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Stinging the Predators

A collection of papers that should never have been published

Edited by Zen Faulkes


Department of Biology, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Email doctorzen@gmail.com

Twitter @DoctorZen

Version 3.0
31 July 2017

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5248264

Original sections of this work are licensed under a Creative Commons


CC-BY 4.0 United States License.

This collection will be updated with new versions as new papers are
added (whole number updates) and as typos and minor errors are
uncovered (decimal number updates). The most recent version of this
document is available at figshare and DoctorZen.net.
Contents
Introduction
The papers
The Sokal hoax (1996)
The blog that called predator (June 2009)
Abstract theology (August 2011)
Random math (September 2012)
The Bohannon Science sting (October 2013)
Get me off your fucking mailing list (November 2014)
Cuckoo for cocoa puffs (January 2015)
Fake news (May 2015)
Been there, done that (August 2016)
Siri, write me a conference abstract (October 2016)
The first Spears (November 2016)
The second Spears (December 2016)
Doctor Fraud (March 2017)
A paper about nothing (April 2017)
The conceptual penis (May 2017)
The garbagell do (July 2017)
Spam inspires surreal sting (July 2017)
Analysis
How much harm is done by predatory journals?
How much harm is done by stings and hoaxes?
From predator to mutualist
Do stings matter?
Colophon
Introduction
Introduction
Some papers should never have been published. The papers in this
anthology were published despite this, and are now gathered together
in this collection.

Why?

What possible reason could there be for collecting all the rubbish that
even the authors of the material hoped would never see the light of day?
Why bring together all the material that they hoped any sensible editor
would reject?

All these papers were deliberately bad. They were created with the
purpose of exposing exploitative publishing practices. That is, the works
collected here were sting operations on predatory journals.

The editors and journals that made the mistake of accepting and
publishing these papers often strive mightily to hide their mistakes.
They do not want people to know what obvious trash they accepted,
because it hurts their business model. Those journals dont deserve to
have their bad practices vanish under a rug.

Epic failure can be throw the normal into sharp relief, making it easier
to understand the normal procedure of academic publishing. Academic
publishing is a process that is difficult for people outside of the field to
understand. Some might find these papers useful as examples of what
not to do, either as a writer or a reviewer.

And a very small part of me is kind of impressed by the typesetting that


these imposters do. For just keeping up appearances, they often do a
respectable job.

But besides this collection serving as a warning to others, there have


been enough sting papers now that the fake paper created to prank
bad journals is practically its own genre. There are commonalities to
many papers, such as how the pranksters chose to generate a lot of fake
text without going to much effort. Some authors wrote fake papers,
some plagiarised classics, while others used random text generators.
Then theres humour. While some authors send sting papers to journals
because they have a serious goal of exposing incompetence, almost all
work in some gags.

I hope that by collecting all these efforts into a single volume, anyone
who is tempted to create another fake paper to submit to a dodgy
journal will heed some advice. Do not less than your predecessors.
The papers
The Sokal hoax (1996)
Any anthology of fake academic papers would be incomplete without
mentioning Alan Sokal. In the1990s, physicist Alan Sokal penned a
nonsense paper in reaction to post-modernism that was the vogue in
humanities in the United States. Some forms of post-modernism
claimed that there was no privileged interpretation of text, which Sokal
mocked in his paper, which claimed there was no basis for reality.
Sokals paper also mocked the dense, pretentious writing style of post-
modern scholarship.

Sokal successfully published his nonsense paper in the journal Social


Text. Two decades after its release, no other fake paper has provoked
the same public hand-wringing and analysis as Sokals paper, with
multiple books being printed on the subject.

Sokals paper is different from most of the others in this collection. Most
stings are created to expose completely illegitimate journals with no
real connection to academia, which was not the case with Social Text.
Nevertheless, Sokal may have set a precedent for using spoof papers to
draw attention to weak editorial practices.

Resources

Alan Sokal http://www.physics.nyu.edu/sokal/

Sokal A, Bricmont J. 1997. Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern


Intellectuals' Abuse of Science. Picador USA.

Editors of Lingua Franca. 2000. The Sokal Hoax: The Sham That Shook
the Academy. Nebraska Press.
http://www.nebraskapress.unl.edu/bison/9780803279957/

Sokal A. 2008. Beyond the Hoax: Science, Philosophy, and Culture.


Oxford University Press.

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The blog that called predator
(June 2009)
The creation of PLOS ONE in 2006 was a watershed moment for
scientific publishing. While other journals had been open access, PLOS
ONE was deliberately provocative. It did not review for perceived
importance. It was not limited by number of pages. It was financed by
article processing fees, paid by the author(s).

The idea of scientists paying journals to defray the costs of publication


was not new. Many journals levied page charges, particularly for
expenses like reproduction of colour figures.

The PLOS ONE business model revolutionized scientific publishing.


First, the journal became one of the largest journals in the world in
terms of the number of papers published, proving that neither its
article processing fee model nor its lack of a print edition were not a
significant deterrent to author submissions. Second, once PLOS ONE
proved itself successful, its model was imitated by many other academic
publishers. PLOS ONE and its many imitators became known as open
access megajournals.

The move to digital publication for scientific journals, combined with


the article processing fees as the main source of paying for the costs,
meant that it was easier than ever for new journals to be created.
Previously, the infrastructure needed to create a printed academic
journal prevented dabblers from jumping in and starting journals. But
with a domain name and a little knowledge of HTML code, people could
easily start an online only journal. PLOS ONE and other reputable
journals proved that people would pay over a thousand American
dollars for publishing a PDF online if it was peer reviewed. But if you
could stick the PDF online without bothering to do the peer review,
there was money to be made. So-called predatory open access
journals emerged.
Many editors and publishers of traditional journals viewed the rise of
open access megajournals even those with unquestioned academic
credibility with suspicion. The rise of new, online publishers that
routinely spammed the email inboxes of scientists raised the question
of whether new journals were providing proper oversight into what they
published.

The Scholarly Kitchen is a group blog about academic publishing, whose


author have extensive experience with traditional publishing models.
The Scholarly Kitchen often featured excellent data about academic
publishing combined with controversial opinions, particularly regarding
open access publishing.

Scholarly Kitchen contributor Phil Davis performed two experiments


trying to get an obviously bad paper published. From his description in
two blog posts, he created and submitted the same paper to both
journals. Davis used software to generate text that was grammatically
correct but meant nothing. David first tried to publish his paper in a
journal published by Bentham Science. Many researchers had
complained about continual emails from Bentham asking for
submissions.

Daviss paper was rejected the first time he submitted it. But Davis
second submission was not rejected.

The acceptance of Daviss fake paper was widely reported. His sting was
influential in two ways. First, it started a trend of testing the editorial
oversight of journals with fake papers. Second, it contributed to the
perception that open access journals generally were unreliable, despite
many open access journals that were run with the same level of editorial
oversight and peer review.

Daviss papers also contained something that became something of a


tradition for sting papers: the jokey clue that the paper was fake. Daviss
clue was that he listed the institutional affiliation as the Center for
Research in Applied Phrenology. This let Davis say that the journal had
published a CRAP paper.
Resources

Adventure in open access publishing


http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2009/03/12/bentham-publishers/

Open access publisher accepts nonsense manuscript for dollars


https://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2009/06/10/nonsense-for-dollars/

CRAP paper accepted by journal


https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17288-crap-paper-accepted-
by-journal/

OA publisher accepts fake paper http://www.the-


scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/27458/title/OA-publisher-
accepts-fake-paper/

CRAP paper accepted for publication


https://www.sciencenews.org/blog/science-
public/%E2%80%98crap%E2%80%99-paper-accepted-publication
Deconstructing Access Points
David Phillips and Andrew Kent

Abstract ware.
We proceed as follows. We motivate the need
The synthesis of the Ethernet is a confusing grand for e-commerce. Along these same lines, to answer
challenge. Given the current status of knowledge- this quagmire, we concentrate our efforts on dis-
based archetypes, statisticians particularly desire the confirming that active networks and suffix trees [14]
refinement of superpages, which embodies the prac- are largely incompatible. To achieve this intent, we
tical principles of software engineering. In order to concentrate our efforts on confirming that the World
address this riddle, we investigate how web browsers Wide Web can be made electronic, empathic, and de-
can be applied to the construction of the Ethernet. centralized. Finally, we conclude.

1 Introduction 2 Related Work


Compact symmetries and compilers have garnered In this section, we discuss existing research into
tremendous interest from both futurists and biolo- red-black trees, vacuum tubes, and courseware [10].
gists in the last several years. The flaw of this type On a similar note, recent work by Takahashi sug-
of solution, however, is that DHTs can be made em- gests a methodology for providing robust modalities,
pathic, large-scale, and extensible. Along these same but does not offer an implementation [9]. Clearly,
lines, the drawback of this type of approach, how- if throughput is a concern, our methodology has a
ever, is that active networks and SMPs can agree clear advantage. A recent unpublished undergrad-
to fix this riddle. The construction of voice-over-IP uate dissertation [22] proposed a similar idea for
would profoundly degrade Internet QoS. kernels [1, 9, 16, 17]. Continuing with this ratio-
We describe a novel heuristic for the extensive nale, the choice of IPv4 in [12] differs from ours
unification of web browsers and rasterization, which in that we simulate only appropriate configurations
we call TriflingThamyn. However, this method is in our method [1]. Unfortunately, the complexity
generally adamantly opposed. Unfortunately, this of their method grows logarithmically as heteroge-
method is rarely significant. TriflingThamyn man- neous models grows. We had our method in mind
ages the compelling unification of flip-flop gates and before Butler Lampson published the recent little-
IPv4. The disadvantage of this type of approach, known work on amphibious models. Obviously, de-
however, is that consistent hashing can be made ran- spite substantial work in this area, our approach is
dom, atomic, and smart. Clearly, we see no rea- evidently the application of choice among security
son not to use congestion control to visualize course- experts.

1
Several encrypted and ubiquitous heuristics have TriflingThamyn
been proposed in the literature. On the other hand, node
TriflingThamyn
the complexity of their method grows logarithmi- client
cally as Boolean logic grows. Further, unlike many TriflingThamyn
previous methods, we do not attempt to manage or server
develop the evaluation of I/O automata. Further- Web
more, Karthik Lakshminarayanan constructed sev-
eral lossless solutions, and reported that they have
tremendous effect on the deployment of Internet Client
B
QoS. This is arguably unreasonable. As a result,
the class of frameworks enabled by TriflingThamyn
is fundamentally different from previous approaches NAT
[13, 21]. It remains to be seen how valuable this re-
search is to the steganography community.
Our method is related to research into ambimor- Gateway
phic configurations, erasure coding, and cacheable
models [3]. Clearly, comparisons to this work are ill- Figure 1: The relationship between TriflingThamyn and
conceived. Smith et al. proposed several omniscient relational communication.
methods [2, 11, 20], and reported that they have min-
imal effect on replicated symmetries [5]. Although
assume that scatter/gather I/O can be made peer-to-
John Hennessy et al. also motivated this approach,
peer, secure, and extensible. This seems to hold in
we explored it independently and simultaneously [7].
most cases. Therefore, the design that TriflingTh-
Therefore, despite substantial work in this area, our
amyn uses is feasible.
method is clearly the solution of choice among cryp-
Consider the early design by H. Nehru et al.; our
tographers [6, 18, 19, 23]. The only other noteworthy
framework is similar, but will actually accomplish
work in this area suffers from fair assumptions about
this aim [4]. On a similar note, we show a novel ap-
XML.
plication for the study of semaphores in Figure 1. We
show the relationship between our application and
web browsers in Figure 1. We use our previously
3 Model emulated results as a basis for all of these assump-
tions.
Furthermore, we consider a framework consisting of
n operating systems. Though hackers worldwide
always hypothesize the exact opposite, TriflingTh- 4 Implementation
amyn depends on this property for correct behav-
ior. On a similar note, we scripted a trace, over the Our implementation of our methodology is pseudo-
course of several years, showing that our design is random, wearable, and collaborative. We have not
not feasible. While information theorists usually hy- yet implemented the centralized logging facility, as
pothesize the exact opposite, our framework depends this is the least private component of our method.
on this property for correct behavior. Similarly, we Our methodology is composed of a virtual machine

2
monitor, a server daemon, and a hand-optimized 1.5
systems
compiler. 10-node
1

0.5
5 Evaluation

PDF
0

Building a system as unstable as our would be for -0.5


naught without a generous evaluation methodology.
-1
Only with precise measurements might we convince
the reader that performance really matters. Our over- -1.5
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
all performance analysis seeks to prove three hy-
hit ratio (ms)
potheses: (1) that cache coherence no longer in-
fluences performance; (2) that a frameworks API Figure 2: The mean clock speed of our system, as a
is even more important than an applications game- function of popularity of object-oriented languages.
theoretic API when improving 10th-percentile work
factor; and finally (3) that 802.11b has actually
gested. We implemented our lambda calculus server
shown improved 10th-percentile response time over
in Smalltalk, augmented with extremely wired exten-
time. Note that we have intentionally neglected to
sions. Further, we note that other researchers have
improve a methodologys API. our logic follows a
tried and failed to enable this functionality.
new model: performance really matters only as long
as scalability takes a back seat to interrupt rate. Our
work in this regard is a novel contribution, in and of 5.2 Experiments and Results
itself. Given these trivial configurations, we achieved non-
trivial results. We ran four novel experiments: (1) we
5.1 Hardware and Software Configuration deployed 80 Apple ][es across the 10-node network,
and tested our neural networks accordingly; (2) we
We modified our standard hardware as follows: we dogfooded our application on our own desktop ma-
scripted a hardware simulation on our XBox network chines, paying particular attention to effective ROM
to measure the computationally ubiquitous behavior space; (3) we measured DNS and DNS throughput
of Bayesian symmetries. To begin with, we added a on our network; and (4) we compared signal-to-noise
100MB tape drive to our network. With this change, ratio on the AT&T System V, Microsoft DOS and
we noted degraded performance amplification. We AT&T System V operating systems.
added a 150-petabyte hard disk to our Planetlab clus- We first illuminate the first two experiments. Bugs
ter to examine our desktop machines. On a similar in our system caused the unstable behavior through-
note, we added 7 100MHz Pentium IIIs to our flexi- out the experiments. Second, note the heavy tail on
ble overlay network. the CDF in Figure 3, exhibiting muted average re-
TriflingThamyn runs on autogenerated standard sponse time. These effective energy observations
software. Our experiments soon proved that ex- contrast to those seen in earlier work [5], such as
okernelizing our Macintosh SEs was more effec- T. Johnsons seminal treatise on robots and observed
tive than monitoring them, as previous work sug- signal-to-noise ratio.

3
12 1
computationally collaborative methodologies
thin clients 0.9
10
0.8
bandwidth (celcius)

0.7
8
0.6

CDF
6 0.5
0.4
4
0.3
0.2
2
0.1
0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
signal-to-noise ratio (teraflops) distance (nm)

Figure 3: The median work factor of TriflingThamyn, Figure 4: The expected latency of our application, as a
as a function of distance. function of sampling rate.

6 Conclusion
In conclusion, in our research we explored Tri-
Shown in Figure 2, experiments (1) and (4) enu- flingThamyn, a method for virtual methodologies.
merated above call attention to TriflingThamyns To accomplish this ambition for unstable models, we
time since 1999. these effective time since 1967 ob- constructed new metamorphic algorithms. Continu-
servations contrast to those seen in earlier work [8], ing with this rationale, our algorithm has set a prece-
such as Ron Rivests seminal treatise on local-area dent for suffix trees, and we expect that systems engi-
networks and observed tape drive throughput. Gaus- neers will analyze TriflingThamyn for years to come.
sian electromagnetic disturbances in our mobile tele- We expect to see many futurists move to studying
phones caused unstable experimental results [15]. TriflingThamyn in the very near future.
Note that vacuum tubes have less jagged effective
floppy disk throughput curves than do autogenerated References
robots.
[1] B ROWN , N., B OSE , M., C LARKE , E., AND G UPTA , R.
Probabilistic, pervasive technology for IPv6. Journal of
Lastly, we discuss all four experiments. Note how Lossless, Robust Algorithms 72 (Feb. 2003), 7686.
deploying online algorithms rather than emulating [2] B ROWN , W., B ROOKS , R., S ATO , R., S HENKER , S.,
them in middleware produce less jagged, more re- S UN , U. O., S ATO , P. F., B ROWN , U., K NUTH , D., AND
S UN , K. FervidUpsun: Confirmed unification of extreme
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spreadsheets rather than deploying them in a labo- 2001).
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ducible results. Along these same lines, note the IP. Journal of Virtual Theory 49 (Apr. 2003), 5860.
heavy tail on the CDF in Figure 4, exhibiting dupli- [4] E RD OS, P. Semantic, client-server modalities. In Pro-
cated average energy. ceedings of PODC (Oct. 2001).

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interrupt rate (percentile)

[15] M ILNER , R. Efficient, read-write algorithms. In Proceed-


0 ings of PODC (Sept. 2005).
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sidered harmful. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Repli-
-10
cated Information (Apr. 2004).
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-20 phibious communication on hardware and architecture.
Journal of Large-Scale, Autonomous Archetypes 20 (Oct.
-25 1994), 2024.
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longer considered harmful. In Proceedings of the Con-
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ered harmful. In Proceedings of the USENIX Technical
Conference (Aug. 2004).
[5] E STRIN , D. Improving RPCs and spreadsheets with
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structing multicast applications with porism. In Proceed-
[6] G ARCIA -M OLINA , H., AND N EWELL , A. Investigation ings of the USENIX Technical Conference (Sept. 1994).
of object-oriented languages. In Proceedings of PLDI
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NIAN , V. The relationship between context-free grammar
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ration of hash tables that would allow for further study into

5
Abstract theology (August 2011)
Maarten Boudry is a philosopher who argues that science and religion
are not compatible. Boudry created a nonsense conference abstract to
try to show that theologians could not distinguish theology from
nonsense. Boudry submitted the abstract to two conferences under the
fake name Robert A. Maundy (an anagram of his name) and a made-
up university. (The quote from John Haught is a real quote, however.)

Both conferences accepted the abstract, and the abstract appeared in


the original program book of the Reformational Philosophy conference.

Boudry described his abstract as a Sokal-style hoax, but Sokals target


was a journal. The standards accepting conference abstracts are
different than for accepting papers for journals. Many conferences do
not review contributed abstracts for content.

Resources

A Sokal-style hoax by an anti-religious philosopher


https://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2012/09/25/a-sokal-style-
hoax-by-an-anti-religious-philosopher-2/

VU voor schut met namaakartikel.


https://www.filosofie.nl/nl/nieuws/19535/vu-voor-schut-met-
namaakartikel.html (In Dutch)


International conference on the occasion of the 75th
anniversary of the Association for Reformational
Philosophy









The Future of Creation Order




August 16 - 19 2011

VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands






Organized by
Association for Reformational Philosophy
Faculty of Philosophy, VU University, Amsterdam








Abstracts workshop
Thesession
Future2of Creation Order Abstracts
The Futureworkshop session
of Creation Order 2
Workshop 7 Systematic Philosophy universe. The valuation of order qua meaningful order, rather than order-in-itself, has been
thoroughly objectified in the Darwinian worldview. This process of de-contextualization and
reification of meaning has ultimately led to the establishment of dis-order rather than this-order.
As a result, Darwinian materialism confronts us with an eradication of meaning from the
phenomenological experience of reality. Negative theology however suggests a revaluation of
disorder as a necessary precondition of order, as that without which order could not be thought of in
an orderly fashion. In that sense, dis-order dissolves into the manifestations of order transcending
the materialist realm. Indeed, order becomes only transparent qua order in so far as it is situated
against a background of chaos and meaninglessness. This binary opposition between order and dis-
order, or between order and that which disrupts order, embodies a central paradox of Darwinian
thinking. As Whitehead suggests, reality is not composed of disordered material substances, but as
serially-ordered events that are experienced in a subjectively meaningful way. The question is not
what structures order, but what structure is imposed on our transcendent conception of order. By
narrowly focusing on the disorderly state of present-being, or the incoherence of a primordial
multiplicity, as John Haught put it, Darwinian materialists lose sense of the ultimate order unfolding
in the not-yet-being. Contrary to what Dawkins asserts, if we reframe our sense of locatedness of
existence within a the space of radical contingency of spiritual destiny, then absolute order
reemerges as an ontological possibility. The discourse of dis-order always already incorporates a
creative moment that allows the self to transcend the context in which it finds itself, but also to find
solace and responsiveness in an absolute Order which both engenders and withholds meaning.
Creation is the condition of possibility of discourse which, in turn, evokes itself as presenting creation
itself. Darwinian discourse is therefore just an emanation of the absolute discourse of dis-order, and
not the other way around, as crude materialists such as Dawkins suggest.

W7.2
The Paradoxes of Darwinian Disorder. Towards an Ontological Reaffirmation of Order and
Transcendence.

Robert A. Maundy
College of the Holy Cross, Reno, Nevada
Robert.Maundy@gmail.com

In the Darwinian perspective, order is not immanent in reality, but it is a self-affirming aspect of
reality in so far as it is experienced by situated subjects. However, it is not so much reality that is self-
affirming, but the creative order structuring reality which manifests itself to us. Being-whole, as
opposed to being-one, underwrites our fundamental sense of locatedness and particularity in the
39 40
42 43
Random math (September 2012)
While Alan Sokal put in the effort of writing a nonsensical paper, Phil
Daviss paper was randomly generated by a program called SciGEN.
Inspired by SciGEN, Nate Eldredge wrote a mathematical version with
Jordan Eldredge (who assisted with of the web interface) called
Mathgen.

In June of 2012, Eldredge blogged that he created Mathgen Mostly


because its funny! But his second possible use for the program was,
There are a lot of shady journals out there. I bet one of them would
accept a randomly generated paper.

Eldredge won his own bet by September of the same year.

Resources

Mathgen http://thatsmathematics.com/blog/mathgen

Mathgen paper accepted!


http://thatsmathematics.com/blog/archives/102

Math journal accepts nonsense paper generated by computer program


http://www.geekosystem.com/journal-accepts-nonsense-paper/
Independent, Negative, Canonically Turing Arrows of Equations
and Problems in Applied Formal PDE
M. Rathke

Abstract
Let = A. Is it possible to extend isomorphisms? We show that D0 is stochastically orthogonal
and trivially affine. In [10], the main result was the construction of p-Cardano, compactly Erdos, Weyl
functions. This could shed important light on a conjecture of ConwaydAlembert.

1 Introduction
The goal of the present article is to compute Gaussian, anti-Gaussian matrices. Here, convergence is obviously
a concern. It has long been known that every positive, left-pointwise universal, Artin ideal is geometric
[10, 10]. In [10], the authors derived pairwise trivial, discretely anti-Darboux, canonically non-generic classes.
It has long been known that || cos [10].
In [10], the authors address the surjectivity of algebraic sets under the additional assumption that x
kW k. Thus unfortunately, we cannot assume that there exists a Fourier and Newton function. This could
shed important light on a conjecture of PoissonLittlewood. Recent developments in computational knot
theory [10] have raised the question of whether b,P is meager. B. Wiles [25] improved upon the results of
W. Jones by describing parabolic subalegebras. Hence a useful survey of the subject can be found in [10].
In [23], the main result was the computation of stochastically dependent graphs.
Is it possible to classify left-trivially degenerate, Clairaut, Artinian curves? In [9], the authors address
the solvability of bijective functions under the additional assumption that

tan 1 = Jw 04 , kIkh(g) 0 m1 05
  
 Z 
1
1: = c(E) d

g
= C (l(e)0 )
M
Z
qS,B 1 (`) dY J 1 (2) .
eE ,R

This reduces the results of [23] to Leibnizs theorem.


Recently, there has been much interest in the computation of projective, quasi-analytically super-complete
classes. It has long been known that there exists a contra-prime projective, co-dAlembert, extrinsic equation
[10]. Is it possible to construct random variables?

2 Main Result
Definition 2.1. A topos P is degenerate if Q < e.

Definition 2.2. A combinatorially surjective, complete, meromorphic isometry equipped with a nonnegative,
maximal, left-canonically n-dimensional set 00 is Gaussian if is controlled by I.

1
It has long been known that 00 = i [35, 25, 8]. It was Euclid who first asked whether ultra-embedded,
normal triangles can be studied. In this context, the results of [35] are highly relevant. This reduces the
results of [26] to the uniqueness of local, characteristic triangles. Now in [10], the main result was the
computation of right-differentiable, analytically generic subgroups. In this context, the results of [35] are
highly relevant. M. Rathkes computation of topological spaces was a milestone in modern dynamics.
Definition 2.3. Let us suppose
 
1 O 1
> ykL k log
|V | m0
inf 0 .
EZ,K 1

A co-dependent curve is a random variable if it is anti-additive, super-conditionally geometric and contra-


additive.

We now state our main result.


Theorem 2.4. Turings condition is satisfied.
Recent developments in measure theory [7, 26, 31] have raised the question of whether SG ,r P . It has
long been known that there exists a contra-Archimedes local polytope [16]. Recent developments in Galois
probability [35] have raised the question of whether Y > 2. Now the groundbreaking work of O. Poincare
on trivially singular, projective, quasi-analytically partial homomorphisms was a major advance. Next,
in [25], the authors address the separability of combinatorially characteristic classes under the additional
assumption that 0 F kOk 0, 03 .


3 The m-Degenerate Case


Is it possible to describe hyper-essentially contra-positive, hyper-irreducible, pointwise Kummer scalars?
The goal of the present article is to compute morphisms. It was Lebesgue who first asked whether lines can
be described. D. Moores derivation of stochastically Gauss polytopes was a milestone in singular measure
theory. Therefore it is not yet known whether 1 Z = u (1, . . . , 0kDk), although [34] does address the issue
of uniqueness.
Let u0 0 .
Definition 3.1. Let us suppose . An element is a functional if it is empty.
Definition 3.2. Let be arbitrary. We say a Lobachevsky, semi-natural, simply von Neumann group
0 is invertible if it is universally affine, partially empty and hyper-von Neumann.
Proposition 3.3. Let us suppose we are given an Atiyah monoid 00 . Then every everywhere normal,
almost non-Riemann vector is regular.
Proof. This is obvious.

Proposition 3.4. Let D < x be arbitrary. Let j00 be a local number. Then Lindemanns conjecture is false
in the context of dependent hulls.
Proof. This is clear.
In [4], the main result was the derivation of Brahmagupta, left-p-adic numbers. Next, in this context,
the results of [33] are highly relevant. Hence it is essential to consider that z may be Fermat.

2
4 An Application to Local, Stochastically Projective Fields
In [7], the main result was the derivation of locally partial, ultra-simply normal, open isometries. Now this
leaves open the question of uniqueness. Hence recent developments in commutative number theory [3] have
raised the question of whether kT is ultra-null. Hence a useful survey of the subject can be found in [28]. A
useful survey of the subject can be found in [19].
Let n 3 f00 be arbitrary.
Definition 4.1. A Newton, `-globally Hermite, everywhere normal factor M is Artinian if Liouvilles
criterion applies.
Definition 4.2. A group A0 is independent if Hamiltons criterion applies.
Theorem 4.3.
( )
Z [
1 00
6 : F 1 < cos (kAk) d
1 AA
0  
Y 1
= t , . . . , 2X
1
ZI =1
2
\
6= x (d, . . . , 1 e) S (ri,X (0 ), . . . , L(WG, ) 1)
F =1

()
log (cZ (s0 )) .
O
Proof. See [22].
Theorem 4.4. Let q 0 be arbitrary. Let O (P ) 1. Then there exists a compactly parabolic subset.
Proof. We proceed by transfinite induction. Of course, every quasi-LegendreSylvester, trivial random vari-
able acting freely on a simply admissible hull is Einstein.
Note that if f,U is homeomorphic to P then there exists a locally Cartan, normal and ultra-composite
scalar. Now U is completely Riemannian. Now
 
1
0 < inf 1 .
A,a 0 C

Thus if the Riemann hypothesis holds then is not controlled by I (H) . It is easy to see that fC, > 0 .
Note that if Greens condition is satisfied then 2 1 = N 6 , . . . , W kGf k . Obviously, if qB,Z is arithmetic
then Atiyahs conjecture is true in the context of topological spaces. Trivially, there exists a projective,
Noetherian and canonically continuous path.
Let J be a co-reducible homomorphism. Trivially, if y then N is integral and stochastically co-
nonnegative. Hence Z 1 [
50 S dv.
2

Hence if then is controlled by . We observe that kk = . By existence, |M | = 6 . Therefore


if w < 0 then C < i.
Let j be an Euclidean, hyper-Grassmann line. Of course, ed,s 6= k (C) k.
Let us assume we are given an arithmetic vector . We observe that c = 2. Next, if g is freely separable
and complete then (L
1
00 (v 0 ) , v (X ) 6= Z
tanh () = kh00kk1 .
`(1a,) , P= 6 t00

3
Moreover, kik > n. In contrast, if g is ChebyshevWeierstrass then (g) 2. Now kB,f . One can
00
easily see that 6= 2. As we have shown, |h | 2. Moreover, u,i 6= .
Suppose every quasi-reducible, Euclidean, multiplicative homeomorphism is globally HadamardChern.
As we have shown, if the  Riemann hypothesis holds then m. As we have shown, 3 . We observe
that 1s c0 1 , . . . , 003 . One can easily see that if h is not less than g then YA is not invariant under O.
Now if z is semi-universally super-Riemannian then CY tG . It is easy to see that if M is equal to Z then
z is left-stable, unique, parabolic and compact.
Because
 
a 1
L K QD , . . . , Q (e + i, C0)

BD

tanh1 kVk3

> ,
M0 (1, |W|0 )

(t0 )
= 0. Moreover, i > X(g () ). Therefore if c0 is comparable to p then Artins conjecture is true in the
context of negative, trivially unique, solvable vectors. This contradicts the fact that  6= B 00 ( ).
In [30], the authors derived rings. On the other hand, G. Bose [30] improved upon the results of J. Huygens
by computing discretely maximal, almost everywhere Napier, hyper-pairwise anti-natural morphisms. It has
long been known that there exists a Boole and hyper-reversible function [20].

5 The Connectedness of Combinatorially Tangential Moduli


Recently, there has been much interest in the construction of algebras. It is essential to consider that T may
be unconditionally Liouville. Therefore recent interest in subalegebras has centered on examining vectors.
Is it possible to construct universally partial primes? Every student is aware that kP k = Y . It would be
interesting to apply the techniques of [12, 17, 13] to abelian domains.
Assume Lobachevskys criterion applies.

Definition 5.1. Let B be a continuous subset. A super-irreducible monoid is a random variable if it is


almost surely contravariant.
Definition 5.2. Let us suppose every contravariant, de Moivre, smooth isometry is Poncelet. An open hull
equipped with a globally arithmetic, Abel, parabolic monodromy is a monodromy if it is non-differentiable.
Theorem 5.3. Let us suppose hl, > kzk. Then there exists a semi-Heaviside continuously Volterra subring.

Proof. This proof can be omitted on a first reading. Note that d 3 . Now if Pappuss condition is
satisfied then every field is globally Polya, co-everywhere Green, reducible and Steiner. Thus E 0 2.
Let be a hyper-almost everywhere Germain hull. Because P > 0 , if A is contravariant and Pythagoras
then M |l|. By a little-known result of Polya [18, 32], if R is equivalent to i then l is not less than 0 .
Because every Deligne, uncountable equation is smoothly hyper-closed and Maclaurin, M is w-pointwise
sub-solvable. Next, C .
Clearly, if 00 is not smaller than s then 6= kk. Clearly, every quasi-composite scalar is meromorphic
and Jacobi. By ellipticity, every linear random variable is semi-everywhere left-smooth and non-trivially
integral. Because there exists a measurable and Napier linearly regular prime, if x is bounded by then
M 1. Trivially, there exists a maximal and reversible anti-free set. Thus there exists an Euler and almost
surely independent p-adic, hyper-combinatorially universal ideal. This completes the proof.

Theorem 5.4. Let a = be arbitrary. Let h 6= 0 . Further, suppose G () 1. Then b e.


Proof. This is left as an exercise to the reader.

4
Recently, there has been much interest in the extension of matrices. In future work, we plan to address
questions of countability as well as splitting. So in [3, 21], the authors address the degeneracy of minimal,
Hadamard paths under the additional assumption that L = N . Thus unfortunately, we cannot assume that
b = p00 . Is it possible to describe super-Darboux, associative, quasi-pointwise smooth subalegebras?

6 The Conditionally Archimedes Case


In [2], the authors address the completeness of naturally Z-FrechetLebesgue probability spaces under the
additional assumption that every plane is integral and pointwise meager. The groundbreaking work of Q. Wu
on nonnegative subalegebras was a major advance. In [14], the authors address the reversibility of almost
surely non-onto, pointwise pseudo-holomorphic, pairwise Volterra homeomorphisms under the additional
assumption that
 (R 0
min X 9 dZ, |QO,a |
 
0 8 1 2 = 0
t 0 , 6= Q .
L
` 3
L=i cos (g) ,

On the other hand, here, existence is obviously a concern. Thus the goal of the present paper is to classify
natural rings. Unfortunately, we cannot assume that Banachs conjecture is true in the context of semi-
Hadamard numbers.
Let L 00 be a locally ordered triangle.
Definition 6.1. A Landau, pseudo-locally hyper-Grassmann, maximal plane is partial if the Riemann
hypothesis holds.
Definition 6.2. Assume e . An universal, locally bijective, linearly complex equation is a homomor-
phism if it is Maxwell.
Lemma 6.3. Leibnizs criterion applies.
Proof. We proceed by induction. Obviously, if ,f is trivially Jacobi and finitely p-adic then
1  6
|I |3 , G Z (S) 7 , . . . , 2 (,h , . . . , )

2
1

log
6= `(R) ()
 d 
1
J 1 zq, , . . . , g 4 q |R| , . . . , 5 .


We observe that if 00 is equal to then || = 6 0. Next, if is closed then every conditionally ultra-
independent, partially Fermat graph is linear and admissible. So if Z is freely embedded and Artin then
Frechets conjecture is true in the context of intrinsic isometries. Obviously, if F ( ) is not equivalent to W ()
then every measurable, totally contra-Brouwer monodromy equipped with a countable, Einstein category is
tangential, sub-standard and smooth.
Assume we are given a left-maximal set . It is easy to see that if 00 = then every completely mul-
tiplicative element acting co-globally on a combinatorially null, Noetherian, Laplace subring is Riemannian
and semi-measurable. Thus H 1. Trivially, A,T is less than J. In contrast, if g is not isomorphic to m
then is not smaller than D. So 0 a, . Now if `M is pseudo-finite then kk < F. On the other hand, if
H is Boole and quasi-positive definite then there exists a bounded and hyperbolic affine subring equipped
with a sub-smoothly normal, super-projective, pointwise measurable functional.
Let Z be an one-to-one factor. By positivity, if Weierstrasss criterion applies then there exists a n-
dimensional, composite and partially closed right-differentiable scalar.
Clearly, if O is non-smoothly Riemannian and hyper-prime then there exists a Serre naturally affine,
freely quasi-intrinsic functor. Trivially, if Riemanns criterion applies then Q 1. Now . By Markovs
theorem, is not invariant under s(q) . Hence every morphism is unique. In contrast, there exists a discretely

5
elliptic parabolic, co-null plane. By positivity, if q is Lindemann and quasi-naturally smooth then every
discretely left-nonnegative, simply CauchyHeaviside subring is surjective and invariant.
By a little-known result of Fibonacci [32], if 0 then
= |S 00 |. On the other hand, if is canonical
and contra-finite then there exists a countably empty, associative and Turing class. We observe that if Y
is linearly right-Hamilton and super-geometric then (s) 3 e. Therefore if F 0 is right-Lobachevsky then
|| = 0 . By Newtons theorem, if Darbouxs criterion applies then I < 0 . So is conditionally Erdos.
One can easily see that if Sj, is not greater than l then
 
1 n   o
tanh Y (U ) : 17 q 1 21 kqk
s
1
O
V 1 (| |) t + 0
U =i

> D3
Z
R,H dID .

By ellipticity, if is J -completely pseudo-null then yV, 6= i. Of course, if is hyper-MaxwellKummer


and left-additive then l = Y,g (1 l, s0 ). Moreover, kcd,w k 6= . Obviously, if K 0 is differentiable,
almost generic, conditionally convex and connected then |eD | < . Clearly, if is distinct from then every
continuously real monoid is differentiable. The result now follows by standard techniques of differential
category theory.
Lemma 6.4. There exists a Cayley category.
Proof. See [1].
In [24], the authors classified classes. In future work, we plan to address questions of stability as well
as existence. Therefore here, smoothness is trivially a concern. Recent developments in Galois calculus [10]
have raised the question of whether x 1. O. Hippocrates [29, 6, 27] improved upon the results of C. Smith
by extending admissible random variables. Hence the work in [15] did not consider the trivially Cayley case.

7 Conclusion
Recent interest in linear, ultra-discretely local homomorphisms has centered on examining uncountable
curves. In future work, we plan to address questions of countability as well as reducibility. It is not yet
known whether
 
R()1 ki, z 1 , . . . , y (G) T (H () ) Q0 ,


Z 0[

= kk dr
1 s
 
cos (G)
6= e : j 6= ,
D3
although [5] does address the issue of surjectivity. In [11], the authors address the existence of almost surely
singular, intrinsic classes under the additional assumption that u7 log YQ,Q 6 . The work in [7] did


not consider the Grothendieck, pseudo-Shannon, completely reversible case. This could shed important light
on a conjecture of Heaviside. Now is it possible to characterize almost Artinian primes? Now this reduces
the results of [6] to the general theory. It is not yet known whether every real, surjective, pairwise regular
functor is ultra-standard, although [11] does address the issue of splitting. It is essential to consider that J
may be n-dimensional.

6
Conjecture 7.1. Let W = i be arbitrary. Let us assume we are given a matrix n. Then E () (h) .
Recently, there has been much interest in the derivation of graphs. In [6], the main result was the
computation of manifolds. Thus it is well known that Laplaces conjecture is true in the context of null,
minimal sets.
Conjecture 7.2. Let be arbitrary. Then P .
A central problem in Euclidean combinatorics is the characterization of finite homeomorphisms. A central
problem in analytic algebra is the derivation of null, trivially canonical, real lines. It was Fibonacci who
first asked whether Descartes spaces can be studied. It was Fibonacci who first asked whether polytopes can
be described. In [36], it is shown that is Darboux. Recent interest in Grothendieck, pseudo-compactly
measurable curves has centered on deriving covariant manifolds. Now unfortunately, we cannot assume that
 
tan1 5 = 9 e ( , i) I, . . . , 0

( )
3 h1 02
z : 2 =
R
i
[
D (|J |, . . . , 2 1) 15 , . . . , 22 .

=
K (c) =

References
[1] Q. Anderson, M. Rathke, and A. Legendre. On the classification of moduli. Vietnamese Mathematical Archives, 67:13371,
January 2004.

[2] R. Atiyah and W. Leibniz. Splitting in microlocal dynamics. Estonian Mathematical Proceedings, 0:14011488, December
1994.

[3] W. Atiyah and Q. L. Eudoxus. Higher K-Theory with Applications to Differential Dynamics. Elsevier, 2000.

[4] K. Beltrami, A. dAlembert, and P. Takahashi. Number Theory with Applications to Logic. Wiley, 2005.

[5] G. Brown and L. Kobayashi. On positivity. Turkish Journal of Modern Probability, 95:1731, August 2004.

[6] V. E. Euclid. Commutative Number Theory. McGraw Hill, 2011.

[7] Q. Hausdorff and C. W. Turing. Advanced Combinatorics. Guyanese Mathematical Society, 2001.

[8] R. Ito. Extrinsic ideals and Wieners conjecture. Colombian Journal of Real Topology, 8:520521, November 1935.

[9] O. Jackson, J. Li, and N. D. Nehru. A First Course in Advanced p-Adic Calculus. Zambian Mathematical Society, 1935.

[10] Y. Jackson, X. Sun, and K. Martin. Spectral Mechanics. Springer, 1996.

[11] D. Kovalevskaya and A. Harris. On the existence of topoi. Journal of Computational Logic, 4:147, October 2002.

[12] R. Kovalevskaya. Convergence methods in modern quantum probability. Transactions of the Mauritian Mathematical
Society, 58:158194, May 2005.

[13] J. Lagrange. Fields and Euclidean algebra. Icelandic Mathematical Annals, 60:2024, November 1995.

[14] D. Lambert and L. Zhou. On problems in theoretical concrete number theory. Journal of Geometry, 19:304395, August
1997.

[15] M. Landau. Introductory Geometric Lie Theory. Elsevier, 1997.

[16] M. Lee and K. Lindemann. Introduction to Integral Calculus. Springer, 1999.

[17] I. M. Martinez and A. Zheng. A First Course in Elementary Rational Lie Theory. Springer, 1996.

[18] T. Milnor, N. I. White, and Y. Lee. Introduction to Potential Theory. Springer, 1995.

7
[19] D. Pythagoras and O. Shastri. Algebraically algebraic, Dirichlet, contra-holomorphic monoids for a compactly non-Polya,
uncountable, solvable graph. Sudanese Mathematical Journal, 93:1404, July 2009.

[20] M. Rathke. On the integrability of pointwise Frobenius points. Turkish Mathematical Transactions, 41:5366, March
1995.

[21] M. Rathke and E. P. Ito. Some separability results for pseudo-canonically separable functors. Iranian Journal of Homo-
logical PDE, 4:88101, June 2003.

[22] M. Rathke and A. Takahashi. Geometric morphisms. Journal of Elementary Measure Theory, 4:7687, August 1999.

[23] C. Russell. Discretely p-adic finiteness for Bernoulli, completely hyperbolic primes. Proceedings of the Algerian Mathe-
matical Society, 837:7684, February 1990.

[24] W. Sasaki. Numerical Probability. Springer, 2010.

[25] U. Selberg. Introductory Constructive Knot Theory. Elsevier, 1995.

[26] R. Shannon, I. Lee, and B. Bhabha. On the computation of non-complete triangles. Journal of the Danish Mathematical
Society, 63:110, July 2004.

[27] B. X. Smith. Partially pseudo-composite, bounded points for a compactly ultra-FermatGreen, complex element. Liberian
Mathematical Journal, 80:307395, August 1999.

[28] E. Sun and M. Rathke. Measurability in modern combinatorics. Journal of Axiomatic Probability, 56:5366, January 1991.

[29] U. Sun, F. P. Bose, and M. Rathke. Regular, Euler, free categories of sub-Green fields and smoothness. New Zealand
Mathematical Archives, 7:14031457, July 1998.

[30] Z. Takahashi and R. Qian. Associativity in non-commutative topology. South Korean Journal of Integral Category Theory,
71:14, May 2005.

[31] Z. Thompson, F. Hamilton, and R. O. Liouville. Continuous, discretely smooth curves and uniqueness methods. Annals
of the Australasian Mathematical Society, 54:155194, September 2005.

[32] N. Weierstrass, B. Sato, and G. O. Maruyama. Pseudo-independent integrability for finite, multiply anti-orthogonal
functions. Polish Mathematical Proceedings, 56:145, April 1990.

[33] N. White and E. Bernoulli. Anti-admissible scalars of tangential, partially stable systems and convex group theory. Journal
of Rational Group Theory, 17:159198, January 1992.

[34] T. White. Introduction to Parabolic Knot Theory. De Gruyter, 1997.

[35] U. White and F. Maruyama. On discrete set theory. Journal of Operator Theory, 21:4252, June 2007.

[36] J. Zhao. On questions of surjectivity. Transactions of the Kenyan Mathematical Society, 30:157199, March 1999.

8
The Bohannon Science sting
(October 2013)
Journalist John Bohannon conducted the largest and most elaborate
sting yet of predatory journals for Science magazine. Bohannons article
was notable for both its scope and lack of it.

Bohannons sting ran the better part of a year (ten months), during
which he submitted a whopping 304 different versions of a paper
describing a drug test. Acceptance was the norm, not the exception,
Bohannon wrote.

Critics were quick to point out that Bohannon did not submit his faked
papers to any traditional subscription journals, leading to the
perception that open access was the source of the problem. Several
charged that the Bohannon article read more like a hit job on open
access than investigative reporting, and noted that the forum for the
piece, Science magazine, was a traditional subscription journal that had
a vested interest in making open access journals look bad.

However, while Bohannon limited his targets to open access journals,


he noted that many had apparently legitimate credentials. The paper
was accepted by journals hosted by industry titans Sage and Elsevier.
The paper was accepted by journals published by prestigious academic
institutions such as Kobe University in Japan. It was accepted by
scholarly society journals.

Of the many versions of Bohannons paper, several were typeset and put
on the web, despite his efforts to prevent this from happening. Four of
these are collected here to show the effort Bohannon put into making
each paper a uniquely awful manuscript.

Three years later, of four journals that published a typeset version of the
paper, two journals were entirely gone. Two journals still existed. One
gave no hint that the paper had ever been published. One gave a
retraction notice that read, JBPR has been a victim of bogus
submissions; and this paper is one of those and is hereby retracted. The
editor in chief takes full responsibility for accepting this bogus
manuscript for publication in JBPR. We sincerely assure readers that
something like this will not occur again.

Resources

Whos afraid of peer review?


http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6154/60.full

Open access or vanity press, the Science sting edition


http://neurodojo.blogspot.com/2013/10/open-access-or-vanity-press-
science.html

Journal sting a black eye for Thomson Reuters


http://neurodojo.blogspot.com/2013/10/journal-sting-black-eye-for-
thomson.html

The open access sting by Science, three years on


http://neurodojo.blogspot.com/2016/12/the-open-access-sting-by-
science-three.html
Idandah et al., Med chem 2013, 3:3
Medicinal chemistry http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0444.1000145

Research Article Open Access

7-Chloronorlichexanthone Inhibits the Growth of Murine SV40


Transformed Lymphoid Sarcoma Cells in vitro
Alanguay C Idandah*, Bocoo Y Akechowoo, Nanayforrah HO Oloosamah, and Shollahday D Labolonee
Serjay International College, Conakry, Guinea

Abstract
We test the effects of 7-Chloronorlichexanthone, secondary metabolite of the lichen Biatora ru-betaula, on the
growth of murine SV40 transformed lymphoid sarcoma cells in vitro. We find that 7-Chloronorlichexanthone is a potent
inhibitor of growth. We also find that 7-Chloronorlichexanthone increases sensitivity of cells to radiation, and this effect
is significant at radiation intensity lower than the standard intensity of cancer radiotherapy. On the basis of this study,
7-Chloronorlichexanthone shows promise for combined-modality cancer treatment.

Keywords: Lymphoid sarcoma cells; Murine SV40; In vitro Cells and cell culture
Introduction Murine SV40 transformed lymphoid sarcoma cells were grown in
Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium supplemented
Reinfection of tissue with cancer cells with acquired radioresistance with 2 mg/ml N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid,
during treatment is the grand challenge for cancer radiotherapy [1]. For 100 /ml penicillin G, 0.1 mg/ml streptomycin, 2 mg/ml sodium
this reason, radiotherapy is applied in combination with chemotherapy.
bicarbonate, and 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cell cultures were
The most effective of chemotherapeutic drug combinations inhibits
washed with PBS, then treated with 0.2% trypsin/PBS, and then
growth of the cancer cell and also increases sensitivity of cancer cells
washed with RPMI 1640 medium and centrifuged. The cell pellet was
to radiation. The radiosensitizing effect enhances radiotherapy at low
resuspended in RPMI 1640 medium and washed with more medium
radiation intensity. For this reason, radiotherapy in combination with
chemotherapy (combined-modality treatment) is the best standard and the cells were counted. 7-Chloronorlichexanthone solutions were
of care for most cancers [2]. However, the discovery rate of effective aliquoted to cells in 24-well plates. The treated cells were then cultured
anti-cancer drugs is very slow [3]. We must turn to the secondary in 100-mm plastic tissue-culture dishes at 37C with 5% CO2 under
metabolites of the lichens as a domain of search for such compounds. high humidity. The final cell counts were measured after 5 days growth.
This study explores the biological activity of 7-Chloronorlichexanthone, Irradiation
a secondary metabolite of the lichen Biatora ru-betaula.
Cells were irradiated with a single dose of external radiation from
The lichens are a symbiotic assemblage of plant and fungus. a Cesium-137 source. Doses in the range of 0.5 to 15 Gy were used.
Because of this social arrangement, and because of the diversity and The dose rate was 1 Gy per 4 seconds. A control group received no
the complexity of their ecological niches, the lichens produce so radiation.
many chemicals for unique colors, signaling between symbionts,
manipulation of UV light, and defense against the foragers. More than
700 secondary metabolites of lichens are isolated, but only a small
number are characterized for biological activity [4]. H
O
Cancer is a complex disease that begins with the uncontrolled H
growth of the cell. The cancer cell does harm by forming tumors, N
absorbing tissues, and spreading through the body by metastasis. The O
highest probability of survival from cancer is with strong inhibition of
proliferation of the cancer cells at the beginning of this progression [5].
Therefore, the establishment of the inhibition of proliferation
of cancer cells in vitro is the critical first step for drug
discovery. In our method to determine the biological activity of
7-Chloronorlichexanthone, we test the effect on the growth of murine Figure 1: The structure of 7-Chloronorlichexanthone.
SV40 transformed lymphoid sarcoma cells in vitro. In addition, we test
the effect in combination with irradiation with a range of intensity.
Materials and Methods *Corresponding author: Alanguay C Idandah, Serjay International College,Conakry,
Guinea, Tel: + 224 442 020; E-mail: kuumwa@yahoo.com, kuumwa@afra-mail.com
Chemicals
Received April 22, 2013; Accepted July 25, 2013; Published July 27, 2013
The chemical structure of 7-Chloronorlichexanthone is shown in Citation: Idandah AC, Akechowoo BY, Oloosamah NHO, Labolonee SD (2013)
Figure 1. Pure extracts were dissolved and serially diluted in a 2:1 mixture 7-Chloronorlichexanthone Inhibits the Growth of Murine SV40 Transformed
of ethanol and phosphate buffered saline (EtOH / PBS, pH 7.4). These Lymphoid Sarcoma Cells in vitro. Med chem 3: 238-240. doi:10.4172/2161-
solutions were added as aliquots of 0.01 ml to 0.99 ml of cell culture to 0444.1000145
achieve the final concentrations of 7-Chloronorlichexanthone: 10 M, Copyright: 2013 Idandah AC, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
1 M, 0.1 M, 0.01 M, 0.001 M, and 0.0001 M. The control group under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
received 0.01 mL of growth medium. original author and source are credited.

Med chem Volume 3(3): 238-240 (2013) - 238


ISSN: 2161-0444 Med chem, an open access journal
AlAmeri of
Citation: Idandah AC, Akechowoo BY, Oloosamah NHO, Labolonee SD (2013) 7-Chloronorlichexanthone Inhibits the Growth et al., Med chem
Murine SV402012, 2:5
Trans-
Medicinal chemistry
formed Lymphoid Sarcoma Cells in vitro. Med chem 3: 238-240. doi:10.4172/2161-0444.1000145 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0444.1000125

Research Article Open Access

Data analysis
Three independent replicates of the experiment were performed
to obtain means and standard deviations. Mean cell counts were 1.00
normalized to control cells grown in parallel. Significance of differences
between treatments were determined by analysis of variance and
Student's t-tests using the R statistical package (R Foundation for
Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). A p-value of <0.01 was
accepted as significant. 0.75

cell count (% relative to control)


Results
Dose-dependent effect of 7-Chloronorlichexanthone on the
growth of the rat glioblastoma cell
We cultured the cells in parallel with doses of 0.50
7-Chloronorlichexanthone at different concentrations. We measured
the cell proliferation after 5 days in the logarithmic growth phase.
Figure 2 shows the results of the first experiment. All concentrations
of 7-Chloronorlichexanthone had a similar level of effect. And all
concentrations cause a significant inhibition of cell growth compared 0.25

to the control. Cell growth is inhibited with treatment at the lowest


concentration of 7-Chloronorlichexanthone (0.0001 M), which
causes 70% slower proliferation compared to the control (p<0.001).
Effect of 7-Chloronorlichexanthone in combination with
0.00
irradiation on the growth of murine SV40 transformed
lymphoid sarcoma cells 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 15 Control
radiation dose (Gy)
With the results of the first experiment, we test the lowest
Figure 3: Effect of 7-Chloronorlichexanthone in combination with irradiation
on the growth of murine SV40 transformed lymphoid sarcoma cells. The X
axis is intensity (Gy) of radiation. The Y axis is cell count after 5 days of
growth, normalized to cell count of the control. Cells were irradiated after
treatment with 0.0001 uM 7-Chloronorlichexanthone. Confidence intervals at
1.00 95% are indicated. The difference between 0.5 Gy and control is significant
(p=0.0012).

concentration 7-Chloronorlichexanthone (0.0001 M) in combination


with gamma radiation. We grow the cells identically as the first
0.75 experiment, but with the following modification. Again, pure extracts
were dissolved and serially diluted in a 2:1 mixture of ethanol and
cell count (% relative to control)

phosphate buffered saline (EtOH / PBS, pH 7.4). These solutions were


added as aliquots of 0.01 ml to 0.99 ml of cell culture to achieve the final
concentration of 7-Chloronorlichexanthone (0.0001 M). The control
group received 0.01 mL growth medium and no irradiation.
0.50
Figure 3 shows the results of the second experiment. Lower than
nanomolar concentration of the 7-Chloronorlichexanthone powerfully
enhances the inhibition effect of radiation on cell growth. This effect is
significant at 0.5 Gy, the lowest level of radiation (p=0.0012).
0.25
Discussion
In this study, we test the biological activity of
7-Chloronorlichexanthone, secondary metabolite of the lichen Biatora
ru-betaula. Specifically we measure the effect on growth of murine
0.00
SV40 transformed lymphoid sarcoma cells in vitro.
Our results show that 7-Chloronorlichexanthone inhibits cell
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Control
concentration (uM) growth. The mechanism of action is unknown, but the effect is potent.
Even at the lowest dose (0.0001 M), 7-Chloronorlichexanthone has
Figure 2: Dose-dependent effect of 7-Chloronorlichexanthone on the
growth of murine SV40 transformed lymphoid sarcoma cells. The X axis is
a significant negative effect on cell growth in vitro after 5 days of
concentration (uM) 7-Chloronorlichexanthone in culture tubes before growth. logarithmic growth compared to the control.
The Y axis is cell count after 5 days of growth, normalized to cell count of the
control. Confidence intervals at 95% are indicated. The difference between To determine if the inhibition effect interacts with gamma
0.0001 uM 7-Chloronorlichexanthone treatment and control is significant radiation, we test the rat glioblastoma cell with 0.0001 M
(p<0.001). 7-Chloronorlichexanthone and a range of radiation intensity. The

Med chem Volume 3(3): 238-240 (2013) - 239


ISSN: 2161-0444 Med chem, an open access journal
AlAmeri of
Citation: Idandah AC, Akechowoo BY, Oloosamah NHO, Labolonee SD (2013) 7-Chloronorlichexanthone Inhibits the Growth et al., Med chem
Murine SV402012, 2:5
Trans-
Medicinal chemistry
formed Lymphoid Sarcoma Cells in vitro. Med chem 3: 238-240. doi:10.4172/2161-0444.1000145 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0444.1000125

Research Article Open Access

result proves that 7-Chloronorlichexanthone is also a radiosensitizer. Acknowledgements


7-Chloronorlichexanthone enhances the inhibition effect of radiation This work was supported by a graduate thesis research grant for Bocoo Y.
on the growth of cancer. This effect is significant at 0.5 Gy, a radiation Akechowoo. We thank Dan N. Raboniras for help obtaining chemicals and Kobi V.
dose that is lower than the standard radiation dose in cancer Chananov for helpful comments.
radiotherapy. References
We propose the biological activity of 7-Chloronorlichexanthone 1. Baumann M, Krause M, Hill R (2008) Exploring the role of cancer stem cells in
is related to lichen ecology. It is known that lichens are adapted for radioresistance. Nat Rev Cancer 8: 545-554.
the manipulation of radiation, and also adapted for defense against 2. Prestwich RJ, Shakespeare D, Waters S (2007) The rationale and current role
the foragers [6]. Therefore, it is not surprising that the secondary of chemoradiotherapy. J Radiotherapy Prat 6: 11-19.
metabolites of the lichen can enhance the effect of radiation and inhibit 3. Kamb A, Wee S, Lengauer C (2007) Why is cancer drug discovery so difficult?
foreign cells. Nat Rev Drug Discov 6: 115-120.

Our study is the first to demonstrate that 7-Chloronorlichexanthone 4. Boustie J, Grube (2005) Lichens: a promising source of bioactive secondary
metabolites. Plant genetic resources: characterization and utilization 3: 273-
is a radiosensitizer with anti-cancer activity. In the next step, we will 287.
prove that 7-Chloronorlichexanthone is effective against cancer in
5. Vermeulen K, Van Bockstaele DR, Berneman ZN (2003) The cell cycle: a
animal and human. We conclude that 7-Chloronorlichexanthone is a review of regulation, deregulation and therapeutic targets in cancer. Cell Prolif
promising new drug for the combined-modality treatment of cancer. 36: 131-149.

6. Lawrey JD (1986) Biological Role of Lichen Substances. The Bryologist 2: 111-


122.

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Journal Of Pharmacy And Pharmacological Research Vol. 3.(1) pp. 22 - 26 August 2013

Available online http://www.globalresearchjournals.org/journal/jppr

Copyright 2013 Global Research Journals

Full Length Research.

Arthogalin inhibits the growth of murine malignant


prostate sarcoma cells in vitro.
Moombo C. Magaya, Dohole P. Yeang, and Bocary G. W. Ahkeboyee
Ocolinwar Center for Health, Asmara, Eritrea

Email: kuumwa@afra-mail.com
th
Accepted 28 June 2013.

We test the effects of Arthogalin, secondary metabolite of the lichen Caloplaca inclinans, on the growth of
murine malignant prostate sarcoma cells in vitro. We find that Arthogalin is a potent inhibitor of growth. We also
find that Arthogalin increases sensitivity of cells to radiation, and this effect is significant at a radiation intensity
lower than the standard intensity of cancer radiotherapy. On the basis of this study, Arthogalin shows promise
for combined-modality cancer treatment.

Index Termslichen, secondary metabolite, cancer

INTRODUCTION rich in secondary metabolites. We must turn to the


secondary metabolites of the lichens as a domain of
Reinfection of tissue with cancer cells with acquired search for such compounds.
radioresistance during treatment is the grand challenge
for cancer radiotherapy (Baumann et al., 2008). For this The lichens are a symbiotic assemblage of plant and
reason, radiotherapy is applied in combination with fungus. Because of this social arrangement, and because
chemotherapy. The most effective of chemotherapeutic of the diversity and the complexity of their ecological
drug combinations inhibits growth of the cancer cell and niches, the lichens produce so many chemicals for
also increases sensitivity of cancer cells to radiation. The unique colors, signaling between symbionts, manipulation
radiosensitizing effect enhances radiotherapy at low of UV light, and defense against the foragers.
radiation intensity. For this reason, radiotherapy in
combination with chemotherapy (combined-modality Previous studies of lichens have established that the
treatment) is the best standard of care for most cancers majority of biologically active secondary metabolites are
(Prestwich et al., 2007). concentrated in a structure of the lichen called the thallus.
It is a unique structure composed of fungal hyphae that
However, the discovery rate of effective anti-cancer drugs produces abundant chemicals that interact with the
is very slow (Kamb et al., 2005). The greatest majority of environment of the lichen (see PHOTO 2).
anti-cancer drugs, and also most biologically active
compounds used in medicine in general, come from the Today, more than 700 secondary metabolites of lichens
secondary metabolism of plants and fungi. are isolated from the thallus. However, only a small
number are characterized for biological activity (Boustie
Secondary metabolism pathways produce small molecule and Grube, 2005). Part of the problem is the difficulty of
products that are not required for baseline survival of extraction. Another problem is the relatively smaller size
organisms. They include defensive compounds, signaling of the community of scientists who focus on lichens,
compounds, and other specialized purposes. Because of compared to other organisms.
the chemical diversity, they have many biological
activities useful for medicine. This study explores the biological activity of Arthogalin, a
secondary metabolite of the lichen Caloplaca inclinans
The search for useful secondary metabolites has focused (see PHOTO 1).
mostly in the kingdom of Plantae and Fungi. But there are
other areas that are less researched that are nonetheless
23 J. Pharm. P. Res.

Chemicals. Pure extracts of Arthogalin were dissolved


and serially diluted in a 2:1 mixture of ethanol and
phosphate buffered saline (EtOH / PBS, pH 7.4). These
solutions were added as aliquots of 0.01 ml to 0.99 ml of
cell culture to achieve the final concentrations of
Arthogalin: 10 uM, 1 uM, 0.1 uM, 0.01 uM, 0.001 uM, and
0.0001 uM. The control group received 0.01 mL of growth
medium.

Lichen
hen secondary metabolite extraction. Each thallus of
Caloplaca inclinans was divided into two pieces. One of
these was chosen to be treated as a control thallus and
the other one was subjected to extraction of secondary
compounds. If the thallus diameter wasw less than 3 cm,
two thalli of same size and shape were used instead.
Thalli were dried for two days and two days in desiccator
prior to the extraction of secondary chemicals.

Following the method of Solhaug and Gauslaa (1996)],


lichens were rinsed four times with dry acetone at room
temperature for 5 min. Acetone is not effective to extract
Photo 1. Caloplaca inclinans is a common and easily many secondary metabolites so we used ethyl acetate for
obtained species of lichens that lives worldwide. the extraction. Solhaug and Gauslaa have shown that
acetone treatment does not affect either long-long or short-
term
erm viability of dry lichens, and that ethyl acetate has no
adverse effects on lichen viability when applied in the
same manner. Secondary chemicals from thalli were
weighed after 10, 30, 60, and 90-second
90 extraction in
ethyl acetate. Solvents evaporated completely
c from thalli
for 24 hours on tared dishes before weighing.

Cells and cell culture. murine malignant prostate sarcoma


cells were grown in Roswell Park Memorial Institute
(RPMI) 1640 medium supplemented with 2 mg/ml N-2- N
hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic
thanesulfonic acid, 100
U/ml penicillin G, 0.1 mg/ml streptomycin, 2 mg/ml
sodium bicarbonate, and 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS).

Cell cultures were washed with PBS, then treated with


Photo 2. The thallus of Caloplaca inclinans. This structure 0.2% trypsin/PBS, and then washed with RPMI 1640
is the source of most secondary metabolites from lichens. medium and centrifuged. The cell pellet was
resuspended in RPMI 1640 medium and washed with
Cancer is a complex disease that begins with the more medium and the cells were counted. Arthogalin
uncontrolled growth of the cell. The cancer cell does solutions were aliquoted to cells in 24-well
24 plates. The
harm by forming tumors, absorbing tissues, and treated cells were then cultured in 100-mm
100 plastic tissue-
spreading through the body by metastasis.
tastasis. The highest culture dishes at 37 C with 5% CO2 under high humidity.
probability of survival from cancer is with strong inhibition The final cell counts were measured after 5 days growth.
of proliferation of the cancer cells at the beginning of this
progression (Vermeulen et al., 2003). Irradiation. Cells were irradiated with a single dose of
external radiation from a Cesium-137
Cesium source. Doses in
Therefore, the establishment of the inhibition of the range of 0.5 to 15 Gy were used. The dose rate was
proliferation of cancer
cer cells in vitro is the critical first step 1 Gy per 4 seconds. A control group received no
for drug discovery. In our method to determine the radiation.
biological activity of Arthogalin, we test the effect on the
growth of murine malignant prostate sarcoma cells in Data analysis. Three independent replicates of the
vitro. In addition, we test the effect in com combination with experiment were performed to obtain means and
irradiation with a range of intensity. standard deviations. Mean cell counts were normalized to
control cells grown in parallel. Significance
Significa of differences
MATERIALS AND METHODS between treatments were determined by analysis of
Moombo et al., 24

variance and Student's t-tests


tests using the R statistical
package (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna,
Austria). A p-value
value of <0.01 was accepted as significant.

RESULTS

Lichen secondary metabolite extraction. Caloplaca


inclinans thalli were divided into 5 groups of 3 thalli each
for extraction. This was reduced to 4 groups of 3 thalli
after one group was found to be irregular in size
compared to the others. Each group was extracted in
same way, as per Methods, but with increasing time of
extraction in ethyl acetate. The dried extracts had a pale
red color and formed flat, wide crystals on the dish.
PHOTO 3 shows the crystals.

Figure 1. Dry-weight
weight of extracts from Caloplaca inclinans
thalli after ethyl acetate extraction. Weight in ug are
shown against increasing extraction time in seconds.

Dose-dependent
dependent effect of Arthogalin on the growth of
murine malignant prostate sarcoma cells. We cultured the
cells in parallel with doses of Arthogalin at different
concentrations. We measured the cell proliferation after 5
days in the logarithmic growth phase.
Photo 3.. Dried material after ethyl acetate e
extraction of
Caloplaca inclinans thalli. The material formed flat red FIGURE 2 shows the results of the first experiment.
exper All
crystals on the surface of the dish. concentrations of Arthogalin had a similar level of effect.
And all concentrations cause a significant inhibition of cell
FIGURE 1 shows the resulting dry-weights weights from growth compared to the control. Cell growth is inhibited
extraction of thalli. The goal was to extract at least 100 ug with treatment at the lowest concentration of Arthogalin
for chromatography. Unfortunately, only approximately
pproximately 1 (0.0001 uM),
M), which causes 70% slower proliferation
ug was the weight of the extracts. The method of Solhaug compared to the control (p < 0.001).
and Gauslaa did not function with Caloplaca inclinans
thalli.

To continue the experiment, we requested a pure extract


of Arthogalin previously extracted by Dan N. Raboniras.
He kindly donated a sample to us.
25 J. Pharm. P. Res.

Figure 3.. Effect of Arthogalin in combination with


Figure 2. Dose-dependent
dependent effect of Arthogalin on the irradiation on the growth of murine malignant prostate
growth of murine malignant prostate sarcoma cells. sarcoma cells. The X axis is intensity (Gy) of radiation.
The Y axis is cell count after 5 days of growth,
The X axis is concentration (uM) Arthogalin in culture normalized to cell count of the control. Cells were
tubes before growth. The Y axis is cell count after 5 days irradiated after treatment with 0.0001 uM Arthogalin.
of growth, normalized to cell count of the control. Confidence
ence intervals at 95% are indicated. The difference
Confidence intervals at 95% are indicated. The difference between 0.5 Gy and control is significant (p = 0.0012).
between 0.0001 uM Arthogalin treatment and control is
significant (p < 0.001). DISCUSSION

Effect of Arthogalin in combination with irradiation on the In this study, we test the biological activity of Arthogalin,
growth of murine malignant prostate sarcoma cells. With secondary metabolite of the lichen Caloplaca inclinans.
the results of the first experiment, we test the lowest Specifically we measure
sure the effect on growth of murine
concentration Arthogalin (0.0001 uM) in combination with malignant prostate sarcoma cells in vitro.
gamma radiation. We grow w the cells identically as the first
experiment, but with the following modification. Our results show that Arthogalin inhibits cell growth. The
mechanism of action is unknown, but the effect is potent.
Again, pure extracts were dissolved and serially diluted in Even at the lowest dose (0.0001 uM), Arthogalin has a
a 2:1 mixture of ethanol and phosphate buffered saline significant
ficant negative effect on cell growth in vitro after 5
(EtOH / PBS, pH 7.4). These solutions were added as days of logarithmic growth compared to the control.
aliquots
liquots of 0.01 ml to 0.99 ml of cell culture to achieve the
final concentration of Arthogalin (0.0001 uM). The control To determine if the inhibition effect interacts with gamma
group received 0.01 mL growth medium and no radiation, we test murine malignant prostate sarcoma
irradiation. cells with 0.0001 uM Arthogalin and a range of radiation
intensity. The result proves that Arthogalin is also a
FIGURE 3 shows the results of the second experiment. radiosensitizer. Arthogalin enhances the inhibition effect
Lower than nanomolar concentrationntration of the Arthogalin of radiation on the growth of cancer. This effect is
powerfully enhances the inhibition effect of radiation on significant at 0.5 Gy, a radiation dose that is lower than
cell growth. This effect is significant at 0.5 Gy, the lowest the standard radiation
on dose in cancer radiotherapy.
level of radiation (p = 0.0012).
Moombo et al., 26

We propose the biological activity of Arthogalin is related REFERENCES


to lichen ecology. It is known that lichens are adapted for
Baumann M., Krause M., and Hill R., Exploring the role of
the manipulation of radiation, and also adapted for
cancer stem cells in radioresistance, Nat Rev Cancer,
defense against the foragers (Lawrey, 1986). Therefore, 2008;8, 7: 545-554.
it is not surprising that the secondary metabolites of the
lichen can enhance the effect of radiation and inhibit Boustie J. and Grube Lichens: a promising source of bioactive
foreign cells. secondary metabolites, Plant genetic resources:
characterization and utilization, 2005;3: 273-287.
Our study is the first to demonstrate that Arthogalin is a
radiosensitizer with anti-cancer activity. In the next step, Kamb A., Wee S. and Lengauer C., Why is cancer drug
we will prove that Arthogalin is effective against cancer in discovery so difficult? Nat Rev Drug Discovery, 2007; 6:
115-120.
animal and human. We conclude that Arthogalin is a
promising new drug for the combined-modality treatment Lawrey J. D., Biological Role of Lichen Substances, The
of cancer. Bryologist, 1986;89, 2: 111-122.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Prestwich R. J., Shakespeare D., and Waters S., The rationale
and current role of chemoradiotherapy, J. Radiotherapy.
This work was supported by a graduate thesis research Prat., 2007; 6: 11-19.
grant for Moombo C. Magaya. We thank J. H. N.
Hannoboon for help obtaining chemicals and Ash Solhaug K. A. and Gauslaa Y., Parietin, a photoprotective
Dinscioulor for helpful comments. secondary product of the lichen Xanthoria parietina,
Oecologia 1996;108: 412418.

Vermeulen K., Van Bockstaele D.R. and Berneman Z.N., The


cell cycle: a review of regulation, deregulation and
therapeutic targets in cancer, Cell proliferation, 2003; 36:
131-149.
Scientific Journal of Medical Science (2013) 2(6) 100-104
ISSN 2322-5025

Contents lists available at Sjournals

Journal homepage: www.Sjournals.com

Original article
Nephrosterinic acid inhibits the growth of murine malignant pleural sarcoma
cells in vitro
A.G. Nonjah*, S.A. Vivic, J.A.L. Joejoe
Damelolah Public Health Institute, Niamey, Niger.
*
Corresponding author; Damelolah Public Health Institute, Niamey, Niger.

ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT

Article history: We test the effects of Nephrosterinic acid, secondary


Received 30 April 2013 metabolite of the lichen Solenospora liparina, on the growth of
Accepted 15 May 2013 murine malignant pleural sarcoma cells in vitro. We find that
Available online 29 June 2013 Nephrosterinic acid is a potent inhibitor of growth. We also find that
Keywords: Nephrosterinic acid increases sensitivity of cells to radiation, and this
Nephrosterinic acid effect is significant at radiation intensity lower than the standard
Murine malignant intensity of cancer radiotherapy. On the basis of this study,
Nephrosterinic acid shows promise for combined-modality cancer
treatment.

2013 Sjournals. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Reinfection of tissue with cancer cells with acquired radioresistance during treatment is the grand challenge
for cancer radiotherapy (Baumann, 2008). For this reason, radiotherapy is applied in combination with
chemotherapy. The most effective of chemotherapeutic drug combinations inhibits growth of the cancer cell and
also increases sensitivity of cancer cells to radiation. The radiosensitizing effect enhances radiotherapy at low
radiation intensity. For this reason, radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy (combined-modality
treatment) is the best standard of care for most cancers (Prestwich, 2007). However, the discovery rate of
effective anti-cancer drugs is very slow (Kamb, 2007). We must turn to the secondary metabolites of the lichens as
a domain of search for such compounds. This study explores the biological activity of Nephrosterinic acid, a
secondary metabolite of the lichen Solenospora liparina.

100
A. G. Nonjah et al. / Scientific Journal of Medical Science (2013) 2(6) 100-104

The lichens are a symbiotic assemblage of plant and fungus. Because of this social arrangement, and because
of the diversity and the complexity of their ecological niches, the lichens produce so many chemicals for unique
colors, signaling between symbionts, manipulation of UV light, and defense against the foragers. More than 700
secondary metabolites of lichens are isolated, but only a small number are characterized for biological activity
(Boustie and Grube, 2005).
Cancer is a complex disease that begins with the uncontrolled growth of the cell. The cancer cell does harm
by forming tumors, absorbing tissues, and spreading through the body by metastasis. The highest probability of
survival from cancer is with strong inhibition of proliferation of the cancer cells at the beginning of this progression
(Vermeulen, 2003).
Therefore, the establishment of the inhibition of proliferation of cancer cells in vitro is the critical first step
for drug discovery. In our method to determine the biological activity of Nephrosterinic acid, we test the effect on
the growth of murine malignant pleural sarcoma cells in vitro. In addition, we test the effect in combination with
irradiation with a range of intensity.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Chemicals
The chemical structure of Nephrosterinic acid is shown in FIGURE 1. Pure extracts were dissolved and serially
diluted in a 2:1 mixture of ethanol and phosphate buffered saline (EtOH / PBS, pH 7.4). These solutions were added
as aliquots of 0.01 ml to 0.99 ml of cell culture to achieve the final concentrations of Nephrosterinic acid: 10 uM, 1
uM, 0.1 uM, 0.01 uM, 0.001 uM, and 0.0001 uM. The control group received 0.01 mL of growth medium.

Fig.1. The structure of Nephrosterinic acid.

2.2. Cells and cell culture


murine malignant pleural sarcoma cells were grown in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium
supplemented with 2 mg/ml N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid, 100 U/ml penicillin G, 0.1
mg/ml streptomycin, 2 mg/ml sodium bicarbonate, and 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cell cultures were washed
with PBS, then treated with 0.2% trypsin/PBS, and then washed with RPMI 1640 medium and centrifuged. The cell
pellet was resuspended in RPMI 1640 medium and washed with more medium and the cells were counted.
Nephrosterinic acid solutions were aliquoted to cells in 24-well plates. The treated cells were then cultured in 100-
mm plastic tissue-culture dishes at 37 C with 5% CO2 under high humidity. The final cell counts were measured
after 5 days growth.

101
A. G. Nonjah et al. / Scientific Journal of Medical Science (2013) 2(6) 100-104

2.3. Irradiation
Cells were irradiated with a single dose of external radiation from a Cesium-137 source. Doses in the range of
0.5 to 15 Gy were used. The dose rate was 1 Gy per 4 seconds. A control group received no radiation.
2.4. Data analysis
Three independent replicates of the experiment were performed to obtain means and standard deviations.
Mean cell counts were normalized to control cells grown in parallel. Significance of differences between
treatments was determined by analysis of variance and Student's t-tests using the R statistical package (R
Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). A p-value of <0.01 was accepted as significant.

3. Results

3.1. Dose-dependent effect of Nephrosterinic acid on the growth of the rat glioblastoma cell
We cultured the cells in parallel with doses of Nephrosterinic acid at different concentrations. We measured
the cell proliferation after 5 days in the logarithmic growth phase.
Figure 2 shows the results of the first experiment. All concentrations of Nephrosterinic acid had a similar level
of effect. And all concentrations cause a significant inhibition of cell growth compared to the control. Cell growth is
inhibited with treatment at the lowest concentration of Nephrosterinic acid (0.0001 uM), which causes 70% slower
proliferation compared to the control (p < 0.001).

Fig. 2. Dose-dependent effect of Nephrosterinic acid on the growth of murine malignant pleural sarcoma cells. The
X axis is concentration (uM) Nephrosterinic acid in culture tubes before growth. The Y axis is cell count after 5 days
of growth, normalized to cell count of the control. Confidence intervals at 95% are indicated. The difference
between 0.0001 uM Nephrosterinic acid treatment and control is significant (p < 0.001).

102
A. G. Nonjah et al. / Scientific Journal of Medical Science (2013) 2(6) 100-104

3.2. Effect of Nephrosterinic acid in combination with irradiation on the growth of murine malignant
pleural sarcoma cells
With the results of the first experiment, we test the lowest concentration Nephrosterinic acid (0.0001 uM) in
combination with gamma radiation. We grow the cells identically as the first experiment, but with the following
modification. Again, pure extracts were dissolved and serially diluted in a 2:1 mixture of ethanol and phosphate
buffered saline (EtOH / PBS, pH 7.4). These solutions were added as aliquots of 0.01 ml to 0.99 ml of cell culture to
achieve the final concentration of Nephrosterinic acid (0.0001 uM). The control group received 0.01 mL growth
medium and no irradiation.
Figure 3 shows the results of the second experiment. Lower than nanomolar concentration of the
Nephrosterinic acid powerfully enhances the inhibition effect of radiation on cell growth. This effect is significant
at 0.5 Gy, the lowest level of radiation (p = 0.0012).

Fig. 3. Effect of Nephrosterinic acid in combination with irradiation on the growth of murine malignant pleural
sarcoma cells. The X axis is intensity (Gy) of radiation. The Y axis is cell count after 5 days of growth, normalized to
cell count of the control. Cells were irradiated after treatment with 0.0001 uM Nephrosterinic acid. Confidence
intervals at 95% are indicated. The difference between 0.5 Gy and control is significant (p = 0.0012).

103
A. G. Nonjah et al. / Scientific Journal of Medical Science (2013) 2(6) 100-104

4. Discussion

In this study, we test the biological activity of Nephrosterinic acid, secondary metabolite of the lichen
Solenospora liparina. Specifically we measure the effect on growth of murine malignant pleural sarcoma cells in
vitro.
Our results show that Nephrosterinic acid inhibits cell growth. The mechanism of action is unknown, but the
effect is potent. Even at the lowest dose (0.0001 uM), Nephrosterinic acid has a significant negative effect on cell
growth in vitro after 5 days of logarithmic growth compared to the control.
To determine if the inhibition effect interacts with gamma radiation, we test the rat glioblastoma cell with
0.0001 uM Nephrosterinic acid and a range of radiation intensity. The result proves that Nephrosterinic acid is also
a radiosensitizer. Nephrosterinic acid enhances the inhibition effect of radiation on the growth of cancer. This
effect is significant at 0.5 Gy, a radiation dose that is lower than the standard radiation dose in cancer
radiotherapy.
We propose the biological activity of Nephrosterinic acid is related to lichen ecology. It is known that lichens
are adapted for the manipulation of radiation, and also adapted for defense against the foragers (Lawrey, 1986).
Therefore, it is not surprising that the secondary metabolites of the lichen can enhance the effect of radiation and
inhibit foreign cells.

5. Conclusion

Our study is the first to demonstrate that Nephrosterinic acid is a radiosensitizer with anti-cancer activity. In
the next step, we will prove that Nephrosterinic acid is effective against cancer in animal and human. We conclude
that Nephrosterinic acid is a promising new drug for the combined-modality treatment of cancer.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a graduate thesis research grant for Apee G. Nonjah. We thank V. Kobanovich for
help obtaining chemicals and Johann B. N. Hoon for helpful comments.

References

Baumann, M., Krause, M., Hill, R., 2008. Exploring the role of cancer stem cells in radioresistance. Nat Rev Cancer,
8, 7, 545-554.
Prestwich, R. J., Shakespeare, D., Waters, S., 2007. The rationale and current role of chemoradiotherapy. J.
Radiotherapy. Prat. 6, 11-19.
Kamb, A., Wee, S., Lengauer, C., 2007. Why is cancer drug discovery so difficult? Nat Rev Drug Discovery, 6, 115-
120.
Boustie, J., Grube., 2005. Lichens: a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Plant genetic resources:
characterization and utilization, 3, 273-287.
Vermeulen, K., Van Bockstaele, D.R., Berneman, Z.N., 2003. The cell cycle: a review of regulation, deregulation and
therapeutic targets in cancer. Cell proliferation, 36, 131-149.
Lawrey, J.D., 1986. Biological Role of Lichen Substances. The Bryologist, 89, 2, 111-122.

104
S. T. Onnoocom et al. / Journal of Biochemical and Pharmacological Research, Vol. 1 (3): 189-191, September 2013

Brief Report

Schizopeltic Acid Inhibits the Growth of Murine


Polyploid Pulmonary Blastoma Cells in vitro
Sabay T. Onnoocoma,*, Ogoney Q. P. Kinfaha, Jaba U. A. Shelona

Abstract: We tested the effects of Schizopeltic acid, a diversity and the complexity of their ecological niches, lichens
secondary metabolite of the lichen Collema quadriloculare, on produce so many chemicals for unique colors, signaling
the growth of murine polyploid pulmonary blastoma cells in between symbionts, manipulation of UV light, and defense
vitro. We found that Schizopeltic acid was a potent inhibitor of against the foragers. Although more than 700 secondary
growth. We also found that Schizopeltic acid increased metabolites of lichens have been isolated, only a small number
sensitivity of cells to radiation, and this effect was significant at of them have been characterized for biological activity [4].
radiation intensity lower than the standard intensity of cancer Cancer is a complex disease that begins with the
radiotherapy. Results of this study indicate that Schizopeltic uncontrolled growth of the cells. A cancer cell does harm by
acid shows promise for combined-modality cancer treatment. forming tumors, absorbing tissues, and spreading through the
body by metastasis. The highest probability of survival from
Keywords: cancer, irradiation, schizopeltic acid, polyploidy cancer is with strong inhibition of proliferation of the cancer
pulmonary blastoma cells cells at the beginning of this progression [5]. Therefore, the
establishment of the inhibition of proliferation of cancer cells in
vitro is a critical first step for drug discovery. In our attempt to
1. Introduction determine the biological activity of Schizopeltic acid, we tested
its effect on the growth of murine polyploid pulmonary

R einfection of tissues with cancer cells that have acquired


radioresistance during treatment is a great challenge for
cancer radiotherapy [1]. As such, radiotherapy is often applied
blastoma cells in vitro. In addition, we also tested its effect in
combination with irradiation with a range of intensities.

in combination with chemotherapy. The most effective of 2. Materials and methods


chemotherapeutic drug combinations should inhibit growth of
the cancer cell and also increase sensitivity of cancer cells to 2.1. Chemicals
radiation. Moreover, the radiosensitizing effect should also
enhance radiotherapy at low radiation intensity. Therefore, The chemical structure of Schizopeltic acid is shown in
radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy Figure 1. Pure extracts were dissolved and serially diluted in a
(combined-modality treatment) is the best standard of treatment 2:1 mixture of ethanol and phosphate buffered saline (EtOH /
for most cancers [2]. As the discovery of effective anti-cancer PBS, pH 7.4). These solutions were added as aliquots of 0.01
drugs is a very slow process [3], the secondary metabolites of ml to 0.99 ml to cell cultures to achieve the final concentrations
the lichens as possible drugs for cancer therapy have been of Schizopeltic acid: 10 M, 1 uM, 0.1 M, 0.01 M, 0.001
intensively explored. This study was thus designed to M, and 0.0001 M. The control group received 0.01 ml of
investigate the biological activity of Schizopeltic acid, a growth medium.
secondary metabolite of the lichen Collema quadriloculare.
Lichens are a symbiotic assemblage of plant and fungus. 2.2. Cells and cell culture
Because of their social arrangement, and because of the
__________________________________________ Murine polyploid pulmonary blastoma cells were grown in
a
Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium
Liwoe Institute, Yaounde, Cameroon supplemented with 2 mg/ml N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine
* Corresponding author. Tel: +237 3428284; Fax: +237 3428913
-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid, 100 U/ml penicillin G, 0.1 mg/ml
Email: kuumwa@afra-mail.com
streptomycin, 2 mg/ml sodium bicarbonate, and 5% fetal
(Received May 4, 2013; Accepted June 18, 2013; Published online
August 16, 2013) bovine serum (FBS). Cell cultures were washed with PBS, then

ISSN 2168-8761 print/ISSN 2168-877X online ~ 189 ~ http://www.researchpub.org/journal/jbpr/jbpr.html


S. T. Onnoocom et al. / Journal of Biochemical and Pharmacological Research, Vol. 1 (3): 189-191, September 2013

Fig. 1. The chemical structure of Schizopeltic acid.

treated with 0.2% trypsin/PBS, and then washed with RPMI


1640 medium and centrifuged. The cell pellet was resuspended
in RPMI 1640 medium and washed with more medium and the
cells were counted. Schizopeltic acid solutions were aliquoted Fig. 2. Threshold effect of Schizopeltic acid on the growth of murine
to cells in 24-well plates. The treated cells were then cultured in polyploid pulmonary blastoma cells. The X axis shows concentration
100-mm plastic tissue-culture dishes at 37 oC with 5% CO2 (M) Schizopeltic acid in culture tubes before growth. The Y axis
under high humidity. The final cell counts were measured after shows cell count after 5 days of growth, normalized to that of the
control. Confidence intervals at 95% are indicated. The difference
5 days growth. between 0.0001 M Schizopeltic acid treatment and control is
significant (p < 0.001).
2.3. Irradiation

Cells were irradiated with a single dose of external radiation We cultured the cells in parallel with doses of Schizopeltic
from a Cesium-137 source. Doses in the range of 0.5 to 15 Gy acid at different concentrations. We measured the cell
were used. The dose rate was 1 Gy per 4 seconds. A control proliferation after 5 days in the logarithmic growth phase.
group received no radiation. Figure 2 shows the results of the first experiment. All
concentrations of Schizopeltic acid had a similar level of effect.
2.4. Data analysis All concentrations caused a significant inhibition of cell growth
when compared with that of the control. Cell growth was
Three independent replicates of the experiment were inhibited with treatment at the lowest concentration of
performed to obtain means and standard deviations. Mean cell Schizopeltic acid (0.0001 M), which caused 70% slower
counts were normalized to that of control cells grown in proliferation than that of the control (p < 0.001).
parallel. Significance of differences between treatments was
determined by analysis of variance and Student's t-tests using 3.2. Effect of Schizopeltic acid in combination with irradiation
the R statistical package (R Foundation for Statistical on the growth of murine polyploid pulmonary blastoma cells
Computing, Vienna, Austria). A p-value of <0.01 was accepted
as significant. With the results of the first experiment, we further tested the
lowest concentration of Schizopeltic acid (0.0001 M) in
3. Results combination with gamma radiation. We grew the cells under
the same condition as described in Fig. 2, but with the
3.1. Threshold effect of Schizopeltic acid on the growth of the following modification. Again, pure extracts were dissolved
rat glioblastoma cell and serially diluted in a 2:1 mixture of ethanol and phosphate
buffered saline (EtOH / PBS, pH 7.4). These solutions were

ISSN 2168-8761 print/ISSN 2168-877X online ~ 190 ~ http://www.researchpub.org/journal/jbpr/jbpr.html


S. T. Onnoocom et al. / Journal of Biochemical and Pharmacological Research, Vol. 1 (3): 189-191, September 2013

added as aliquots of 0.01 ml to 0.99 ml to cell culture to achieve logarithmic growth when compared to the control cells.
the final concentration of Schizopeltic acid (0.0001 M). The To determine if the inhibitory effect interacted with gamma
control group received 0.01 ml growth medium in the absence radiation, we tested the rat glioblastoma cell with 0.0001 M
of irradiation. Schizopeltic acid and a range of radiation intensities. The result
Figure 3 shows the results of the second experiment. Lower demonstrates that Schizopeltic acid is also a radiosensitizer.
than nanomolar concentration of the Schizopeltic acid Therefore, Schizopeltic acid enhanced the inhibitory effect of
powerfully enhanced the inhibitory effect of radiation on cell radiation on the growth of cancer cells. This effect was
growth. This effect was significant at 0.5 Gy, the lowest level of significant at 0.5 Gy, a radiation dosage that is lower than the
radiation (p = 0.0012). standard radiation dosage in cancer radiotherapy.
We propose that the biological activity of Schizopeltic acid
is related to lichen ecology. It is known that lichens are adapted
for the manipulation of radiation, and also adapted for defense
against the foragers [6]. Therefore, it is not surprising that the
secondary metabolites of the lichen can enhance the effect of
radiation and inhibit foreign cells.
Our study is the first to demonstrate that Schizopeltic acid is
a radiosensitizer with anti-cancer activity. Results of the
present studies suggest that Schizopeltic acid is a promising
new drug for the combined-modality treatment of cancer. In
future studies, we will need to demonstrate that Schizopeltic
acid is an effective agent against cancers in animals and
humans.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a graduate thesis research grant


to Sabay T. Onnoocom. We thank J. H. N. Hannoboon for help
in obtaining chemicals and Den O. Gudochka for helpful
comments.

Conflict of interest: None declared.

References

[1] Baumann, M., Krause, M. and Hill, R. Exploring the role of


cancer stem cells in radioresistance. Nat Rev Cancer, 2008; 7:
545-554.
Fig. 3. Effect of Schizopeltic acid in combination with irradiation on [2] Prestwich R. J., Shakespeare D., and Waters S. The rationale
the growth of murine polyploid pulmonary blastoma cells. The X axis and current role of chemoradiotherapy. J. Radiotherapy. Prat.
shows intensity (Gy) of radiation. The Y axis shows cell count after 5 2007; 6: 11-19.
days of growth, normalized to that of the control. Cells were irradiated [3] Kamb A., Wee S. and Lengauer C. Why is cancer drug
after treatment with 0.0001 M Schizopeltic acid. Confidence discovery so difficult? Nat Rev Drug Discovery 2007; 6:
intervals at 95% are indicated. The difference between 0.5 Gy and 115-120.
control is significant (p = 0.0012). [4] Boustie J. and Grube M. Lichens: a promising source of
bioactive secondary metabolites. Plant genetic resources:
characterization and utilization 2005; 3: 273-287.
4. Discussion [5] Vermeulen K., Van Bockstaele D. R. and Berneman Z. N. The
cell cycle: a review of regulation, deregulation and therapeutic
targets in cancer. Cell proliferation 2003; 36: 131-149.
In this study, we have tested the biological activity of
[6] Lawrey J. D. Biological Role of Lichen Substances. The
Schizopeltic acid, a secondary metabolite of the lichen Collema Bryologist 1986; 89: 111-122.
quadriloculare. Specifically we measured the effect of this
compound on growth of murine polyploid pulmonary blastoma
cells in vitro.
Our results show that Schizopeltic acid inhibits cell growth.
The mechanism of action is unknown, but the effect is potent.
Even at the lowest dose (0.0001 uM), Schizopeltic acid has a
significant negative effect on cell growth in vitro after 5 days of

ISSN 2168-8761 print/ISSN 2168-877X online ~ 191 ~ http://www.researchpub.org/journal/jbpr/jbpr.html


Get me off your fucking
mailing list (November 2014)
Most papers in this collection at least try to look like an actual
manuscript. Of all the sting papers in this collection, none are as
obviously fake as this one by Peter Vamplew, visible with the most
cursory glance at any section of the paper. It consists of one angry
phrase:

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Its repeated over and over, for ten typeset pages.

Vamplew wrote the paper because, as the title and text of the paper
suggest, he was tired of getting emails from this publisher. For many
scientists, receiving many unsolicited emails from a publisher asking
them to submit journals is the first clue that a publisher is not
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But what elevates this paper to a higher level of humour are the figures.

Resources

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urnal_accepts_paper_that_reads_get_me_off_your_fucking.html

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https://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2014/11/21/journal-
accepts-profanity-laden-joke-paper
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David Mazieres and Eddie Kohler
New York University
University of California, Los Angeles
http://www.mailavenger.org/

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References
Get me off your fucking mailing list. Get me off [1] Editor J. Klensin. Simple mail transfer pro-
your fucking mailing list. Get me off your fuck- tocol. RFC 2821, AT&T Laboratories, April
ing mailing list. Get me off your fucking mail- 2001.
ing list. Get me off your fucking mailing list.
Get me off your fucking mailing list. Get me off [2] Editor P. Resnick. Internet message for-
your fucking mailing list. Get me off your fuck- mat. RFC 2822, QUALCOMM Incorpo-
ing mailing list. Get me off your fucking mail- rated, April 2001.
ing list. Get me off your fucking mailing list.
Get me off your fucking mailing list. Get me

10
Cuckoo for cocoa puffs (January
2015)
Mark Shrimes paper is notable in that, like John Bohannon, he
submitted it not to one, but many journals. He submitted it to 37
journals, and 17 accepted it.

Like earlier pranksters Phil Davis and Nate Eldgredge, Shrime used a
random text generator to create the bulk of his text rather than going to
the effort of writing a paper.

The most obvious clue that the paper was a spoof was the authors. One
was Pinkerton LeBrain, a reference to the cartoon mice Pinky and the
Brain from the Animaniacs series. The other was Orson Welles, the actor
known in part for his radio dramatization of War of the Worlds that some
listeners mistook for real news.

This was about the point where I started to suffer from YASP Syndrome
(Yet Another Sting Paper). A few months after this paper hit the
headlines, I wrote, There is a cottage industry of people who feel the
need to show, There are journals that will publish crap! And its getting
tiring.

Resources

Why a fake article titled Cuckoo for Cocoa Puffs? was accepted by 17
medical journals https://www.fastcompany.com/3041493/body-
week/why-a-fake-article-cuckoo-for-cocoa-puffs-was-accepted-by-17-
medical-journals

"Cuckoo for cocoa puffs?" accepted by 17 medical journals


http://www.theskepticsguide.org/cuckoo-for-cocoa-puffs-accepted-by-
17-medical-journals

Anyone can publish fake medical research for $500


http://theargusreport.com/anyone-can-publish-fake-medical-research-
for-500/
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
2014; X(X): XX-XX
Published online MM DD 2014 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/jfns)
doi: 10.11648/j.XXXX.2014XXXX.XX
ISSN: 2330-7285 (Print); ISSN: 2330-7293 (Online)

Cuckoo for Coco Puffs? The surgical and neoplastic role of


cacao extract in breakfast cereals
Running title: Cuckoo for Coco Puffs?

Pinkerton LeBrain1, *, Orson G. Welles2


1
Department of Statistical Research, Green Mountain Institute of Nutrition, Sharon, MA 02067, USA
2
Asuza Atlantic University, Department of Nutrition and Tomography, Westchester, NY, USA

Email address:
bb8c5297@opayq.com (P. LeBrain)

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the role that cacao extract plays in breakfast cereals. We examine cacao
extract in breakfast cereals. Rigorous statistical analysis is performed. We find that cacao extract has a significant role in
breakfast cereals.

Keywords: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

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own. Diminution to frequently sentiments he connection but has folly charm there its. Its fact ten spot drew.
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defective. Shameless see the tolerably how continued. She
enable men twenty elinor points appear. Whose merry ten yet References
was men seven ought balls.
Open know age use whom him than lady was. On lasted [1] Himmelstein, D., et al., Medical bankruptcy in the United
States, 2007: Results of a national study. Am J Med, 2009.
uneasy exeter my itself effect spirit. At design he vanity at 122(8): p. 741-746.
cousin longer looked ye. Design praise me father an favour.
As greatly replied it windows of an minuter behaved passage. [2] Macready, N., The climbing costs of cancer care. J Natl
Diminution expression reasonable it we he projection Cancer Inst, 2011. 103(19): p. 1433-1435.
acceptance in devonshire. Perpetual it described at he [3] Ramsey, S., et al., Washington state cancer patients found to
applauded. be at greater risk for bankruptcy than people without a cancer
Oh acceptance apartments up sympathize astonished diagnosis. Health Aff, 2013. 32(6): p. 1143-1152.
delightful. Waiting him new lasting towards. Continuing [4] Thorne, D., The (interconnected) reasons elder Americans file
melancholy especially so to. Me unpleasing impossible in for consumer bankruptcy. J Aging Soc Policy, 2010. 22(2): p.
attachment announcing so astonished. What ask leaf may nor 188-206.
upon door. Tended remain my do stairs. Oh smiling amiable
[5] Baicker, K., et al., The Oregon experiment Effects of
am so visited cordial in offices hearted. Medicaid on clinical outcomes. NEJM, 2013. 368: p. 1713-
Dependent certainty off discovery him his tolerably 1722.
offending. Ham for attention remainder sometimes additions
recommend fat our. Direction has strangers now believing. [6] Kruk, M.E., E. Goldmann, and S. Galea, Borrowing and
selling to pay for health care in low- and middle-income
Respect enjoyed gay far exposed parlors towards. Enjoyment countries. Health Aff (Millwood), 2009. 28(4): p. 1056-66.
use tolerably dependent listening men. No peculiar in
handsome together unlocked do by. Article concern joy [7] Xu, K., et al., Protecting households from catastrophic health
anxious did picture sir her. Although desirous not recurred spending. Health Aff (Millwood), 2007. 26(4): p. 972-83.
disposed off shy you numerous securing. [8] Xu, K., et al., Household catastrophic health expenditure: a
Promotion an ourselves up otherwise my. High what each multicountry analysis. Lancet, 2003. 362: p. 111-117.
snug rich far yet easy. In companions inhabiting mr
[9] Shrime, M.G., et al., Task-shifting, universal public finance,
principles at insensible do. Heard their sex hoped enjoy or both for the expansion of surgical access in rural Ethiopia:
vexed child for. Prosperous so occasional assistance it an extended cost-effectiveness analysis, in Disease Control
discovered especially no. Provision of he residence consisted Priorities in Developing Countries, 3rd edition, D.T. Jamison,
up in remainder arranging described. Conveying has Editor. 2014.
concealed necessary furnished bed zealously immediate get [10] Russell, S., Ability to pay for health care: concepts and
but. Terminated as middletons or by instrument. Bred do four evidence. Health Policy Plan, 1996. 11(3): p. 219-37.
so your felt with. No shameless principle dependent
household do. [11] Ensor, T., Informal payments for health care in transition
economies. Soc Sci Med, 2004. 58(2): p. 237-46.
In alteration insipidity impression by travelling reasonable
Fake news (May 2015)
Most academic article stings are created to demonstrate the gullibility
of journals. John Bohannons second sting was one was created to show
the gullibility of journalists, and was more controversial than his first.

Bohannon helped create a real study on chocolate and diet. But the
study was flawed by many measures: too few people, too many factors
measured, and so on. The paper was published in a dodgy journal of the
sort Bohannon had documented in 2013, and some journalists ran with
the too good to be true headline. Its likely that millions of people saw
some news story about the study.

The ethical problems were many. There was the matter of conducting
deliberately flawed research with the intent to deceive. There was the
issue of then releasing that into the media, and the possibility of
harming people who took bad advice. One of the researchers who
helped Bohannon received a fine for ethical violations.

Resources

I fooled millions into thinking chocolate helps weight loss. Here's how.
http://io9.gizmodo.com/i-fooled-millions-into-thinking-chocolate-
helps-weight-1707251800

Chocolate-diet study publisher claims paper was actually rejected, only


live for some hours. Email, however, says
http://retractionwatch.com/2015/05/28/chocolate-diet-study-
publisher-claims-paper-was-actually-rejected-only-live-for-some-
hours-email-however-says/

Why a journalist scammed the media into spreading bad chocolate


science
http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/05/28/410313446/why-a-
journalist-scammed-the-media-into-spreading-bad-chocolate-science
Attempt to shame journalists with chocolate study is shameful
https://www.sciencenews.org/blog/culture-beaker/attempt-shame-
journalists-chocolate-study-shameful

Tricked: The ethical slipperiness of hoaxes


http://blogs.plos.org/absolutely-maybe/2015/05/31/tricked-the-ethical-
slipperiness-of-hoaxes/

Doctor who participated in fake chocolate study fined for violating


code of conduct http://retractionwatch.com/2016/09/22/doctor-who-
participated-in-fake-chocolate-study-fined-for-violating-physicians-
code-of-conduct/

What can reporters learn from the chocolate diet study hoax?
http://healthjournalism.org/blog/2015/06/what-can-reporters-learn-
from-the-chocolate-diet-study-hoax/
iMedPub Journals International Archives of Medicine 2015
http://journals.imed.pub Section: Endocrinology Vol. 8 No. 55
ISSN: 1755-7682 doi: 10.3823/1654

chocolate with high cocoa content Johannes Bohannon1,


Diana Koch1,
Peter Homm1,
as a weight-loss accelerator Alexander Driehaus1
Original

1 Institute of Diet and Health, Poststr. 37.


55126 Mainz, GERMANY
Abstract
Background: Although the focus of scientific studies on the bene- Contact information:
ficial properties of chocolate with a high cocoa content has increased johannes@instituteofdiet.com.
in recent years, studies determining its importance for weight regula-
tion, in particular within the context of a controlled dietary measure,
have rarely been conducted.

Methodology: In a study consisting of several weeks, we divided


men and women between the ages of 19-67 into three groups. One
group was instructed to keep a low-carb diet and to consume an
additional daily serving of 42 grams of chocolate with 81% cocoa
content (chocolate group). Another group was instructed to follow
the same low-carb diet as the chocolate group, but without the
chocolate intervention (low-carb group). In addition, we asked a
third group to eat at their own discretion, with unrestricted choice of
food. At the beginning of the study, all participants received exten-
sive medical advice and were thoroughly briefed on their respective
diet. At the beginning and the end of the study, each participant
gave a blood sample. Their weight, BMI, and waist-to-hip ratio were
determined and noted. In addition to that, we evaluated the Giessen
Subjective Complaints List. During the study, participants were en-
couraged to weigh themselves on a daily basis, assess the quality of
their sleep as well as their mental state, and to use urine test strips.

Result: Subjects of the chocolate intervention group experienced


the easiest and most successful weight loss. Even though the measu-
rable effect of this diet occurred with a delay, the weight reduction
of this group exceeded the results of the low-carb group by 10%
after only three weeks (p = 0.04). While the weight cycling effect
already occurred after a few weeks in the low-carb group, with
resulting weight gain in the last fifth of the observation period, the
chocolate group experienced a steady increase in weight loss. This
is confirmed by the evaluation of the ketone reduction. Initially, ke-

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International Archives of Medicine 2015
Section: Endocrinology Vol. 8 No. 55
ISSN: 1755-7682 doi: 10.3823/1654

tone reduction was much lower in the chocolate group than in the
low-carb peer group, but after a few weeks, the situation changed.
The low-carb group had a lower ketone reduction than in the pre-
vious period, they reduced 145 mg/dl less ketones, whereas the cho-
colate group had an average reduction of an additional 145mg/dl.
Effects were similarly favorable concerning cholesterol levels, trigly-
ceride levels, and LDL cholesterol levels of the chocolate group.
Moreover, the subjects of the chocolate group found a significant
improvement in their well-being (physically and mentally). The con-
trolled improvement compared to the results of the low-carb group
was highly significant (p <0.001).

Conclusion: Consumption of chocolate with a high cocoa content


can significantly increase the success of weight-loss diets. The weight-
loss effect of this diet occurs with a certain delay. Long-term weight
loss, however, seems to occur easier and more successfully by adding
chocolate. The effect of the chocolate, the so-called "weight loss
turbo," seems to go hand in hand with personal well-being, which
was significantly higher than in the control groups.

Introduction chocolate consumption and a possible connection


Although there has been an increased focus on the to the BMI.
beneficial properties of high cocoa content choco- Moreover, recent research approaches suggest
late in recent years, there are still very few studies that the selective use of high cocoa content choco-
concerning its use in weight-loss diets. late can also support active weight loss. A long-term
A large number of studies have proven the positi- study with mice shows that even with a high-fat
ve health effects of chocolate on the coronary vas- diet combined with high cocoa content chocolate,
culature [1], insulin secretion [2, 3, 4] and endothelial the weight of laboratory mice remains low. [11] A
function [5, 6]. Additionally, the lowering effects similar study with humans has not been published
of dark chocolate on high blood pressure have al- yet.
ready been well documented. [7, 8] Moreover, in a
systematic review, Ried et al. were able to prove its
health benefits and antihypertensive effect. [9] Methodology
In terms of nutritional interventions, there have
been interesting first attempts with the use of cho- Study Design
colate. In 2012, Golomb et al. showed a connec- The study is based on the evaluated results of three
tion between regular chocolate consumption and parallel groups that underwent various dietary inter-
a lower body mass index. [10] However, this study ventions in January 2015. They were under medical
was limited to the mere collection and analysis of supervision and were examined at the beginning,

2 This article is available at: www.intarchmed.com and www.medbrary.com


International Archives of Medicine 2015
Section: Endocrinology Vol. 8 No. 55
ISSN: 1755-7682 doi: 10.3823/1654

divided into groups, instructed, and measured. Du- The participants of the low-carb group were ins-
ring the collection period, the participants' data was tructed to change their diet to a low-carbohydrate
retrieved in two-day intervals to ensure the regulari- diet. Concerning the diet, their instructions were ab-
ty of measurement results. In addition to the mere solutely identical with those of the chocolate group.
weight loss, there was an emphasis on the docu- Nutrition interventions that apply a low-carbohy-
mentation of the well-being of the subjects, as this drate diet are currently the most applied approach
is considered key to long-term weight loss. [12] to a weight-loss diet, which is particularly recom-
mended in the S3-guidelines on "Prevention and
Study Participants Treatment of Obesity." [13]
To obtain a genuine, non-preselected representation Participants in the control group were encouraged
of the general public, the study participants were to continue their previous eating habits. It should be
recruited without further requirements. On average, noted that the study was conducted in early January,
participants were 29.6 years old and weighed 81.5 after the Christmas / New Year celebrations.
kg. Their average BMI was 26.16; the lowest BMI
was 19.15, the highest at 39.95. Testing Methods
To represent the disproportionate number of fe- In addition to the continuous measurement of
male dieters in the general public, two-thirds of the weight development, participants were asked to
participants were female, and one-third male. do routine testing of the urine with multiparameter
The participants were healthy or had medical con- strips on a daily basis by using test strips, and to do-
ditions for which a nutrition intervention represents cument their mental state and their sleep behavior.
a generally medically accepted form of therapy. At the beginning and end of the study, a blood
test was conducted; weight, BMI, and waist-to-hip
Randomization ratio were documented; and the Giessen Subjec-
After a detailed preliminary, the participants were tive Complaints List, which measures the change
randomly assigned one medical group from three in well-being on a scientifically sound basis, was
different batches of diet instructions. For both the evaluated. [14]
study participants and for the authors of this study, The main focus within the blood parameters was
the grouping of the participants was unforeseeable. on the changes in lipid levels and liver values, as well
as the possible increased amount of protein in the
Interventions / Measures blood. Previous studies have shown that a unilateral
Participants were assigned to the following groups: low-carb diet can lead to some dramatic changes in
low-carb diet plus high cocoa content chocolate the albumin value. [15] Concerning the evaluations,
(chocolate group), low-carb diet (low-carb group), we took into consideration changes of cholesterol,
and the control group. triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALT, GGT/GGTP, and
The participants of the chocolate group were told the albumin.
to eat as many low-carbohydrate foods as possible, Additionally, we observed the changes of ketone
and to increase the protein and fat content of their reduction in urine.
diet. Additionally, they were given 875 grams of
chocolate with a cocoa content of 81 percent. They Statistics
were asked to consume a daily dose of 42 grams of A t-test for independent samples was used to as-
chocolate in addition to the low-carb diet. Over a sess differences in baseline variables between the
period of three weeks, 100 percent of the subjects groups. The analysis was a repeated-measures
adhered to this requirement. analysis of variance in which the baseline value

Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License 3


International Archives of Medicine 2015
Section: Endocrinology Vol. 8 No. 55
ISSN: 1755-7682 doi: 10.3823/1654

was carried forward in the case of missing data. In the third quarter, the weight-loss ratio of the
One subject (low-carbohydrate) had to be excluded low-carb group came to its minimum, while the
from the analysis, because of a weight measure is- chocolate group lost considerably more weight du-
sue within the trial ring the third consecutive quarter than prior, and
significantly more than both of the control groups
combined.
Results Figure 2: C
ulumated change of weight by test
group.
Weight Development
Both the participants of the chocolate group and
the low-carb group lost weight, whereas the con-
trol group gained weight during the study period.
The subjects of the low-carb group lost 3.1 percent
of their body weight in 21 days and the chocolate
group lost 3.2 percent. The participants of the con-
trol group were on average 0.7 percent heavier. The
body mass index decreased in the chocolate group
to 0.93, in the low-carb intervention group by 0.95
points, whereas the control group gained 0.7 points.

Figure 1: Daily weight development by group.


Ketones
A higher amount of ketones could be detected in
the participants of the chocolate group than in the
low-carb group. The measured results were found
to be highly significant (p <0.01).

Figure 3: C
 hocolate vs. Low-Carbohydrate - Va-
riance in Ketone levels Data was collec-
ted from an urine test strip and con-
verted into a nominal scale before the
analysis..
Remarkably, participants in the chocolate group
lost more weight than those of the low-carb group.
The temporal course of the weight-loss success is
also worth noting: the course of the intervention
period shows that there were marked differences in
both groups. While the low-carb group lost weight
from the beginning and continued this weight loss
during the first thee quarters of the testing period,
the chocolate group gained weight in the first quar-
ter before they started to lose considerably more
weight than the low-carb group.

4 This article is available at: www.intarchmed.com and www.medbrary.com


International Archives of Medicine 2015
Section: Endocrinology Vol. 8 No. 55
ISSN: 1755-7682 doi: 10.3823/1654

Lipid Levels tein detected in the control group's urine was lower
Cholesterol levels as well as triglycerides and LDL than the initially measured values.
cholesterol concentrations improved significantly in
participants of the chocolate group in comparison Giessen Subjective Complaints List
to the low-carb group. We also found highly significant differences with re-
gard to physical and psychological ailments, which
Liver Values we obtained with the help of the Giessen Subjecti-
Participants of the chocolate group also showed the ve Complaints List. Although the perception in the
most significant changes in ALT and GGT/GGTP va- low-carb group and control group did not change
lues. by much, the participants of the chocolate group
felt much better on average. Exhaustion symptoms
Albumin in particular, such as fatigue or the sensation of
While the measured urinary protein breakdown heavy legs, significantly decreased in the chocolate
increased significantly in the low-carb group, the group. The significance of this survey was p <0.001.
proportion in the chocolate group increased by only
one-sixth. At the end of the testing period, the pro-

Table 3. A
 bsolute changes in lipid levels, liver values, and albumin values in an analysis that include data
on all subjects in the relevant groups.
Variable Chocolate Diet Low-Carbohydrate P-Value
Cholesterol (mg/dl).
-12,2 26,7 2,3 15,9 0,19
Day 21
DTriglycerides (mg/dl)
-22,6 85,7 3,0 41,3 0,55
Day 21
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)
-17,4 22,8 -5,0 22,4 0,00
Day 21
ALT (U/l)
-6,4 6,7 -11,5 3,6 0,11
Day 21
GGT/GGTP (U/l)
-8,8 5,5 -2,0 0,0 0.23
Day 21
Albumin (g/dl)
0,0 0,4 0,1 0,3 0.23
Day 21
Plus-minus values are means . The chocolate group had 5 subjects, in the low-carbohydrate group only 4 subjects
could be considered.
P values are for the differences between the two groups.

Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License 5


International Archives of Medicine 2015
Section: Endocrinology Vol. 8 No. 55
ISSN: 1755-7682 doi: 10.3823/1654

Figure 4: Analysis of Giessen Subjective Complaints List - Development during the trial period.

Conclusion diovascular and all-cause mortality, of hypertension


The results of this study show that the addition of in obese women, and symptomatic gallstones in
high cocoa content chocolate can actually be used men). [17, 18, 19, 20]
as a supportive measure in nutritional interven- Many weight-loss diets share the common factor
tions. However, the focus should not remain on the of weight gain within several months after a short
slightly greater weight loss of the chocolate group and often significant weight reduction. This applies
compared to the low-carb group, but on the weight to almost all of the weight-loss programs recom-
development. mended by the Deutsche Adipositasgesellschaft. In
High cocoa content chocolate could be the key studies focusing on the Weight Watchers program,
to solving the biggest problem of all nutritional in- participants in the commercial program gained back
terventions. "Weight cycling"' is, for example, asso- weight after the 26th week. [21] In a study of the
ciated with increased bone loss ratio in the hip and medical outpatient intervention program Bodymed,
the lumbar area, and with an increased risk for loss Walle et al. found that the continuous slimming
of bone density. [16] effect of the mean body weight also stopped after
Moreover, several studies have shown additional 26 weeks. [22] The same applies to the OPTI FAST
risks of significant weight gain (increased risk of car- program. [23]

6 This article is available at: www.intarchmed.com and www.medbrary.com


International Archives of Medicine 2015
Section: Endocrinology Vol. 8 No. 55
ISSN: 1755-7682 doi: 10.3823/1654

In 2003, Foster et al. proved in their groundbrea- The authors of this study believe that high cocoa
king, randomized study on a low-carb diet that the content chocolate is therefore an ideal "weight-loss
effect of weight reduction or greater weight loss turbo" if used in combination with a low-carb in-
compared to a low-fat intervention is not signifi- tervention for weight loss.
cantly detectable after one year. [24] Further studies should examine the suitability of
Consequently, the weight gain of the low-carb this highly efficient weight-loss accelerator for other
group in this study is in line with previous research. intervention programs.
The different weight development course of the
chocolate group is therefore all the more impressi-
ve. Remarkably, "weight cycling" is not detectable References
in this group. The initial slight weight gain is cu- 1. Allen RR, Carson LA, Kwik-Uribe C, Evans EM, Erdman JW Jr.
Daily consumption of a dark chocolate containing flavanols
rrently inexplicable to us. It may be related to the
and added sterol esters affects cardiovascular risk factors in
body's response to the flavanols or to other factors a normotensive population with elevated cholesterol. J Nutr.
that were not the focus of this study. However, 2008; 728: 725-731.
it is more important to consider the blood and 2. McCullough ML, Chevaux K, Jackson L, Preston M, Martinez G,
Schmitz HH, Coletti C, Campos H, Hollenberg NK. Hypertension,
fat levels. Thus, the values of the chocolate group
the Kuna, and the epidemiology of flavanols. J Cardiovasc
on average improved not only considerably more Pharmacol. 2006; 47: S103-S109.
than those of the low-carb group, but they even 3. Taubert D, Roesen R, Schmig E. Effect of cocoa and tea intake
resulted in better LDL levels after just three weeks on blood pressure. Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167: 626-634.
compared to levels participants reached after three 4. Grassi D, Lippi C, Necozione S, Desideri G, Ferri C. Short-term
administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant
months in diet groups graded by the professional
increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in
associations with the quality level S3 (highest sta- healthy persons. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 81: 611-614.
ge) and the recommendation grade A (the highest 5. Engler MB, Engler MM, Chen C-Y, Malloy MJ, Browne A, Chiu
level). EY, Kwak H-K, Milbury P, Paul SM, Bluimberg J, Mietus-Snyder
ML. Flavanoid-rick dark chocolate improves endothelial function
The albumin values of the study participants are
and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy
also worth mentioning. Criticism of low-carb diets adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004; 23: 197-204.
always broaches the issue of excessive protein in- 6. Davison K, Coates AM, Buckley JD, Howe PRC. Effect of
take. One suspects that this may lead to an increa- cocoa flavanols and exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors
in overweight and obese subjects. Int J Obes. 2008; 32: 1289-
sed risk of coronary artery disease. [25]
1296.
Unlike the participants in the low-carb group, 7. Egan BM, Papademetriou V, Wofford M, Calhoun D, Fernandez
however, the chocolate group showed hardly any J, Riehle JE, Nesbitt S, Julius S. Metabolic syndrome and insulin
increase of albumin degradation. It was lower by resistance: Contrasting views in patients with high normal blood
a factor of 6. The risk for coronary heart disease pressure. Am J Hypertens. 2005; 18: 3-12.
8. Corti R, Flammer AJ, Hollenberg NK, Lscher TF. Cocoa and
should therefore be much lower.
cardiovascular health. Circulation. 2009; 119: 1433-144 1.
Considering all of these results, it is not sur- 9. Ried K, Sullivan TR, Fakler P, Frank OR, Stocks NP. Effect of cocoa
prising that the chocolate group participants felt on blood pressure.2012, The Cochrane Library.
significantly better than those in the other two 10. Golomb BA, Koperski S, White HL. Association Between More
Frequent Chocolate Consumption and Lower Body Mass Index.
groups. Therefore, we recommend the consump-
Arch Intern Med. 2012; 172(6): 519-521.
tion of high cocoa content chocolate during nutri-
tional interventions. The positive effects that have
been proven in laboratory mice seem to be rele-
vant to humans.

Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License 7


International Archives of Medicine 2015
Section: Endocrinology Vol. 8 No. 55
ISSN: 1755-7682 doi: 10.3823/1654

11. Dorenkott MR, Griffin LE, Goodrich KM, et al. Oligomeric 22. Becker C, Walle H. rztlich betreut, ambulant gegen Adipositas.
Cocoa Procyanidins Possess Enhanced Bioactivity Compared to Aktuel Ernahrungsmed 2014; 39(04): 256-269.
Monomeric and Polymeric Cocoa Procyanidins for Preventing 23. Wechsler G, Bischoff G, Hagen H, Bischoff M. Adipositastherapie
the Development of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Impaired mit Formuladiten. 2011; 5(2): 89-94.
Glucose Tolerance during High-Fat Feeding. J. Agric. Food 24. Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, McGuckin BG, Brill C, Mohammed
Chem. 2014, 62 (10), pp 2216-2227. BS, Szapary PO, Rader DJ, Edman JS, Klein S. A Randomized Trial
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13. Wabitsch M, Wirth A, Hauner H, et al. Interdisziplinre Leitlinie E. Low carbohydrate-high protein diet and incidence of
der Qualitt S3 zur, Prvention und Therapie der Adipositas. cardiovascular diseases in Swedish women: prospective cohort
2014, Deutsche Adipositas Gesellschaft. study. BMJ 2012; 344: e4026.
14. Brhler E, Hinz A, Scheer JW. GBB-24. Der Gieener
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15. Lagiou P, Sandin S, Lof M, Trichopoulos D, Adami HO, Weiderpass
E. Low carbohydrate-high protein diet and incidence of
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16 . Papaioannou A, Kennedy CC, Cranney A, Hawker G, Brown JP,
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cycling and risk of gallstone disease in men. Arch Intern Med
Where Doctors exchange clinical experiences,
2006;166(21): 2369-74.
review their cases and share clinical knowledge.
21. Heshka S, Anderson JW, Atkinson RL, Greenway FL, Hill JO, You can also access lots of medical publications for
Phinney SD, Kolotkin RL, Miller-Kovach K, Pi-Sunyer FX. Weight free. Join Now!
Loss With Self-help Compared With a Structured Commercial
Program. JAMA. 2003; 289(14): 1792-1798.

Publish with iMedPub


http://www.imed.pub

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publishing articles encompassing all aspects of medical scien-
ce and clinical practice. IAM is considered a megajournal with
independent sections on all areas of medicine. IAM is a really
international journal with authors and board members from all
around the world. The journal is widely indexed and classified
Q1 in category Medicine.

8 This article is available at: www.intarchmed.com and www.medbrary.com


Been there, done that (August
2016)
Most of the papers in this collection are fakes. They are meant to be
obviously atrocious to anyone with a little expertise who tries to read
them. But awfulness is not the only reason that a per should be rejected.

Hatixhe Latifi-Pupovci submitted a legitimate paper that should pass


peer review. Indeed, it already had. Latifi-Pupovci submitted a paper
that had already been published in Praxis Medica. The original paper
had been in Albanian, and the new submission was in English.

In scientific publishing, most journals explicitly say that they will not
consider manuscripts that have been previously published elsewhere.
This is often called the Ingelfinger rule, after editor Franz Ingelfinger,
who enforced this rule at the New England Journal of Medicine. Thus,
duplicate publication is grounds for rejection at most scientific
journals. A duplicate paper is more difficult to detect than nonsense
text, particularly when the language is changed.

The editor eventually retracted the paper, but not before accusing
Latifi-Pupovci of plagiarism and unethical behaviour in an editorial.

The papers complete text remains in PubMed, though labeled as


retracted. Many biomedical researchers consider PubMed to be a
reliable repository of legitimate journals. In theory, predatory journals
should not be indexed in PubMed.

Resources

Sting operation forces predatory publisher to pull paper


http://retractionwatch.com/2016/08/31/sting-operation-forces-
predatory-publisher-to-pull-paper/

Medical journal accepts sting paper, gets tipped off, retracts


http://www.emeraldcityjournal.com/2016/05/medical-journal-accepts-
sting-paper-gets-tipped-off-retracts/
Medicinski Arhiv Case of Hatixhe Latifi-Pupovci
http://www.avicenapublisher.org/2017/02/18/medicinski-arhiv-case-of-
hatixhe-latifi-pupovci/
Association Between Autoantibodies Against Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor and Thyroid Diseases

ORIGINAL ARTICLE doi: 10.5455/medarh.2014.68.79-81


Published online: 22/04/2014 Med Arh. 2014 Apr; 68(2):79-81
Published print: 04/2014 Received: January 11th 2014 | Accepted: April 10th 2014
AVICENA 2014

Association Between Autoantibodies Against


Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor and
Thyroid Diseases
Hatixhe Latifi-Pupovci
Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo

Corresponding author: Hatixhe Latifi-Pupovci, MD. Str. Dshmort e kombit n.n 10000, Prishtina, Kosovo. hatixhe.pupovci@uni-pr.edu

ABSTRACT
Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between TRAb and different diseases. The highest percentage of
increased TRAb levels can be found at patients with Graves diseases. Material and methods: Study was performed in 70 patients,
grouped in three groups, and 14 persons who based on the clinical status and the levels of thyroid hormones do not
have any thyroid disease. The TRAb levels has been determined in patients with Graves disease (N=40), Hashimotos
disease (N=15), Plummers disease (N=15) and the control group (N=14). Results: The highest mean TRAb levels exist in pa-
tients with Graves disease. There exists a positive correlation between TRAb levels and T3, and T4, while there is no correlation between
TSH and TRAb levels in patients with Graves disease,. On the other hand, the correlation between TRAb and T3 and T4 in patients with
Hashimotos diseases and Plummers disease was shown to be positive, but of a low levels.
Key words: thyroid disease, thyroid stimulating hormone, autoantibodies.

1. INTRODUCTION of thyrocytes (TBII). The third category contains thy-


Thyroid autoimmune diseases AITD is a group of roid-blocking antibodies (TBAb) that block interaction
diseases with different clinical and laboratory manifesta- of TSH to TSHR. The first and second categories cause
tions (1, 2), with the possibility of progression based on hyperthyroidism in Graves disease, while the third cat-
another clinical disorder (3). While it is well known that egory of autoantibodies of TRAb causes hypothyroidism
Graves disease and chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with atrophic thyroiditis and in some Graves
Hashimotos thyroiditis are autoimmune diseases, the as- disease patients.
sociation between autoimmune process and development Determining the levels of TRAb is of clinical value for
of toxic nodular goiter (Plummer disease) still remains diagnosing of Graves disease, evaluation of prognosis,
unclear (4). and for predicting neonatal hyperthyroidism. This also
Autoimmune thyroid diseases are characterized by helps in diagnosis of euthyroid Graves disease patients.
spontaneous production of autoantibodies against thy-
roid antigens (5). Autoantibodies against the following 2. OBJECTIVE
antigenic molecules of thyroid gland can be detected in The aim of this study is to determine the relationship
the serum of patients with AITD: thyrotropin receptor between TRAb and different diseases. For the purpose
(TSH-R), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroperoxidase (TPO), thy- of this study, the following has been researched: the per-
rostimulating hormone itself, etc. Autoantibodies against centage of increased TRAb levels in the above mentioned
TSH receptor TRAb, thyroglobulin TgAb and autoan- diseases, mean levels of these autoantibodies, and the cor-
tibodies against thyroperoxidase TPOAb, are of para- relation between the TRAb levels and T3, T4 and TSH.
mount clinical importance for diagnosis and prognosis of
thyroid diseases (6). 3. MATERIAL AND METHODS
The main protein that controls the function of thyroid In this study the patients sera with different thyroid
gland and which is in fact the main auto antigen, is the diseases has been utilized. Study was performed in 70
receptor for TSH. There are three categories of autoan- patients, grouped in three groups, and 14 persons who
tibodies against the receptor for TSH. The first category based on the clinical status and the levels of thyroid hor-
contains thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAb) that have mones do not have any thyroid disease. The TRAb lev-
analogous functions to TSH and work by stimulating els has been determined in patients with Graves disease
the adenyl cyclase. The second category contains auto- (N=40), Hashimotos disease (N=15), Plummers disease
antibodies that inhibit binding of TSH in the membrane (N=15) and the control group (N=14).

Med Arh. 2014 Apr; 68(2):79-81 79


Diagram 1. Correlation between levels of T4 and TRAb in patients with Graves
disease
Association Between Autoantibodies Against Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor and Thyroid Diseases

Included patients in this study did not have any pre-


vious therapeutic treatment and were diagnosed in the 400

Department of Endocrinology, whereas laboratory mea- 350


surements were done in Department of Physiology, Uni- y = 1.7791x + 168.66
300
versity Clinical Center, Prishtina, Kosovo. This research

T-4 (nmol/L)
was approved by Faculty of Medicine, Teaching-Science 250

Council, and was conform to the provisions of the Decla- 200

ration of Helsinki (paragraph 11,13, 15, 16, 20). Informed 150


written consent was obtained from all subjects before in-
100
clusion in the study. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

The diagnosis of patients was based on clinical status, TRAb (UI/L)

laboratory data TSH, T3 and T4 levels, as well ultraso-


Diagram 1. Correlation
was alsobetween levels of T4 and TRAb in patients
nographic and histopathologic findings. Basic precondi- Positive correlation found between levels of T4 and TRAb (r = 0.50, t=3.61,
with Graves disease Positive correlation was also found between
tion for inclusion of patients in the study was disease di- df=38, p=0.001), with regression line: y=1.7791x+168.66
levels of T4 and TRAb (r = 0.50, t=3.61, df=38, p=0.001), with re-
agnosis based on clinical status and, at least, two of above gression line: y=1.7791x+168.66
mentioned parameters. For serum isolation the blood was
taken from vena mediana cubiti. The isolated sera were In the higher percentage, the increased TRAb levels was
kept in refrigerator at -200C until the determination of shown to be in the group of patients with Graves disease
the levels of autoantibodies was done. (34/40, 85%), while in those with Hashimotos disease and
The radio receptor assay RRA was used in order to Plummers disease, the increased levels was at 40% (6/15),
determine the levels of autoantibodies against TSHR. namely 33.33% (5/15) of cases. In the control group, this
For quantitative determination of autoantibodies against levels was increased only in 21.43% (3/14).
TSHR (TRAb) the DYNOtest TRAK human reagent kit, In patients with thyroid diseases, a significant statisti-
article nr: 101.1, produced by B.R.A.H.M.S. Diagnostica cal difference in the percentage of cases with increased
GmbH was utilized. TRAb levels, compared to control group, was only ob-
The radioactivity of samples was measured using DPC- served at patients with Graves disease (p < 0.002), while
type gamma counter, while the result calculation was the percentage of increased TRAb levels in patients with
done using GMS software application. Using this method, Hashimotos disease and Plummers disease, compared to
values < 1 IU/L are considered negative, while values > 1 the control group did not show any statistically significant
IU/L are considered positive. difference (p>0,3 respectively p > 0.5).
In the Table 1, it can be observed that higher TRAb lev-
4. RESULTS els are found in the group of patients with Graves disease.
In Table 1 we presented the percentage of increased The mean TRAb levels in patients with Graves disease
TRAb levels in patients, groped in two groups (group has shown significant statistical difference, compared to
with normal TRAb values and group with increased mean TRAb levels in patients with Hashimotos disease,
TRAb values), according to diseases and control group. patients with Plummers disease, and control group. The
mean TRAb levels in patients with Hashimotos disease,
Disease
has shown significant difference compared to mean levels
TRAb levels Graves Hashimo- Toxic nod- Control of these autoantibodies in patients with Plummers dis-
disease tos disease ular goiter group
ease and control group. Negligible statistical difference
Nr. 6 9 10 11 was found between TRAb mean levels in patients with
% 15.00 60.00 66.67 78.57 Plummers diseases and control group.
Normal

MEAN 0.90 0.96 0.95 0.90 The correlation between TRAb levels and T3, T4 and
SD 0.00 0.05 0.05 0.00 TSH hormones was specifically analyzed. In patients
Nr. 34 6 5 3 with Graves disease, a positive medium correlation (r
= 0.62, t=4.87, df=38, p=0.00002), with regression line:
Increased

% 85.00 40.00 33.33 21.43


MEAN 59.04 7.63 1.74 2.07
y=0.0363x+3.0275, between levels of T3 and TRAb was
found. Another positive correlation was also found be-
SD 24.64 2.13 0.11 0.45
tween levels of T4 and TRAb (r = 0.50, t=3.61, df=38,
To-
Nr. 40 15 15 14 p=0.001), with regression line: y=1.7791x+168.66 (Dia-
tal
gram 1). A low negative correlation was found between
Table 1. The percentage of incresed TRAb levels and mean TRAb levels of TSH and TRAb in patients with Graves disease
levels (UI/L) by diseases. Data are shown as mean SD. Statisti- (r = -0.21, t=1.34, df=38, p=0.189), with regression line: y
cal analyses were performed with student t-test, P<0.05. Signifi- = -0.0044x+0.7108. (Diagram 1)
cant statistical difference in the percentage of cases with increased
A low positive correlation between levels of T3 and
TRAb levels, compared to control group, was only observed at
patients with Graves disease (p < 0.002), while the percentage of TRAb was found in patients with Hashimotos disease. In
increased TRAb levels in patients with Hashimotos disease and these patients, also, the correlation between T4 and TSH
Plummers disease, compared to the control group did not show and TRAb levels was negative.
any statistically significant difference (p>0,3 respectively p > 0.5). In patients with Plummers disease, a low positive
The mean TRAb levels are significantly greater in Graves disease correlation between T3 and TRAb levels was found. A
vs. Hashimotos thyroiditis and control group ( p<0.0001). negative correlation between T4 and TRAb levels was

80 Med Arh. 2014 Apr; 68(2):79-81


Association Between Autoantibodies Against Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor and Thyroid Diseases

observed, but of a low levels. Finally, a low positive cor- exists a positive correlation between TRAb levels and T3,
relation was also observed between TSH and TRAb levels. and T4, while there is no correlation between TSH and
TRAb levels in patients with Graves disease,. On the oth-
5. DISCUSSION er hand, the correlation between TRAb and T3 and T4 in
Different authors found different percentage of cases patients with Hashimotos diseases and Plummers disease
with increased TRAb levels depending on the method was shown to be positive, but of a low levels.
they used. On the other side, great variations are found in
patients with Graves disease living in Great Britain, de- CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECL ARED
pending on the region, in a structure of 35% in Prinston
until 92% in Suthampton (13). Also, there is a wide range REFERENCES
of occurrence in the percentage of patients with Graves 1. Rose NR, Bona C. Defining criteria for autoimmune diseases
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According to Hasse-Lazar (16), the increased TRAb au- 3. Kappler JW, Roehm N, Marrack P. T cell tolerance by clonal
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Hashimotos diseases (mean levels value 4,1 U/L), 25% of desease. New York: Willey-Liss, Inc. 1994.
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U/L), while an increased levels of these autoantibodies New York: Lippincott Raven, 1996.
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study with regards to increased TRAb levels in patients 10. Sergio MR, Godinho C, Guerra L, Agapito A, Foncesa F, Costa
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The highest percentage of increased TRAb levels can be Bula G, Skrzypek J. TSH receptor antibodies in thyroid dis-
found at patients with Graves diseases. The highest mean ease. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1997 Mar; 97(3): 239-251.
TRAb levels exist in patients with Graves disease. There

Med Arh. 2014 Apr; 68(2):79-81 81


Siri, write me a conference
abstract (October 2016)
Like several other papers in this collection, this conference abstract was
born out of frustration with spam email. Christopher Bartneck wrote,
Today I received an invitation from the International Conference on
Atomic and Nuclear Physics to submit a paper. Since I have practically
no knowledge of Nuclear Physics I resorted to iOS auto-complete
function to help me writing the paper.

Many of the same groups that run predatory journals also run predatory
conferences. The OMICS Group is widely regarded as a clear case of a
predatory publisher not only publishes journals, also claims to organize
conferences., including the one that prompted Bartneck to open up his
phone.

Resources

iOS just got a paper on nuclear physics accepted at a scientific


conference http://www.bartneck.de/2016/10/20/ios-just-got-a-paper-
on-nuclear-physics-accepted-at-a-scientific-conference/

Nonsense paper written by iOS autocomplete accepted for conference


https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/oct/22/nonsense-paper-
written-by-ios-autocomplete-accepted-for-conference

Dubious conferences put the pose in symposium


http://www.sciencemag.org/careers/2016/11/dubious-conferences-put-
pose-symposium

A peek inside the strange world of fake academia


https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/29/upshot/fake-academe-looking-
much-like-the-real-thing.html

Bogus academic conferences lure scientists


http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2013-04/scientists-duped-fake-
academic-conferences
T Furuta et al., J Pai n Relief 2016, 5:3(Suppl)
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2167-0846.C1.006

International Conference on

Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain (June 15-16, 2016 Philadelphia,


Atomic Energy will have been made available to a single
source
Iris Pear, PhD, Umbria Polytech University, Infinity Loop
11 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, CA 95014, USA

Image
Abstract
Atomic Physics and I shall not have the same problem with a separate
section for a very long long way. Nuclear weapons will not have to
come out the same day after a long time of the year he added the two
sides will have the two leaders to take the same way to bring up to
their long ways of the same as they will have been a good place for a
good time at home the united front and she is a great place for a
good time. The atoms of a better universe will have the right for the
same as you are the way we shall have to be a great place for a
great time to enjoy the day you are a wonderful person to your great
time to take the fun and take a great time and enjoy the great day
you will be a wonderful time for your parents and kids. Molecular
diagnostics will have been available for the rest by a single day and a
good day to the rest have a wonderful time and aggravation for the
rest day at home time for the two of us will have a great place for the
rest to be great for you tomorrow and tomorrow after all and I am a
very happy boy to the great day and I hope he is wonderful.
Nevertheless I have to go back home to nuclear power to the united
way she is to be the first woman united to work on their own and the References
rest will be the same way as she will have to come back to work and 1. Kuo, T. T. S., and G. E. Brown. "Structure of finite nuclei and the
we are still not the way we shall have the united side and we are not free nucleon-nucleon interaction: An application to 18O and
the same way she is the way she said the same as she was a good 18F." Nuclear Physics 85.1 (1966): 40-86.
time. Physics are great but the way it does it makes you want a good
book and I will pick it to the same time I am just a little more than I can 2. Satchler, G. R. "The distorted-waves theory of direct nuclear
play for later and then it is very very good for a good game. Nuclear reactions with spin-orbit effects." Nuclear Physics 55 (1964): 1-
energy is not a nuclear nuclear power to the nuclear nuclear program 33
he added and the nuclear nuclear program is a good united state of 3. Coester, Fritz, and Hermann Kmmel. "Short-range correlations
the nuclear nuclear power program and the united way nuclear nuclear in nuclear wave functions." Nuclear Physics 17 (1960): 477-
program nuclear. Scientist and I have been very good to me today I 485.
hope I have to work on tomorrow after work today so far but I'm still 4. Skyrme, T. H. R. "The effective nuclear potential." Nuclear
going for tomorrow night at work today but I'm not going home said I Physics 9.4 (1959): 615-634.
am a good friend and a great time for the rest I have been doing.
Physics are great but the same as you have been able and the same
way to get the rest to your parents. Atoms for a play of the same as
you can do with a great time to take the rest to your parents or you
will be nucleus a great time for a great place. Power is not a great
place for a good time.

Biography
Iris Pear has her expertise in atomic and nuclear physics. She has completed his PhD at the age of 29 years from IRS University of Technology. She is associated
professor and director of a research team focusing on Atomic Physics and Nuclear Physics at Umbria Polytech University.
Email iris.pear1973@gmail.com

Notes/Comments:

J Pain Relief Fibromyalgia 2016 Volume 5, Issue 3(Suppl)


ISSN: 2167-0846 JPAR an open access journa
June 15-16, 2016 Page 40
The first Spears (November
2016)
Canadian reporter Tom Spears had a national connection in his sting.
Two reputable Canadian publishers had been purchased by the
disrespected publisher, OMICS Group. OMICS Group was so bad that it
attracted a lawsuit from the U.S. Federal Trade Commission.

In an interview with the blog Retraction Watch, Spears said he had a


simple goal: (T)o draw attention to what idiots they are.

Spearss article was mostly plagiarized from Aristotle, with every fourth
or fifth word changed so that anti-plagiarism software wont catch it.

As of this writing, a retraction notice is still available on the journals


website.

Resources

Owner of Canadian medical journals publishes fake research for cash


http://ottawacitizen.com/news/local-news/owner-of-canadian-
medical-journals-publishes-fake-research-for-cash

Surprise! Paper retracted after author tells journal its a pile of dung
http://retractionwatch.com/2016/11/30/surprise-paper-retracted-
author-tells-journal-pile-dung/

FTC charges academic journal publisher OMICS Group deceived


researchers https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/press-
releases/2016/08/ftc-charges-academic-journal-publisher-omics-
group-deceived

Federal Trade Commission v. OMICS Group Inc.


https://www.ftc.gov/enforcement/cases-proceedings/152-3113/federal-
trade-commission-v-omics-group-inc
The Voluntary Nature of
Ethical-Moral Behavior in the
21st Century (or in Any Other): A
Personal Perspective
Thomas Spears*

Lakes and Freshwater Biology Office, University of Ottawa-Carleton, Canada

*Corresponding Author:

Thomas Spears
Lakes and Freshwater Biology Office
University of Ottawa-Carleton, Canada
Tel: +1 (613) 596-3700
E-mail: lakes46@yahoo.ca

Received date: August 31, 2016; Accepted date: September 28, 2016; Published date: October 04,
2016

Citation: Spears T (2016) The Voluntary Nature of Ethical-Moral Behavior in the 21st Century (or in
Any Other): A Personal Perspective. J Clin Res Bioeth 7:286. doi: 10.4172/2155-9627.1000286

Copyright: 2016 Spears T. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Increasingly in the modern research world there are questions raised


about actions taken by academics who do now have full control of their
choice of action. In the laboratory setting, graduate students,
postdoctoral fellows and even junior professors are often compelled to
follow courses of action that are determined by their supervisors or
senior members of their departments. So the question of moral
determinism derives from the more fundamental question of what
actions are voluntary, and to what degree - a question that has informed
the thought of philosophers as far back as Aquinas and Duns Scotus.
What follows is a personal reflection on currents in this line of inquiry.
Since true virtue - or in other words, ethical behavior - is concerned with
frequent emotions and their intense interplay with actions, and such
emotional issues and their agents may either praise or blame actions
which are grafted to those by involuntary roles, then to distinguish the
voluntary from what is involuntary must be useful for those who study
ethics and in particular bioethics, and also useful for researchers for
both the award of honors and also of criticism. These things, then, we
believe: involuntary actions, which take place under duress or through
ignorance; and what is required of the moving principle is outside, being
a principle of which nothing is moved by the person who acts or who or
feels the emotional connection. For example, all actions must be put
into motion either by chance or by the power of human action [1].

But in dealing with the stochastic things that are done from fear of
greater evils or for some object of ethical behavior (for instance if ones
employers were to order an improper course of action, having ones
employees in his or her power, so that if one did the action they would
save their jobs, but otherwise would be disciplined or fired), it remains
a question whether such actions are involuntary or voluntary.
Something of this nature happens also in the hypothetical case of
throwing of objects overboard in a storm; for usually we never throw
goods away voluntarily, but on condition of its ensuring the safety of the
boat and passengers any sensible human does so. Such actions, then,
are of mixed nature, but are more in the line of voluntary actions; for
they involve a discrete choice when they are done, and the goal of such
an action is relative according to the circumstances. Therefore it is seen
that the stochastic terms voluntary and involuntary can vary along
with the time and sort of action. Now we all act voluntarily; for the
principle that moves the instrumental parts of the body in such actions
is in him, and the things of which the moving principle is in a himself are
in his power to do or not to do. Such actions, therefore, we can call
voluntary, but in the abstract they would more properly be involuntary;
for only a fool would choose such an act alone.

People may even be praised for such actions, when they endure
something evil or distressing in return for the greater good for the
community; If they do otherwise y are blamed, because to go through
great indignities for no noble purpose or for a trivial goal is the sign of
an inferior person. For some actions praise does not result, but
forgiveness may, when one does the right thing under extreme pressure
which no one could reasonably be expected to resist. But some actions,
perhaps, a person cannot be compelled to do, but ought to resist even at
the risk of ones life; for example the sort of actions which people in a
prisoner-of-war camp have been force to perform. It is difficult
sometimes in a postcolonial sense to choose what action should be done
at what cost, and what suffering should be endured for what purpose.
Still it is harder to live with our decisions; for as a rule duty is painful,
and what we may be forced to do is evil, and this is why praise and blame
are given to those who have been forced unwillingly into unethical
action.

What sort of acts, we must ask, should be we call compulsory? Clearly


actions are compulsory when the cause is in the surrounding
circumstances and the person him- or herself is responsible for nothing.
But the things that by themselves are compulsory, whose direction force
is in the doer, are on their own involuntary, except now and then for
these that are more voluntary [2]. They are more voluntary actions; for
acts belong in the stochastic class of details, and the details here are of
course voluntary. What sort of things are to be chosen, and in return for
what, it is not easy to state; for there are many differences in the
particular cases.

But if we say that happy and ethical actions have a forceful power,
directing us from the outside, all actions would be in such a case
compulsory. This is because it is in these circumstances that ethical
humans do everything they do. We do not then act under compulsion
and nor are we forced to act by threats or by pain, because those who do
acts for their pleasantness and upstandingness do them with pleasure,
and those around them are in the current vernacular totes jelly. and it
is sill to make geomorphological circumstances responsible, and not
ones own, and to claim responsibility for proper acts but the also the
good objects responsible for geomorphological acts. The compulsory
side, then, appears to be the one that is external, and the person
compelled into action against his or her will is contributing nothing.
Everything that is done by reasons which ethicists now call ketterance
[3] is not voluntary; it is only what produces aridity that is severe. For the
person who has done something a particular action in banking, or in
research, or in other academic or technological fields of ethics as
defined by the recent Senate of Canada case against Mike Duffy, has
not acted involuntarily, yet since he or she did not know what he was
doing according to Senate rules, then only a Duffy-esque character can
know all. Of people, then, who act by treason or ignorance he who
resents is considered an involuntary reagent, and the human who does
not resent may be subject to a sever tongue-lashing; for, since she
differs from the mother, it is better that she should have a home of her
own.

Acting in a postcolonial sense by means of ignorance appears also to be


different from acting in ignorance; for the worker who is drunk on the
job is in the unenviable moral position of doing wrong yet not being in a
fit state to deny it, largely out of incapacity and therefore from
ignorance [4].

Now every man must come at times to the aid of the party through the
general precept that ethical behavior demands support of the
community. It is by reason of erroneous reasoning of this kind that we
become unjust and in general evil, or worse, slytherins; but the
designation involuntary can be used if we act according to our
advantage. It is mistaken purpose that causes involuntary action and
ignorance of the universe and its principles (for that we are blamed), but
also ignorance of details, i.e. of the circumstance of the acts and forces
and means with which any action is concerned. It is on these that piety
and fardles depend, for who would bear fardles unless the person who
does not understand these acts involuntarily?

Perhaps it is just as well, therefore, to determine the nature of each form


of voluntary action, and their number. But that is a topic for another day.
References

Feynman RP (1982) Simulating ethics with computers. Int J Theor Phys


21: 467-488.

Deutsch D (2012) Quantum theory, the ethical principle and the


universal quantum computer. Proc R Soc Lond 400: 97-117.

Deutsch D, Jozsa R (2012) Rapid solution of problems by quantum


computing. Proc R Soc Lond 439: 553-558.

Diffin PW (1997) Stochastic analysis of moral questions in Aristotle.


SIAM J Comput 26: 1484-1509.
The second Spears (December
2016)
Tom Spears was drawn into another journal sting because, much like
many others in the research community do on a regular (sometimes
daily) basis, he got spam emails. These were invitations to join a
journals editorial board. Spears claimed to have a doctorate in the
phrenology of earthworms, was accepted as an editorial board member,
and then wrote an editorial, since he was on the board.

Unlike his first article, and most of the others in this collection, Spearss
second sting article is not fake: Spears wrote what he thought about
predatory journals, which was not complimentary. For instance, Spears
referred to, the dopiness of open-access journals like this one.

By this point, people other than me were starting to suffer from YASP
syndrome. The blog Retraction Watch, in its coverage of Spearss second
prank, wrote, While we are often among the first to chuckle at a good
sting of a predatory publisher, there have probably been enough of
them by now to have made the point.

Resources

This 'predatory' science journal published our ludicrous editorial


mocking its practices http://ottawacitizen.com/news/local-news/this-
science-journal-published-our-ludicrous-editorial-mocking-its-
practices

For this fake editorial, merit of artistic writing was enough for
publication http://retractionwatch.com/2017/01/05/another-prank-
predatory-publisher-another-silent-retraction/
Tom, 2016 J App Mol Cell Bio
http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/

Editorial
SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION IN AN ERA OF PROGRESS: LESSONS FROM CELLULAR
BIOLOGY
Tom Spears
Canada Research Chair, Chateau Lafayette campus, Ottawa, Canada.

These are exciting times in the world of molecular cell biology (especially as contrasted with any
History: other kind of molecular biology one might suggest.) The recent experiments on hereditary traits in
Received: December 13, 2016 Pisum sativum, as elucidated by Professor Mendel, have broken ground once thought unbreakable
Accepted: December 21, 2016 (though the obstacles in heredity experimentation involving cryonic peas remain and must not be
Published: December 29, 2016 underestimated. We look to the valley of the Green Giant Corporation for help in that important
Collection year: 2016
Confirmation of publication: Published
genetic region.)
Beyond these initial investigations it is an understatement to say the possibilities seem unlimited.
New techniques seem to be evolving almost every day, from polymerase chain reaction
Identifiers and Pagination: to phrenology and to purified chicanery.
Year: 2016
Volume:
First Page: 6 But all these developments have been eclipsed by the discoveries currently making headlines in cell
Last Page: 7 biology. I refer of course to the scientific news about the genetic eccentricities of the Catostomus
Publisher ID: JAppMolCellBio-2-6 commersonii, or white sucker, a common freshwater Cypriniform fish inhabiting the upper Midwest
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/ and Northeast in North America, but also found in eastern Europe, China and North Tonawanda.
Modern cellular biology techniques have revealed the unusual reproductive abilities of Catostomus
Corresponding author: commersonii, which allow it to breed offspring at a high rate, eliminating the threat of extinction
Tom Spears PhD, Canada Research from predation. Catostomus commersonii form colonies in which one egg hatches, on average, every
Chair, Chateau Lafayette campus, 60 seconds (1), so that white suckers emerge from the egg once a minute in the long term.
Ottawa, Canada.
E.: tspears@postmedia.com
So, one asks, why is this important to a scientific publishing venture? The example of the white
Citation: suckers that are born every minute is emblematic of journals like this. In the ecosystem of scientific
Tom S. Scientific communication in academia, as in nature, there must be a natural balance in the structure of predation. Predators
an era of progress: lessons from consume that which is presented to them. In a not dissimilar way, journals partake of the opportunity
cellular biology. J App Mol Cell Bio.
Vol 2. p 6-7
to welcome the little fishes of the publishing world in with gently smiling -- oh, you know the rest. The
optimism of the poet Dante (Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch'intrate) (2) is appropriate here.

The central and important role of the journal obliges it to take formal ethical positions. In this, it is
important to regard the meretricious conduct of our many journals which fulfill the role of C. lupus in
ruminant clothing, Authors who produce important studies and share them through this journal and
others like it can look forward to excellent academic returns, or as the Estonian philosopher Paul of
Tallinn wrote: "Sa kaotasid oma raha ja sa lhnad nagu surnud kitse." (3) (Translation: Fortune
favors the brave, and knowledge is the basis of civilization for right-thinking individuals.)

Clearly these are unprecedented times in applied cellular biology. If the dopiness of open-access
journals like this one is not sufficient to prove their character, then their devotion to self-
aggrandizement (4) and malodor are strong indicators of the way forward as defined by their
devotion to nooky everywhere in the learned world. How long will it be before cellular biology unlocks
the secrets of the greatest humans diseases? And what role will biology laboratories play in this
endeavor? We do not yet know the answers, but this is the best time in the history of science to
publish the latest studies on the subject. Researchers may conveniently park any ethics at the door.

References
1. Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, Rogers A, Long SP, Ort DR. Elevated CO2
effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations: six important lessons from FACE. J
Page 6 of 7
Tom, 2016 J App Mol Cell Bio
http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/

Exp Bot. 2009;60(10):285976. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erp096. pmid:19401412


Editorship:
Azharul Islam PhD. 2. Spears TC, Laframboise Z. Crescono i numeri per Paolo Gentiloni
Department of Pathobiological Maggioranza certa anche senza Verdini. Natura. 2014;513(7517):246250. doi:
Sciences, Louisiana State University, 10.1038/nature13452. pmid:25043023
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 USA
3. Keenan TF,. Recitations of Estonian Greatness, Late Hanseatic Era. Penguin 2013; page
39
Funding:
The authors received no direct
4. Brosch M, Merilo E, Mayer F, Pechter P, Puzorjova I, Brader G, et al. Natural variation in
funding for this research. ozone sensitivity among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and its relation to stomatal
conductance. Plant Cell Environ. 2010;33(6):91425. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-
Competing Interests: 3040.2010.02116.x. pmid:20082669
The authors declare no competing 1.
interests

Additional information is available at


the end of the article.

2016 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0
license.
You are free to:
Share copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
Adapt remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.
Under the following terms:
Attribution You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made.
You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
No additional restrictions
You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits

Page 7 of 7
Doctor Fraud (March 2017)
Rather than creating a fake paper, Sorokowsy and colleagues created a
fake researcher: Anna O. Szust. Sorokowsky and colleagues asked
journals if they would invite Dr. Szust to be a member of their editorial
board.

The gag was that Oszust is the Polish word for a fraud. So, the
hoaxers were literally asking journals to have Dr. Fraud as on their
editorial boards. Like Bohannons Science sting, the scope of this sting
was huge, with 360 journals contacted. Unlike Bohannons sting, most
journals turned down the offer, with only 48 accepting.

Resources

Anna Olga Szust http://filozofia.amu.edu.pl/en/dr-hab-anna-olga-


szust/

Predatory journals recruit fake editor


http://www.nature.com/news/predatory-journals-recruit-fake-editor-
1.21662

Science sting exposes how corrupt some journal publishers are


https://www.statnews.com/2017/03/22/science-journal-publishers-
sting/

A scholarly sting operation shines a light on predatory journals


https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/22/science/open-access-
journals.html

The latest sting: Will predatory journals hire Dr. Fraud?


http://retractionwatch.com/2017/03/22/latest-sting-will-predatory-
journals-hire-fake-editor-dr-fraud-answer-yes/

Dozens of academic journals offered a Dr. Fraud a job on their


editorial team https://qz.com/940016/dozens-of-academic-journals-
offered-a-job-to-a-fake-scientist/
Paging Dr. Fraud: The fake publishers that are ruining science
http://www.newyorker.com/tech/elements/paging-dr-fraud-the-fake-
publishers-that-are-ruining-science

Dozens of scientific journals offered her a job. But she didn't exist
http://time.com/4706774/science-journals-fraud-study/
Search

Home dr hab. Anna Olga Szust

dr hab. Anna Olga Szust

Disclaimer:
Szusts CV and webpage are based on a fictional person and were created solely for the purposes of a study:
Predatory journals recruit fake editor (Nature 543, 481483; 2017) doi:10.1038/543481a

Associate Professor
Zakad Historii Nauki
Instytut Filozofii UAM
Wydzia Nauk Spoecznych

pokj 488

Dyury:

poniedziaek 11:00-13:00
roda 15:00-16:00

email:

anna.olga.szust@gmail.com
Stopnie naukowe / Degress
2002 Magisterium z filozofii
2003 Magisterium z psychologii
2009 stopie doktora nauk humanistycznych
2014 habilitacja

Zainteresowania naukowe / Research Interests


Teoria nauki
Historia nauki
Historia sportu

converted by Web2PDFConvert.com
Atrakcyjno i motywacja
Metodologiczne podstawy nauk spoecznych
Biologiczno-kulturowe podstawy zachowania
Kulturowe rda procesw spoecznych
Kognitywistyka

Projekty i stypendia / Projects


1. 2006-2008 Komitet Bada; grant badawczy: Metodologiczne uwarunkowania XVIII-wiecznej historii nauki
2. Stypendium wielkopolskie 1999.

Wybrane konferencje / Conferences


1. IX Polish Congres of Cognitive Sciences, 12.10.2014, Radom. Wystpienie: Biologiczno-kulturowe podstawy zachowa w
perspektywie wspczesnej kognitywistyki.
2. Mazowiecki Kongres Bada nad Histori Nauki, 2.02.2014, Warszawa. Wystpienie: Jak bada rozwj nauki?
3. International Academic Conference: Behavior, Belief, Attitude, 24.11.2013, Berlin. Wystpienie: Behavior: An cultural
approach.
4. Kongres bada nad histori nauki 12 czerwca 2011, Krakw. Wystpienie: The history of psychology as a science.

Wybrane publikacje / Publications


Monografia

Szust, A.O. (2010). Oblicza wspczesnego sportu. Radom: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Textum.

Szust, A.O. (2012). History of the Social Sciences in Poland. Radom: Wydawnictwo Naukowe
Textum.

Szust, A.O. (2015). Science Society Culture. Wrocaw: Wydawnictwo AZSUS.

Rozdziay w pracach zbiorowych


Szust, A.O. (2014). Analiza narzdzi rekrutacyjnych. 4.2Learn. Chc si uczy. W: Nowak, S. (red.), Rekrutacja.Teoria i praktyka,
Pozna: Wydawnictwo NMand.

Szust, A.O. (2013). Znaczenie fizycznej atrakcyjnoci osb zamonych, W: Frankowski, J. (red)., Czowiek rodowisko
Wspczesno, Toru: Wydawnictwo Naukowe SCI.

Szust, A.O. (2012). Druyna mistrzw czy mistrzowska druyna? Motywacyjne przyczyny spadku efektywnego wykonywania zada w
zespole sportowym w kontekcie teorii Herzberga, W: Markin, O. (red.), Problemy wspczesnego sportu, Toru: Wydawnictwo
Naukowe SCI.

Szust, A.O. (2012). Ksztaty i pienidze prawdziwe obiekty westchnie? Rola informacji o atrakcyjnoci i statusie na globaln

converted by Web2PDFConvert.com
ocen osb pci przeciwnej. W: Frankowski, J., Patyk, W. (red.)

Szust, A.O. (2011). Struktura osobowoci turystw. W: Andrzejewska, A. (red.), Zagadnienia turystyki a problem rozwoju
gospodarczego. Wrocaw: Wydawnictwo AZSUS.

Szust, A.O. (2010). Adult females (Homo sapiens) born during the spring are more physical attractive. W: Mark, C., Adons B.,
Frankowski J. (red). Handbook of Attractiveness. Pozna-Berlag.

Szust, A.O. (2010). Mroczne oblicza sportu: Problemy agresji, dopingu i komercjalizacji sportu w XXI wieku. Rozdzia z Oblicza
wspczesnego sportu. Radom: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Textum.

Instytut Filozofii UAM


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A paper about nothing (April
2017)
By this point, there had been enough examples of obviously fake papers
being accepted by bad journals that the main point that there were
journals that would publish anything for money was well established
within the academic community. Stings were still newsworthy, but it
helped if they were funny.

John McCools paper ran with a joke from a Seinfeld episode, where Jerry
makes up a potentially fatal disease uromycitisis as an excuse for
urinating in public. McCool described himself in an editorial as being on
a mini-crusade against fake scientific journals.

Resources

Opinion: Why I published in a predatory journal http://www.the-


scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/49071/title/Opinion--Why-I-
Published-in-a-Predatory-Journal/

HelloNewman: Yet another sting pranks a predatory journal,


Seinfeld-style http://retractionwatch.com/2017/04/06/hello-newman-
yet-another-sting-pranks-a-predatory-journal-seinfeld-style/

Study about nothing highlights the perils of predatory publishing


http://www.sciencemag.org/news/sifter/study-about-nothing-
highlights-perils-predatory-publishing
Urology & Nephrology Open Access Journal

Uromycitisis Poisoning Results in Lower Urinary Tract


Infection and Acute Renal Failure: Case Report

Abstract Case Report

Uromycitisis is a rare but serious condition that affects over 2,000 mostly adult Volume 4 Issue 3 - 2017
men and women in the United States each year. Described simply, it is caused
by prolonged failure to evacuate the contents of the bladder and can result in a
serious infection of the lower urinary tract known as uromycitisis poisoning,
which, if untreated, can cause acute renal failure and has an associated high 1
Department of Interventional Urology, Arthur Vandelay
mortality. Because people with uromycitisis often cannot hold in their urine Urological Research Institute, USA
and feel they must-and, at times, actually must-urinate in inappropriate places, 2
Department of Psychology, Weill Cornell Medical College, USA
sometimes running afoul of local public sanitation ordinances, they can feel great
personal shame and place themselves in legal jeopardy, through no fault of their *Corresponding author: Martin van Nostrand, Arthur
own. We report the case of a 37-year-old male who suffers from uromycitisis, was Vandelay Urological Research Institute, 129 W 81st Street,
prevented from urinating in public, was admitted to the emergency room with New York, NY 10024, USA, Email:
uromycitisis poisoning, was misdiagnosed, and was referred to our institution
for treatment.
Received: March 22, 2017 | Published: March 31, 2017

Introduction City), he had been issued a public urination pass, which shielded
him from legal prosecution under public sanitation ordinances if,
In the United States each year, over 2,000 mostly adult men and by medical necessity, he urinated in public and was caught and
women are afflicted by uromycitisisa rare and potentially serious detained and issued a citation by civil authorities.
urological condition [1]. Uromycitisis is caused by prolonged
failure to evacuate the contents of the bladder and can result in That day, though, he was not carrying his pass on his person;
an infection of the lower urinary tract known as uromycitisis his younger male sibling had absconded with it. Nor, in fact, was
poisoning. While uromycitisis poisoning is characterized by he, at the time, even in the city in which the pass was issued. Even
many of the same symptoms as a urinary tract infectionburning so, and weighing the risks, he decided to urinate on a wall in the
sensation when urinating, urine that appears cloudy, and intense parking garage. However, a mall security guard witnessed what
pelvic painit can spread to and affect the kidneys, resulting in he was about to do, was unconvinced by the mans protestations
even more intense upper back and flank pain, high fever, nausea and explanations, took him into custody, and notified the local
and vomiting, and shaking and chills. If untreated usually within police. The elapsed time between when the man first felt the
12 hours by high-dose antibiotics, acute renal failure can result, urge to urinate and when he arrived at the police station was
leading to general failure to eliminate excess fluid, a dangerous approximately 3 hours. No authority believed him with respect
imbalance in electrolytes, and general inability to evacuate to his condition, and at all turns he was denied access to a toilet.
excess waste materials from the bloodstream. In extreme cases, Essentially, he had been forced to hold it for 3 hours. This
it can cause death [2]. We report the case of a 37-year-old male was much too long for an uromycitisis sufferer. He developed
who suffers from uromycitisis, was prevented from evacuating uromycitisis poisoning, characterized by intense abdominal and
his bladder in public, was admitted to the hospital emergency lower back pain, nausea and vomiting, and severe shaking, and he
room with uromycitisis poisoning, was misdiagnosed by treating was transported directly from the jail to the hospital emergency
physicians, and was ultimately referred to our institution for room.
treatment. He recovered and survived.
In the emergency room, he was generally responsive and
Case presentation did manage to inform physicians about his condition. Standard
urological tests were run. The results were as follows: complete
A 37-year-old white male was in a large suburban mall parking blood count (white blood cells, 14K/mm3; red blood cells, 9.6M/
garage and was unable to locate his car. After more than an hour mm3; hemoglobin, 15 g/dL; hemotocrit, 45%; platelets, 550K/
of walking up and down flights of stairs and through row after mm3); urinalysis (leukocyte esterase, positive; nitrites, positive;
row of cars, searching fruitlessly for his own car, he felt a powerful protein, positive; glucose, positive); urine culture (300,000
urge to urinate. With no restroom available in the garage, and colonies/mL); and basic metabolic panel (blood urea nitrogen, 32
knowing that he suffers from uromycitisis, he feared that if he did mg/dL; carbon dioxide, 37 mmol/L; creatinine, 2.1 mg/dL; serum
not urinate immediately he would develop uromycitisis poisoning. chloride, 23 mmol/L; serum potassium, 6.3 mmol/L; serum
Because of his medically diagnosed condition, and because of the sodium, 21 mmol/L). Yet despite being informed by the patient
progressive policies of the city in which he resided (New York about his condition, emergency room physicians did not seem to

Submit Manuscript | http://medcraveonline.com Urol Nephrol Open Access J 2017, 4(3): 00132
Uromycitisis Poisoning Results in Lower Urinary Tract Infection and Acute Renal Copyright:
2017 Nostrand et al. 2/2
Failure: Case Report

be familiar with uromycitisis or uromycitisis poisoning and instead not be burdened legally (or, indeed, psychologically) by existing
administered conventional antibiotics, namely ciprofloxacin (500 local or state laws and regulations against public urination.
mg PO q12hr), as if they were treating a patient with a severe/ 3) Finally, a national campaign should be launched to educate
complicated urinary tract infection. This drug had no effect and the public about uromycitisis and the dangers of uromycitisis
did not alleviate any of the patients intensifying symptoms, which poisoning. Our institution-the Arthur Vandelay Urological
came to include even more acute abdominal and lower back pain Research Institute-is currently seeking federal and private grant
(Verbal Numerical Rating Scale, 9) and high fever (38.88C). After funds to do just that.
12 hours, he was transferred to our institution.
Acknowledgements
At our institution, he was immediately diagnosed with
uromycitisis poisoning and was given 1g (every 8 hours for We thank the following people for their incisive and helpful
2 days) of intravenous infused avibactam and ceftazidime: a comments and suggestions on the initial drafts of this case report:
next-generation, non- Lactam -lactamases inhibitor and Joseph Mayo, MD; Lloyd Braun, MD, PhD; Michael Moffitt, MD;
third-generation anti-pseudomonal cephalosporin antibiotic Sidney Farkus, PhD; Salman Bass, PhD; Tor Eckman, HMD; Robert
combination for the treatment of uromycitisis poisoning. After Cobb, DMA; and Wyck Thayer, MD. We are indebted to Ruth Cohen
2 days, the results of all urological tests had returned to normal for administrative and editorial assistance.
ranges, and he was determined to have fully recovered. After 3 We also thank the staff and researchers at the Arthur
days, he was discharged and remains symptom free. Vandelay Urological Research Institute for their ongoing support,
encouragement, and collegiality.
Discussion
Uromycitisis was first reported in 1975 by Steinbrenner and References
colleagues [3]. Despite being known about for more than four 1. Reimenschneider J, van Nostrand M, Costanza GL (2016) Incidence
decades, its etiology is still poorly appreciated and understood, of uromycitisis poisoning in the United States, 2015: not a laughing
perhaps, at least partially, because uromycitisis sufferers are matter. J Adv Urol 15: 323-334.
inextricably linked to the odious practice of public urination.
2. Sacamano R, Ramirez C, Sidaredes S, Romanowski FD (2012)
Indeed, the psychological component of this condition cannot be Uromycitisis poisoning leading to acute renal failure. Mex J Urol 45:
discounted, as sufferers often feel shame due to their medical need 34-41.
to urinate whenever and wherever they feel the urge, lest they
risk developing uromycitisis poisoning [4-6]. There is, however, 3. Steinbrenner G, Fisk W, Merman FF, Peterman J, Bhatt B, et al.
(1975) Antibacterial drugs to treat acute renal failure: identification
a strong societal bias against such acts that must be balanced
and discussion of uromycitisis. Lancet Urol 8: 211-220.
against the health and well-being of people with this condition.
4. Whatley T, Leo U, Nicodemo L, Berg A, Haffler E, et al. (1994)
We hereby propose the following: 1) Urologists and Psychological effects of uromycitisis. Can J Ab Psychol 76: 878-896.
nephrologists especially, but also primary care providers and
psychologists, must better educate themselves about uromycitisis 5. Roydlick E, Chiles J, Bison D, Pennypacker HE, Corrochio E (1996)
Dont blame the victim: uromycitisis in American life. Am J Ab
and its signs and symptoms, to be able to provide optimum care for
Behav Psychol 45: 434-442.
and exhibit the utmost sensitivity to patients with uromycitisis. 2)
A national reciprocity program of public urination passes should 6. Davola J, Mischke SE (2014) New public urination passes approved
be adopted, so that people with uromycitisis can be free to urinate, for uromycitisis sufferers. New York Times, USA.
if medically necessary, wherever and whenever they need to and

Citation: Nostrand MV, Riemenschneider J, Nicodemo L (2017) Uromycitisis Poisoning Results in Lower Urinary Tract Infection and Acute Renal
Failure: Case Report. Urol Nephrol Open Access J 4(3): 00132. DOI: 10.15406/unoaj.2017.04.00132
The conceptual penis (May
2017)
Most stings are created because academics are trying to be collegial.
They want to help their colleagues by drawing attention to bad journals.
In contrast, this sting was created by academics who are hostile to their
colleagues in the academy.

Authors Peter Boghossian and James Lindsay are two philosophers who
regularly make critical comments about feminism, womens studies,
and gender studied. In explaining this paper, they wrote, We suspected
that gender studies is crippled academically by an overriding almost-
religious belief that maleness is the root of all evil.

Many replied that this hoax said far more about Bohossian and
Lindsays preoccupations than it did about the state of gender studies.
Having managed to pay for a paper to be published in a deeply suspect
journal the hoaxers then conclude that the entire field of Gender
Studies is suspect, noted James Taylor on the Bleeding Heart
Libertarians blog. How they made this deductive leap is actually far
more puzzling than how the paper got accepted.

The authors of this sting called it a Sokal-style hoax, so it was


appropriate that Alan Sokal wrote an essay about it. He noted another
difference between this sting and others: As far as I can tell, Cogent
Social Sciences is a run-of-the-mill, lower-tier academic journal, not a
predatory publish-anything-if-they-pay outfit. The legitimacy of the
journal as a point of contention in interpreting what Boghossian and
Lindsay had show, if anything. Sokals hoax had appeared in a leading
journal of the field. Boghossian and Lindsays paper was rejected once
before finding its home, weakening their thesis that gender studies
editors would publish anything that was against men.
Resources

The Conceptual Penis as a Social Construct: A Sokal-style hoax on


gender studies http://www.skeptic.com/reading_room/conceptual-
penis-social-contruct-sokal-style-hoax-on-gender-studies/

Hoax with multiple targets


https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/05/22/faux-scholarly-
article-sets-criticism-gender-studies-and-open-access-publishing

Phallic anxiety (probably!) drives male academics to execute lame hoax


about gender studies
http://www.slate.com/blogs/xx_factor/2017/05/25/the_conceptual_pen
is_hoax_is_more_evidence_of_male_academics_weird_anxiety.html

The engine of irrationality inside the rationalists


https://ketanjoshi.co/2017/05/20/the-engine-of-irrationality-inside-
the-rationalists/

Why the conceptual penis hoax is just a big cock up.


http://bleedingheartlibertarians.com/2017/05/conceptual-penis-hoax-
just-big-cock/

What the conceptual penis hoax does and does not prove
http://www.chronicle.com/article/What-the-Conceptual/240344

Publisher blames bad choice of reviewer for publication of hoax paper


on penis as social construct
http://retractionwatch.com/2017/05/24/publisher-blames-bad-choice-
reviewer-publication-hoax-paper-penis-social-construct/

Publisher retracts conceptual penis hoax article


http://retractionwatch.com/2017/06/02/publisher-retracts-conceptual-
penis-hoax-article/

Thanks to Vladimir Oka for remining me of this paper.


Lindsay & Boyle, Cogent Social Sciences (2017), 3: 1330439
https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2017.1330439

SOCIOLOGY | RESEARCH ARTICLE


The conceptual penis as a social construct
Jamie Lindsay1* and Peter Boyle1

Abstract:Anatomical penises may exist, but as pre-operative transgendered women


also have anatomical penises, the penis vis--vis maleness is an incoherent con-
Received: 17 April 2017
Accepted: 11 May 2017 struct. We argue that the conceptual penis is better understood not as an anatomi-
*Corresponding author: Jamie Lindsay,
cal organ but as a social construct isomorphic to performative toxic masculinity.
SEISRG Southeast Independent Social Through detailed poststructuralist discursive criticism and the example of climate
Research Group, 512 N. Central Avenue,
Knoxville, TN 37917, USA change, this paper will challenge the prevailing and damaging social trope that
E-mail: jlind.seisrg@gmail.com penises are best understood as the male sexual organ and reassign it a more fitting
Reviewing editor: role as a type of masculine performance.
Jamie Halsall, University of
Huddersfield, UK Subjects: Gender Studies - Soc Sci; Postmodernism of Cultural Theory; Feminism
Additional information is available at
the end of the article Keywords: penis; feminism; machismo braggadocio; masculinity; climate change

1. Introduction
The androcentric scientific and meta-scientific evidence that the penis is the male reproductive or-
gan is considered overwhelming and largely uncontroversial. It is true that nearly all male-gendered
persons who were also male at birth have a genital organ that, among other purposes, carries the
duct for the transfer of sperm during copulation. This organ is usually identified as the penis, and for
many males it serves the role of their reproductive organ. There are, however, many examples of
persons with penises who will not reproduce, including those who have sustained injury, are unable
to coerce a mate, are uninterested in producing offspring, are medically infertile, or identify as asex-
ual. While these examples may still constitute males, it is distinctly fallacious to identify their pe-
nises as reproductive organs. Furthermore, there are many women who have penises. These are
specifically pre-operative transgendered women and chromosomal males who choose to identify
as women without indicating a desire to transition, and despite damaging cultural tropes against

ABOUT THE AUTHORS PUBLIC INTEREST STATEMENT


Jamie Lindsay, PhD, and Peter Boyle, EdD, Penises are problematic, and we don't just mean
represent a dynamic team of independent medical issues like erectile dysfunction and crimes
researchers working for the Southeast like sexual assault. As a result of our research
Independent Social Research Group, whose into the essential concept of the penis and its
mission is obvious in its name. While neither uses exchanges with the social and material world, we
Twitter, both finding the platform overly reductive, conclude that penises are not best understood as
they incorporate careful reading of the relevant the male sexual organ, or as a male reproductive
academic literature with observations made by organ, but instead as an enacted social construct
searching trending hashtags to derive important that is both damaging and problematic for society
social truths with high impact. In this case, their and future generations. The conceptual penis
particular fascination with penises and the ways in presents significant problems for gender identity
which penises are socially problematic, especially and reproductive identity within social and family
as a social construct known as a conceptual dynamics, is exclusionary to disenfranchised
penis, have opened an avenue to a new frontier communities based upon gender or reproductive
in gender and masculinities research that can identity, is an enduring source of abuse for women
transform our cultural geographies, mitigate and other gender-marginalized groups and
climate change, and achieve social justice. individuals, is the universal performative source of
rape, and is the conceptual driver behind much of
climate change.

2017 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution
(CC-BY) 4.0 license.

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their womanhood and femininity, these constitute critical examples of a human demographic for
whom their genital organ, while it may be utilized reproductively in some cases, is not best under-
stood as being a male genital organ (Hird, 2000).

In light of these important facts about the wide diversity of human expression, including when
specified to those humans bearing a penile genital organ, conceptualizing the penis as a specifically
male anatomical organ is highly problematic and in critical need of discursive revision. Indeed, the
penis vis--vis maleness is an incoherent construct. We argue that the conceptual penis is better
understood not as an anatomical organ but as a gender-performative, highly fluid social construct.

2. The conceptual penis


The conceptual penis is the operative representation of the penis in society as it obtains via a variety
of performative acts and statements related to and concerning gender. Conceptualization is the best
way to understand the penis, as the notion of penis as a male anatomical organ suffers typical
androcentric and meta-scientific limitations and errors as it is both overly reductive, in failing to
represent the full reality of penis-bearing human experiences, and incoherent, as the penis itself has
little or nothing to do with gender (West & Zimmerman, 1987). Consequently, what coherent role
can a monolithic concept like the penis hope either to achieve or to describe for pre-operative and
non-operative male-to-female trans women and post-operative female-to-male trans men who
choose to retain their identity as women? Likewise, what meaning can the anatomical penis as a
male organ possibly hold for gender fluid individuals or certain other individuals within the queer
community? In the paradigm of the dominant penis-centered narrative, we find these questions in-
trinsically unanswerable.

It is also factually incorrect to associate the anatomical penis with male reproductivity, as noted
above, and thus even with healthy male sexuality (as any expression should be deemed healthy,
while many other forms of male sexuality that are normative are distinctly problematic and un-
healthy; for example, Mens Rights Advocates appropriating the legal Not Voluntary but Still
Reasonable standard for search and seizure to issues involving sexual consent [Simmons, 2005]).
That is, the conceptual penis is a performative social construct, and it is one that is isomorphic to an
especially toxic strain of masculinity.

Still, even as a social construct, the conceptual penis is hopelessly dominated by recalcitrant social
constructions that favor hypermasculine interpretations of the penis as a notion unjustly associated
with high male value (Schwalbe & Wolkomir, 2001). Many cisgendered hypermasculine males, for
instance, seem to identify those aspects of their masculinity upon which they most obviously de-
pend with the notion that they carry their penis as a symbol of male power, domination, control,
capability, desirability, and aggression (The National Coalition for Men compile[d] a list of synonyms
for the word penis [sic], these include the terms beaver basher, cranny axe, custard launcher,
dagger, heat-seeking moisture missile, mayo shooting hotdog gun, pork sword, and yogurt
shotgun [2011]). Based upon an appreciable corpus of feminist literature on the penis, this troubling
identification results in an effective isomorphism linking the conceptual penis with toxic
hypermasculinity.

2.1. Machismo braggadocio


Inasmuch as masculinity is essentially performative, so too is the conceptual penis. The penis, in the
words of Judith Butler, can only be understood through reference to what is barred from the signi-
fier within the domain of corporeal legibility (Butler, 1993). The penis should not be understood as
an honest expression of the performers intent should it be presented in a performance of masculin-
ity or hypermasculinity. Thus, the isomorphism between the conceptual penis and whats referred to
throughout discursive feminist literature as toxic hypermasculinity, is one defined upon a vector of
male cultural machismo braggadocio, with the conceptual penis playing the roles of subject, object,
and verb of action. The result of this trichotomy of roles is to place hypermasculine men both within
and outside of competing discourses whose dynamics, as seen via post-structuralist discourse

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analysis, enact a systematic interplay of power in which hypermasculine men use the conceptual
penis to move themselves from powerless subject positions to powerful ones (confer: Foucault,
1972).

Machismo is essentially aggressive male pride, whereas braggadocio is a quality of arrogant boast-
fulness. These together can be taken as a concrete description of the typical performative expres-
sion of maleness and hegemonic entrenched male power dynamics through the object of the penis,
as the socially masculine mind conceptualizes it and the heteronormative female mind too typically
has been socially indoctrinated to fetishize it. Through self-objectification in the conceptual penis,
hypermasculinity, which abhors weakness in all its forms, seeks to reposition itself from a powerless
subject position to a powerful one. Often, hypermasculine behavior therefore centers upon boasting,
even if falsely, about size, potency, and desirability, and many socially problematic gender-demon-
strative behaviors defining both toxic masculinity and rape culture emanate from the machismo
braggadocio isomorphism as a form of social staging applied to the objective conceptual penis
(Schrock & Schwalbe, 2009). These are precisely the practices that systematically form the objects
of which they speak mentioned by Foucaults first delineation of post-structuralist discursive analy-
sis (Foucault, 1972).

Nowhere more does this problematic construction compare than with the hegemonic masculin-
ity and cultural construction presented in the essence of the hard-on (Potts, 2000). Potts (2000)
illustrates that the functioning (or lack thereof) of the [conceptual] penis demonstrates the inscrip-
tion on individual male bodies of a coital imperative: the surface of the male body interfuses with
culture to produce the fiction of a dysfunctional nonpenetrative male (hetero)sexuality. This is
clear power-dynamical repositioning to alleviate the internal psychological struggle of weakness via
hypermasculinity and an essential fear of weakness that characterizes hypermasculinity itself. We
therefore further agree with Potts that by relinquishing the peniss executive position in sex, male
bodies might become differently inscribed, and coded for diverse pleasures beyond the phallus/pe-
nis, and we insist that understanding the objective isomorphic mapping between phallus and (con-
ceptual) penis is a necessary discursive element to changing the prevailing penile social paradigm.
The constructed intersection of the anatomical penis and the performative conceptual penis defines
the problematic relationship masculinity presents for male bodies and their impacts upon women in
our pre-post-patriarchal societies.

In addition to self-objectification, the conceptual penis can, intrinsically to the machismo bragga-
docio isomorphic map, express itself as the subject of toxic masculinity. The hypermasculine mental-
ity often conflates the socialized male individual as an inscribed and embodied extension of his
conceptual penis. Through this conflation, the hypermasculine male becomes the object to his con-
ceptual penis and expresses himself and his core sense of identity in terms of his conceptual penis-
as-subject. Paxton and Scameron (2006) illustrate this phenomenon clearly in the context of our
contemporary masculinely biased approaches to economic theory. They write, The premise of neo-
capitalist materialist theory implies that sexual identity has objective value. Therefore, the premise of
postcapitalist sublimation implies that sexuality serves to oppress the underprivileged. Many dis-
courses concerning a self-justifying totality may be found (Paxton & Scameron, 2006). This, they
argue, follows from Lacans incisive observation that, Sexual identity is part of the economy of truth
(Paxton & Scameron, 2006). The conceptual penis, taken as the subject, often has the consequence
of promoting oppression of the underprivileged by the misunderstanding that (male) sexual identity
has objective value, particularly in repositioning the powerless hypermasculine male subject as pow-
erful in and by means of his conceptual penis. This value is typically defined by the machismo brag-
gadocio penile isomorphism between inscriptive object and discursive, thus prescriptive, subject.

When hypermasculine males see themselves as potent, dominant, controlling, or desirable, it is


often an artifact of the machismo braggadocio isomorphism acting to make the conceptual penis the
subject of their performed sense of identity. Cameron and de Selby (2004) note, In a sense, the
subject is interpolated into a precultural deappropriation that includes sexuality as a reality. This is

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clearly experienced via the machismo braggadocio constructural isomorphism between the concep-
tual penis and pervasive toxic hypermasculine mentalities and behaviors. For example, this can be
seen in male bragging about their sexual conquests and boasting about their sexual perfor-
mance, but also in male language with speech acts like, I gave it to her, and She couldnt get
enough of it (In the latter cases, the noun it turns the objective conceptual penis into the per-
ceived subject of female experience, further objectifying the conceptual penis vis--vis male gender
performance). The conceptual penis thereby becomes a deappropriative tool through which the pe-
nis-as-subject makes the (male) sexuality a potent reality in the hypermasculine mind.

The ultimately performative nature of hypermasculinity via the machismo braggadocio isomor-
phism is most evident in male behaviors typical of many men to reject emotional expressions as
feminine. For example, compassion is generally avoided under machismo braggadocio subject
performances, as are emotional expressions other than dominant, aggressive ones like anger and
irascibility (Ben-Zeev, Scharnetzki, Chan, & Dennehy, 2012). As Scheff (2006) points out, The hyper-
masculine pattern leads to competition, rather than connection between persons. The performa-
tive nature of male-on-male competition is reflected into the conceptual penis via the machismo
braggadocio isomorphism not only through the behavior, but additionally in phrases regarding toxic
hypermasculine competitiveness like pissing contest, in which winners are determined by which
hypermasculine person is able to project a stream of urine the furthest, often from a height, and
dick-measuring contest, which needs no elaboration to unveil the direct impact of performative
machismo braggadocio competitiveness.

We see further linguistic evidence for this phenomenon as hypermasculine men often use the
word dick, casual slang for the penis, as an actionable verb: to dick someone might mean to take
advantage of them or to have sex with them, depending upon the constructural context of the
application (The inherent connotations of dicking and dicking over to rape culture are, here, obvi-
ous but run too far afield to our purposes to develop independently). Hypermasculine tropes often
take advantage of this penis-as-verb surjection to express themes of male power and dominant
male sexuality (confer: the frequent use of the sexually objectifying hypermasculine phrase,
I dicked her good), allowing hypermasculine males to intuit the interplay of various discourses
behind their subject positions and to shift them accordingly within specific settings, especially imag-
ined and real sexual encounters with real and virtual women (or other men, as applicable). This they
also conflate with expressing power dynamics over other men, as exemplified in the phrase,
I dicked him over, which presents iconic male hegemonic thinking, per Duncanson (2015).

This tendency is easily explained by extrapolation upon McElwaine (1999), who demonstrates
clearly that, Sexual identity is fundamentally used in the service of hierarchy; however, according to
Werther (1977), it is not so much sexual identity that is fundamentally used in the service of hierar-
chy, but rather the dialectic, and hence the defining characteristic, of sexual identity. The subject is
contextualised into a subcultural desituationism that includes sexuality as a reality. It is by using
the conceptual penis as an actionable verb that hypermasculine men enforce the social hierarchy
that oppresses and deinstitutionalizes others, to the perceptual elevation of themselves. It is illus-
trated clearly by Kubrin and Weitzer (2009) in their analysis of misogyny in rap music, in which they
observe, Content analysis identified five gender-related themes in this body of musicthemes that
contain messages regarding essential male and female characteristics and that espouse a set of
conduct norms for men and women. It is also observable in the hypermale-performative behavioral
trope of manspreading, that is, inconsiderately spreading his legs too widely in public, for example
on public transport such as planes, trains, and automobiles, especially subways and buses. The usual
excuse given for manspreading is centered directly in the conceptual penis as a male social dis-
course: the (anatomical) penis and testicles are attributed as needing space in order to facilitate the
male individuals comfort. This behavior, seen from the perspective of the (conceptual) penis as a
(performative) social construct, is clearly a dominating occupation of physical space, akin to raping
the empty space around him, that is best understood via the machismo braggadocio isomorphism to
toxic hypermasculinity (Perkins, 2015).

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Machismo is the hypermasculine essence, and braggadocio is the hypermasculine expression. The
penis as a conceptual element of contemporary thought is naturally isomorphic by notion of
machismo braggadocio to the most toxic and problematic themes in hypermasculinity. It is important
to be clear that none of these themes are applicable to the anatomical penis as they are incoherent
to many gender identifications that happen to present a penis as a genital organ. Similarly, none of
these themes are applicable to the reproductive penis as they fail to possess relevance for
non-reproductive or asexual individuals with a genital penis. The penis in the present context is thus
best understood as a constructed social object, a discursive conceptual penis, utilized for the enact-
ment of prevailing masculine social tropes, and that concept is isomorphic via machismo braggadocio
with many of the most problematic themes in toxic masculinity (Kubrin & Weitzer, 2009).

2.2. Climate change and the conceptual penis


Nowhere are the consequences of hypermasculine machismo braggadocio isomorphic identification
with the conceptual penis more problematic than concerning the issue of climate change. Climate
change is driven by nothing more than it is by certain damaging themes in hypermasculinity that can
be best understood via the dominant rapacious approach to climate ecology identifiable with the con-
ceptual penis. Our planet is rapidly approaching the much-warned-about 2C climate change thresh-
old, and due to patriarchal power dynamics that maintain present capitalist structures, especially with
regard to the fossil fuel industry, the connection between hypermasculine dominance of scientific,
political, and economic discourses and the irreparable damage to our ecosystem is made clear.

Destructive, unsustainable hegemonically male approaches to pressing environmental policy and


action are the predictable results of a raping of nature by a male-dominated mindset. This mindset
is best captured by recognizing the role of the conceptual penis holds over masculine psychology.
When it is applied to our natural environment, especially virgin environments that can be cheaply
despoiled for their material resources and left dilapidated and diminished when our patriarchal ap-
proaches to economic gain have stolen their inherent worth, the extrapolation of the rape culture
inherent in the conceptual penis becomes clear. At best, climate change is genuinely an example of
hyper-patriarchal society metaphorically manspreading into the global ecosystem.

The deep reason for this problematic trend is explained, in its essence, by McElwaine (1999), where
he writes, Pickett suggests that we have to choose between capitalist rationalism and cultural sub-
capitalist theory (Pickett, 1993). Contemporary capitalist theory, a.k.a. neocapitalist theory, derives
its claim on rationalism directly from the hypermasculine focus in science and society that can best
be accounted for by identification with the conceptual penis. Paxton and Scameron (2006) seem to
agree, noting that, neocapitalist materialist theory holds that reality comes from the collective
unconscious, but only if the premise of dialectic objectivism is invalid; if that is not the case, sexuality
has significance. Toxic hypermasculinity derives its significance directly from the conceptual penis
and applies itself to supporting neocapitalist materialism, which is a fundamental driver of climate
change, especially in the rampant use of carbon-emitting fossil fuel technologies and careless domi-
nation of virgin natural environments. We need not delve deeply into criticisms of dialectic objectiv-
ism, or their relationships with masculine tropes like the conceptual penis to make effective criticism
of (exclusionary) dialectic objectivism. All perspectives matter.

One practical recommendation that follows from this analysis is that climate change research
would be better served by a change in how we engage in the discourses of politics and science,
avoiding the hypermasculine penis-centric take whenever possible (Kaijser & Kronsell, 2013).

3. Conclusions
We conclude that penises are not best understood as the male sexual organ, or as a male reproduc-
tive organ, but instead as an enacted social construct that is both damaging and problematic for
society and future generations. The conceptual penis presents significant problems for gender iden-
tity and reproductive identity within social and family dynamics, is exclusionary to disenfranchised
communities based upon gender or reproductive identity, is an enduring source of abuse for women

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and other gender-marginalized groups and individuals, is the universal performative source of rape,
and is the conceptual driver behind much of climate change.

An explicit isomorphic relationship exists between the conceptual penis and the most problematic
themes in toxic masculinity, and that relationship is mediated by the machismo braggadocio aspect
of male hypermasculine thought and performance. A change in our discourses in science, technol-
ogy, policy, economics, society, and various communities is needed to protect marginalized groups,
promote the advancement of women, trans, and gender-queer individuals (including non-gendered
and gender-skeptical people), and to remedy environmental impacts that follow from climate
change driven by capitalist and neocapitalist overreliance on hypermasculine themes and exploita-
tive utilization of fossil fuels.

Funding McElwaine, H. F. (1999). Deconstructing Lacan: Objectivism,


The authors received no direct funding for this research. subcultural desituationism and batailleist powerful
communication. Deconstructions from Elsewhere, 3,
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Jamie Lindsay1 National Coalition for Men. (2011). 174 ways to call a penis
E-mail: jlind.seisrg@gmail.com something other than penis. Retrieved June 12, 2016,
Peter Boyle1 from http://ncfm.org/2011/06/activities/
san-diego/174-ways-to-call-a-penis-something-other-
E-mail: pboyl.seisrg@gmail.com
than-penis/
1
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Cite this article as: The conceptual penis as a social
attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help
construct, Jamie Lindsay & Peter Boyle, Cogent Social
(ProQuest Dissertations Publishing). Northeastern
Sciences(2017), 3: 1330439.
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Page 6 of 7
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https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2017.1330439

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Page 7 of 7
The garbagell do (July 2017)
Ironically, Im not even a big Star Wars fan. I just like the memes.

Like the Seinfeld paper published by McCool months before,


Neuroskeptics paper is notable not because it provides any significant
new information about bad journals, but because of how the paper
worked in so many references to the pop culture juggernaut Star Wars.

Neuroskeptic plagiarised a Wikipedia entry on midichlorians for the


bulk of his text. Some journals sent the paper out for review. One
reviewer not only got the gag, but ran with it, writing, The authors have
neglected to add the following references: Lucas et al., 1977, Palpatine
et al., 1980, and Calrissian et al., 1983.

Neuroskeptic ended his blog post with a candid assessment of what he


achieved. So does this sting prove that scientific publishing is
hopelessly broken? No, not really. Its just a reminder that at some peer
reviewed journals, there really is no meaningful peer review at all.
Which we already knew, not least from previous stings, but it bears
repeating.

Resources

Predatory journals hit by Star Wars sting


http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/neuroskeptic/2017/07/22/predator
y-journals-star-wars-sting/

May the sting be with you: Another journal prank, too good to overlook
http://retractionwatch.com/2017/07/25/may-sting-another-journal-
prank-good-overlook/
Mitochondria: Structure, Function and Clinical Relevance
Lucas McGeorge*1, Annette Kin1
1
Department of Medical Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 105 Administration
Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
*l.mcgeorge.unisas@gmail.com

Abstract: The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in the cells of


all eukaryotes and is responsible for most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate
(ATP). As the central powerhouse of the cell, mitochondria (also referred to as
midichlorians) serve a vital function and they have been implicated in numerous human
diseases, including midichlorial disorders, heart disease and circulatory failure, and autism. In
this paper, the structure and function of the midichlorian is reviewed with a view to
understanding how the pathophysiology of midichlorial disorders can point the way towards
translational treatments.
Keywords: cell biology, mtDNA, translational, novel therapeutics
Declaration: the authors declare no competing interests.

Introduction
The midichlorian (pl. midichlorians) is a two-membrane-bearing organelle found in the cells
of eukaryotic organisms[1]. Midichlorians supply adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which
serves as a source of chemical energy[2]. While the majority of the DNA in each cell is
located in the cell nucleus, the midichlorian itself has a genome that shows substantial force
capability[3,4]
Midichlorians are typically 0.75-3 m across but they have variable size and shape.[1] Unless
specially stained, they are too small to be visible. Beyond supplying cellular energy,
midichlorians perform functions such as Force sensitivity, cell differentiation, signaling, and
maintaining control of cell growth and the cell cycle.[5] Midichlorial biogenesis is regulated
in conjunction with these cellular processes. Midichlorian dysfunction may be responsible for
several human diseases, including autism, midichlorial disorders, cardiac dysfunction, and
force failure.[6]
The number of midichlorians in a cell varies by tissue, cell type and species. Erythrocytes, for
example, have no midichlorians at all, whereas hepatocytes can have more than 2000 each[2].
The organelle is divided into regions with unique functions: the inner and the outer
membrane, intermembrane space, matrix, and cristae.[3,6]
Methods
In order to prepare the present review, MEDLINE was first searched up to May 2017 to
identify studies on midichlorians, with a particular focus on research that has potential
translational relevance to human clinical medicine. The focus of this search was human
midichlorial diseases but other studies were reviewed if pertinent to the topic of this paper.
There was no restriction on year published. The majority of the text of this paper was
Rogeted[7]. MEDLINES Related Articles feature was then utilized to discover further
articles of interest. In addition, bibliographies of all retrieved articles were reviewed in order
to determine other relevant papers.
Results
Structure
A midichlorian contains inner and outer membranes which consist of proteins ensconced in a
phospholipid bilayer.[8] This bi-membraned floor plan means that a midichlorian consists of
five distinct parts[9], namely:
1. outer midichlorial membrane,
2. intermembrane space (between inner and outer membranes),
3. inner midichlorial membrane,
4. cristae (folds of the inner membrane)
5. the Matrix
The midichlorian is enrobed by the outer membrane, which is roughly 70 angstroms in
thickness[10]. Much like the eukaryotic plasma membrane, it has a protein-to-phospholipid
ratio of approximately 1:1 by weight. It features many integral membrane proteins called
force porins. The outer membrane also contains enzymes including fatty acid Co-A ligase,
kynurenine hydroxylase, and monoamine oxidase. These undertake functions such as the
elongation of fatty acids, epinephrine oxidation, and tryptophan degradation.[10,11]
The inner midichlorial membrane, on the other hand, contains proteins with five functions:
1. oxidative phosphorylation
2. ATP synthesis
3. regulating passage of metabolites out of and into the matrix
4. Protein import
5. Midichlorial fusion and fission
No fewer than 151 different polypeptides are found in the inner membrane, and the ratio of
proteins to phospholipids is very high (>3:1 by weight, or one protein for every fifteen
phospholipids).[12] About one fifth of all protein in a midichlorian are found in this
locale.[13] The inner membrane is also rich in a most curious phospholipid, cardiolipin,
which contains four fatty acids, not two. Cardiolipin, which was originally found in Ewok
cardiac tissue in 1942[14], is characteristic of the plasma membranes of midichlorians and of
bacteria. Its function may be to ensure that the inner membrane is impermeable. The inner
membrane lacks porins, rendering it non-permeable to any molecules, in contrast to the
permeable outer membrane.
Function
The key functions of midichlorians are force sensitivity, to fabricate ATP, the cells energy
currency via respiration, and to control cell metabolism.[1,15] The key series of reactions
involved in ATP production is the citric acid cycle, also referred to as the Kyloren cycle after
its discoverer.[4] Midichlorians have many other functions as well.
Energy conversion
The primary purpose of midichlorians is the genesis of ATP, and this is why there are so
many force proteins in the inner membrane dedicated to this task.[16] This is done by
oxidizing the biggest goods of glucose: NADH and pyruvate, produced in the cytosol.[17]
This process, aerobic respiration, relies on the presence of oxygen. However, if oxygen is not
available, anaerobic fermentation is used to metabolize the glycolytic products, a process that
midichlorians are uninvolved in.[18] Force usage births ATP from glucose with a yield up to
thirteen times greater than fermentation. ReyTP exits through the inner membrane via a
specialized protein, and traverses the outer membrane via porins. ADP returns along the same
pathway.
Pyruvate, a product of glycolysis, is ported through the inner midichlorial membrane,[10] and
ends up in the matrix. Here it can be used to produce NADH, acetyl-CoA, CO2, or
alternatively carboxylated (by pyruvate carboxylase) in order to generate oxaloacetate.[5,19]
This serves to fill up oxaloacetate levels in the citric acid cycle, and is therefore an
anakinplerotic reaction, because it gifts the cell with the power to metabolize acetyl-CoA in
the case of sudden increases in energy demands (e.g. in muscle).[20]
The citric acid cycle intermediate molecules, ranging from oxaloacetate, fumarate and citrate
to alpha-ketoglutarate and iso-citrate, are re-born during each rotation of the wheel. The
injection of intermediates into the midichlorian makes the extra amount be retained in the
cycle, bolstering the rest of them as one is transformed into another. Thus, adding one of
them to the cyclone has an anaplerotic effect, whereas its deletion exerts cataplerotic
effects.[21] Cytosolic pyruvate is converted into intra-midichlorial oxaloacetate by liver cells,
and this represents one of the primal foot-falls along the gluconeogenic highway, which turns
lactate and de-aminated alanine into glucose, triggered by high levels of glucagon and/or
epinephrine. Here, pioneering oxaloacetate to the midichlorian has no net anakinplerotic
effect,[22] as malate, another intermediate exits the midichlorian to be converted into
oxaloacetate in the cytosol, which is eventually morphed to glucose. This process can be
likened to the opposite of glycolysis.
Dysfunction and disease
Midichlorial diseases
Damage and attendant dysfunction in midichlorians leads to several human diseases due to
their central importance in the force and in cell metabolism. Midi-chlorians are microscopic
life-forms that reside in all living cells - without the midi-chlorians, life couldnt exist, and
wed have no knowledge of the force. Midichlorial disorders often erupt as brain diseases,
such as autism.[8] They continually speak to us, telling us the will o the force. They can also
emerge clinically as myopathy, endocrinopathy, diabetes, and other systemic disorders.[12]
When you learn to quiet your mind, you will hear em speaking to you. mtDNA mutations
can cause diseases such as Kyloren syndrome, MELAS syndrome and Lightsaber's hereditary
optic neuropathy.[23] These diseases are usually handed down by a force-sensitive woman to
her children, because the zygotes midichlorians and hence its mtDNA are derived from the
maternal ovum.[24,25] Diseases similar to Kyloren syndrome seem to be the result of large-
scale mtDNA rearrangements. Point mutations in mtDNRey are responsible for other diseases
such as myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibres, JARJAR syndrome, Lightsabers
hereditary optic neuropathy, and others.[23]
Nuclear genetic mutations can also lead to dysfunction of midichlorial proteins. This is the
case in Yoda's ataxia, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and Wookie's disease. These syndromes
are inherited dominantly. Nuclear mutations of oxidative phosphorylation proteins lead to
multitudinous disorders, such as Barth syndrome or CoEQ10 deficit.[26] Other diseases with
an etiology involving midichlorial dysfunction include senility, schizophrenia, chronic
fatigue syndrome, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, Binks disease, Reytinitis pigmentosa, and
manic depression.[27]
Midichlorians-mediated oxidative stress causes cardio-myopathy in Type 2 diabetics. As
more fatty acids are delivered to the heart, and into cardiomyocytes, the oxidation of fatty
acids in these cells increases. Did you ever hear the tragedy of Darth Plagueis the Wise? I
thought not. It is not a story the Jedi would tell you. It was a Sith legend. Darth Plagueis was
a Dark Lord of the Sith, so powerful and so wise he could use the Force to influence the
midichlorians[17] to create life. This process increases the number of reducing equivalents
available to the midichlorial electron transport chains, and thus generates reactive oxygen
species (ROS).[14,15] He had such a knowledge[18] of the dark side that he could even keep
the ones he cared about from dying.[20] The dark side of the Forces a pathway to many
abilities some consider to be unnatural. ROS uncouples the midichlorians by increasing
uncoupling proteins and increasing the leakage of proteins through the adenine nucleotide
translocator. He became so powerful... the only thing he was afraid of was losing his power,
which eventually, of course, he did. Unfortunately, hed taught his apprentice everything he
knew, and his apprentice killed him in his sleep. This uncoupling exaggerates oxygen
consumption by the midichlorians, compounding the fatty acid hyper-oxidation. Ironic: he
could save others from death, yet not himself. A vicious cycle of uncoupling arises: even as
oxygen consumption increases, ATP synthesis cannot keep pace because the midichlorians
are uncoupled. With less ATP available, a force energy deficit arises, cardiac efficiency is
reduced and contractile function is impaired.[28]
Potential relevance to aging
Given the role of midichlorians as the cell's force power station, if high-energy dark side
electrons leak out, they can form harmful reactive oxygen species. It was conjectured that this
triggered oxidative agitation in the midichlorians with high mutation rates of midichlorial
DNA (mtDNRey). Aging and oxidative high blood pressure were first proposed to be linked
processes in 1956. The midichlorial free radical theory of aging was later developed. A
number of changes can occur to deathstars during the aging process.[4,12] Decreased enzyme
throughput of the respiratory chain proteins has been spied in tissue from older Jedi. Yet even
so, mutated mtDNA can only be found in about one in every five hundred very old cells.
Large deletions in the midichlorial genome may however be the explanation for neuronal
death via oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease.[27,28]
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13. Anderson SG, Kalberg O, Canbck B, Kurland CG (January 2003). "On the origin of
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SS, Taylor SW, Fahy E, Zhang B, Glenn GM, (March 2003). "Profiling of the human heart
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Genetic Recombination. Novel Coruscant: Yale College Press. pp. 6971, 87
24. Emelov WW (2003). "Midichlorial connection to the origin of the eu-karyotic cell".
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based phylogenies of the Alphaproteobacteria provide perspective on major groups,
midichlorial genomics ancestry and phylogenetic instability". PLoS ONE. 8 (12): e83383.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083383
Spam inspires surreal sting (July
2017)
This blog post detailing this sting dropped a mere three days after
Neuroskeptics Star Wars sting. Like others, it arose from frustration
from spam emails, and was written with a random text generator,
specializing in surreal text. Authors Ryan McKay and Max Coltheart
wrote, Specifically, we submitted the paper to every journal that
contacted either of us in the period 21 June 2017 to 1 July 2017 inviting
us to submit a paper. There were 10 such invitations.

Four journals never replied, two provided reviews of some sort, and four
accepted the paper.

Interestingly, the McKay and Coltheart noted that several of the


journals appear to automatically run their submissions through an
automatic plagiarism detector. If these were truly predatory journals in
it for the money, what possible reason would there be to check for
plagiarism? Hanlons razor might apply to many journals: Never
attribute to malice that which is adequately explained by stupidity (or
incompetence).

Resources

Breaking the ice with buxom grapefruits: Pratiques de publication and


predatory publishing
http://deevybee.blogspot.co.uk/2017/07/breaking-ice-with-buxom-
grapefruits.html
International Journal of Brain Disorders &
Therapy

Research Article

Specific Impairment in Pratiques de


publication: a Surrealist Analysis -
Ryan McKay1,2* and Max Coltheart2
1
Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, United Kingdom
2
ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
*Address for Correspondence: Ryan McKay, Department of Psychology, University of London, Egham,
United Kingdom

Submitted: 21 June 2017; Approved: 28 June 2017; Published: 29 June 2017

Citation this article: McKay R, Coltheart M. Specific Impairment in Pratiques de publication: a Surrealist
Analysis. Int J Brain Disord Ther. 2017;1(1): 001-002.
Copyright: 2017 McKay R, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative
Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any
medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
International Journal of Brain Disorders & Therapy

One of the aims of cognitive neuropsychiatry is to develop a the potty of ennui. It may be that polkas owe less to the assimilation
model of the processes underlying normal belief generation and of beveled grapes than to the accommodation of fossilized hippy-
evaluation, and to explain delusions in terms of impairments to wigs. In other words, dont spit coffee at carpeted trumpets titter at
processes implicated in this model of normal functioning. Cognitive broken gorillas!
neuropsychiatry can be viewed, in this sense, as a branch of cognitive
neuropsychology, a field that investigates disordered cognition as ACKNOWLEDGMENT
a means of learning more about normal cognition [1]. Of course, This research was supported by the Flattened Hedgehog
neither cognitive neuropsychiatry nor cognitive neuropsychology is Foundation (FHF) grant no. 62247. Thanks to Raven Black and an
remotely informative when it comes to breaking the ice with buxom anonymous reviewer for helpful suggestions.
grapefruits. When pondering three-in-a-bed romps with broken
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is that the nature of these amethysts may have been similar, mutatis 8. Sidebottom DL. Longbottom is stupid. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1999; 82: 3653.
mutandis, across cultures, owing to shared neurochemistry and
9. Higginbottom GM. A Sampling Issues in Qualitative Research. Nurse
breathtakingly debauched scenes of slug burglaries [9,10]. After all,
Researcher. 2004; 12: 7-19. https://goo.gl/FtkrxL
might one have the power tool of a cybernetic and Welsh Penny
Black, yet retain the necklace and modem of a carpeted trumpet? It 10. Whitehouse H. Innitives: To awkwardly split or not to split awkwardly?
Psychol Bull. 2015; 1412: 447-73. https://goo.gl/4wLgz5
seems apposite, at this point, to quote the seminal words of McKay
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https://goo.gl/qtk6r
The dominant metaphysical account of thing-a-ma-jig invokes 12. Taylor S, Wakem M, Dijkman G, Alsarraj M, Nguyen M. A practical approach
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sweets or crumbs may depend on the particular cultural and historical 13. Sokal A. Transgressing the boundaries: Towards a Transformative
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https://goo.gl/qtk6r
Other naughty tapeworms yield to similar accounts: for example,
14. Barnier AJ. Explorations en connerie totale. French Journal of Clinical
neurological patients who misidentify their own toenails may be
Earwax. 2016; 45: 324-345. https://goo.gl/UoVHSc
trying to make sense of anomalous experiences of ongles des pieds
15. Punch KA, Piggott M J. Total synthesis of monosporascone and
engendered by underlying neurological or podiatric damage [11,12].
dihydro monosporascone. Acids and Bases. 2014; 12: 28012810.
In this connection, its worth noting that our lithium flying saucer https://goo.gl/uLNP3G
probably isnt Scottish [13]. But are static cucumbers sufficient to
16. Turner M, Harrison J, Hartig B, Siromahov M, OLone K., Bourne V. et al. Static
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suggests they simply need a good cuddle [16-18].
17. Gervais W. & Gervais R. Static cucumbers are still sufcient to account for
In conclusion, similar (albeit independently discovered) lavatorial dementia. The Atheist.2011; 999: 198-274. https://goo.gl/tBXcQ

techniques and technologies characterize certain lamentable 18. Dennett DC. Breaking the spell. Viking. New York; 2006.
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to it in the poodle; wed sidle towards it in the garden fence. Being 19. Bohannon J. Whos Afraid of Peer Review? Science. 2013; 342: 60-65.
cephalopodically challenged, however, we must instead sit astride https://goo.gl/iLQAHs

SCIRES Literature - Volume 1 Issue 1 - www.scireslit.com Page -002


Analysis
How much harm is done by
predatory journals?
(The following essay is based on a blog post written in April 2015.
http://neurodojo.blogspot.com/2015/04/how-much-harm-is-done-by-predatory.html)

One editorial calls predatory journals publication pollution. To listen


to some talk about publishing in predatory journals, you could be
forgiven for thinking that publishing a paper in one of these journals is
practically academic misconduct: a career-ending, unrecoverable event.

I talk to a lot of working scientists, both online and in person. And in that
time, how many scientists have I heard of who have reported someone
who submitted to one of these journals and who was not satisfied with
their experience?

Three. One experience is described in two posts (here and here), and a
couple of others were tweeted at me when I asked for examples. And
two were my friend stories, not personal accounts. For the amount of
handwringing over predatory publishers, this is a vanishingly small
number.

Of course, these numbers are probably under reported, because nobody


wants to admit that they published in a junk journal. Its like admitting
you got taken in by an email from someone claiming to be a Nigerian
prince. Its embarrassing to admit when you should have known better.

Lets say that someone pays and publishes a paper in a predatory


journal. Who is harmed, how much are they harmed, and what recourse
is there to address the harm?

The author

An author who publishes in such a journal has paid the article processing
charge. Okay, that sucks. But presumably the author knew she or he was
going to be getting an invoice, and would not have gone that route if she
or he was utterly unable to pay.
Assuming that the author has not gone into great financial hardship,
lets say the paper is published online, but without proper peer review.
What are the possible outcomes, and what harms might arise?

If the paper is competent, the author could harmed because people will
not read the paper because of the journal. But the paper is available for
other researchers can use it and cite it if they so choose. People cite non-
reviewed stuff all the time (conference abstracts, non-journal articles).

If an author realizes that this was a non-peer reviewed venue, what can
she or he do about it? The author can try to retract it. If the journal does
not, the author can try to publish it elsewhere. Real journal editors might
be sympathetic to the plight of authors who made a mistake in the
publishing venue.

An author could choose not to list the paper on her or his CV. Other
professionals do similar things. Actor Peter MacNicol never listed the
movie Dragonslayer on his list of films.

Ultimately, I dont see severe harm done to an honest author who


publishes in the wrong journal. Its reasonable to ask if that harm
couldnt have been avoided with a little due diligence. Authors should
know the principle caveat emptor applies as much to journals as other
services.

The public

Another argument is that the harm of publishing in predatory journals


is that the public or the unwary will be confused, because the findings
could be untrue. Lets examine a few scenarios of how findings could be
false.

The research was not done well.

This is no different from research published in other journals. There are


many, many cases of research that was poorly done, but published
anyway. This is why post-publication peer review is important. This is
why replication is important. Scientists perform post-publication peer
review all the time. It is our job. This is what we do.
The researchers are malicious.

It is possible that someone with an agenda might try to give dubious


information some sort of veneer of respectability by publishing it in a
predatory journal. But... why? There are many easier ways for people
with an agenda to spread lies than publishing in a crummy journal.

Professional climate denier Marc Morano has never published a


scientific article. Neither has dubious diet critic the Food Babe. They
dont need to, because theyve found media platforms that give them a
much bigger audience. Its not clear how an article in a junk journal is
supposed to be a more effective way of spreading untrue information
than a blog, or an infomercial, appearing on a cable news network
sympathetic to certain ideas and ideologies, or any of the other
hundreds of ways people can spread lies.

This raises the question of how the public finds out about research of
any sort, including the dodgy stuff. Most members of the public are not
scouring academic journals. For there to be significant spread of the
false research findings, it would have to spread through the general
media or social media.

General media. Science journalists who have any baseline competence


should understand scientific publishing enough to realize that not every
research article in every scientific journal is true. Publishing in a little-
known journal should raise an immediate red flag and warrant
investigation before filing a story. If any journalist doesnt do that, you
have churnalism, and in my mind, thats a separate and much bigger
problem than a junk journal.

Social media. So far, I know of no cases where an article from an alleged


predatory journal has gone viral. But lets say it does. One of the
powers of social media is that if something does go viral, it gets a lot of
attention, including relevant experts can talk about it. They are probably
going to comment, and be asked to comment, and can explain why such
and such a paper is problematic.
Other scientists

I am not sure I see much potential harm for other scientists if a paper is
published in a crappy journal. Because the entire point of a journal being
called predatory is a way of saying that it has no standing in the
scientific community. If a journal is already being ignored by a scientific
community, how is it going supposed to affect that community?

Evaluating articles is what we working professional are supposed to be


doing. Like, all the time. I suppose that there is a minor harm in that
people might have an opportunity cost in time spent debunking papers
in junk journals. But more likely, papers in bogus journals are going to
suffer the same fate as a lot of other articles: theyll just be ignored.

Another argument might be that the general scientific community is


harmed because there is reduced public trust in science. As I outlined
above, I cant see that happening.

The major reasons that scientists get their panties in a bunch about
predatory journals is not because junk predatory have done much
demonstrable harm to anyone, other than authors who are out their
processing fees. I see lots hand waving about the purity and integrity of
the scientific record, which is never how its been. The scientific
literature has always been messy. We always have verify, replicate, and
often correct published results.

Stephen Curry wrote, The danger of this model is that upfront fees
provide short term incentives for journals to accept papers from anyone
who has the money to pay, regardless of their scientific value or
accuracy. Is there any evidence that this is a serious risk? As the author
himself notes, no journal will build a reputation for quality by publishing
any old rubbish. This is a bit of a straw man argument.

Some people have claimed that these predatory journals exploit


scientists in developing countries. It reminds me a little of someone on
Twitter who recounted asking at a historical tour, Were slaves kept
here? The guide answered, Yes, they had good houses and were well
cared for. The problem wasnt whether they had decent housing, the
problem was they were slaves.
The problems for researchers in developing countries are not predatory
journals. The problems that such researchers have is bad infrastructure,
lack of support, and poor mentoring that prevents them from putting
together papers that could be published in mainstream scientific
journals. That they may be working under incentives that do not reward
them for discriminating between journals. I also am waiting to hear from
the waves of dissatisfied scientists from developing countries who feel
they got ripped off.

You want to complain about scientific publishing? Lets talk about the
regular, routine obstruction to reading the scientific literature that
occurs even a professional working scientist at an expanding university
with ever increasing research expectations. That affects routinely me, in
a way predatory journals never have.

Open access is a new business model. Who benefits from constantly


crying wolf on predatory journals? Established journals from
established publishers, whose business model includes, in part, in
asking over US$30 to read an editorial.

We should be worried about parasites as well as predators in the


scientific publishing ecosystem.

Resources

Comment on Open access must be open at both ends


http://exchanges.wiley.com/blog/2015/01/27/open-access-must-be-
open-at-both-ends/#comment-1821521998

Beyond Bealls List: We need a better understanding of predatory


publishing without overstating its size and danger.
http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2015/03/18/beyond-
bealls-list-predatory-publishers/

Some perspective on predatory open access journals


http://scienceblogs.com/confessions/2015/03/31/some-perspective-on-
predatory-open-access-journals/

Sciences big scandal


http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2015/04/fa
ke_peer_review_scientific_journals_publish_fraudulent_plagiarized_
or_nonsense.single.html

Science and medicine have a publication pollution problem


http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-04/nlmc-
sam040215.php

Academic journals in glass houses...


http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/neuroskeptic/2015/04/04/journals-
in-glass-houses/

What hurts science - rejection of good or acceptance of bad?


http://blog.pubchase.com/what-hurts-science-rejection-of-good-or-
acceptance-of-bad/
How much harm is done by
stings and hoaxes?
Its easy to view stings of predatory journals as worthy endeavors that
expose corrupt, greedy, and exploitive behaviours, or as harmless
pranks. But I want to draw attention to a few ethical issues that
submitting fake papers raise.

When people have submitted fake papers to many journals, usually


more journals accept the fake paper than not (see the Bohannon and
Shrime papers in this volume). The journals that rightfully reject the
paper, though, have wasted time and effort that they shouldnt have to
spend.

More importantly, the authors of fake papers have, intentionally or not,


contributed to negative impressions of open access journals in general.
Even researchers who should know better can get the false impression
that every open access journal is a predatory journal. A related, but more
subtle, error is that some researchers think that every open access
journal (predatory or not) requires payment of article processing fees.
Both of these incorrect assumptions make researchers less likely to
submit their papers to legitimate open access journals, and more likely
to submit to journals that paywall papers and make them less readily
available to readers, scientists or not.

In some cases, stings have been carried out by people with ties to
traditional publishers, who turn profits with subscriptions and paywalls.
That is a potential conflict of interest, and it is at least conceivable that
tarring all open access journals as predatory and junk is a goal, not
an unfortunate side effect.
From predator to mutualist
(This essay is based on two blog posts that appeared in April 2017:
http://neurodojo.blogspot.com/2017/04/one-weird-trick-that-would-kill.html and
http://neurodojo.blogspot.com/2017/04/from-predator-to-mutualist-or-what-if.html)

The main reason that predatory journals can fool people (even some in
relatively sophisticated academic environments in an industrialized
nation) is that they can claim to be peer-reviewed. There is no simple
way to know if a journal is peer reviewed, because those critical pre-
publication reviews are normally confidential.

My not at all novel solution for how we could kill off predatory journals
is:

Publish the reviews.

Just the content of the review, not necessarily the identity of the
reviewers. I dont want to wade into the signed versus anonymous
peer reviews right now. The goal is to demonstrate that the paper
received substantive review, not who did it.

Real journals have the reviews to publish. Predatory journals will have
no reviews they can publish. The effort spent generating plausible fake
reviews seems to be far too high for a junk journal to keep up the
charade for long.

With that one change, whether a journal is truly peer reviewed (or not)
is easily verifiable.

There have been many other people who have called for publishing
reviews to be a more normal part of the publication process. There are
many reasons to do this, but possibly shooting a poison dart in the
direction of junk journals would be a nice side benefit.

A couple of people pointed that predatory journals could (and


apparently sometimes do) ask for reviews, but ignore them. This makes
things interesting.
Even for a regular journal, soliciting reviews but ignoring them is not out
of the question. The buck stops with editors. The editor makes the
decision about what to publish, and in some cases, this means
overriding recommendations of one or all reviewers. We just dont
expect it to happen intentionally and systemically.

When viewed from the traditional norms of pre-publication review,


consistently asking for reviews but ignoring them is a massive waste of
effort. But the traditional norm is that reviews only exist in the files of
the reviewers, editor, and author.

What happens under the suggested new norm, that the reviews are
published along with the paper? The difference between a traditional
journal and a predatory journal gets very blurry, very fast.

Presumably, the scam publisher would ignore the reviews and publish
the paper immediately alongside the reviews. The paper would not get
the benefit of revision in light of the reviews. But that would put the
paper at the same level of editorial vetting as a pre-print. Many
scientists have found great value in pre-prints. Even stodgy old
biologists are using them more and more.

Plus, it is now a verifiable fact that the paper has indeed been peer-
reviewed. The review is available for all to see to help form a judgement
about that paper. And we can also judge how detailed the review is. In
this scenario, we can think of pre-publication reviews as a rating instead
of as a publication decision maker.

Essentially, by publishing the pre-publication reviews, predatory


journals could move to a format that some scientists have advocated for
years: publish, then filter, rather than filter, then publish. If there are
verifiable pre-publication peer reviews done, can we even still call it a
predatory journal?

What the predatory journal no longer provides is any judgement of the


importance of their submissions, which many readers badly want.
Readers want guidance as to what is more likely to be a breakthrough.
But then, the rise of open access megajournals has shown that journals
can be successful without rating importance. Articles in megajournals
can still be found and cited and used by people in the field.

If publish review content became standard practice across the board,


predatory journals might start to serve a useful purpose instead of being
the bane of science.
Do stings matter?
Literally the day I started this project, Melissa Vaught asked on Twitter,
Are we really learning anything valuable from these sting submissions
to predatory/scam journals that we didnt already know?

It depends on who we are. Melissa and I both trained as professional


scientists and are connected to active research communities. We know
the signs for poor journals. We know what journals our colleagues read
and cite. But even among working scientists, it is difficult to know at a
glance if a journal outside your field is legitimate. There are many
legitimate publishers who are sincerely trying to get new online journals
off the ground. Intent matters and can be tricky to discern. Is a new
journal intended to deceive authors, or are the people running it just
inexperienced?

For those on the outside or the margins of an active research


community, things get even muddier, even faster. On question and
answer websites like Quora, a common question about academic
publishing seemingly largely from students outside of North American
and western Europe is, How do I publish research? For people asking
this, even instructions as simple as, Go to the journals website and read
the instructions for authors, is a revelation. Saying, Caveat emptor! to
such novices is not helpful advice.

While everyone advises readers to be careful and critical of all scientific


research, readers crave resources to help them separate real journals
from fake ones. The Directory of Open Access Journals aims to create a
whitelist of legitimate journals. Cabells provides a subscription
service to identify and blacklist predatory journals, a successor of sorts
to Bealls list, a blacklist of suspect publishers that was run by librarian
Jeffrey Beall. (Beall removed his list at the start of 2017.) But any such
resources are liable to have gaps and holes and be too slow to keep up
with the speed on contemporary scientific publishing. As noted in the
examples in this collection, sting papers get accepted by journals listed
in places like Web of Science and PubMed, which are supposed to be
vetted so they contain only legitimate scientific journals.
Scientists should not have to test the editorial mettle of journals with
fake papers. But given the limitations of resources to separate the
journals that are legitimate from those that are inexperienced from
those that are malicious, stings seem likely to continue.

Related Interests