© All Rights Reserved

12 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Truss Design NS Negi
- Vertical Gates Design
- Flexural_Torsional_Buckling Analysis
- Quick Reference Manual
- Finite Element
- Backgournd Document Section 8 Scantling Requirements IACS Oil Tankers
- Syllabus
- Design of Rectangular Water Tank
- Calculator Technique for Clock Problems in Algebra
- Post-limit stiffness and ductility of end-plate beam-to-column steel joinst
- Punching Shear Behaviour Analysis of Rc Flat Floor Slab to Column Connection
- Shaft
- Vreedenburgh_1962 (1).pdf
- FEA Steel 2 Product
- Evaluation of Tension Stiffening Effect on Thec Rack Width Calculation of Flexural RC Members
- IPG2015-8508
- CEE 150 Quarter Notes All
- A REFINED SLIP MODEL FOR PREDICTING THE VARIABLE BENDING STIFFNESS IN A SINGLE LAYERED CABLE
- 81symp11
- To Study the Bending Behavior of Z-sec

You are on page 1of 4

C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016

Transmission Lines

1 2

Yongping Li , Yu Liu and Jibin Zhang3

1

Computational Mechanics, Northeast Dianli University, 132012 Jilin, China

2

Civil Engineering, Northeast Dianli University, 132012 Jilin, China

3

Transmission Engineering, Northeast Dianli University, 132012 Jilin, China

Abstract. This paper discusses the issue of shape and stress of overhead transmission lines. It fully considers that the

conductor is subjected to axial force, shear, bending moment simultaneousiy. And the flat wire is basically in the

elastic range. Because the stress is the strength of a certain point, the bending rigidity of the overhead lines can not be

ignored. However, the catenary has been used in previous research and the force of the overhead lines is obtained on

this basis. The author establishes a model of wire calculation under real condition, and gives a feasible simplified

model. And then it gives the line shape formula, internal force formula, formula of stress in the strands. The results

show that the original stress is significantly smaller.In this paper, the stress formula is almost close to the reality. It

proves the reliability of the simplified model that the line shape includes the original flexible part.The results can not

only fill the gaps in the theoretical study of the overhead lines, but also have some guidance to the production and

design of overhead lines.

not small even in a very small wire. So bending stress

So far the hypothesis has been adopted in the study of should not be ignored.

wire mechanics that line shape of overhead

transmission line is catenary [1-5]. The conductor is 2.1 Alignment analysis

only subjected to axial force, and the stress of the wire

is replaced by the average stress. The average stress is

equal to the axial force divided by the cross-sectional

area of the wire. However, the real line shape of the O

hanging wire is not catenary. The real wire is rigid and

d

it is subjected to axial force, shear force and bending T'

y

moment unlike a cable that is just under tension. The M'

previous hypothesis leads to the stress of the conductor '

far away from the actual stress, so that there are hidden M

dangers in the strength design. The purpose of this Q'

paper is to study the wire alignment under the natural Q

suspended state, and the axial force, shear force and o x T

bending moment of the conductor under this

condition. Next, the author obtains the line shape from qds

x

the static equilibrium analysis and thus finds out the h1 h2

internal force of the wire and the stress of the strands. x dx

l

Assume that the wire is regarded as a soft line in

deformation due to excessive span. The assumption can Figure 1. Natural hanging state diagram of wire in single span.

simplify the analysis and calculation. And the catenary Schematic diagram of force analysis of conductor.

formula under this assumption [6] is easy to remember.

Because the stress is the force received on the unit area,

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits

distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

MATEC Web of Conferences

Figure 1 shows the natural state of single span wire in This is a first orders, nonlinear, variable coefficients

suspension. Select any wire element for mechanical and non-homogeneous equation. Its analytical solution is

analysis. The static equilibrium equations of the selected (7).

element are as follows. 0 1 1

cos (1 3 3 )

3 3 (7)

T cos

T cos Q sin

Qsin 0

' ' ' '

5a 5a

'

T sin

T sin

Q cos Q cos

qds 0 (1)

' ' '

The formula (7) is the exact result of the simplified

dx model. It is also the linear analytical solution. Although it

M

M T sin dx

T cos dy

qds 2 0

'

is an implicit equation, it is one of the important results of

this research. And it is so far unique result.

dM It is not difficult to prove that the first part of formula

Q

ds (7) is on behalf of the catenary, the second part is a

dQ T (2) correction term due to the influence of the shear and

q cos bending moment. Formula (7) contains the catenary,

ds

dT Q reflecting the rule that general contains special. It

q sin

illustrates the rationality, scientificalness and credibility

ds

of the simplified method for the formula (3).

d d 2 M d 3 M d 1 dM (3)

q cos

q sin 0

ds ds 2

ds 3 ds ds 2.3 Determining the phenotype of alignment

The differential relationship of moment, shear and

Explicit formula of formula (7) is determined as follows.

axial force can be calculated by the formula (1). The

formula (3) is obtained by the equation group (2). And 0 ,

the formula (3) is the static equilibrium line of the

1 y"

overhead lines considering the moment, shear and axial ,

force. Because too complicated and difficult to solve, it is

necessary to be simplified.

1 y'

2

3

2

2.2 Simplified alignment

Because the

0 is very small, the formula (8) is

considered within the elastic range. So the bending a30

4

1

moment and curvature has the following relations in the x 3

sin cos

(3

3 3 ) sin

formula (4) [7,8]. 1

a 0

3

a 0 (8)

y a 0 sin 2

(1

cos )(3

1 )

3 4

1 M

(4) 3 3

1

a 3 0 a 3 0

EI

d 3 9 d d 2 12 d 3 d d (5) Formula (8) is an explicit equation of overhead lines in

( )

a 3 3 cos 2a 3 4 sin 0

d 3 d d 2 2 d d d general. Its coordinate system is shown in Figure 1. The

Formula (5) was obtained by formula (4) into the lowest point of the wire is the origin. The right is the X

formula (3). The formula (5) is a three orders, nonlinear, axis and the up is the Y axis. The formula (8) is a

variable coefficients and non-homogeneous equation. parameter equation of

0 and . 0 is the curvature

The equations analytical solution is difficult to be

obtained. radius of the lowest point of the overhead line. is the

Because the wire is flat, its curvature radius changes angle between the tangent direction and the horizontal

very slowly along with the dip angle. Thus the ones are direction of the wire.

very small relative to the rest .They can be ignored that

the two order derivative,third order derivative and the

3 Mechanical calculation of overhead

cubic of the first derivative of curvature radius and dip

angle. And the corresponding coefficient is smaller than 1. line

Ignore them and retain the main items. Simplified model

is obtained by (6-1) or (6-2). 3.1 Internal force calculation of overhead line

d d

a 3 3 cos 2a 3 4 sin 0 (6-1) 0

d d By formula (7), can be found in the determination of

d 2a 3 4 sin . By the radius of curvature , the internal force can

3 3 (6-2) be obtained under the assumption of elasticity.

d a cos

1 1 moment,

q EI

a3 (6-3) M

EI (9)

02003-p.2

ICEEN 2016

2 EIq sin

Q

EI

q 3 cos (10)

ds(mm) da(mm) Es(N/mm2) Ea(N/mm2)

3axial force,

2.50 3.22 202000 68000

dQ dQ

T q cos q cos

ds d (11-1) ds is diameter of steel core and da is diameter of

(a 3 3

1)(cos

a 3 3 ) 2a 3 3 sin 2 (1 2a 3 3 cos ) aluminum strand.

T q cos 2q

(a 3 3 cos

1) 3

(11-2) 3.2 Stress of strand calculation of overhead line

At the lowest point of the wire ( 0 ), its axial force

is seen in the formula (11-3). The premise of wire breaking is the strands breaks.And

the first break of the strands is the outermost strand. So

2 0 q 2

T0 0 q 0 q(1

3 3 ) (11-3) this paper analyzes the axial normal stress of the most

a

1

3

3

a

1 outer strand. The axial normal stress is normal referred to

as the strand stress. It is obvious that there are two kinds

The former represents the axial force of the span wire.

of stresses. One is caused by the axial tension of the wire.

The latter is an additional term due to the influence of

The other is caused by the bending of the wire. The total

bending moment and shear. It is proved that the true axial

force of the wire is lower than that of the flexible wire. stress of the strands is

l M , not the empirical

Table 1.Internal force table T

1

formula A [1].

auther

Axial force (N) 21463

tension of the wire

Bending moment

771.82

(NPP)

LGJ400/35 in elevation suspension state. Assumed that

the span is equal to 545m and the sag is equal to 23m.

The internal force is obtained at the point where

10 . The cross section of LGJ400/35 is shown in

Figure 2. Parameters of LGJ400/35 are shown in Table 2.

not the axial direction of the wire. The outermost strand

stress is showed in formula (12).

l Ea l Ea (cos 2 n

n sin 2 n ) u (12)

T

u (13)

EA

Ea

is the elastic modulus of the aluminum strand.

l

u is the axial strain

of the

wire. n is the winding angle of strands. n is

the Poisson's ratio of the wire and it can be regarded as

Figure 2. Cross section of LGJ400/35. equal to

[9]. T is the axial tension of the wire and EA

is the tensile stiffness of the conductor section.

02003-p.3

MATEC Web of Conferences

l (cos 2 n

n sin 2 n ) (14) not scientific. Because the elastic modulus of steel

EA strands is almost 3 times higher than the elastic modulus

of aluminum strands. Stress is the force of a certain point,

and it must be respectively calculated either the stresses

3.2.2 The stress of the strand caused by wire

of the steel strands or the aluminum strands. Otherwise

bending

the error is very large.

The bending of a wire is an objective existence. There is

a formula (4) in the elastic range. So section normal 4 Conclusion

stress is as follows.

Ey Ea M ( D

d n ) In this paper, explicit and implicit linear formulas of

'M (15) the overhead lines are obtained by using the method of

2 EI

differential calculus and elastic mechanics. The linear

Ea is the elastic modulus of the aluminum strand. dn

formula is derived by taking into account that the

conductor is subjected to bending moment, shear force

is the diameter of the aluminum strand. M is the bending and axial force simultaneously. And on this basis, the

moment of the wire. D is diameter of conductor section

paper carries out the analysis of the internal force of

and EI is bending rigidity of conductor section.

the wire, the analysis of the stress of the strands and

Considering the angle between the wire axis and the

strand, the stress in the strand is showed in formula (16).

the calculation of the conductor sag. Finally they are

truly expressed, that the linear, stress and sag in the

Ea M ( D

d n )

M (cos 2 n

n sin 2 n ) (16) natural state of suspension. This paper not only makes

2 EI up the theoretical gaps in the field of the mechanical

calculation of wire, but also provides the modeling

basis and the analysis method for the research of the

3.2.3 The total stress of the strand by the related problems. It has a certain guiding significance

superposition of the two stresses for transmission line construction, but also provides a

T M (D

d n ) theoretical basis for the design and production of wires.

l M Ea [ ](cos 2 n

n sin 2 n ) (17)

EA 2EI

It is obvious that the stress caused by stretching and References

bending is greater than one received tension only . The

1. S.-M.. Meng, Wei. Kong, Overhead transmission

growth rate is e. EI and EA are respectively representing

line design (China Electric Power Press, China

the tensile stiffness and the flexural rigidity of the cross

Beijing, 2007)

section [10].

2. D.-S. Zhang, Design Handbook for high voltage

Table 3.Stress of strands. power supply circuit of electric power

engineering (China Electric Power Press, China

Outermost layer (N/mm) 134.26

Beijing, 2004)

3. B.-Z. Li, High voltage overhead power transmission

Forth layer (N/mm) 45.30

line construction calculation principle (China

Electric Power Press, China Beijing, 2008)

Third layer (N/mm) 45.35

4. G.-Z. Jiang, China. Science Technology and

Engineering 8, 8 (2008)

5. X. Wei, S.-Z.. Qiang, China. Building Science

Second layer (N/mm) 45.39

Research of Sichuan 29, 4 (2003)

6. W.-H. Zhang, J.-B. Yu, China. Electric Power

The basic assumption of the table 3 is the same as 3.1 . Construction 33, 2 (2012)

M ( D

d n ) EA 7. X.-F. Sun, X.-Y. Fang, L.-T. Guan, mechanics of

e 100% (18-1) materials (Higher Education Press, China Beijing,

2 EI T 2006)

Because MT EIq at the lowest point in the wire,

8. S. P. Timoshenko, mechanics of materials (Sciencec

Press, China Beijing, 1978)

the ratio is showed as follows. 9. Y.-P. Li, X.-F. Yun, W.-J. Li, China. Electric Power

q( D

d n ) Construction 10, 10 (1999)

e EA 100% (18-2) 10. Y.-P. Li, Z.-Y. Huang, Y. Ni, China. Water

2T 2

Resources and Power 30, 2 (2012)

The error rate is not negligible because it is generally

more than 20%. It can reach 35% or even higher in the

large cross-section wire. However, the flexible conductor

just ignores the bending stress.

Moreover there is no formula of stress in the catenary.

02003-p.4

- Truss Design NS NegiUploaded bySushmit Sharma
- Vertical Gates DesignUploaded byVikash Yadav
- Flexural_Torsional_Buckling AnalysisUploaded byrs0004
- Quick Reference ManualUploaded byNavajyoth Reddy
- Finite ElementUploaded byChangZianLi
- Backgournd Document Section 8 Scantling Requirements IACS Oil TankersUploaded byKurt Zarwell
- SyllabusUploaded byAmeya Ganpatye
- Design of Rectangular Water TankUploaded byvijay10484
- Calculator Technique for Clock Problems in AlgebraUploaded byKevin Cabante
- Post-limit stiffness and ductility of end-plate beam-to-column steel joinstUploaded byGinger David
- Punching Shear Behaviour Analysis of Rc Flat Floor Slab to Column ConnectionUploaded byMohit Rajai
- ShaftUploaded byshaafique
- Vreedenburgh_1962 (1).pdfUploaded bygowthi1992
- FEA Steel 2 ProductUploaded byAmin
- Evaluation of Tension Stiffening Effect on Thec Rack Width Calculation of Flexural RC MembersUploaded byKimleng Khy
- IPG2015-8508Uploaded byJenny Vasquez
- CEE 150 Quarter Notes AllUploaded byCristen Alvarez
- A REFINED SLIP MODEL FOR PREDICTING THE VARIABLE BENDING STIFFNESS IN A SINGLE LAYERED CABLEUploaded byIAEME Publication
- 81symp11Uploaded bymaaathan
- To Study the Bending Behavior of Z-secUploaded byFaisal Sardar
- Fundamental LoadingsUploaded byAGEGTAM
- Cho Kim 2000 Extension Bending Twisting ThermalUploaded byAnonymous wWOWz9UnW
- BasicUploaded bysatydevsinghnegi
- CIRCOOLUploaded bydon2hmr
- mechanical design of power transformersUploaded byFasil Paruvanath
- Wang Stress Analysis2009Uploaded byShital Chaudhari
- aaerevUploaded byAham Brahmasmi
- chapter_5-AUploaded byWasana Lakmali
- A Simple Compliance Modeling Method for Flexure HingesUploaded byBrian Freeman
- 7. FlywheelUploaded byUsaid Hafeez

- Neonatal Sepsis Alojipan1975Uploaded bydeathjester1
- Round Robin Assessment of the Single Fiber Fragmentation Test - RichUploaded bydeathjester1
- Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Single Fiber Fragmentation Test - RamirezUploaded bydeathjester1
- aop0914Uploaded byabdul rahman
- ElasticityPolars CompleteUploaded bydeathjester1
- elsticty_thry.pdfUploaded byPradeep Gs
- EPL 0009444 ArticleUploaded bydeathjester1
- ncorrmanual_v1_2_1Uploaded byVitor Carneiro
- Analysis of Composite Materials—a SurveyUploaded bydeathjester1
- Blum Sup 1946003001011Uploaded bydeathjester1
- Composite Interfaces Volume 15 Issue 2-3 2008 [Doi 10.1163%2F156855408783810948] Huber, Tim; Müssig, Jörg -- Fibre Matrix Adhesion of Natural Fibres Cotton, Flax and Hemp in Polymeric Matrices Analyze (1)Uploaded bydeathjester1
- 2015_Fatigue Behavior and Modeling of Short Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites_A Literature ReviewUploaded bySubramani Pichandi
- IJEIT1412201502_13Uploaded bydeathjester1
- Cylindrical Bending of Unsymmetric Composite LaminatesUploaded bydeathjester1
- Design Project for Advanced Mechanics of MaterialsUploaded bydeathjester1
- Real Life Examples in a Solid Mechanics CourseUploaded bydeathjester1
- Design of Gear BoxUploaded byIbrahim Abdou
- 6869-24178-1-SM_ Do Sau an Mon Theo KlinsmithUploaded byLe Anh Thu Khuat
- Integrating Design Projects Into an Introductory Course in Mechanics of MaterialsUploaded bydeathjester1
- 011Uploaded bydeathjester1
- Conventional Design and Static Stress Analysis of Ic Engine Component Crank Pin Using the Finite Element Method 2167 7670 1000118Uploaded bydeathjester1
- V2I11-IJERTV2IS110709Uploaded bydeathjester1
- Chapter 16_Cranktrain_2015-08-04 (1).pdfUploaded bybogodavid
- Ageing and Deterioration of Materials in the Environment - Application of Multivariate Data AnalysisUploaded bydeathjester1
- Mechanics and materials in Fretting Wear_1992Uploaded bydeathjester1
- Machine Design_U. C. Jindal.pdfUploaded bymanual C
- A Method to Evaluate Vibration State and Lifetime of Overhead Transmission Lines Based on Onsite Short-Term Measured Data of Aeolian VibrationUploaded bydeathjester1

- Torsion 3Uploaded byPathan Shamsheerkhan
- Engineering ScienceUploaded byFloyd Pinto
- en-hybridur-580-americas-datasheet.pdfUploaded byMohammad Doost Mohammadi
- BS_5896_2010Uploaded byshashiresh
- Heat and Mass Transfer Guia ARTICULOSUploaded byCarlos Martínez
- Exercise 04Uploaded byMarkoPll
- Best Solver for Impact ProblemsUploaded byprincedrdo
- Solid mechanics Syllabi - PhD Interview IIT MadrasUploaded byjoemonjacob
- Fastener Design Manual.pdfUploaded byjemollica
- 4.1 Thermal EquilibriumUploaded byAzrul Wahid
- 1 Stress Strain SMUploaded byappuanandh
- 1st year bUploaded byShahzad Aslam
- Bernaulli's Theorem FullUploaded byBart Kwan
- BD IEEE FormatUploaded bySindhu Sindhu
- Compare BS and ACI CodeUploaded byMiski45
- Water gas shift equilibria using NIST Webbook and MatlabUploaded byTaylor
- Abutment Design Example to BD 30Uploaded byMuzammil Moosafeer
- Visco GraphUploaded bywamlina
- Al-si-cuUploaded byJayanth Devaraj S
- MTech Thermal SciencesUploaded byHunter NoVa
- 238.2T_14.pdfUploaded byJoão Carlos Protz Protz
- DME-22.6.15Uploaded byVIGNESH L R
- On the Rheological Behaviour of the Soil in Artificial Compacting ProcessUploaded byBoris Kuselj
- Lecture 17 Optical Fiber ModesUploaded bynarayanan07
- FatigueUploaded bySon Tran
- 24 in Valve ProtectorUploaded bybekti
- Thermistor charcteristics REV 00.docxUploaded byRaj Mehra Mehar
- Materials Lab 4-ConcreteUploaded bymamaduckmaster
- CFD 101 Plus OptUploaded byMohamed Elshahat Ouda
- Lecture 17Uploaded byradenka1