tightly coupled with business value and
profitability for the strategy to succeed. Describes Wal-Mart's efforts to
accomplish this, focusing on three of the company's primary focus
areas (seafood, electronics, and textiles) and their effect on the
company's operations, supplier relationships, and results. Also
explores how Wal-Mart is measuring and communicating its ideas
about sustainability to its suppliers, associates, customers, and the
public. Learning Objective: To familiarize students with how Wal-Mart
is opening up to external stakeholders (e.g., environmental nonprofits),
measuring its environmental impacts, and giving its employees
responsibility (as part of their daily work) for reducing those impacts in
such a way that the company derives profit. To compare and contrast
three of Wal-Mart's focus areas (called sustainable value networks)
and understand the conditions required for this strategy to be effective
(where, why, and how it is working best). To highlight the fact that 90%
of the potential for environmental improvement exists within Wal-Mart's
supply chain and understand how the company is working with
suppliers to address these opportunities. To assess how the company
is measuring environmental performance and using the results to
communicate with and motivate associates, suppliers, customers,
policy makers and the public.
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)


Chapter 5: Evaluating Firm
Strengths and Weaknesses: Abstract
The Resource-based View
Philips vs. Matsushita: A New Describes the development of the international strategies and
Century, a New Round organizations of two major competitors in the global consumer
Christopher A. Bartlett electronics industry. The history of both companies is traced and their
Type: HBS case changing strategic postures and organizational capabilities are
Pub. Date: 09/21/2001 documented. Particular attention is given to the major restructuring
Product #: 302049 each company is forced to undertake as its competitive position is
Length: 19p eroded. A rewritten version of an earlier case. Learning Objective:
Teaching Note: 302063 Illustrates how global competitiveness depends on organizational
capability, the difficulty of overcoming deeply embedded administrative
heritage, and the limitations of both classic "multinational" and "global"
Polycom, Inc.: Visualizing Polycom is a rapidly growing maker of video conferencing and
Culture teleconferencing equipment. Management is attempting to use "natural
Clayton M. Christensen work groups" as an organizing mechanism, and to build into the culture
Type: HBS case implicit rules that will cause desired behaviors to be self-policing.
Pub. Date: 10/17/2000 Learning Objective: To explore organizational forms that might
Product #: 601073 robustly handle continued growth.
Length: 16p
Teaching Note: N/A
Novartis Pharma: The In June 2000, Novartis reorganized its pharmaceutical business to
Business Unit Model form global business units in oncology, transplantation, ophthalmology,
Srikant M. Datar, Carin-Isabel and mature products. The remaining primary care products continued
Knoop, Cate Reavis to be managed within global functions (e.g., R&D and marketing). The
Type: HBS case new organization created a matrix structure and new roles and
Pub. Date: 01/23/2001 responsibilities for heads of business functions, CEOs of new business
Product #: 101030 units, and country managers operating in over 100 countries. Learning
Length: 20p Objective: To explore the reasons for Novartis's reorganizing into a
Teaching Note: N/A new matrix structure, the tensions and challenges the new structure
creates, and the culture and accountability needed to make the new
structure work.
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

3M: Profile of an Innovating Traces the birth and development of 3M Corp., focusing in particular
Company on the origins of its entrepreneurially-based ability to innovate. In
Christopher A. Bartlett, Afroze particular, it highlights the role of CEO William L. McKnight in creating
Mohammed a unique set of values, policies, and structures to nurture and develop
Type: HBS case continuous renewal. With the changing environment of the 1980s,
Pub. Date: 01/03/1995 however, a new generation of CEOs begin to adopt new policies and
Product #: 395016 change the cultural norms that helped 3M grow. The trigger issue
Length: 20p focuses on what other changes are required. Learning Objective: To
Teaching Note: N/A show how culturally embedded organizational behavior can become a
sustainable source of competitive advantage and to show how such
strong cultures can and should be adjusted to new internal and
external realities.
Chapter 6: Cost Leadership Abstract
Understanding Industry Examines the structural determinants of industry attractiveness (the
Structure Five Forces framework) and the implications of industry structure for
Michael E. Porter strategy. Learning Objective: To introduce Porter's Five Forces
Type: HBS note framework for analyzing industry structure.
Pub. Date: 12/07/2006
Product #: 707493
Length: 16p
Teaching Note: N/A
iPod vs. Cell Phone: A Mobile In 2006, a nascent market for music-enabled mobile phones was
Music Revolution? emerging to challenge Apple Computer's dominant position in the
David B. Yoffie, Travis D. digital music industry. Through its iPod line of portable digital music
Merrill, Michael Slind devices and its iTunes Music Store, Apple controlled more than half of
Type: HBS case the market for both music player hardware and online music sales. But
Pub. Date: 08/02/2006 the evolving ability to merge those devices with mobile phones, and to
Product #: 707419 deliver music to mobile handsets (via streaming, side-loading content
Length: 29p from a PC or downloading it wirelessly over the air), created a
Teaching Note: 707548 potentially market-changing opportunity for players in several
industries. Examines the key players, including Apple; the major
wireless service carriers, such as Cingular, Sprint-Nextel, and Verizon
Wireless; technology and service vendors, such as RealNetworks and
Microsoft; and mobile virtual network operators, such as Virgin Mobile.
Covers the origins of the mobile music business, projections on its
potential size, its technological building blocks (such as file formats,
digital rights management systems, wireless network infrastructure,
and handset capacity), and the key dynamics--music delivery method,
pricing, mobile-PC integration--that characterize mobile music
business models. Learning Objective: To examine digital
convergence, especially the integration of wireless communications
and entertainment.
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

Levi's "Personal Pair" Jeans As Levi-Strauss implemented its custom-fitted jeans offering, the
(A) traditional value chain for clothing manufacturing and retailing was
William Lawler, John K. Shank , transformed. This case allows students to explore the subtleties of this
Lawrence Carr transformation and the management implications. Learning
Type: Babson College case Objective: To introduce students to value-chain analysis within the
Pub. Date: 12/01/1998 context of management accounting.
Product #: BAB020
Length: 6p
Teaching Note: BAB520
The Chinese Fireworks Illustrates an industry that is experiencing intensifying competition and
Industry regulation. The Chinese fireworks industry thrived after China adopted
Paul W. Beamish, Ruihua the "open door policy" in the late 1970s and grew to make up 90% of
Jiang the world's fireworks export sales. However, starting from the mid-
Type: Richard Ivey School of 1990s, safety concerns led governments both in China and abroad to
Business/UWO case set up stricter regulations. At the same time, there was rapid growth in
Pub. Date: 01/01/1999 the number of small family-run fireworks workshops, whose relentless
Product #: 99M031 price cutting drove down profit margins. Learning Objective: To
Length: 23p analyze the fireworks an industry, estimate the industry's
Teaching Note: 899M31 attractiveness, and propose possible ways to improve the industry
attractiveness from an individual investor's point of view.
The Global Oil Industry The oil industry, one of the first international businesses, exerted a
Joel Podolny, John Roberts tremendous influence on almost all aspects of business, economics,
Type: Stanford University case and geopolitics throughout the 20th century. Their products
Pub. Date: 11/30/1998 revolutionized daily life. And the struggles to control and assure access
Product #: IB15 to oil supplies and markets were a major element of international
Length: 10p conflict throughout the century.
Teaching Note: N/A
Chapter 7: Product
Differentiation (A) Edmund's began in 1966 as a publisher of new and used vehicle
Stephen P. Bradley, Christina guides and grew into one of the leading third-party automotive web
Akers sites of today. This case explores how gained a
Type: HBS case competitive edge using strategic partnerships and alliances, as well as
Pub. Date: 08/24/2000 careful product positioning and strategy implementation.
Product #: 701025
Length: 23p
Teaching Note: N/A
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

Perceptual Mapping: A Describes the perceptual mapping technique in a non-technical

Manager's Guide fashion. The procedure is useful for the depiction of the structure of the
Robert J. Dolan market. Discusses alternative methods, presents examples of each,
Type: HBS note and shows how the maps can be used in marketing decision making.
Pub. Date: 07/05/1990
Product #: 590121
Length: 11p
Teaching Note: N/A
Eckerd Corp. Describes the history and current situation in the retail pharmacy
Michael E. Porter, John C. industry, including competition from new merchants and Internet
Kelleher drugstores. Eckerd, one of the top four drug chains, must decide how
Type: HBS case to position itself for the future. Learning Objective: To support a
Pub. Date: 06/10/1999 discussion on the evolution of competition and competitive dynamics
Product #: 799141 among rivals
Length: 23p
Teaching Note: N/A
Cola Wars Continue: Coke Examines the industry structure and competitive strategy of Coca-cola
vs. Pepsi in the Twenty-First and Pepsi over 100 years of rivalry. New challenges of the 21st
Century century included boosting flagging domestic cola sales and finding new
David B. Yoffie, Yusi Wang revenue streams. Both firms also began to modify their bottling,
Type: HBS case pricing, and brand strategies. They looked to emerging international
Pub. Date: 01/11/2002 markets to fuel growth and broaden their brand portfolios to include
Product #: 391179 noncarbonated beverages like tea, juice, sports drinks, and bottled
Length: 24p water. For over a century, Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola had vied for the
Teaching Note: 703403 "throat share" of the world's beverage market. The most intense battles
of the cola wars were fought over the $60 billion industry in the United
States, where the average American consumes 53 gallons of
carbonated soft drinks (CSD) per year. In a "carefully waged
competitive struggle," from 1975 to 1995 both Coke and Pepsi had
achieved average annual growth of around 10% as both U.S. and
worldwide CSD consumption consistently rose. This cozy situation was
threatened in the late 1990s, however, when U.S. CSD consumption
dropped for two consecutive years and worldwide shipments slowed
for both Coke and Pepsi. The case considers whether Coke's and
Pepsi's era of sustained growth and profitability was coming to a close
or whether this apparent slowdown was just another blip in the course
of a century of enviable performance. Learning Objective: To analyze
an industry and its competitor specifically, Coca-cola and Pepsi during
the past 100 years.
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

Chapter 8: Flexibility: Real

Options Analysis Under Risk Abstract
and Uncertainty
Merck & Co., Inc.: Corporate In the early 1990s, Merck faced a series of challenges because of
Strategy, Organization and significant changes in its competitive and regulatory environment (e.g.,
Culture (A) growth in power of pharmaceutical buyers like managed care
Michael Beer, Perry L. Fagan organizations led to price pressures and President Clinton's review of
Type: HBS case the entire U.S. health-care industry). The case describes the company
Pub. Date: 03/29/1999 under its previous CEO, and primarily under Ray Gilmartin, the new
Product #: 499054 CEO. Discusses the strategic, organizational, cultural, and
Length: 20p management challenges that Merck faced, as well as Gilmartin's
Teaching Note: N/A change program from 1994 to 1998, which was aimed at helping Merck
address these issues. Learning Objective: Students will analyze the
environment and Merck's organization and management and evaluate
the company's efforts to realign the organization and its management
practices with the new competitive realities.
Ford Motor Co.: Dealer Sales Since Henry Ford founded Ford Motor Co., Ford vehicles have been
and Service sold and serviced the same way. By the late 1980s Ford began to
Leonard A. Schlesinger, Mark consider making changes in its sales and service process. Two
Pelofsky developments forced Ford to reconsider these processes. First, Ford
Type: HBS case found through various surveys that customers had very clear
Pub. Date: 11/22/1989 complaints about the way they were treated by car dealers. Second,
Product #: 690030 with more rapid technology transfer among the automakers, product
Length: 21p differentiation was declining. Therefore, the channels of distribution
Teaching Note: N/A provided one of the final potential points of differentiation between
automakers. This case gives the students all of the conclusions from
the studies Ford had done and asks them to redesign the sales and
service process to address customers' complaints and become a point
of differentiation for Ford.
Southwest Airlines – 1993 (A) Southwest Airlines, the only major U.S. airline to be profitable in 1992,
James L. Heskett, Roger makes a decision as to which of two new cities to open, or to add a
Hallowell new long-haul route. Provides windows into Southwest's strategy,
Type: HBS case operations, marketing, and culture. Learning Objective:
Pub. Date: 08/01/1993 Illustrates how an airline can simultaneously be low-cost leader,
Product #: 694023 service leader, and profit leader.
Length: 29p
Teaching Note: N/A
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

Intel Corp.--1997-2000 Describes Intel's diversification strategy initiated in 1998 by CEO Craig
Ramon Casadesus-Masanell, Barrett. Initially, Barrett's strategy worked well, as market value
Michael G. Rukstad reached $510 billion in September 2000. Just three months later,
Type: HBS case however, investor pessimism over a slowing economy and recent
Pub. Date: 07/13/2006 problems at Intel resulted in market valuation plummeting by more than
Product #: 702420 55%. Learning Objective: To analyze the reasons for the drop in
Length: 11p market value.
Teaching Note: N/A
Hambrecht & Quist Hambrecht & Quist (H&Q), an investment bank headquartered in San
Thomas J. DeLong, Nicole Francisco, has a very unique culture relative to its Wall Street
Tempest counterparts. Firm members and even competitors describe the culture
Type: HBS case as entrepreneurial, team-driven, non-bureaucratic, and change-
Pub. Date: 04/15/1998 oriented. H&Q's unique culture has given it a number of competitive
Product #: 898161 advantages, including the ability to attract high-quality staff, the ability
Length: 19p to win business among its target group of emerging growth companies,
Teaching Note: 801140 and the ability to maintain below-average SG&A costs. However,
competition in the investment banking industry is intensifying in 1997-
98 due to an unprecedented wave of mega-mergers between
investment banks and commercial banks. The new combined banking
entities are able to offer customers a broader array of products and
services than H&Q is able to offer, creating a significant amount of
pressure for H&Q to sell to, or merge with, another financial institution
itself. Industry analysts believe it is not a question of whether, but
rather of when H&Q will lose its independence. However, H&Q
management believes that "selling out" would destroy the very culture
that made the firm successful. What action should Dan Case, the CEO
and chairman of H&Q, take to balance the seemingly competing
demands of maintaining the firm's culture and positioning the firm for
future growth?
Chapter 9: Tacit Collusion:
Cooperation to Reduce Abstract
Eli Lilly and Co.: Innovation Summarizes Eli Lilly's history of innovation in its business, describing
in Diabetes Care how the dimensions along which innovations have been made in the
Clayton M. Christensen industry have changed. Lilly's innovation strategy has been to pursue
Type: HBS case ever higher performance products, while others in the industry have
Pub. Date: 02/08/1996 pursued more convenient products. At the time of the case, Lilly is
Product #: 696077 contemplating offering services, not just products, to diabetic patients.
Length: 16p Learning Objective: May be used in courses on managing innovation
Teaching Note: N/A and managing new product development.
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

Dogfight over Europe: In April 1986, the Ryan brothers announce that their fledging Irish
Ryanair (A) airline Ryanair will soon commence service between Dublin and
Jan W. Rivkin London. For the first time, Ryanair will face formidable competitors
Type: HBS case such as Aer Lingus and British Airways on a major route. Students are
Pub. Date: 06/12/2000 asked to assess Ryanair's entry and anticipate the response of
Product #: 700115 incumbent carriers. Learning Objective: To analyze the dynamics of
Length: 8p competition. Provides cost and revenue figures to allow students to
Teaching Note: N/A examine the economics of retaliatory pricing in a business with high
fixed costs and low marginal costs.
Judo in Action Contains four short stories about small firms challenging large firms.
Kenneth S. Corts, Debbie Illustrates some of the ideas that have been termed "judo strategy." In
Freier each case, one can argue that the small firm attempts to use the large
Type: HBS case firm's size and incumbency to constrain the large firm and provide an
Pub. Date: 06/09/2003 opportunity for the small firm. The four vignettes are: (1) Softsoap
Product #: 9703454 pioneers the liquid soap market with little competition, at least initially,
Length: 7p from the incumbent bar soap manufacturers; (2) Red Bull creates and
Teaching Note: N/A dominates the energy drink market with little early competition from
incumbent beverage companies; (3) U.K. supermarket chains attempt
to enter the retail gasoline market but trigger an aggressive price
response from the integrated majors; and (4) Freeserve makes large
inroads in the U.K. ISP market against dominant incumbent AOL. Each
occurrence demonstrates ideas considered "judo strategy"--situations
in which small competitors exploit the size and incumbency of a larger
firm to find opportunities to make inroads against the large firm without
effective retaliation or defense (just as, some authors argue, a small
person can throw a large person with judo techniques by using the
larger person's weight and inertia against him). Learning Objective:
Provides a platform for a more abstract conceptual discussion of the
principles of judo strategy.
Chapter 10: Vertical
Integration Strategies
Intuit QuickBooks Internet QuickBooks, a successful product with a strong brand and an
Rajiv Lal, Purnima Kochikar 85% share of retail sales, was faced with the challenge of meeting
Type: HBS case market growth expectations in a mature, slowing market segment.
Pub. Date: 11/07/2000 Generating recurring revenues by providing value-added online
Product #: 501054 services that complement the desktop software was viewed as an
Length: 16p attractive solution by QuickBook's management. Intuit now had to
Teaching Note: N/A decide the best way to provide these services--i.e. build them in house
or acquire them through partnerships. In doing so, the company had to
evaluate ways to capture value in the Intuit QuickBooks brand without
damaging it. Teaching purpose: Taught in the first-year marketing
course to bring out the issues related to capturing value.
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

Xerox: Book-In-Time Book-In-Time, developed at Xerox, can dramatically reduce the cost of
V. Kasturi Rangan printing "one" book. Combined with the possibilities of digital content
Type: HBS case storage and transmittal, the new technology has vast opportunities.
Pub. Date: 03/11/1999 Xerox needs a commercial plan. The case describes the state of the
Product #: 599119 book publishing industry and the potential for a new technology.
Length: 18p Learning Objective: To discuss the impact of technology on a
Teaching Note: N/A distribution value chain in the book publishing industry.
Starbucks Starbucks is faced with the issue of how it should leverage its core
Mary M. Crossan, Ariff Kachra competencies against various opportunities for growth, including
Type: Ivey School, UWO case introducing its coffee in McDonalds, pursuing further expansion of its
Pub. Date: 06/18/1998 retail operations, and leveraging the brand into other product areas.
Product #: 98M006 The case is written so that students need to first identify where
Length: 28p Starbucks' competencies lie along the value chain, and then assess
Teaching Note: N/A how well those competencies can be leveraged across the various
alternatives. Also provides an opportunity for students to assess what
is driving growth in this company. Starbucks has a tremendous
appetite for cash since all its stores are corporate, and investors are
betting that it will be able to continue its phenomenal growth so it
needs to walk a fine line between leveraging its brand to achieve
growth and not eroding it in the process.
Quicken ES Technologies started in 1976 as a storefront in Tempe, Arizona
Insurance: The Race to Click selling personal computer kits to hobbyists. Twenty years later,
and Close revenues exceeded $3.5 billion, and the business had evolved from a
Lynda M. Applegate computer store to a master reseller and full-line integrator of
Type: HBS case information technology products. At the time of the case, the founder
Pub. Date: 02/04/2000 (who remains as CEO) must decide whether to reinvent the company
Product #: 800295 yet again to become an online "orchestrator" for the information
Length: 28p technology (IT) industry. Learning Objective: Provides an excellent
Teaching Note: N/A look at the value chain, industry dynamics, and evolution of the IT
Chapter 11: Diversification
Examines Beer's actions on assuming leadership of Ogilvy & Mather
Worldwide, the world's sixth largest advertising agency, during a period
Charlotte Beers at Ogilvy & of rapid industry change and organizational crisis. Focuses on how
Mather Worldwide (A) Beers, the first outsider CEO, engages and leads a senior team
Herminia Ibarra, Nicole Sackley through a vision formulation process. Chronicles closely the debates
Type: HBS case among senior executives struggling to reconcile creative, strategic, and
Pub. Date: 01/26/1995 global vs. local priorities. Sixteen months later, with a vision statement
Product #: 495031 agreed upon, Beers faces a series of implementation problems.
Length: 18p Turnaround has begun, but organizational structures and systems are
Teaching Note: 495033 not yet aligned with the firm's new direction. Concludes as Beers must
decide how to work best with her senior team to achieve alignment in
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

Edward Jones Edward Jones is a leading, highly profitable retail brokerage firm with a
Michael E. Porter, Gregory C. unique strategy very different from those of its rivals. The case
Bond describes Jones's activities and allows a rich discussion of its
Type: HBS case positioning choices, supporting activities, and tradeoffs. Jones must
Pub. Date: 07/20/1999 cope with a rapidly evolving industry, which, at least on the surface, is
Product #: 700009 a threat to its strategy. Learning Objective: To discuss strategic
Length: 23p positioning and strategy in changing industries.
Teaching Note: N/A
GE's Two-Decade GE is faced with Jack Welch's impending retirement and whether
Transformation: Jack Welch's anyone can sustain the blistering pace of change and growth
Leadership characteristic of the Welch era. After briefly describing GE's heritage
Christopher A. Bartlett and Welch's transformation of the company's business portfolio of the
Type: HBS case 1980s, the case chronicles Welch's revitalization initiatives through the
Pub. Date: 07/20/1999 late 1980s and 1990s. It focuses on six of Welch's major change
Product #: 399150 programs: The "Software" Initiatives, Globalization, Redefining
Length: 24p Leadership, Stretch Objectives, Service Business Development, and
Teaching Note: N/A Six Sigma Quality. Learning Objective: To expose students to GE's
revitalization efforts, including corporate strategy development,
transformational change, management and leadership, and corporate
Cultivating Capabilities to Describes the efforts of the president of Booz.Allen, a major consulting
Innovate: Booz.Allen & firm, to understand and improve the way that products, services, and
Hamilton processes are developed and deployed throughout the firm. Proactive
Clayton M. Christensen, Bret management of these processes proves very difficult because of the
Baird firm's decentralized decision structure and the firm's cultural
Type: HBS case predisposition to listen to its existing customers. Learning Objective:
Pub. Date: 10/27/1997 To consider managing innovation and change, and service
Product #: 698027 management.
Length: 11p
Teaching Note: N/A
Chapter 12: Implementing
Corporate Diversification
Microsoft in 2005 Focuses on Microsoft's strategy for sustaining competitive advantage
David B. Yoffie, Dharmesh M. in the global software industry. Also, explores Microsoft's history and
Mehta, Rudina I. Seseri its current position, as it tries to diversify its product and service
Type: HBS case revenue streams. Learning Objective: To learn the strategic aspects
Pub. Date: 06/29/2005 of technology, bundling, and sustainability.
Product #: 705505
Length: 29p
Teaching Note: 706467
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

eBay, Inc. eBay was the world's largest and most popular person-to-person
Stephen P. Bradley, Kelley trading community on the Internet. In early 1999, the company was
Porter doing very well and seemed to have solved many of its early problems.
Type: HBS case However, on March 30, 1999, announced that it was
Pub. Date: 09/28/1999 entering the online auction arena. This powerful firm could prove to be
Product #: 700007 eBay's strongest competitor to date. Learning Objective: To consider
Length: 32p how eBay should handle this new competition.
Teaching Note: N/A
Novell: World's Largest After phenomenal growth and market leadership in networking, founder
Network Software Company and CEO Ray Noorda made a frontal assault on Microsoft's core
Richard L. Nolan strengths. In 1994, Noorda spend over $1.5 billion acquiring
Type: HBS case companies such as WordPerfect to combat Microsoft Word, products
Pub. Date: 09/21/1999 such as Borland's Quattro Pro to combat Microsoft Excel, and a PC
Product #: 300038 operating system to combat Microsoft MS-DOS. Novell's stock reached
Length: 15p a high of $35 1/4 in March 1993 before beginning to slide downward as
Teaching Note: N/A head-to-head competition with Microsoft was seen as a questionable
strategy. Robert Frankenberg, an executive at Hewlett-Packard
brought in to replace Ray Noorda, reversed course and sold many of
the acquired companies. But time was running out for Novell. Microsoft
had not only already won the head-to-head competition, but had
mounted a counterattack with its NT server product that was fast
eroding Novell's stronghold in Network Operating Systems (NOSs).
Coming from an only 2 percent market share in 1993, by 1997
Microsoft's NT Server operating license unit sales were 997 million
growing at 36 percent, compared to Novell's NetWare server operating
license unit sales of 744 million growing at 13 percent. In early 1997,
Novell's stock price had dropped to $7.
Chapter 13: Cooperative
Strategies: Strategic Abstract
Philips vs. Matsushita: A New Describes the development of the international strategies and
Century, a New Round organizations of two major competitors in the global consumer
Christopher A. Bartlett electronics industry. The history of both companies is traced and their
Type: HBS case changing strategic postures and organizational capabilities are
Pub. Date: 09/21/2001 documented. Particular attention is given to the major restructuring
Product #: 302049 each company is forced to undertake as its competitive position is
Length: 19p eroded. A rewritten version of an earlier case. Learning Objective:
Teaching Note: 302063 Illustrates how global competitiveness depends on organizational
capability, the difficulty of overcoming deeply embedded administrative
heritage, and the limitations of both classic "multinational" and "global"
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

Robert Mondavi: Competitive Describes the competitive situation facing Robert Mondavi, the leading
Strategy premium California winery. Mondavi has been an industry innovator
Michael E. Porter, Gregory C. and has recently taken steps to become more international. Mondavi
Bond has to cope with growing domestic competition as well as market share
Type: HBS case growth by wineries from Chile and Australia. Learning Objective:
Pub. Date: 06/22/1999 Designed to explore competitive strategy in an evolving industry with a
Product #: 799125 special focus on international strategy.
Length: 23p
Teaching Note: 700084
Euro Disney: The First 100 The Walt Disney Co. theme parks historically have thrived on the basis
Days of a formula stressing excellent customer service and a magnificent
Gary Loveman, Leonard A. physical environment. The formula has proven successful in Japan, as
Schlesinger, Robert T. Anthony well as the United States. With the controversial opening of Euro
Type: HBS case Disney in France, however, there has become reason to doubt the
Pub. Date: 08/13/1992 international appeal of the formula. The case documents issues
Product #: 693013 involved with Euro Disney. Examines the transferability of a successful
Length: 23p service concept across international boundaries.
Teaching Note: 5693082
The De-Globalization of The venerable British retailer Marks & Spencer suffered a series of
Marks & Spencer in 2001, An setbacks in the late 1990s. The company's performance, which had
Update been solid for decades, quickly deteriorated, forcing the rapid turnover
Robert A. Burgelman, Philip of chief executives and many restructurings. Perhaps the largest
Meza change the retailer made was the abandonment of its global expansion
Type: Stanford University case plans, withdrawing from continental Europe and trying to sell off assets
Pub. Date: 06/19/2001 in the United States, including the well-known clothiers Brooks
Product #: SM87 Brothers. This case examines the changes Marks & Spencer made
Length: 11p between 1998 and 2001, as the company tries to shore up its ailing
Teaching Note: N/A core business, U.K. retail, while deciding on an appropriate global
Acer, Inc.: Taiwan's Describes the strategic, organizational, and management changes that
Rampaging Dragon led Acer from its 1976 startup to become the world's second-largest
Christopher A. Bartlett, Anthony computer manufacturer. Outlines the birth of the company, the painful
St. George "professionalization" of its management, the plunge into losses, and
Type: HBS case the transformation under founder Stan Shih's radical "fast food"
Pub. Date: 12/30/1998 business concept and his "client server" organization model, which are
Product #: 399010 put to the test when a young product manager in Acer America
Length: 20p develops a radically new multimedia home PC with global potential.
Teaching Note: 399147 Shih must decide whether to give an inexperienced manager in a loss-
generating subsidiary the green light. Learning Objective: To explore
the links between global strategy and structure, to evaluate leadership
of transformational change, and to examine development of global
competitive advantage.
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

Chapter 14: Merger and

Acquisition Strategies
Hermes Systems Covers the history of Hermes, a large telecommunications and network
Michael L. Tushman, Daniel B. equipment company, as it grows from a single business firm to a
Radov diversified firm from 1980-95. Examines the use of entrepreneurial
Type: HBS case subsidiaries for product development and fast growth. Other issues
Pub. Date: 12/20/1999 include the challenges of managing ambidextrous organizations and
Product #: 400056 the problems a CEO faces in keeping control of fast growing divisions.
Length: 16p A rewritten version of an earlier case.
Teaching Note: N/A
Intel Corp.--1997-2000 Describes Intel's diversification strategy initiated in 1998 by CEO Craig
Ramon Casadesus-Masanell, Barrett. Initially, Barrett's strategy worked well, as market value
Michael G. Rukstad reached $510 billion in September 2000. Just three months later,
Type: HBS case however, investor pessimism over a slowing economy and recent
Pub. Date: 11/01/2001 problems at Intel resulted in market valuation plummeting by more than
Product #: 702420 55%. Learning Objective: To analyze the reasons for the drop in
Length: 11p market value
Teaching Note: 5705495
Apple Computer, 2006 Apple has reaped the benefits of its innovative music player, the iPod.
David B. Yoffie, Michael Slind However, its PC and server business continue to hold small market
Type: HBS case share relative to the worldwide computer over the past few years. Will
Pub. Date: 04/12/2006 the iPod lure new users to the Mac? Will Apple be able to produce
Product #: 9706496 another cutting-edge device quickly?
Length: 32p
Teaching Note: 706513
Chapter 15: International
Strategic Planning at United In March 2005, CEO Michael Eskew has asked the Corporate Strategy
Parcel Service Group to recommend changes to the strategic process to ensure it
David A. Garvin, Lynne C. allows United Parcel Service (UPS) to continue to transform itself over
Levesque the next several years. Describes the evolution of UPS's strategic
Type: HBS case process, with special attention on the company's use of scenario
Pub. Date: 11/16/2005 planning techniques, as well as other critical elements of the process:
Product #: 306002 the development of the company charter, strategic planning, strategic
Length: 25p decision making, and strategy implementation. Also discusses the
Teaching Note: 307003 roles of the various players in the process, focusing especially on the
CEO and corporate strategy staff. Learning Objective: To explore the
process of strategic planning in a large, global organization; to discuss
the range of activities involved in planning for the future, from long-
term scenario planning to short-term strategy implementation, their
interplay, and the roles and responsibilities of line and staff; and to look
at the use of scenario planning techniques to stimulate creative
Case Map for
Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
3rd Edition
(Prentice Hall, 2007)

Teledesic Management of a satellite-delivered broadband data communications

Thomas Eisenmann, Doug company sets strategy in an uncertain environment, using Michael
Rogers, Dan J. Green Porter's scenario planning tools to assess likely outcomes and
Type: HBS case determine which actions to take. This case draws a distinction between
Pub. Date: 01/22/2002 broadband access and backbone providers, examines ISP economics,
Product #: 802154 and raises questions about how to execute vastly ambitious, risky
Length: 51p strategies. Learning Objective: Teaches students broadband access
Teaching Note: N/A and backbone infrastructure terminology and business details,
economics of infrastructure providers on the Internet, and scenario
planning tools.
Sun Microsystems, Inc: In the late 1990s, Sun Microsystems' Solaris has emerged as the
Solaris Strategy dominant UNIX-based alternative to Microsoft for server operating
Brian S. Silverman, Mark systems. At the same time, the open source operating system Linux
Rosenberg has appeared unexpectedly, and it is generating significant excitement
Type: HBS case among programmers and users. Anil Gadre, vice president and
Pub. Date: 02/08/2001 general manager of Sun's Solaris Operating Environment Group, must
Product #: 701058 assess the threats and opportunities posed by Linux and by Microsoft
Length: 17p as he and his executive team formulate a strategic plan for Solaris.
Teaching Note: N/A Learning Objective: To look at competitive strategy issues that arise
from network externalities and standards battles. Also, to examine
various licensing arrangements such as open source versus more
conventional licensing terms and to consider the implications of these
arrangements for a firm's ability to capture value from its innovation.
Strategic Planning at Sun Life Describes the firm's strategic planning activities and focuses on the
Michael A. Roberto challenge of developing processes that enable the firm to improve the
Type: HBS case core business as well as processes that foster the creation of
Pub. Date: 04/12/2001 promising new business opportunities. Learning Objective: To teach
Product #: 301084 students how to design different types of strategy processes to
Length: 21p accomplish different objectives.
Teaching Note: N/A