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Exercise 1: Microscopy Criteria Old Microscope New Microscope

Lower Higher
Types: Objectives magnification magnification
1. Light microscope transmitted light Spring - loaded
a. Simple single lens Adjustment knobs Separated Combined
Illumination Mirrors Electric bulb
b. Compound set of lenses
Condenser w/ knob w/o knob
i. stereoscope 3D images
Stage Immovable; tilted Movable; parallel
ii. fluorescence reveals transparent specimens when Stage clips Absent Present
it is illuminated by ultraviolet light Coarse Moves the body
Moves the stage
iii. phase-contrast and differential interference contrast adjustment knob tube
from invisible into visible light-dark differences Inclination Joint Present Absent
2. Electron microscope electron beams Body tube Present Absent
a. SEM specimens surface features Range of
100-970x 100-1000x
b. TEM 100,000 times Magnification

Criteria Compound Stereoscope

Mechanical Parts:
Magnification 100-1000x 10-40x
a. base Position Inverted Upright
b. pillar Movement Opposite Parallel
c. inclination joint Image 2D 3D
d. arm
e. stage NOTE:
f. body tube Numerical aperture = magnifying power
Numerical aperture = resolving power
g. draw tube
Working distance = 1/magnifying power
h. nosepiece
Magnifying power zoom in/ zoom out
i. dust shield Resolving power amount of detail
j. coarse adjustment knob Numerical Aperture finer detail of the specimen (hindi
k. fine adjustment knob blurry)
l. condenser adjustment knob regulate light intensity Working distance distance from the obj lens to the stage
m. iris diaphragm lever open and close the diaphragm Resolution view specimen in finer details
Concave side insufficient light
Plane side enough light
Optical Parts: mirror -> condenser -> specimen ->objective -> eyepiece
a. mirror
b. substage
1. iris diaphragm regulates the amount of light by
contracting/enlarging the iris of the eye
2. condenser concentrates light on the specimen
c. objectives
1. scanner 4x
2. LPO 10x
3. HPO 4043x
4. OIO 100x, cedar wood oil, xylene and lens paper
d. eyepiece or ocular 5-15x, monocular/binocular
e. electric lamp

Proper Usage of Microscope:

Clean with lens paper and 30% EtOH (Ethanol)
Place the objective as far as possible, then place the slide.
Adjust the mirror
Focus the object to view


Calibration constant (Cf) =

Actual Size = # of divisions occupied in the om x Cf

Magnification =

Linear Magnification = (M) eyepiece x (M) ocular

Exercise 2: Cell Structure Frog RBC Human RBC
Size Larger smaller
Cell basic structural unit Shape Oval Biconcave disk
3 major features: Nucleus and
a. plasma membrane Present Absent
b. nucleus Function Picks up O2 and transports important materials
c. cytoplasm

Cell theory:
a. cells are the basic structural unit
b. cells are the basic unit of organisms
c. cells arise from preexisting cells

Cell Structures (organelles)

1. Nucleus genetic material of the cell
2. Endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough) it is where
processes happen Smooth Muscle Cells
3. Golgi bodies contains final products spindle shaped
4. Vesicles (lysosome) cleans debris Nucleus: center (parang eye)
5. ribosomes proteinsynthesis arranged closely to form
6. Mitochondria power house (contains DNA) sheets
7. Chloroplast chlorophyll (contains DNA)
8. Centrioles cell division (contains DNA)
Columnar Cells
Cheek Cell rectangular in shape
Squamous Nucleus: lower part of the cell (base)
Single layered usually arranged in single layers,
Nucleus: center flaked side by side
microvilli (increases absorption)

Fat Cell Liver/Kidney Cells

Globular with red spheres Cuboidal in shape
(lipids) tightly packed
Nucleus: near the plasma Nucleus: center
membrane (since the fat
droplets push the nucleus
to the side)

Size Smaller Larger
Shape Biconcave disc Round/spherical
Nucleus Absent Present
Organelles Absent Present
Functions Oxygen transport Antibodies Sperm Cells
head, midpiece, tail
hairlike structure for movement
nucleus is located at its head
acrosome penetration of the
flagellum (tail) movement

Amoeba sp.
no particular direction (amoeboid movement)
change in position/shape when they meet an obstruction
Kuppfer cells, liver cells, macrophages and cancerous cells
pseudopod false feet
Paramecium sp Exercise 3: Scientific report
Cilia is essential for locomotion,
filtration, and protection 1. Journal articles
Ciliary movement (cells in trachea,
Author. Title of article (first letter is in uppercase,
lungs and fallopian tube)
This movement is evident in others in small letter). Journal name Volume, Pages (Year)
respiratory passages
There are two vacuoles, located at each end of the cell 2. Books
blunt end: anterior, pointed end: posterior Author. Book title Pages (Publisher, Place of
2 nucleus: Macronucleus - metabolism Publication, Year)
Micronucleus - reproduction
3. Online sources
Cell type Shape of Cells Source Function
Name of Site. Date of posting/revision. Name of
Transport of
Spherical Spherical Blood vessel institution/organization. Date the site was accessed.
Brain <electronic address>
Star-like; Transmission of
Stellate spinal cord
branching electric signals
nerves Exercise 4: Cell transport
Protection and
Squamous Flattened Kidney Plasma membrane
Heart linings - phospholipid bilayer which separates the internal
Columnar Rectangular Intestine Absorption
environment of the cell from the outside
Pyramidal Pyramidal Transmission - acts as a gate keeper which controls which substance are
Spindle Walls of allowed to pass in or out of the cell
Fusiform movement Selective permeability
shaped hallow organ
Secretion - ability of the cell that allows the transport of substances as
Cuboidal Cube shaped Kidneys
absorption restricted or unrestricted depending on the cellular
Storage requirements of the cell
Polygonal Closed figure Fats
Insulation Most permeable to small non-polar moelcules can pass through
Amorphous Irregular Amoeba the hyrdophobic lipid bilayer (oxygen, carbon dioxide) water
Animal Cell Plant Cell
Types of mediated processes:
Cell Wall Absent Present
a. Passive concentration or pressure drives the movement
Plastids Absent Present
of the cell
Vacuole Present Present
- diffusion net movement of particles from a
Centrioles Present Absent
region of higher concentration to a lower
Lysosomes Present Absent
Cilia Present Absent
b. Active expend energy to fuel the passage of the
Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
Absent in animals;
Present present in plants Diffusion in water
Cell Wall - Tap water vs. distilled water
(peptidoglycans) (cellulose) and fungi
(chitin) - KMnO4 was dropped
Nuclear - KMnO4 diffused slower in tap water
Absent Present - rate distilled > rate tap
Chromosomes Single, circular Multiple, linear
Factors in rate of diffusion:
DNA Naked With histones
1. Molecular size
Mitochondria Absent Present
2. Molecular mass of diffusing substance
Endoplasmic Present (rough and 3. Impurities hindrance: lattice network
Reticulum smooth) 4. Dispersing medium
Golgi Complex Absent Present 5. Solute size
Absent but present Absent in animals; 6. Temp
in some present in plants 7. Concentration gradient
Ribosomes Present (70S type) Present 8. Surface area
Vacoules Present Present 9. Diffusing distance
Present in animals;
Centrioles Absent
absent in plants Diffusion in Colloid
Lysosomes Absent Present - Farthest: KMnO4, methylene blue, congo red
- Molecular size affects the rate of diffusion
- Gelatin -> less space to for the molecules to move
- allows the removal of waste products from blood/fluid by
diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane
- Cl ions diffused first because of smaller MW
- Test Ca, NH4C2O4 (ammonium oxalate)
- Test Cl, AgNO3 (silver nitrate)

- movement of water through a selectively permeable
membrane from a region of higher concentration to a
region with lower concentration
- only water diffuses, not the solute
- osmotic pressure pressure that stops the further diffusion
of water by osmosis
- turgor pressure internal hydrostatic pressure present in
cell walls
- isotonic flaccid Interphase (no dark staining)
- hypotonic - turgid biological changes can be observed but structural and
- hypertonic plasmolysis physiological changes can no longer be seen
- Increase in volume DNA replication and synthesis of protein and nucleic acid
- Demonstrate osmosis essential for growth
Gap 1 (G1) prep for replication of DNA; synthesis of
Osmosis in RBC tRNA and mRNA, synthesis of proteins and enzymes
- Isotonic (0.15M) nothing will happen Synthesis (S) replication of DNA
- Hypotonic (0.07M) swell and burst; hemolysis Gap 2 (G2) synthesis of spindle and aster proteins for
- Hypertonic (0.30M) shrink; crenation chromosome separation
G1 checkpoint to see if the cell is damaged
G2 checkpoint - to see if the DNA replicated properly
M checkpoint spindle assembly checkpoint, check for
alignment of choromosomes
chromatin uncondensed chromosome
apoptosis programmed cell death, checks fail

equatorial division
sister chromatids connected by centromere and contains
kinetochore where the spindle fibers attach themselves
Processes involved:
Exercise 5: Mitosis Karyokinesis division of nuclear material
Cytokinesis division of cytoplasm

Phases of Mitosis

1. Prophase
centromeres and centrosomes replicate and
two centrosomes migrate to opposite sides
of the nucleus
microtubules: formation of football shaped
spindle fibers and asters
nuclear chromatin condenses to form
chromosomes (sister chromatids)
disintegration of nuclear envelope

2. Metaphase
condensed chromatins move to the middle
in order to form the metaphase plate
spindle fibers form mitotic spindle and
attaches to kinetochore
asters attach to the plasma membrane
astral fibers which are connected to the
cell wall
spindle fibers fibers which are connected
to the chromosomes
kinetochore where spindle fibers attach
centrosome source of all the fibers
3. Anaphase Simple Squamous Epithelium (cheek)
splitting of the centromeres (which holds flattened cells, single layer
the chromatids) -> two independent disk-shaped central nucleus
chromatids with their own centromeres endothelium cells of blood vessels
chromatins move towards their respective location: air sacs of lungs; glomeruli;
poles pulled by the kinetochore fibers linings of heart; lymphatic; blood vessels
sister chromatids are pulled towards function: allows passage of materials through diffusion
opposite poles by the mitotic spindle and filtration
plants : cell plate
lower form: phytoplast Simple Cuboidal Epithelium (kidney)
higher form: phragmoplast cube-shaped objects, single layer
4. Telophase (dark stain) location: kidney tubules, duct, small
disappearance of spindle fibers glands, surface of the ovary
chromosomes revert to diffuse chromatin function: secretion and absorption
reformation of the nuclear envelope
Simple Columnar Epithelium (intestine)
elongated cells
Animal Cell Plant Cell circular nucleus at the base of the cell
Nucleus, microvilli - absorption
Organelles responsible Nucleus, cell wall
centrosome cilia - movement
Absent location: linings of the digestive tract,
Centriole Present
(microtubule) gall bladder and excretory ducts
Cell plate/ function: absorption and enzyme
Cytokinesis Cleavage furrow
phragmoplast secretion
Astral Fibers Present Absent
Location of Division Periphery Center
Source of Spindle Centriole Microtubules (cell Stratified Squamous Epithelium (frog skin)
Fibers (centrosome) wall) 2 or more layers of squamous cells
Cells capable of mitosis All animal cells Meristematic cells flatness is caused by pushing of lower
Significance of Mitosis: location: unkeratinized -lining of the
esophagus, mouth, and vagina;
growth and development of organism
keratinized surface of the skin
repair of damaged tissues/organs function: protection of underlying tissues
reproduction (asexual)
genetic continuity
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar (trachea)
Exercise 6: Tissues cilia on top of columnar cells
nucleus is scattered
location: linings of bronchi, uterine tubes,
Tissues aggregates of cells with a specific function
lining of the uterus, trachea
function: propels mucus or reproductive
EPITHELIAL TISSUES cells by the ciliar movement
closely packed polyhedral tissues
little extracellular substance CONNECTIVE TISSUES
linings of entry/exit points of organisms composed of cells and ground substances (fiber, proteins)
secretory cells abundant extracellular matrix
Functions: supportive and binding function
- Covering/lining (skin) Functions:
- Absorption (intestine) - Provide and maintain form of the body
- Sensation (neuroepithelium) - Provides matrix which connects and binds cells and
- Secretion (glands) organs
- Contractility (myoepithelial cells) - Gives support to the body
a) Squamous (cheek) Connective Tissue Proper:
b) Cuboidal (frog kidney/liver) Loose/Areolar
c) Columnar (frog intestine) collagen fiber, mesh-like
2. NUMBER: supports structures which are under pressure and low
a) Simple (simple squamous cheek) friction
b) Stratified contains fibroblasts which produces elastic fibers and
i. Stratified Squamous (frog skin/ epidermal region) collagenous fibers
ii. Psuedostratified Columnar (trachea) collagen fiber pink, thick
elastic fiber yellow, wavy
reticular fiber brown, branched
fibroblast extracellular matrix, cells with oval nucleus cell nest group of 2-0 chondrocyte daughter cells within
fibrocyte synthesis of fibers the matrix of a growing cartilage
mast cells and macrophages releases histamine and chondrofication formation or conversion of cartilage
chemicals in the blood, phagocytosis of pathogens perichondrium dense connective tissue which contains
WBC bodys defense blood vessel and stem cells
location: papillary layer of the dermis, serosal linings of the matrix clear intercellular ground substance
peritoneal and pleural cavities (balakang) Chondrocytes
function: wrap and cushion organs - secretes fibers and ground substance (composition of
the cartilage matrix)
- cartilage cells
- lacuna spaces occupied by a chondrocyte
- three types differ because of the matrix

Dense Regular (tendon) Hyaline Cartilage

tightly packed collagen fiber embryonic skeleton
arranged in a definite pattern lacunae cells are found;
fibroblasts spindle-shaped cells surrounded by a intercellular
responsible for synthesis of matrix material containing fine
and fibers collagenous fibers
location: dermis of the skin, location: walls of respiratory
submucosa of the digestive tract and fibrous capsules of passages, joints, longitudinal
organs and joints growth of bones
function: structural strength function: support and reinforcement

Dense Irregular Tissue (frogs dermis) Fibrocartilage

resistance to stress from all Lots of collagen fibers
directions (no pattern) location: intervertebral disks, pubic
collagen fibers pink, irregular symphisis, disk knee joints
fibers function: absorbs compression
Modified Loose
Adipose Elastic Cartilage
largest repository of energy location: Auricle in the ear, walls of
protection of organs the external auditory canal, auditory
adipocytes, fat storage, insulator tubes, epiglottis, cuneiform cartilage
location: everywhere of the larynx
function: to keep the organs in place, storage, support function: maintain its structure
of organs, insulation and energy shape despite of great flexibility
reticular fibers Compact Bone
thin and branching fiber highly vascularized; metabolically active
architectural framework for hematopoietic & lymphoid calcium phosphate, chondroitin sulfate & keratin sulfate
organs reservoir for Calcium (specifically CaCO3) and other ions
hematopoietic organs where formed elements of blood periosteum thin covering of the base where tendons and
and lymph are produced muscles are attached
endosteum the lining in the medullary cavity of the bone
Specialized Connective Tissue ossification or osteogenesis, the process by which bones
Cartilage are formed
contain GAGs w/c interacts with elastic and collagen fibers osteon redlike structure that composes the compact bone
not ossified function: structural framework of the body
chondroitin sulfate and hyalaronic acid
bears mechanical stress without distortion
support soft tissues
consists of cells and fluids which are unidirectional in the
circulatory system
function: transports oxygen and body to the system and
chief mechanism against infection
Two parts:
1. Formed elements (blood cells)
- Erythrocytes
- Platelets
- Leukocytes
2. Plasma

Parts: White Blood Cells

- matrix Granulocytes Agranulocytes
- concentric lamella concentric layers of matrix
- canaliculi thin cylindrical spaces -which perforated Neutrophil Lymphocyte
the matrix
- Haversian canal (Volkmans canal) home of the blood
vessels and nerve Acidophil
- lamellae concentric layes of the bone
- lacunae houses the osteocytes; allows the passage Monocytes
of interstitial fluid between central canal Basophil
- canaliculi branches on the lacunae
- osteoblasts bone deposition, synthesis and secretion
of all organic components
- osteoclasts bone resorption or bone thinning General Morphology of
Blood cell Functions
- osteocytes mature cells with no mitotic activity appearance the Nucleus
Spongy bone Neutrophil Trinucleated antimicrobial
Irregularly shaped sheets chemicals
and spikes of the bone Release
(trabeculae) Acidophil Dinucleated
With granules enzymes
Spaces between the Secrete
trabeculae contains red and histamine to
yellow bone marrow Basophil Mononucleated
increase blood
depending on the age of the flow
person and its location Destroy cancer
No blood vessels on the matrix but they are just nearby cells and virus-
Exchange of nutrients occur between capillaries in the Lymphocyte Mononucleated
infected with
marrow and its interstitial fluid w/out granules cells
Characteristics Skeletal Cardiac Smooth Monocyte Mononucleated antigens for
Skeletal immunity
Yes No Yes
attachment Small amoeboid
Fiber shape Cylindrical Branched Fusiform Platelets No nucleus Blood clotting
Motor end Frogs RBC Spherical/ovoid Nucleated Oxygen and
Nerve endings Varicosities Varicosities
plate nutrients
Myofibrils Regular Regular Irregular Human RBC Concave shape No nucleus
Mitochondria Few Many Less
Syncitium None Functional Functional MUSCULAR TISSUE
Nucleus Multiple Single Single contains contractile protein (actin and myosin)
Sarcomere Regular Regular Absent proteins generate the forces necessary for cellular
Actins contraction
Z-line Z-line Dense bodies
attached with epimysium, perimysium, endomesium
Sarcotubular Well Moderately Poorly Parts:
system developed developed developed - Nucleus
Ca binding - Sarcolemma cell membrane
Troponin Troponin Calmodulin - Sarcoplasm cytoplasm of the membrane
Excitability Nerve supply Self Self/induced - Sarcoplasmic reticulum smooth ER
Force Low, long - Fibers
High High
development lived
Speed of
Fast Slow Very slow
Skeletal Muscle
very long cylindrical cells
cross striations
quick contraction
voluntary control
location: skeletal muscle
attached to the bones
function: useful for voluntary movement and locomotion

Smooth Muscle
collection of
fusiform/spindle fibers
central nucleus
no cross strations
slow contraction
involuntary movement
location: walls of hallow Parts (L.S.)
organs, move substances 1. Neurilemma membrane covering the fiber
along internal 2. Axis cylinder central region of the nerve fiber
passageway 3. Medullary sheath thick sheath covering the fiber
between the neurilemma and the axis cylinder
Cardiac Muscle 4. Nodes of Ranvier constrictions in the medullary sheath
elongated, branched
individual cells that are
parallel to each other
cross striations
intercalated disks
vigorous and rhythmic contraction

Skeletal Smooth Cardiac

Digestive, Parts: (X.S.):
Attached to
Location respiratory Heart 1. Epineurium external fibrous coat of dense CT; fills the
tract spaces between the bundles (fascicule) of nerve fibers
Shape of 2. Perineurium surrounds each bundle; protects nerve fiber
Striated Fusiform Striated
fiber from aggression
Number of 3. Endoneurium membrane covering each nerve fiber
Multiple One Mononucleated
Adjacent to
Position of
plasma Center Near center
Present Absent Present
Speed of
Fast Slow Steady pace
Ability to
Not long Long
remain Long sustained
sustained sustained
Type of
Voluntary Involuntary Involuntary

Dendrites receiving stimuli
from the environment
Cell body/perikaryon
trophic center for the whole
cell; receptive to stimuli Axon Dendrite
Axon generates or Size Long Short
conducting nerve impulses Branching
glial cells supporting cells of neural tissue Nissl bodies Absent Present
Sheath Can have myelin Absent
Function Send signals Receive signals