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S. K. Choi, SPE, CSIRO Petroleum; C.P. Tan, SPE, CSIRO Petroleum

on the thermal expansitivities of the rock matrix and pore

fluid. They will result in changes in effective stresses and pore

pressure in low permeability formations such as shales which

may lead to borehole failure. Hence, thermal effect is a

fundamental factor which needs to be taken into account in

predicting time-dependent wellbore instability and in

designing mud program for minimizing wellbore instability.

A numerical thermo-poro-elasticity model has been

developed which can model the effects of time-dependent

changes in stresses and pore fluid pressure induced by thermal

and fluid difision on stability of wellbore dril}ed in shale

Abstract formations. It forms part of a study to develop a technology to

A numerical thermo-poro-elasticity model which can model design drilling fluid to solve and manage shale instability

time-dependent changes in stresses and pore fluid pressure problems. This paper gives a summary of the theoretical basis

induced by thermaI and fluid diffision has been developed. of the model. The thermo-poro-elasticity model has been

me model results agree well with analytical solutions for the validated by comparing model results with analytical solutions

instantaneous fluid injection of a poro-elastic medium. me and by conducting simple numerical experiments using a

results of some simple numerical experiments show that the single element to simulate a filly saturated cube. A parametric

computed changes in effective stresses, strains and pore study has also been conducted to study the effects of thermal

pressure satis& the constitutive equations for the thermo-poro- difisivity of shale on wellbore stability for permeable and

elastic medium used in the model. impermeable boundary conditions at wellbore wa[l. The results

The model results showed that difference in temperature are presented and discussed in this paper.

between drilling fluid and formation can induce significant

changes in pore fluid pressure and effective stresses around the Theoretical Basis of the Thermo-Poro-Elasticity

weIIbore walI. The extent of the effects vary significantly with Model

thermaI diffisivity of the formation. In general, cooling the The work described in this paper is based on the work by Rice

formation tend to increase the stability of the wellbore while and Clear1y2, Detoumay and Cheng,and Wang et al.4 who

the reverse applies to heating of the formation. The results also have refined and extended Biots pioneering work on the linear

show the importance of considering the geothermal gradient, theory of poro-elastici~S6. A more detailed description of the

md thermaI and fluid transport properties of shales in we Ilbore original theory, its refinement and extension can be found in

stability analysis and development of recommendations to those publications. Only the governing and constitutive

manage instability. equations which form the central part of the model are

described.

Introduction

Stresses,pore pressure, wellbore pressure, driIIing fluid design Governing Equations. Due to the low permeabili~ of shales,

and formation properties are among the primary considerations generally less than 1 pd, the coefficient of thermal diffisivity

for wellbore stability assessment and development of is at least a few order of magnitude greater than the coefficient

recommendations to manage instability. me drilling fluid of fluid diffisivity. Hence, heat transfer will be dominated by

oh has a temperature different from the formation as a result diffision, and convective transport by the pore fluid may be

of thermal gradient down the borehole, or a borehole may be ignored.

heated up to enhance production in heavy oil exploitation. In

these cases, temperature difference exists between the drilling

fluid and the formatiom As a resuIt, heat transfer between the

two media m-l] occur. Changes in volume of the rock matrix

471

2 S.K. CHOI and C.P. TAN SPE 47304

The governing equations for conductive heat transfer in the in pore pressure together with the increase in thermal stress

shale are given by: will lead to a less stable wellbore condition. Conversely, -.

cooIing the formation will result in a decrease in pore pressure

and tangential stress which will give rise to a more stable

v (coVT) . ; ................................................................(l) condition. However, the reduction of the tangential stress will

aIso lead to a lower hydraulic ticture gradient and in extreme

case, the tangential stress can become tensile and initiate

k hydraulic ficture.

co= ............................ .. . ......................................@) The model has been integrated with poro-elasticity and

ps drilling fluid-shale interaction models to form the time-

dependent wellbore stability analysis sofhvare. The numerical

The effects of temperature change on pore fluid pressure approaches used in the modeling of initial value problems

are given by: described by non-linear coupled equations have been described

in previous publications.s

Detournay and Cheng3 have derived analytical solutions for the

case of instantaneous injection in a cylindrical borehole. The

conditions enabled the coupled fluid-stress difision equations

2XGB2(I + V)2 (1 -v) to be uncoupled to solve for pore pressure independently of the

c= .........................................(4) displacement field. The loading conditions were decomposed

91-VU v u -v into three simple modes, and solutions to more general cases

are obtained by superimposing the solutions for the three

modes. Validation of the poro-elasticity component of the

c Za,(vu

-v) +~(~f-a, model has been conducted by comparing the numerical results

..........................(5) with the analytical solutions.

=: [ B(l-v) (l+vu)

)]

at 10 wellbore diameters from its centre to minimise an>

me pore fluid flow is described by Darcys law : bow.dary effects. To compare with the analytical solutions for

mode 2 Ioading, a constant fluid pressure was prescribed at the

wellbore wall with zero initial stress and pore fluid pressure in

v . (Kv~) = ; ..................................................................(6) the formation. Hence, the stresses and pore fluid pressure

calculated are the changes with respect to the initial

me constitutive equations which describe the changes in undisturbed state.

effective stresses as a result of mechanical deformation and

changes in pore pressure and temperature are given by : Material Properties. The definition of the Biot coefficient, a

used in the analytical model is given by:

2GvA 3(V -v)

Mij = 2GAeij + EM aij a= ....................................................(9)

I-2V B(I - 2v)(1 + Vu)

........--..-..--...............(n

2G(1 + V

@ij - xl ~v~ sAT6ij Although the definition has its theoretical advantag~ (no

hypothesis on the material matrix), it is susceptible to provide

unreliable values due to potential large errors induced by the

~=l-E small difference between measured v and v.. However, the

....................... ......... ..................................(8) value of a used in the analyses were calculated using Equation

KS

9 to enable direct comparisons between the numerical and

If a transient temperature fieId exists in the saturated rock, analytical results.

the difference in coefficient of thexmal expansion of the pore The properties of the shale used in the modelling are:

fluid and the rock matrix wiI1 induce changes in pore pressure Ku = 8.77 GPa

end stresses. This can lead to thermal induced pore fluid flow G = 3.82 GPa

and deformation of the rock around the borehole. When a v = 0.24

formation is heated up, the Iarger volume expansion of the vu = 0.31

pore fluid will cause an increase in pore pressure in shales due B = 0.78

to its low permeability. In addition, the thermal expansion of a = 0.395 -

the rock matrix under constrained conditions will result in the k = 0.036 Ad

generation of thermaI stress in the tangential direction. The = 0.47 Cp

P

reduction of effective mud support associated with the increase

472

k.

U.i .

Model ResuIts. The induced changes in pore pressure and Stsbility . .

tangential stress near the borehole wall at different durations

dettied by the model and analytical solutions are shown in ModeI Description. The formation was assumed to be initially

Figs. I and 2 respectively. The pore pressure, tangential stress saturated with pore fluid, and the pore pressure and the

and time shown in the figures are normalised values. temperature were uniform in the formation. The wellbore had

It can be seen that there is a good agreement between the a diameter of 8.5 and the boundary of the mesh was set at

numerical and analytical solution results. However, there are 10 wellbore diameter from its centre. A constant temperature

significant differences in the normalised tangential stress pIots representing the difference in temperature between the drilling

for large time which is attributed to the finite boundary of the fluid and the formation was prescribed at the welIbore wall

model. which remained constant. AIthough the mud temperature at a

given depth will change as drilling progresses, a constant

Validation of Thermo-Poro-Elasticity Model temperature boundary condition was used to enable easier

Analytical solutions of coupled linear heat-fluid-stress interpretation of the results for demonstrative purpose. DriI1ing

*ion equations for some specific boundary or initial value fluids which are 50 C hotter and colder than the formation

problems have been derived by various researchers.41011 were analysed.

However, analytical solutions for general initial value Altogether four different cases have been studied which

problems of the deformation of poro-elastic materiais under include filly permeable wellbore wall (fluid can flow freely

non-isothermal conditions are unavailable. Hence, in order to into and out of the formation) and an impermeable wall

vdldate the model, simple numerical experiments have been (membrane coating which acts as a barrier to flow of pore fluid

conducted to assess whether the induced changes in effective from and into the formation). The analyses conducted were for

stresses, strains and pore pressure for a fully constrained and heating and cooling, and where the principal horizontal

completely free unit cubes will satis~ the constitutive stresses are isotropic.

equations.

In-situ Stresses, Wellbore Pressure and Formation Pore

Model Description. A unit cube composed of a finite element Pressure. The values used in the model are :

was used in the analyses. In the fiIIy constrained case, all the

six faces of the cube are fixed. A step change in temperature o. = 32.7 MPa

was assigned to the cube and the changes in effective stresses &h= 23.5 MPa

and pore pressure were computed. The constraint on all the 0. 23.5 MPa

tices were subsequently removed and the cube was aIIowed to w = 35.0 MPa

deform freely. The changes in stresses, strains and pore p.= 29.3 MPa

pressure at equilibrium were computed.

Material Properties. The thermal diffusivity of the rock

Material Properties. The material poro-elastic properties formation were varied within ranges commonly observed in

were the same as those used in the validation of the poro- shales (0.51, 1.055 and 1.60 x 10-s m2 S1)1213. Since thermal

elasticity model. The additional properties required for the diffusivity is related to the specific heat and thermal

thermo-poro-elasticity model are : conductivity, the thermal conductivity was also varied

accordingly with thermal difisivity. The shear strength of the

$ = 14% model material is represented by a Mohr Coulomb failure

co =2.30 W m-l K-l criterion. The effective cohesion and effective angle of internal

s . 0.23 cal g-l K-l friction of the material are 9.45 MPa and 29.5 respectively.

p = 2260 kg/m3 The other properties of the shale used in the modelling are the

~ = 18 ~ 10-6 Oc-1 same as those used in the validation of the thermo-poro-

~= 300 x 10-6 Oc-1 elasticity model.

Model Results. For a step change of 50 C, the induced Model Results. The model results for thermal difisivity G =

change in principal stresses was 5.5 MPa (compressive), and 1.055 x 104 m2s-1and permeable wellbore wall condition are

the induced change in pore pressure was 29.8 MPa. On shown in Figs. 3 to 12. Key aspects of the model results are

removal of the constraints, the cube expanded and the discussed in more detail in the following sections.

principal stresses and pore pressure at the new equilibrium

state were 11.8 MPa (tensiIe) and 29.7 MPa respectively. Evolution of Tangential and Radial Stresses, Pore

These values agreed with those determined using Pressure, and Safety Factor. As thermal and induced pore

Equations 3,4,5 and 7 with the material properties used in the fluid diffusion proceeded, the effective stress and pore

anaIyses. For the case where the step change was -50 C pressure distributions changed with time. Figs. 5 to 12 show

(cooling), the induced changes in stresses and pore pressure evolution of the tangential and radial stresses, and pore

were of the same magnitude of the heating case but opposite in pressure due to the processes, and the factor of safety with

sign as _ed. respect to plastic yielding.

The results show that for permeable wall condition, cooling

473

4 S.K. CHOI and C.P. TAN SPE 47304

.

dted in a sharp decrease in pore pressure near the wellbore time-dependent changes in stresses and pore fluid pressure

wall after a short elapsed time. The peak of the pore pressure induced by thermal and fluid diffision has been developed.

decrease moves away from the wellbom wall with time and the The model results of the validation analyses agree well with

shape becomes flatter, indicating that the thermal effect has analytical solutions for the instantaneous fluid injection of a

apreaded out. Heating resuIted in the pore pressure increasing poro-elastic medium. The results of the simple numerical

slightly above the weIlbore pressure which moved further into experiment show that the computed changes in effective

the formation with time. It is found that cooling improves the stresses and pore pressure satis~ the constitutive equations for

stability of the weIIbore while heating reduces the factor of the thermo-poro-elastic medium used in the model.

safety with respect to plastic yieIding, and can induce weIlbore The results of the parametric study showed that difference

instability. Due to the boundary condition at the wellbore wall, in temperature between drilling fluid and formation can induce

the effective radial stresses are very simiIar for both cooling significant changes in pore fluid pressure and effective stresses

and heating. However, afier less than 690 seconds, the around the wellbore wall. The extent of the effects vary

difference in effective tangential stress is about 6 MPa. significantly with thermal diffusivity of the formation. In

Depending on the stress state in the region around the well general, cooling the formation tend to increase the stability of

wail, such changes in effective stresses may lead to shear or the wellbore while the reverse applies to heating of the

tensile failure of the rock. formation. The results also shows the importance of

In general, drilIiig fluid which is cooler than the formation considering the geothermal gradient, and thermal and fluid

tend to improve the stability of the wellbore while heating of transport properties of shales in wellbore stability analysis and

the formation can induce faiIure due to thermo-poro-elasticity development of recommendations to manage instability.

effects. Hence, cooling of the driIIing fluid may be used as an

effective option to manage wellbore instability, especially Nomenclature

when the use of high mud weight is not feasible. However, a = radius of wellbore

caution should be exercised in the implementation of the B = Skemptons pore pressure coefficient

process as k needs to be compatible with other aspects of c = fluid difisivity coefficient

welIbore stabifity such as thermaI induced hydraulic fracture. CO= thermal diffisivity

G = shear modulus

Effects of Thermal Diffusivity. The effects of thermal K = drained bti modulus of rock framework

difiivity on weIIbore stabiIity are shown in Figs. 11 and 12. K. = undrained buk modulus of rock

A higher thermal diffisivity wouId imply that heat is going to KS = bulk modulus of mineral constituents

difie faster into the rock formation, hence giving less time k = intrinsic permeability

for the induced pore pressure to dissipate As a result, the p = pore pressure

magnitude of the induced pore pressure and stress changes are p. = mltial formation pore pressure

higher for shales of a given fluid difisivity but with higher pw = wellbore pressure

thermal difiivity. Consequently, it will lead to a reduction in s = specific heat

the effective mud support and hence, a less stable weIIbore T = temperature

condition. t=time

A higher thermal difisivity resulted in a higher increase t*=ctla

and decrease in safety factor for cooling and heating r = radial distance from centre of wellbore

respectively. Wellbore instability is induced by the highest a = Biot coefficient

thermal diffisivity for the permeable wellbore wall whereas ali ay = coefficient of thermal expansion of pore fluid

the thermal diffusivities resulted in instability for the as = coefficient of thermal expansion of solid matrix

impermeable wall condition. A = change with respect to reference state

&j = Kronecker delta

Effects of Fluid FIOWBoundary Condition at WelIbore

Wall. SmalIer changes in safety factor and a much earlier

&ij = strain tensor

rebound are observed for the permeable wall condition ~=i

com~d to the impermeable condition. This is because the

changes in safety factor are caused mainly by changes in pore @= ptrosity

fluid pressure. If the waII is impermeable, pore fluid can only q=~ I-2V

dime into (heating) or from (cooling) the formation driven 2(1 - v)

by the thermal induced pore pressure gradient. However, if the

A = thermal conductivity

wall is permeabIe, pore fluid can also diffuse into or from the

p = viscosity of pore fluid

weIIbore, causing a smaIIer change in safety factor and an

v = drained Poissons mtio

earlier rebound. Thii is especially true if a high pore pressure

vu = undrained Poissons ratio

gradient exists adjacent to the wall.

p = mass density

= effective stress tensor

= Y

Conclusions fY ~ = effective vertical stress

A numerical thermo-poro-elasticity model which can model c h = effective minor principal horizontal stress

474

.

.

->. !

m~ = tangential stress

{ = fluid content ft x 3.048 E-01 =m

aaa W @-32)/l.8 = c

V=grad= , ~ @+459.67)/l .8 =K

()axay aZ hp X 7.46043 E+02 = W

Ibm x 4.535924 E+02 =g

Acknow!edgemente psi x 6,894757 E-03 = MPa

The authors wish to express their thanks to the Energy

Research and Development Corporation (Australia) and

Australian Petroleum Cooperative Research Centre for

aup@g the study presented in this paper.

References

I. Tan, C. P., Rahman, S. S., Richards, B.G. and Mody, F.K. :

Integrated Rock Mechanics and Drilling Fluid Design

Approach to Manage Shale Instability, Eurock 98 - Rock

Mechanics in Petroleum Engineering. (1998), Trondheim,

Norway.

2. Rice, J.R. and Ciearly, M.P. : Some basic stress-diffusion

solutions for fluid saturated elastic porous media with

compressible constituents, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. (1976),

14,227.

3. Detoumay E. and chen~ A.H-D. : PoroeIastic response of a

borehole in a non-hydrostatic stress fieId, Int. J. Rock Mech.

A4in Sci. & Geornech. Abstr.(1988), 25, No. 3, 171.

4. W% Y., Papamichos, E. and Dusseault, M.B. (1996). Thermal

Stresses and Borehole Stability in Rock Mechanics. Proc. 2nd

NARMS, Rock Mechanics Tools and Techniques, pp. 1121-

1126.

5. Biot, M. A.: General theory of three-dimensional

consoIidatio& J Appl. P~s.(194 l), 12, 155.

6. Bio4 M.A. : General sohrtions of the equations of elasticity and

consolidation for a porous material,~, Appl, Mech., Trans. Am.

Sm. Mech. Engrs.(1956), ~, 91.

7. Choi, S.K., Chun& WK., Chen, B.K. and Thomson, P.F. (1993)

: Numerical modelling of the non-linear behaviour of materials

with application to metals,. AJvance~ in Engineering Plasticity

and Zts Applications, Lee (eds), Elsev ier Science Publishers,

Amsterdam (1993) 695.

8. Choi, S.K. : FLOMEC - A 3D Coupled Fluid FIow-

Geomechanical Numerical Model, DPR Unrestricted Report

No. 2. CS~O Division of Petroleum Resources, Melbourne

(1998j.

9. CharIe~ P.A. : *Rock Mechanics Volume 2. Petroleum

Applications, Editons Technip, Paris, France, (1997).

10. Booker, J.R. and Savvidou, C. : Consolidation around a Point

heat source, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Method Geomech. (1985), 9,

173.

11. McTlgue, D.F. . ThermoeIastic Response of Fluid-Saturated

Porous Roc~ Journal oJGeophysical Research (1986), 19, No.

B9, 9533.

12. Innaurab, N. and OccelI% E. : Laboratory and In Situ Rock

Thermal property Measurements, Hot Mine. Rock at Great

Depth, BalkemA Rotterdam (1989).

13. Sommerton, W.H. : Thermal Properties and Temperature-

related Behaviour of Rock/Fluid System, Elsevier Science

Publishers (1992).

475

6 S.K. CHOI and C.P. TAN SPE 4~04

m

.---r .ool(~

.ol(~

----- r.io(~

.0,0< (Incdml

=0,1 (mofhl)

.I.o(rmdntl

OM 1 15 2253

~llnm

Fig. f Comparison of model results and analytical solutions of radius (r/a) for drilling fluid 50C hotter than formation.

normanaed Dore praasure (RID.) history with norrnaliaed radius

(r/a) at Wffetirtt normalised time (f= cffa)

s

, ,:, , ,:. .

I ~-,===>.+

:, .,,-

.-,>,. .

, .-. .

#--

. 4.5 5

I = .a5L 1 1,522S 33.54

I - -nuo ~

.- ..

Fig. 2 Comparison of modef results and analytical solutions of Fig.5- Isochrones of pore preaaure vsriation with normansed

normalised tangential stress (u~omp.) variation at Various radius (r/a) for drilling fluid 50C cooler than formation.

normalised radius (r/a).

..... !=18io.08a

Nmnulind rwhm

Fig. 3- Iaochronea of temperature variation with normalised Fig.6- Isochrones of pore pressure variation with normalised

radius (r(a) for drilllng fluid SOCcooler than formation. radius (r/a) for drilling fluid 50C hotter than formation.

SPE 47304 MOD~LING OF EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUID TEMPERATLIRE ON WELLBORE STABILITY 7

-.

I

I

Fig. 7 Isochrones of effective radial stress variation with normalised radius (r/a) for drifling fluid 50-C hotter than formation.

norma[ised radius (r/a) for driIIing fluid 50C cooler than

formation,

1,4

0 1 z $ 4

~-

Fia. 8 Isochrones of etiectlve radial stress variation with Fig. 11 Temporal variation of factor of safety with respect to

no-maNsed rsdlus (r/a) for drilling fIuid 50C hotter than formation. plastic yielding for formation with different thermal diffusivitles (H

= 1.60. M = 1.055. L =0.51 XIO+ mkf) and Dermeable fluid flow

boundary condition at borehole wall.

..

.... .

1:. ~.93x

I

.8300W

-.laloo$ec,

0 i s

1

2 4 s

~-

Fig. 9- Isochrones of eWectlve tangential stress variation with Fig. 12 Temporal variation of factor of safety with respect to

normslised radius (r/a) for drilling fluid 50C cooler than plastic yielding for formation with different thermal diffusivities (H

tirmation. = 1.60, M = 1.055, L =0.51 x IOA ink) and impermeable fluid flow

boundaW condition at borehole wall.

477

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