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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE MANUAL

PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE


PNPM-D-0-1-02-13 MANUAL
(DHRDD)
PNPM-D-0-1-2-13 (DHRDD)

PNP FUNDAMENTAL
REVISED

DOCTRINE
(REVISED)
REVISED
PNP FUNDAMENTAL
DOCTRINE

October 2013
August 20
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

PRELIMINARY PAGES
Publishers Note
Letter of Promulgation i
NHQ-TWG Resolution ii
Messages
NAPOLCOM Chairman iii
Chief, PNP iv
Preface v

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTORY PRINCIPLES 1


Section 1-1. General 1
1-2. Manuals and Doctrines 2
1-3. Document Security Classification 5

CHAPTER 2. POWERS OF THE STATE 6


Section 2-1. General 6
2-2. Police Power of the State 8
2-3. Fundamental Principles of Law Enforcement 9

CHAPTER 3. THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE 11


Section 3-1. Mandate, Vision and Mission 11
3-2. Philosophy, Core Values and Ethics 12
3-3. Symbols 13
3-4. Functions 15
3-5. Organization 17

CHAPTER 4. ORGANIZATION, COMMAND AND STAFF PRINCIPLES 18


Section 4-1. General Concepts in Organization 18
4-2. Broad Bases of Organizations 21
4-3. Application of Principles 23
4-4. Command and Staff Principles 27
4-5. Command Principles and Procedures 28
4-6. Leadership and Development 34
4-7. Staff Principles and Procedures 38

CHAPTER 5. CRIME PREVENTION AND SOLUTION 45


Section 5-1. General Concepts of Crime 45
5-2. Crime Reporting 45
5-3. Crime Prevention 46
5-4. Crime Solution 47
CHAPTER 6 PUBLIC SAFETY AND SECURITY 48
Section 6-1. Concepts in Public Safety and Security 48
6-2 Fundamental Principles 52
6-3 Role in Public Safety and Security 54
6-4 The Peace and Order Council 55
6-5 Strategy on Public Safety and Security Operations 58

CHAPTER 7 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 60


Section 7-1. Personnel Management 60
7-2. Training Administration and Management 66
7-3. Budgeting System 79
7-4. Procurement System 80
7-5. Accounting and Auditing System 83

CHAPTER 8. STRATEGY MANAGEMENT 88


Section 8-1. General Concepts 88
8-2. Change Agenda 89
8-3. Governance Scorecard 90

CHAPTER 9. GENERAL PROVISIONS 92


Section 9-1. Administrative Sanctions 92
9-2. Separability Clause 92
9-3 Effectivity 92
9-4. Amendment 92

SUMMARY OF CHANGES 93
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 94
GLOSSARY OF TERMS 95
REFERENCES 96
APPENDICES 98
A Organizational Structure 99
B Functions of Key Officers, Offices/Units 100
C Training System 108
D PNP OPIF Logical Framework 109
E PNP PATROL Plan 2030 Roadmap 110
DHRDD-TWG Members 111
Publishers Note:

This PNP Fundamental Doctrine contains the use of masculine


pronouns and terms which refers to both male and female. The generic
uses of these words in this publication are not intended to disregard
social equality or promote gender biases.

The information contained in this doctrine shall be


communicated either directly or indirectly to the internal public for their
information and adherence.
Republic of the Philippines
National Police Commission
NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS, PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF, PNP
Camp Rafael Crame, Quezon City

MEMORANDUM

TO : All Concerned

FROM : Chief, PNP

SUBJECT : Promulgation

DATE :

1. The Technical Working Group on the PNP Fundamental Doctrine under the
supervision of the Directorate for Human Resource and Doctrine Development
initiated the revision of the Manual for ready reference of all PNP Units and
personnel.

2. The revised PNP Fundamental Doctrine embodies the spirit, basic


principles and beliefs of the PNP in fulfilling its primary mandate to serve and
protect the Filipino people through consistent and fair enforcement of the law.

3. All PNP units and personnel are therefore enjoined to read and know by
heart its applicability in the conduct of police activities.

4. This doctrine is promulgated for the information and guidance of all


concerned effective immediately.

ALAN LA MADRID PURISIMA


Police Director General

Serbisyong Mak atotohanan


Republic of the Philippines
NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION
NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS, PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE
DIRECTORATE FOR HUMAN RESOURCE AND
DOCTRINE DEVELOPMENT
Camp Crame, Quezon City

The creation of the Philippine National Police (PNP) as a


separate and distinct law enforcement institution that is national
in scope but civilian in character, necessitates the
establishment of the Fundamental Doctrine, upon which all other
PREFACE

doctrines and policies are aligned.

The PNP Fundamental Doctrine comprises the basic


principles for the employment of PNP forces and personnel in
support to the attainment of national objectives. It serves as a
guide to the realization of the PNP vision, mission and functions.
Hence, it is the authority upon which all other types of PNP
doctrines should be anchored.

The evolution of the PNP and the establishment of its own


identity, separate and distinct from its military predecessor,
necessitated the call for the revision of the existing Fundamental
Doctrine.

This doctrine has been formulated based on studies, tests


and syntheses of existing rules and regulations, as well as
experiences accumulated by the PNP through the years. It shall
continue to be in effect until modified or amended.

The format of the PNP Fundamental Doctrine has been


patterned largely from the basic Doctrine of the defunct
Philippine Constabulary but with major revisions and inceptions
of provisions consistent with the vision, mission, and functions of
the PNP pursuant to R.A. 6975 duly amended by R.A. 8551 and
R.A. 9708.
The contents of this doctrine include the fundamental principles for the
employment and deployment of PNP elements in support of national goals and
policies that is aimed to provide information and reference to Service Schools,
Training Units and policy makers towards the refinement of police operational
procedures and other police functions.

The NHQ-TWG on the Revised PNP Fundamental Doctrine had carefully and
seriously deliberated on the contents of this Manual in a series of researches and
discussions to come up with its revised form in accordance with the standards set
forth by the PNP and NAPOLCOM.

During its revision, various obstacles where encountered by the TWG which
hindered the otherwise smooth process of revision. One of which is the difficulty of
finding references and other resources to support the inception of new provisions.
Given the fact that most of the provisions of the original doctrine was derived from
the military doctrine, the TWG needed to conduct extensive research on the existing
set-up of the PNP and its current policies and proceduressome of which are not
yet documented.

Doctrine development work is a tedious process--though hardly a few people


appreciate its importance. Doctrine development requires patience, determination,
commitment and dedication to accomplish what has been started and to create
something tangible that could provide an anchor from which the PNP could derive its
actions and programs. It calls for the integration of thoughts and ideas, creativity and
a never-give-up attitude. It invokes great challenge, both intellectually and physically.

However tedious the process is, DHRDD never looked at it as a hindrance.


Instead it was a welcome opportunity as the PNP starts to recognize the importance
of doctrine development when it was made a part of the Strategic Focus of the Chief,
PNP under the CODE-P Program in support of the PNP PATROL 2030.

With these, I would like to extend my heartfelt gratitude and appreciation to


the men and women of the Philippine National Police who shared their knowledge
and grains of wisdom to finally put into fruition the Revised PNP Fundamental
Doctrine.

To PCSUPT RONILO V. QUEBRAR, Deputy Director, Directorate for Human


Resource and Doctrine Development (DHRDD) for providing guidance and
inspiration to the members of the DHRDD Technical Working Group.
To the NHQ-TWG headed by PCSUPT ISAGANI R. NEREZ, Secretary to the
Directorial Staff, by steering the group towards the successful realization of this
project.

My greatest appreciation goes out to our predecessors, who spearheaded the


formulation of the original PNP Fundamental Doctrine in 1994.

To the Technical Staffthe General Doctrine Development Division led by


PSSUPT AGUSTIN E. SENOT and NUP Angelica G. Ruetas - for their
inexhaustible energy and commitment as they carried out all the groundwork in the
revision of this Manual.

To PDIR ALAN LA MADRID PURISIMA, Chief, PNP for his firm leadership
and focus on the development of responsive doctrines to guide our personnel in all
aspects of PNP operations and administration.

With this, I enjoin all PNP personnel to understand and adhere to this Doctrine
so that each of us may be guided and continue to become effective and efficient in
performing our duties and responsibilities as a police officer and a public servant.

SAMUEL B. DICIANO
Police Director
The Director, DHRDD
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Interior and Local Government
NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION
371 Sen. Gil Puyat Ave, Makati City

The publication of the Revised PNP Fundamental Doctrine


is again another feather on the hat of the Philippine National
Police.
MESSAGE

This remarkable achievement is indeed laudable


considering that this Manual serves as the anchor upon which all
police procedures and policies are based.

I fervently hope that this Manual would be the primary guide


of every PNP personnel as they make their individual contributions
in the attainment of a truly progressive community.

I urge the Philippine National Police to continue to be


vigilant in the enforcement of laws and remain dedicated and
committed in the performance of their sworn duties.

MAR ROXAS
Chairman,
NAPOLCOM
Republic of the Philippines
NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION
NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF, PNP
Camp Crame, Quezon City

It is with great pleasure that I congratulate the members of


the PNP Technical Working Group who exerted tremendous effort
in accomplishing this project.
MESSAGE

The revision of the PNP Fundamental Doctrine is part of


PNPs continuing effort to develop and improve its services in
support to national goals and policies which are among the
significant aspects of our CODE-P Program and the PNP PATROL
Plan 2030.

I enjoin every member of the PNP to take to heart the


provisions of this Manual for this will serve as our guide in providing
Serbisyong Makatotohanan that our society truly deserves.

ALAN LA MADRID PURISIMA


Police Director General

Serbisyong Makatotohanan
The Philippine National Police is a civilian law enforcement organization
guided by the rule of law. It acts deliberately and responds to situations
according to prescribed doctrines, rules and procedures.
PNPM-D-0-1-2-13

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTORY PRINCIPLES

Section 1-1 General

1.1 Purpose. This doctrine prescribes the Philippine National Polices (PNP)
Fundamental Manual. Its purpose is to guide the Command Group, Directorial Staff,
National Support Unit Directors, Regional, Provincial and City Directors, Chiefs of
Police, Police Commissioned Officers, Police Non-Commissioned Officers (PNCOs)
and Non-Uniformed Personnel (NUP) in the pursuit of organizational objectives
primarily designed to support the attainment of established national goals. More
specifically, it serves as a reference for all PNP personnel in discharging their
assigned missions, functions and responsibilities. Furthermore, it serves as a guide
and authority for all other manuals to be formulated in the Philippine National Police.
1.2 Scope

a. The contents of this doctrine include the fundamental principles for the
employment of PNP elements in support of national goals and policies;
information materials which could be used by training schools and units
in their instructional functions; information which could be very useful to
internal, as well as public information campaigns; and other material
relevant to the PNP organization such as those which support
budgetary and procurement programs and those which prescribe PNP
procedures when confronted with new and contingent mission and
function;
b. This manual applies primarily to the Philippine National Police in
dispensing its mandate. With appropriate modifications, it can also
apply to other organizations performing almost the same functions as
the Philippine National Police; and

c. The PNP fundamental doctrine is in accordance with established


standards of the PNP and the National Police Commission.
1.3 Recommended Changes.No changes to this fundamental doctrine shall be
made within the next five (5) years from its promulgation. Users of this manual are
encouraged to submit recommended changes and comments for further
improvement. Any suggested revision or comment should indicate the specific page,
paragraph and line of the publication for which it is made in order to provide easy
reference and evaluation. It should be forwarded to the Chief, Philippine National
Police (Attn: Director for Human Resource and Doctrine Development, Camp Crame,
Quezon City.)

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Section 1-2. Manuals and Doctrines

1.4 Definition. PNP Manuals and Doctrines are authoritative statements of


principles, policies, procedures, rules and regulations prescribing the proper
acquisition, use and employment of the PNPs human and materiel resources to
achieve planned objectives. They are authoritative for two reasons.
a. They are prescribed by the Chief, Philippine National Police. Being
prescribed by the Chief, Philippine National Police, they constitute in
fact a directive for all PNP personnel to observe and attain a conscious
and orderly management of PNP human and materiel resources.
Unless changed or disproved, they shall remain standing for
continuous application; and

b. They are largely based on knowledge gained through time-honored


traditions, police experiences, studies, analyses and tests.
1.5 Characteristics of the PNP Fundamental Doctrine

a. This manual is designed for continuing applicability at all times.

b. It serves as a guide to action, and a reference for the formulation of


other manuals within the PNP. It further provides a common frame of
reference across the PNP, facilitates the standardization of operations,
and synchronizes major police functions by establishing common ways
of accomplishing police tasks.
c. It seeks to provide a common framework for offices/units and field
operatives given a particular situation. It serves to answer the following
basic questions:

1) What is the PNP all about? Who does it serve?


2) What is its mandate and functions in reference to the State?
3) How must it carry out its missions? To what end?

1.6 Factors to consider in formulating Fundamental Manuals

a. Available Technology
b. Geography
c. Current Peace and Order situation
d. PNP units capabilities
e. Community support/participation
f. Laws, Regulations and Policies
g. Latest Trends in international policing

1.7 Categories of PNP Doctrines and Manuals. Different categories of PNP


manuals are required due to the wide range of missions and responsibilities
assigned to the PNP.

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PNPM-D-0-1-2-13

a. Primary Doctrines

1) Fundamental Doctrine. It states the basic principles, policies


and bases in the planning, organization and management of the
PNP in support of the PNP vision, mission and strategic action
plan towards the attainment of national objectives. This manual
shall be the primary manual of the PNP and shall therefore be
indexed as PNPM-D-0-01.
2) Ethical Doctrine. It defines the fundamental principles
governing the rules of conduct, attitude, behavior and ethical
norms of the PNP. (refer to PNP Code of Conduct and Ethical
Behavior)

b. Secondary Doctrines

1) Operational Doctrines. They consist of principles and rules


governing the planning, organization, direction and employment
and deployment of PNP forces in the accomplishment of basic
security operational mission in crime prevention and solution,
law enforcement, public safety and security. PNP operational
doctrines are published in separate manuals.

Examples of PNP Operations Manuals are: PNP Police


Operational Procedures, Criminal Investigations Manual, Field
Manual on Forensic Investigation, etc.

2) Administrative Doctrines. Provide guidance on the


accomplishment of general administrative functions or tasks of
the PNP. They set guidelines, formats or general policies that
must be followed in accomplishing periodic administrative tasks.

Examples of PNP Administrative Doctrines/Manuals are:


Doctrine on Administrative Issuances, Doctrine on PNP
Issuances, Doctrine on Classified Information, Doctrine on
Complete Staff Work.
3) Functional Doctrines or Administrative and Operations
Manual (AOM). Provide guidance for routine operational and
administrative functions of each unit in its fields of interest. They
cover the operational, administrative and technical fields that are
functionally relevant to the PNP unit concerned.

4) Complementary Doctrine - This manual is jointly formulated by


two or more bureaus/agencies/organizations in order to effect a
certain operation. With regard to Public Safety and Peace and
Order, this essentially involves inter-agency collaboration with:
the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP), the
Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP), the Philippine Public Safety
College (PPSC), the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) and
other law enforcement agencies other than the PNP.

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5) Best Practice Doctrine/Manual This manual describes or


features an initiative, activity, technique or method adopted
outside the usual routine or procedural requirement of police
operations/administration that has been proven to deliver
desired results and leads to the fulfillment of certain police
objectives. Best practices are sourced from field experiences,
practices and researches which when applied uniformly produce
almost the same results or outcomes at a particular time.

The objective of adopting best practices is to find and adopt


best ways of doing things that have already been proven to
achieve desired results. They are usually replicated from smaller
units to larger units and from lower to higher levels of the PNP.
Best practices usually become part of standard procedures
when already adopted at a national scale and mainstreamed as
a policy for wider adoption.

Examples of Best practices doctrines are the Regional Peace


and Order Councils, the Barangay Peacekeeping Operations
thru Barangay Peacekeeping Action Teams and the Crime
Mapping System.

1.8 Relationship between policies, doctrines and manuals

a. Doctrines provide general guidelines on how personnel must act or


behave on a given situation as manifested by organizational mandate,
principles, beliefs, values, traditions and other dynamics. Doctrines are
usually translated into policies to provide more detailed instructions and
prescribe sanctions to its non-adherence. Policies on the other hand
become sources of new doctrines. When put together, policies and
doctrines become manuals which are more specific and focused to a
particular police function or task.

b. The doctrine on police presence which states that by deploying more


PNP personnel and warm bodies to the streets and other strategic and
crime-prone areas, crime is deterred and police service is felt is an
example of a doctrine. A manifestation of this doctrine is the Police
Security Containment Ring System (PSCRS) which started as a best
practice and later on modified, adopted and mainstreamed as a policy
through the Police Integrated Patrol System (PIPS). The PIPS is now
part of the PNPs Police Operational Procedures Manual.

c. In terms of applicability, doctrines are to be continuously applied at all


times transcending political, social and economic changes. Policies are
aimed at being applied for a particular period of time and are impacted
by political, organizational and socio-economic developments. Manuals
on the other hand, are dependent on standing policies and current
tactical and strategic trends.

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Section 1-3. Document Security Classification


1.9 Document Security. Information and material in any form or any nature, the
safeguarding of which is necessary in the interest of national security and is
classified for such purpose by the responsible classifying authority.

PNP Doctrines and documents shall be classified as follows:

1) Top Secret. Information and material the authorized disclosure


of which would cause exceptionally grave damage to the nation,
politically, economically and militarily. Top Secret documents
may be copied, extracted or reproduced only when classifying
authority has authorized such action. When so authorized, the
reproduction shall be carried out under the supervision of an
authorized officer.

2) Secret. Information and material, the unauthorized disclosure of


which would endanger to the national security, cause serious
injury to the interest or prestige of the nation or any government
activity or would be of advantage to a foreign nation. Secret
documents may be copied, extracted or reproduced only when
classifying authority has authorized such action. When so
authorized, the reproduction shall be carried out under the
supervision of an authorized officer.

3) Confidential. Information and material, the authorized


disclosure of which would be prejudicial to the interest or
prestige of the nation or government activity or would cause
administrative embarrassment or unwarranted injury to an
individual or would be an advantage to a foreign nation. The
copying, extracting from or production of confidential matter is
authorized, unless the originator or higher authority has
specifically desired such authority.

4) Restricted. Information and material which requires special


protection other than that determined to be Confidential, Secret
and Top Secret matters.

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PNPM-D-0-1-02-13

CHAPTER 2
POWERS OF THE STATE

Section 2-1 General

2.1 The Right to Self-Preservation. Universally accepted as a moral and legal


right of every state, the act of self-preservation is explicitly mandated in Article II,
Section 4, of the 1987 Philippine Constitution that reads:

The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect


the people. The Government may call upon the people to
defend the State and, in the fulfillment thereof, all citizens
may be required, under conditions provided by law, to render
personal, military or civil service.

2.2 National Interest


a. Definition. National interest refers to any or all particular ends from
which a nation finds benefits or advantages for the welfare of its own
people. A national interest may consist of an undertaking or
involvement in any particular concern which redounds to the security
and well-being of the people. National interest provides guidance along
which a nation acts. They are secured and enhanced by setting up
certain objectives.
b. National Interest of the Philippines. The Constitution of the
Philippines clearly indicates the national interest of the Republic. They
include, among others, political independence and stability, democratic
governance, socio-economic well-being, territorial integrity, ecological
equilibrium and cultural-preservation.
2.3 Principles and State Policies. The Philippines is governed by the following
principles as set forth under Article II of the 1987 Philippine Constitution.

a. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty


resides in the people and all government authority emanates from
them.

b. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy,


adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of
the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice,
freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations.

c. Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The Armed
Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State.
Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the
national territory.

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d. The maintenance of peace and order, the protection of life, liberty, and
property, and promotion of the general welfare are essential for the
enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of democracy.

e. The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable.

2.4 National Objectives. National objectives are the aims, goals or ends toward
which a national strategy is directed. They support the national interests and provide
the bases for which policies are formulated and implemented. The Philippines
adopts the following national objectives:

a. To preserve the territorial integrity of the Philippine archipelago in


accordance with the Archipelago Theory which states that an
archipelago or a group of islands comprising a state shall be treated as
a national unit;

b. To promote the general welfare under a regime of justice, peace,


liberty and equality;

c. To establish and maintain friendly and peaceful relations with all


nations on the basis of mutual respect and understanding and of the
principles of equal rights and self-determination of all people;
d. To achieve national unity through the encouragement of involvement
by the people and the exhortation of cooperation of all sectors;
e. To insure internal security by maintaining a high state of law and order
and gain peoples support strong enough to suppress lawlessness and
disorder.
2.5 National Strategy

a. Definition. National Strategy is the art and science of employing the


political, economic, psycho-social and military/police powers of a nation
in times of peace or war to achieve national objectives. It is concerned
with broad matters that vitally affect the national interest and
objectives. It pays a special attention to relatively uncontrollable
environmental factors by the projection of future events in the light of
unexpected eventualities. It is a long range plan that involves total
power and assets of a nation to realize national ends; and
b. National Strategy of the Philippines. The Philippines renounces war
as an instrument of national policy. The statement embodies the
national strategy of the Republic, that is, it shall attain its national
objectives through peaceful means and reject aggression as an
alternative course of action. However, it shall deter and suppress any
form of aggression by utilizing military/police power if necessary in the
exercise of the right to self-preservation.

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Section 2-2. Police Power of the State

2.6 General Concepts


a. National power refers to the total strength and ability of the state to
gain desired objectives. It involves the various components combined
in appropriate mix and magnitudes. They are the political, economic,
psycho-social and police/military components. The degree of strength
or weakness of a nation vis--vis each component is a measure of its
national power;
b. Political power is largely determined by the stability and credibility of
the government in whatever form it may be, its administrative
machinery, the character of its people, and the soundness of its
domestic and foreign policies. The police forms part of the political
power;
c. Economic power depends on a variety of economic factors such as
magnitude of human and natural resources, agro-industrial capacity,
extent of grade and commerce, communication, system and others;
d. Psychological power is determined by the nationalistic temperament
of the people, the kind of social and moral fiber they have, the degree
of faith they keep towards their own institution, be it social, religious,
educational, or cultural; and
e. Police power depends largely but not solely on the strength of a
nations police forces. It likewise depends on the foregoing three
components of national power. Therefore, police power is the
combination of both the strength of the psycho-social and political
components. A truism as it appears to be, police powers becomes
almost synonymous to national power so that in the pursuit of the
desired national ends, greater reliance is placed on the police. It is
designated to exert legal force or pressure. It becomes a national tool
for the implementation of national goals and objectives and the
measure of its effectiveness.
2.7 Objectives of the Political Instrument of National Power

The fundamental objectives of Police power are:

a. To uphold the sovereignty of the state from all threats;


b. To suppress any violation of law that threatens the security of the state;
and
c. To insure compliance of the law by everyone.

2.8 Sovereignty and Territory. The Philippines is a friendly and peace-loving


nation. It affirms, however, the right to uphold and defend its sovereignty and

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territorial integrity. Its constitution does not waive the right to self-preservation in
case of attack or violation of its sovereignty or territorial domain.
2.9 Adherence

a. Conceived as the foundation of the overall effort to achieve internal


security, compliance to all laws of the state is given a high bearing -
usually all the instruments of national power- this becomes the most
important objective of the political instrument of national power; and

b. Adherence is a state of mind resulting from a religious compliance of


the law.
2.10 Program and Missions. In addition to purely police functions, the political
instrument may conduct campaign and execute programs in support of national
objectives. Units of the PNP may be employed in socio-economic programs, in the
operation and maintenance of essential public services and utilities, and in providing
public assistance in time of national disasters and calamities.

Section 2-3. Fundamental Principles of Law Enforcement

2.11 General. The consistent application of fundamental principles in law


enforcement is necessary to avoid human rights violation and maintain respect of
the profession. Thus, PNP members must be guided by the following principles
(Robert Peeles,1829):

a. The basic principle for which the police exist is to prevent crime and
disorder.

b. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public
approval of police actions.

c. Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary


observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the
public.

d. The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes


proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force.

e. Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion but
by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law.

f. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of


the law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion, advice
and warning is found to be insufficient.

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g. Police, at all times, should maintain a relationship with the public that
gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the
public are the police; the police being only members of the public who are
paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every
citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.

h. Police should always direct their action strictly towards their functions and
never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary.

i. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and dishonor, not the
visible evidence of police action in dealing with it.

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CHAPTER 3
THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE

Section 3-1 Mandate, Vision and Mission

3.1 General. It is the policy of the State to establish a highly efficient and
competent police force which is national in scope and civilian in character
administered and controlled by a national police commission. The Philippine National
Police (PNP) shall be a community and service oriented agency responsible for the
maintenance of peace and order and public safety. The PNP shall be so organized
to ensure accountability and uprightness in police exercise of discretion as well as to
achieve efficiency and effectiveness of its members and units in the performance of
their functions. (Title 1, Section 2, R.A. 8551)

The PNP is adopting the Performance Governance System (PGS) as its


strategy in accomplishing its mandated mission and functions complemented by the
Balanced Scorecard system as its management tool in measuring progress and
performance of PNP units and individual personnel. (see Annex E PNP PATROL
Plan 2030 Roadmap)

3.2 Legal Bases

a. Republic Act 6975 (An Act Establishing the Philippine National Police
under a Reorganized Department of the Interior and Local
Government, and for Other Purposes).

b. Republic Act 8551 (An Act Providing for the Reform and
Reorganization of the Philippine National Police and for Other
Purposes, Amending Certain Provisions of R.A. 6975).

c. Republic Act 9708 (An Act Extending for Five Years the Reglementary
Period for Complying with the Minimum Educational Qualification for
Appointment to the Philippine National Police and Adjusting the
Promotion System Thereof, Amending for the Purpose Pertinent
Provisions of R.A. 6975 and R.A. 8551).

3.3 Vision. Imploring the aid of the Almighty, by 2030, we shall be a highly
capable, effective and credible police service working in partnership with a
responsive community towards the attainment of a safer place to live, work and do
business. (PNP Patrol Plan 2030 )
3.4 Mission. The PNP is mandated to enforce the law, prevent and control
crimes, maintain peace and order, and ensure public safety and internal security with
the active support of the community.

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Section 3-2 Philosophy, Core Values and Ethics

3.5 Philosophy. Service, Honor, Justice. These words describe the


embodiment of ideals of the officers, men and women of the PNP to insure
efficiency, integrity, cohesiveness, camaraderie and equanimity towards enhancing
community acceptance and support and to attain its mission of peace keeping and
law enforcement.
3.6 Core Values. The police service is a noble profession which demands from
its members specialized knowledge and skills, as well as high standards of ethics
and morality. Hence, the members of the PNP must adhere to and internalize the
enduring core values of love of God, respect for authority, selfless love and service
for people, sanctity of marriage, and family life, responsible dominion and
stewardship over material things, and truthfulness (PNP Ethics and Values
Formation Manual, 2007). These core values are summarized in the following:

a. MakaDiyos (God-fearing. Pro-God)


b. Makatao (Humane. Pro-People)

c. Makabayan (Patriotic. Pro-Country)

d. Makakalikasan (Environment-friendly. Pro-Environment)


3.7 The Police Officers Creed (Chapter II, Section 2 of the PNP Ethical
Doctrine: 1995)

I believe in God, The Supreme Being, The Great Provider,


and The Creator of all men and everything dear to me. In return, I
can do no less than love Him above all obeying His word,
seek His guidance in the performance of my sworn duties and
honor Him at all times.

I believe that respect for authority is a duty. I respect and


uphold the Constitution, the laws of the land and the applicable
rules and regulations. I recognize the legitimacy and authority of the
leadership, and obey legal orders of my superior officers.

I believe in selfless love and service to people. Towards this


end, I commit myself to the service of my fellowmen over and
above my personal interest.

I believe in the sanctity of marriage and family life. I shall set


the example of decency and morality, shall have high regard for
family life and value of marital fidelity.

I believe in the responsible dominion and stewardship over


material things. I shall inhibit myself from extravagance and
ostentatious display of material things. I shall help protect the
environment and conserve nature to maintain ecological balance.

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I believe in the wisdom of truthfulness. I must be trustworthy


and I shall uphold the truth at all times.

3.8 Law Enforcers Code of Conduct. (Adopted thru United Nations General
Assembly Resolution 34/169 on December 17, 1979)

a. Law enforcement officials shall at all times fulfill the duty imposed upon
them by law, by serving the community and by protecting all persons
against illegal acts, consistent with the high degree of responsibility
required by their profession.

b. In the performance of their duty, law enforcement officials shall respect


and protect human dignity and maintain and uphold the human rights of
all persons.

c. Law enforcement officials may use force only when strictly necessary
and to the extent required for the performance of their duty. Matters of
a confidential nature in the possession of law enforcement officials
shall be kept confidential, unless the performance of duty or the needs
of justice strictly require otherwise.

d. No law enforcement official may inflict, instigate or tolerate any act of


torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,
nor may any law enforcement official invoke superior order or
exceptional circumstances such as a state of war, a threat to national
security, internal political instability or any other public emergency as a
justification of torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
punishment.

e. Law enforcement officials shall ensure the full protection of the health
of persons in their custody and, in particular, shall take immediate
action to secure medical attention whenever required.

f. Law enforcement officials shall not commit any act of corruption. They
shall also rigorously oppose and combat all such acts.

g. Law enforcement officials shall respect the law and the present Code.
They shall also, to the best of their capability, prevent and rigorously
oppose any violation of them.

Section 3-3 Symbols

3.9 PNP Seal Symbolism and Meaning (as registered at the National Historical
Institute on December 1991)

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a. The Native Shield The symbol of the Philippine Constabulary, the


first National Police by virtue of Organic Act No. 175, enacted by the
Philippine Commission on July 18, 1901. The Philippine Constabulary
for the close to 90 years of service to the nation has performed with
honor, professionalism and courage. The PC has carved out a large
part of the glorious pages of Philippine history, as attested by its proud
and deserving 86 of the total 92 Medals of Valor the highest honor
that a grateful Filipino nation can bestow to its gallant sons in the
service of the Republic. Most appropriately therefore, the PC became
the nucleus of the Integrated National Police in 1975 to nurture the
then embryonic concept of the nationalization of the countrys local
police forces.

b. The Sun Rays- Symbolizes the flowering, maturing and ultimate


realization of the glorious evolution of the PC/INP into a National Police
Organization that is national in scope and civilian in character as
enshrined in the 1986 Constitution. The traditional light rays which
represent the provinces which fought for the country and inspired the
members of the National Police with ideals of courage and patriotism
that all PNP members must possess.

c. Lapu-Lapu The great Filipino hero of Mactan, the prototype of the


best and most noble in Filipino manhood who is the symbol and
embodiment of all the genuine attributes and traits of leadership,
courage, nationalism, self-reliance and a people-based and people-
powered community defense. The benevolent and heroic warrior who
derived added strength from a cohesive, determined and loyal people
is today a fitting symbol of people power to preserve our values,
customs, traditions, way of life and the rule of law through a solid
community-based police system. Lapu-Lapu also personifies for us
today civilian constitutional authority.

d. The Three Stars- Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao and the 1,700 islands
and the territorial integrity wherein the National Police must enforce the
law and maintain peace and order with professionalism, zeal and
dedication in keeping with the highest ideals and traditions of service to
our country and people.

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e. Service, Honor, Justice Added distinct ideals for the officers, men
and women of the PNP to insure efficiency, integrity, cohesiveness,
camaraderie and equanimity to enhance community acceptance and
support to attain its mission of peacekeeping and law enforcement.

f. Laurel Leaves- Green laurel leaves symbolizes the Regional


Commands. It is also a symbol of the honor, dignity and the privilege of
being a member of a noble organization where the call to public service
par excellence is a commitment to public trust.

3.10 The PNP Badge, Symbolism and Meaning (as registered at the National
Historical Institute and Intellectual Property Office of the Philippines dated January
2012)

a. Philippine Eagle represent the Philippine national bird-symbol of


swiftness, power, courage and immortality.

b. Shield - symbol of protection of all citizens.

c. Three (3) Stars - stands for Luzon, Visayas and


Mindanao which constitute the Republic's
territorial integrity over which the PNP must
enforce the law and maintain peace and order
with professionalism, zeal and dedication in
keeping with the highest ideals and traditions of
service to God, country and people.

d. Sun with Eight (8) Rays derived from the Philippine national flag to
which the eight (8) rays represent the eight provinces whose ideals of
courage, gallantry and patriotism led to their revolt against Spain.

e. LapuLapu - symbolizes the bravery of the Philippine National Police.

f. Scroll with inscription- represents the PNPs motto:

Service - is the vibrant and cogent deeds and action in


response to the needs and wants of the people in
distress.
Honor is the over-riding criterion and consideration in the
performance of their entrusted task or mission.
Justice dispensed to everyone whatever is due to him without
favoritism or discrimination of any sort.

g. Laurel Leaves symbolizes the competency, brilliance and honor


expected from each and every member of the PNP.

h. Philippine National Police inscription depicts the identity of


solidarity.

i. Rank - represents the rank of the police officer.

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j. Serial Number- represents the serial number of the police officer.

Section 3-4 Functions

3.11 Powers and Functions of the PNP. (As defined in Section 24 of Republic
Act 6975)

a. Enforce all laws and ordinances relative to the protection of lives and
properties;

b. Maintain peace and order and take all necessary steps to ensure public
safety;
c. Investigate and prevent crimes, effect the arrest of criminal offenders,
bring them to justice and assists in their prosecution;
d. Exercise the general powers to make arrest, search and seizure in
accordance with the Constitution and pertinent laws;

e. Detain an arrested person for a period not beyond what is prescribed


by law, informing the person so detained of all his rights under the
constitution;

f. Issue license for the possession of firearms and explosives in


accordance with laws;

g. Supervise and control the training and operations of security agencies,


and issue licenses to operate security agencies and to security guards
and private detective for the practice of their professions; and

h. Perform such other duties and exercise all other functions as may be
directed by law.
3.12 Collateral Functions. A collateral function of the Philippine National Police
is always in collaboration with other law enforcement agencies and police volunteers.
They are:
a. To maintain forces and establish police volunteers to sustain the need
of law enforcement;
b. To maintain readiness in mobile forces and police volunteers, trained
and equipped for employment in emergencies;

c. To provide adequate, timely and reliable intelligence for use by the


PNP, and in assistance to other agencies;

d. To organize, train and equip a force for assignment to an insurgent-


affected area;

e. To prepare and submit budgets to NAPOLCOM Chairman for the PNP


units and offices; justify before the competent authority budget request

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as approved by NAPOLCOM; and administer funds for maintaining,


equipping and training the forces of the Police Regional Offices (PROs)
including the National Support Units;

f. To conduct research and develop doctrines, procedures, tactics,


techniques, develop and procure weapons, equipment and supplies
essential to the fulfillment of the functions assigned;

g. To develop, supply and maintain police camps/bases and other


installations including lines of communication; and

h. To assist other law enforcement agencies when


called/requested/directed.
i. To support the AFP through information gathering and performance of
its ordinary police functions, on matters involving the suppression of
insurgency. (Title II, Section 3, RA 8551 amending RA 6975)

j. To support the AFP in combat operations involving the suppression of


insurgency and other serious threats to national security. (Executive
Order No. 546 Directing the Philippine National Police to Undertake
Active Support to the Armed Forces of the Philippines in Internal
Security Operations for the Suppression of Insurgency and Other
Threats to National Security, Amending Certain Provisions of Executive
Order No. 110 Series of 1999 and for Other Purposes dated July 14,
2006)

Section 3-5 The Organization

3.13 Organization. The Philippine National Police includes the National


Headquarters Philippine National Police, PNP National Support Units - Operational
and Administrative, Major Subordinate commands and such other units as may be
established to meet the necessary requirements in the execution of the PNP mission
and functions. (Title III, Section 25 of RA 6975)

a. National. At the national level, the PNP shall maintain its office in
Metropolitan Manila which shall house the directorial staff, service staff
and special support units.

b. Regional. At the regional level, the PNP shall have regional offices,
including that of the National Capital Region, which may be divided into
two (2) separate regions without prejudice to the pertinent provisions of
the Organic Act for the Autonomous Regions of the Cordilleras and
Muslim Mindanao relative to the creation of a regional police force in
the area of autonomy. Each of these regional offices shall be headed
by a Regional Director for peace and order.

c. Provincial. At the provincial level, there shall be a PNP office, each


headed by a Provincial Director. In the case of large provinces, police

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districts may be established by the Commission to be headed by a


District Director.

d. City or Municipal. At the city or municipal level, there shall be a PNP


station, each headed by a Chief of Police.

(Note: Refer to Annex A for details on the organizational structure of the PNP and
respective functions of each unit)

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CHAPTER 4

ORGANIZATION, COMMAND AND STAFF PRINCIPLES

Section 4-1 General Concepts in Organization

4.1 Definition of Organization

a. An organization is a system of coordinating activities of a group of


people working in a concentrated manner towards a common goal
under authority and leadership.

b. A system of coordinated activities means that all organizations are


composed of parts and relationships. The parts of organization are the
activities or functions being performed and they are organized when
they assume certain logical relationships.

c. In all organizations, a group of people are needed to implement or


execute the activities or functions.

d. Cooperation towards a common goal is important in an organization.


Cooperation is strictly a human phenomenon. For rational behavior,
cooperation among individuals always has a purpose. Objectives of the
organization spell out that purpose. Its general purpose is to obtain
organizational efficiency.

e. Organizations are normally structured on a superior-subordinate


relationship. Therefore, authority is a universal element of all
organizations. Leadership is a personal quality which exhorts willing
collaboration towards a common goal.

4.2 Four Primal Conditions of Organizations. Organizations as mentioned


above provide unity of action to realize a common purpose. However, before any
unity of action is possible, four primal conditions must exist:

a. Authority. This is the supreme source of government for any particular


organization. It is the right exercise, to decide and to command by
virtue of rank and position.

b. Mutual Cooperation/Coordination/Consultation. An organization


exists because it serves a purpose. This purpose is viewed by society
as beneficial to it. This becomes the social legitimacy for the
organization to perform its functions in the society. It constitutes

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recognition by an agreement with the public on the rationality of its


existence.

c. Doctrine. This defines the organizations objectives. It also provides


the very source of various actions which are performed to assure
organizational coordination. Hence, policies, procedures, rules and
regulations of the organization are based on the statement of doctrines.

d. Discipline. In any organization, discipline is necessary to promote


coordination. Understood as comprising behavioral regulations, it is
imposed either by command or self-restraint to insure supportive
behavior from people composing the organization.

4.3 Principles of Organization. The primal foundations stated above are broad
enough to apply to any organization regardless of structural design and form.
However, certain principles of organization find particular application in the rational
structuring of organizations.

a. Principle of Unity of Objective. An organization structure is effective


if it enables individuals to contribute to the organizations/unit
objectives.

b. Principle of Organizational Efficiency. An organization structure is


effective if it is structured to aid the accomplishment of the
organizations objectives with a minimum, of unsought consequences
or costs.

c. The Scalar Principle. It prescribes the vertical hierarchy of


organizations. It defines an unbroken chain or scale of units from top to
bottom describing explicitly the flow of authority. This principle
demands the following conditions to achieve effective coordination:

1) Unity of Command. It defines a hierarchical system in which a


subordinate is accountable to one and only one immediate
superior. This is indispensable to achieve effective coordination.
Any violation to this principle undermines authority, jeopardizes
discipline, disturbs order and threatens stability in the
organization.

2) Span of Control. This relates to the number of subordinates a


superior can effectively supervise. There is no exact
mathematical ratio in superior-subordinate relationship. A
satisfactory span of control is instead determined by the four (4)
factors combined:

(a) Managerial ability of superior;

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(b) Effectiveness of organizational communication system;

(c) Effectiveness of management control exercised over


operations; and

(d) Organizational Philosophy on centralization versus


decentralization of authority and function.

3) Delegation of Authority. Scalar process refers to the growth of


the chain of command resulting in the creation of additional
levels in the organizational structure. Span of control
necessitates delegation of authority.

d. Functional Principle. Prescribes the horizontal growth of the


organization. The growth referred to here is applicable to the line as
well as to the emergence of staff functions in organizations. The
dynamic foundation of the functional process is called the division of
labor. It simply means the breaking up of work units to achieve
specialization. As the organization grows, the job must be divided so
that it wont become so inclusive to an extent that it could hardly be
performed. Such division must be defined to identify clear areas of
specialization. The division of work will support the operational
performance of the organization.

e. Line and Staff Principle. Organizations must provide an orderly


arrangement of functions so that objectives can be accomplished
effectively. The line and staff principle provides two basic structures in
organization: 1) the line structure and 2) the staff structure. A line
organization refers to the direct accomplishment of objectives. The staff
on the other hand, refers to organizations operating in an advisory or
facilitative capacity. Another viewpoint contends that those having
relatively unlimited authority over those to whom orders are given are
considered line officials while those having authority restricted to their
functional area are called staff officials.

f. Directorial Staff Principle. Prescribes the directorial authority of the


Directorate in the national and regional levels and other equivalent
units.

g. Principle of Balance. In every structure there is a need for balance.


The application of principles or techniques must be balanced to ensure
the overall effectiveness of the structure in meeting the organizations
objectives.

h. Principle of Delegation. Authority delegated to all individual managers


should be adequate to ensure their ability to accomplish the expected
results.
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i. Principle of Absoluteness of Responsibility. The responsibility of


subordinates to their superiors for performance is absolute, and
superiors are accountable for their subordinates activities.

j. Principle of Parity of Authority and Responsibility. The


responsibility for actions cannot be greater than that implied by the
authority delegated, nor should it be less.

k. Authority-Level Principle. Maintenance of intended delegation


requires that decisions within the authority of individual commander
should be made by them and not be referred upward in the
organizational structure.

l. Principle of Flexibility. The more provisions are made for building


flexibility in an organizational structure, the more adequately an
organizations structure can fulfill its purpose. Devices and techniques
for anticipating and reacting to change must be built into every
structure. Every unit moves toward its goal in a changing environment,
both external and internal. The unit that develops inflexibilities, whether
these are resistance to change, too-complicated procedures, or too-
firm department lines, is risking inability to meet the challenges of
behavior, technical, biological, political and social change.

m. Principle of Leadership Facilitation. The more an organizations


structure and its delegation of authority enable leaders/commanders to
design and maintain an environment for performance, the more they
will help the leadership abilities of those in command.

If the authority allocation and the structural arrangements create a


situation in which heads of departments tend to be looked upon as
leaders and in which their task of leadership is aided, organization
structuring has accomplished an essential task.

Section 4-2. Broad Bases of Organizations

4.4 General. The Philippine National Police observes several broad bases in
organizing units of the command. Organizations comprising the command are not
organized out of vacuum but are determined using bases. In most cases, two or
more of these bases are equally applied in actual situations, they are as follows:

a. Area basis. Organization according to area is defined as the grouping


of subordinate units or elements under a commander who is made

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responsible by higher authority for some continuing operations within a


specified geographic area. Reasons for organizing on area basis are:

1) To provide centralized direction among units within the area;

2) To provide a medium of coordination between higher levels of


the command and the command organization itself in the area;

3) To establish the specific responsibility of the commander;

4) To maximize coverage of the overall command, thus enabling it


to accomplish its missions and functions more effectively; and

5) To serve as an integrative force for all units within the area.

b. Functions basis. Organization according to function is defined as the


grouping together of subordinate units or elements under a commander
who is charged with specific functions without respect to any
geographic area. Reasons for organizing on functions basis are:

1) To obtain expeditious performance of a given task or solution


to a given problem without restriction to a given geographic
area;

2) To achieve concerted actions toward the accomplishment of


objectives by avoiding overlapping or duplication of functions;

3) To fix responsibility to a specific functional area; and

4) To effect proper coordination for specialized logistics support


required for particular operations.

In some instances, organizations are created on the bases of both area


and function depending on the nature of missions and responsibilities
confronting the commander.

c. Clientele basis. Under special circumstances, organizations, maybe


established to serve a particular sector of the client public. Such
organizations are created on a clientele basis usually without respect to
geographical area or to functions for which they have been specifically
dedicated. Normally, these organizations are also created with respect
to work processes to effect satisfactory service to public demands.
Reasons for organizing on a clientele basis are:

1) To concentrate on a specific service required by client;

2) To fix the responsibility of the commander;

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3) To make the organization responsive in delivering its assigned


tasks.

d. Work process basis. Organization on the basis of work processes


means the grouping together of subordinate units or elements primarily
trained to practice a given or related job. Reasons for organizing on the
basis of work processes are:

1) To maximize utilization of up-to-date skill derived from training;

2) To obtain more effective coordination as a result of


homogeneous training and skill; and

3) To make the organization responsive in delivering its assigned


tasks.

e. Contingency basis. Organization on the basis of contingency means


the creation of a contingent small unit in a short term period comprising
the organic elements tactically organized to address a specific situation
or phenomenon occurring in the area of responsibility. Reasons for
organizing on the basis of contingency are:

1) To maximize utilization of existing elements whose expertise


or technical knowledge are needed and applicable;

2) To obtain facts and immediate solution of the existing problem


by which the unit was tactically organized; and

3) To support generally the organization of various bases as


mentioned above.

The nature of the missions, functions and responsibilities assigned to a


command organization determine which basis should apply in its creation.

The boundaries of these bases when applied are vague. In any case,
however, the more dominant reason should be considered.

Section 4-3. Application of Principles

4.5 Fundamental considerations in Command Organization

a. The primary concerns in organizing command organization are:

1) Determination of specific activities that are necessary to


accomplish the pre-determined objectives; and

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2) Grouping and assigning the activities to specific positions and


people.

b. A sound command organization should provide for:

1) Centralized direction;

2) Decentralized execution; and

3) A common doctrine

c. Centralized direction is necessary to coordinate as well as to integrate


the total efforts of the component forces. This underscores the
importance of central planning and control. Equally important is the
decentralized execution because no commander is physically and
mentally capable of knowing and executing every detailed action of a
large organization. This simply means delegation of authorities and
assignment of various categories of responsibilities to lower
commanders in view of the span of control. A common doctrine is
likewise indispensable to promote mutual understanding and
confidence between a director and his subordinates and to provide
guidelines in the absence of specific instructions.

4.6 The Chain of Command. It is the hierarchal relationship of positions through


which the primary functions of the organization are performed. It is a line or chain of
superior from the top to bottom; the route taken for all communications which may
either start from or go to thru top authority in the chain. A Unit Director exercises his
authority and responsibility through a chain of command. It consists of different
levels as follows:

a. Top Echelon. The top most level in the chain where the overall
responsibility and authority over subordinate commands and units is
placed.

b. Middle Echelon. The next lower echelon constitutes subordinate


commands/units apportioned by the commander in order to accomplish
his tasks. Each of these subordinate commanders is responsible to the
common superior for the accomplishment of his assigned task. The
Regional Commands and the National Support Units, Provincial/City
Commands/NCR Districts belong to the middle echelon. However for
purposes of clarity, this echelon is further categorized as follows:

1) Police Regional Offices/NSUs Top-middle echelon

2) Provincial/City Police Offices /NCR District Offices


intermediary middle echelon

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3) Municipal Police Offices/Numbered Police Stations lower


middle echelon

c. Lower Echelon. The lower echelon is comprised of the subordinate


units further apportioned by subordinate commanders, such as the
municipal and city police stations. A commander may apportion his
tasks to subordinates to an extent dictated primarily by the nature of
the task and the availability of material and human resources.

4.7 Principles in Structuring Command Organizations

a. Division of Work. The process of dividing work shall be guided


primarily by the break-up of work into its fundamental components and
increase specialization at the lower levels of command. The lowest unit
should be constituted into a complete job to be occupied by one or
more persons at a given time.

b. Goal Orientation. The grouping of functions when setting up the


structural framework of an organizational unit should be oriented
towards the accomplishment of the goals of the whole organization.

c. Levels of Authority. The levels of authority should be as minimal as


possible so that the chain of command will be short. This can be done
by eliminating all unnecessary intermediate levels of authority provided
that the span of control will not be unreasonably wide.

d. Simplicity. A structurally simple organization is defined by its adequate


size and targeted positions, functions or units.

e. Unity of Command. This requires that a subordinate is responsible to


only one commander. It also provides that for a responsive work
direction, an organizational unit, position, or element should be
responsible for policy directions without impairment, however, the free
exchange of ideas and information at all levels is encouraged.

f. Responsibility and Authority. The areas of responsibility should be


clearly delineated and the location of authority logically established at
every level throughout the organization without impairing the
responsibility and authority in the highest executive of the organization.

g. Span of Control. The limits of effective supervision should be


observed on the basis of the nature of the work, the capabilities of
commanders and subordinates, organizational communication system
and physical lay-out of the organization so that the span of control of
every commander is not overly extended.

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h. Balance and Symmetry. Balance and symmetry in organizational


structuring particularly in the proportional relationships of line and staff,
central headquarters and field elements, hierarchy and nomenclature
of organizational units, and levels of authority and titles or positions
should be consistently observed together with the other principles of
organization.

i. Equality. For every responsibility there should always be a


commensurate authority and vice-versa to specify limits of power to
avoid its abuse.

j. Homogeneity. Homogeneous grouping of work should give way to


necessary divisions where grouping will result in focusing resources
towards the upholding of basic organizational interests.

k. Duplication and Overlap. Overlapping of work functions and duties


should continually be avoided. Accountabilities and responsibilities
must be clearly identified for every work function.

4.8 Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility. It is the


action by which the Chief, PNP assigns part of his authority to his Deputies,
Directorial Staff, Regional Directors and NSU Directors. The act of delegating
authority and assigning responsibility to subordinate elements of the PNP is
considered a necessary prerequisite to the organization of these elements into units.
The commander therefore must:

a. Clearly state the mission or tasks to enable subordinates to determine


their individual contribution to the overall mission of the command
organization.

b. Allocate to his subordinate, resources necessary for the


accomplishment of their assigned tasks.

c. Delegate sufficient authority and functions to subordinates


commensurate to the assigned responsibility.

d. Provide an adequate communication system between him and his


subordinates to ensure subordinates conformity to pre-established
plans and policies and avoid abuse of authority.

e. Provides an effective control procedure without stifling innovativeness.

f. Create special committee when undertaking special projects. In


assigning committee chairmanship and membership, it must be on a
positional designation basis rather than individual designation basis.

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Section 4-4 Command and Staff Principles

4.9 Purpose. The purpose of this is to outline selected basic principles and
procedures of command staff applicable to the organizational set up of the Philippine
National Police.

4.10 Definitions

a. Command. Within the context of this chapter, the term "Command"


shall be taken to mean the authority vested in an individual of the
police service over his subordinates by virtue of his rank or
assignment.

b. Staff. It is a coordinating body assigned to help the commander


accomplish his missions. It is composed of the officers exercising
directorial authority, each having a functional area or responsibility
which the commander is interested in.

c. Authority. It is the right to decide and command.

1) In a police organization, authority consists of rights such as to:

(a) Make decisions within the bounds of his authority;

(b) Assign tasks to subordinates; and

(c) Expect and require satisfactory performance from


subordinates.

2) Authority must be coupled with commensurate responsibility for


planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling
police forces for the effective accomplishment of assigned
mission.

(a) Responsibility. It is the obligation to do something.


Responsibility is the duty that one has to perform in the
organizational tasks, functions and assignments.

(b) Accountability. This refers to the obligation to account


for the authority delegated and tasks assigned to
subordinates. Subordinates must answer to his
commander with regard to the discharge of his authority
granted him by his superior. In other words, each
subordinate is obligated to support to his superior

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measured by the manner he exercised his responsibility


and the use of the authority delegated to him.

(c) Mission. The term refers to a duty assigned to a police


unit or an individual. In a larger sense, it may refer to the
effect desired through the discharge of one or more
functions by a PNP unit or an individual.

Section 4-5. Command Principles and Procedures

4.11 Command Authority. This provides the commander with the right to plan,
organize, direct, coordinate and control PNP forces or units in order to accomplish
an assigned mission or task. Essentially, this inextricably goes with a commensurate
responsibility not only on the foregoing function but also on matters of health,
welfare, morale, training and discipline of subordinates.

4.12 Command Responsibility. The commander is responsible for all that


his unit does or fails to do. This responsibility can never be delegated otherwise it
would constitute an abdication of his role as a commander. He alone answers for the
success or failure of his command in all circumstances.

4.13 The Commander

a. The commander exercises command authority and responsibility over


subordinates by virtue of his rank and assignment. Such authority
should be within the scope of law, policies and PNP service
regulations.

b. He discharges his responsibilities through a chain of command. All


orders are issued by the commander of the highest unit to
commander(s) of subordinate units.

Only in urgent situations when intermediate commanders may be by-


passed. In such instances, intermediate commanders should be
notified of the context of the order as soon as possible by both the
commander issuing the order and the commander receiving it.

c. The commander alone is responsible for what his unit does or fails to
do. He can delegate authority but not his responsibility.

d. He performs vital functions such as planning, organizing, motivating,


communicating and controlling the command organization.

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4.14 Responsibility and Authority of a Commander

a. A commander is responsible for the satisfactory accomplishment of the


functions and missions assigned to his command. His authority shall be
commensurate with his responsibilities subject to law, Civil Service
Commission (CSC), National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM) and
PNP rules and regulations. He exercises authority normally through the
Directorial Staff and his immediate subordinate commanders may
communicate directly with any of his subordinate should he deems it
necessary.

b. Subject to the policies and orders of higher office/headquarters, a


commander may issue such regulations and instructions as may be
necessary for the proper administration and operation of his command.

c. A commander is responsible for the care, preservation, and proper


utilization of all equipment issued to his command and for the proper
observation of supply discipline. As such he is expected to inventory
the equipment and materials in his unit prior to his relief and should
properly turn over to the incoming commander.

d. A commander shall encourage among his officers harmonious


relations and a spirit of camaraderie in the performance of their duties.

e. A commander shall be responsible for the security and strict


observation of secrecy discipline within his command.

f. Commander shall be responsible for the assignment of his personnel


based on the positional qualification standard.

4.15 Impossibility of Delegation of Responsibility. A commander may


assign duties to his subordinates accompanied by an appropriate authority. The
responsibility over the satisfactory performance of these duties however, remains
with the commander. A commander's own responsibility is not in the least diminished
when he delegates authority to his subordinates. In other words, no amount of
delegating authority will reduce the commander's responsibility. Delegation of
authority may even actually increase the burden/risk of commander's responsibility
because he should then be held responsible for the personal supervision of
subordinates in addition to his responsibility of seeing that the work of his
organization is accomplished. In extreme cases, the commander may choose to do
the work himself and, therefore, he does not have to supervise his subordinates. In
either event, the commander retains complete responsibility for the accomplishment
of his work.

4.16 Source of Responsibility. Responsibility is created within a


commander when he accepts an assignment together with a delegation of
appropriate authority. It is not the act of delegating authority or assignment of tasks
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that creates responsibility. Rather, responsibility is created by the commander within


himself when he agrees to perform a task. If the commander is not agreeable to the
conditions of his assignment, and is, therefore, unwilling to accept responsibility,
then he should reject the assignment. An unjustified rejection of an assignment,
amounting to a refusal to be responsible, could lead to disciplinary action or even
dismissal from the service.

4.17 Guiding Principles of Responsibility

a. Position of Major Responsibility (PMR). A position that has a major


decision-making prerogative and ultimate assumption of responsibility
or a key position of leadership. It is the one that assumes the primary
responsibility as a Commander or Director. The position of major
responsibility encompasses: Chief PNP; Director of Directorial Staff
NHQ-PNP; Regional Director (Regular or Special Police Regional
Offices; Director of National Support Units; Provincial/City Police Office
Director; District Director-NCR); and Regional Public Safety Battalion
Commander.

b. Position of Collateral Responsibility (PCR). A position that has


direct bearing on the accomplishment of the mission/function of an
officer holding the position of major responsibility. It is a position that
assumes the secondary responsibility to the officer holding the position
of major responsibility. The position of collateral responsibility includes:
Chief of Division of the Directorial staff NHQ-PNP; Directorial staff of
the Regional Commands/NSU's/Districts; Personal Staff; and the Chief
Executive Senior Police Officer of NHQ, PROs and National Support
Units.

c. Position of Supervisory Responsibility (PSR). A position that


assumes a primary responsibility to supervise and orchestrate the
activities of the command/unit or office supportive/vital to the
accomplishment of the mission/function of the officer holding the
position of major responsibility. The Position of Supervisory
Responsibility includes: Deputies of CPNP; TCDS; Deputies and
Executive Director of the Directorial Staff, NHQ-PNP; Deputies and
Regional Chief Directorial Staff of PROs/NSU's/Districts; and Deputies
of Provincial/City Offices/Districts.

d. Position of Front-Line Responsibility (PFLR). A position that


assumes the: primary field command responsibility. The position of
Front-Line Responsibility includes: Public Safety Battallion Comdrs;
Chiefs of Police; Directors of Provincial District Office; Chief of Special
Units/Office of PROs and NSU's; Section Chief of the Divisions of the
Directorial Staff NHQ-PNP and Regional offices and Staff of NSU's;

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Provincial and city office staff officers; and Command Police Non-
Commissioned officer of the Provincial/City District, Special
Units/Office of PROs/NSUs.

e. Position of Hands-on/Lineman Responsibility (PHLR). A position


that has the immediate hands-on responsibility in the
machine/equipment operation, clerks, resources operation or plan
execution such as lineman, fieldman, streetman, operator, beatman
and patrolman. It includes all personnel assigned in the Police Districts,
Police Stations, Public Safety Battallions, Provincial Offices, National
Support Units, and NHQ-PNP who are not included in the definition of
the other categories of Responsibility.

4.18 Acceptance of Responsibility and Accountability. To avoid organizational


ineffectiveness and friction, commanders of police organizations must accept
responsibility and accountability.

4.19 Flow of Accountability. Since responsibility is largely retained with the


commander it does not flow downwards or upwards in the organization. However,
accountability does flow upwards in the organization for the reason that a
commander's responsibility is not enough to ensure coordinated performance in
organizations in the same manner that a commander cannot reduce his
responsibility. In delegation of authority, he also cannot reduce his accountability to
his subordinates.

4.20 Balance of Authority, Responsibility and Accountability. An important


task of a superior is to continuously seek an acceptable authority, responsibility and
accountability both for himself and his subordinates in order to promote an
equilibrium in his organization. Authority must not exceed responsibility or
accountability. The extra authority might be used arbitrarily, capriciously, or without
due consideration on the effect on others. Likewise, responsibility or accountability
must not exceed authority otherwise a commander might be held accountable for
things he cannot change or control.

4.21 The Chain of Command

a. Effective Police operations require strict adherence to the established


Chain of Command. This consists of a hierarchy of officers given
respective command authority at varying levels through which
command action should be channeled.

b. Under extraordinary circumstances, the chain of command may be by-


passed when such adherence becomes impractical or may cause
unacceptable delay. The senior commander, by-passing the chain of
command, assumes responsibility for the order he has given to a
subordinate commander. Intermediate commanders who have been

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by-passed should be informed of such orders and action taken at the


first practicable opportunity.

c. The chain of command should be institutionalized by having all


commanders of the various echelons of command to make provisions
of succession of command in case of contingencies like absence or
death of commander.

4.22 Command and Communication

a. The maintenance of an effective communication system is a function


and a direct responsibility of the command. Success or failure of police
operations depends greatly on the ability of commanders to observe
the closest coordination possible among force employed. The key to an
effective coordination is the reliability of the communication system
between forces.

b. The purposes of communication in command organization are


classified into five (5) broad areas:

1) Becoming informed, or informing others. This is the basic


purpose of routine day to day communication events.
Communication enables all subordinates to affirm their purposes
in command organizations so that they can all work towards
compatible objectives. All decisions shall only be implemented
or reflected in command operations after all subordinates
involved are properly informed.

2) Evaluating one's own inputs, or another's outputs, or some


ideological scheme. The dynamic nature of command
organizations demands that constant evaluation be made of the
activities which can be attained. Thus, the effective
communication system includes a feedback of the effectiveness
of one's own decisions, other decisions and actions and
evaluation of alternate proposals to keep the organization on the
right track. Evaluation involves many recurring communications.
Detailed plans, budgets and formal report all aid in the
evaluation of internal and external factors affecting the
organization.

3) Directing others or being directed or instructed.


Communication between the commander and the human and
physical resources of his command is imperative so that he can
direct them toward organizational objectives. Job training
depends on communication Delegation of authority is
impossible without communication.

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4) Influencing others or being influenced. Motivation is provided


and stimulated by the commander through communication. The
balance between efficiency lies on the ability to motivate and
influence

4.23 Mutual Responsibility for Coordination

a. In any given echelon, coordination among commanders is required.


Each commander is responsible to the common superior for the
performance of his assigned tasks. Coordination of effort among these
commanders is the duty of both the common superior and the
individual commander.

b. As far as conditions would permit, commanders should keep each


other informed of their positions, movements and intentions, and of
contacts with enemies/ criminals. It is not necessary to burden the
communication system with frequent report when operations are being
executed as planned, or with reports on the enemy/ criminal containing
no information value. It is essential however, to report new information
on the enemy/criminal and to report delays or modifications in the
execution of certain parts of a directive.

4.24 Announcement of Assumption of Command. Upon assuming command


and likewise units under his command, when appropriate, the commander shall also
inform the senior commanders of other PNP units and officials of other government
agencies and foreign government agencies located within his area of responsibility
about his assumption of command.

4.25 Readiness. A commander/Director shall take practicable steps to maintain


his command in a state of readiness. In conformity with the orders and policies of
higher authority, he shall:

a. Organize all personnel under his command and assign mission and
duties to his subordinate commanders.

b. Prepare plans for the employment of personnel to meet all prevailing


and future situation.

c. Coordinate on a wide range of important matters with the commanders


of other PNP units and with appropriate government officials located
within the area covered by his command.

d. Make or cause an inspection to insure discipline and efficiency in his


command.

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4.26 Observance of International Law

a. In the event of war between nations with which the Republic of the
Philippines has peaceful relationships, a commander shall observe or
require his command to observe the principles of international law. He
shall make all efforts consistent with prescribed principles to preserve
and protect the lives and properties of the citizens of the Republic.

b. When the Republic is at war, he shall observe and require his


command to observe the principles of International Law. He shall
respect the rights of neutral nations pursuant to International Law and
the pertinent provisions of treaties.

4.27 Information and Reports. A commander should keep his superior


appropriately informed of:

a. The organization of his command, the prospective and actual


movement of the units of his command and the location of his
headquarters; and

b. The plan of employment of his forces.

Section 4-6 Leadership and Development

4.28 Introduction. To any organization nothing could be more important than the
responsibility for leadership and its development. The PNP recognizes this fact, for
without leadership, it is a muddle of men, weapons, and machines. Nothing but
leadership can bind together the officers and men and motivate them towards goals.
The Commander's functions of planning, organizing, directing, controlling and
deciding become dormant and meaningless until he triggers the power of leadership
among his men and guides them toward the accomplishment of his mission.

"Leadership therefore transforms potential into reality. It is the ultimate act


which brings to success all the clusters of potentials that are in the organization and
its members (Morrison: 1994, p.47). Leadership is so important to the Philippine
National Police and this is the very reason why it is being treated separately under
this section.

4.29 Definition of Leadership

a. Leadership is a part of command functions, but not all of it. A


commander is required to discharge his functions, like planning and
deciding, but no less important, he must also get others to follow. The

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fact that he can influence others to follow him is no guarantee that he is


going in the right direction. This implies that a strong leader can be a
weak commander for the reason that he is lacking strength in some
other managerial abilities like planning and organizing. He may be able
to motivate his command to keep on moving but only tangential to
organizational objectives. The reverse is also possible. It is therefore
imperative that a commander should have an excellent managerial
capability and reasonably high leadership ability.

b. Leadership is something an individual does, not something he


has. Leadership, however, should not be confused with mere activity
as may be implied herein. Dynamic interactions with people will not
necessary result into leadership. What could be more appropriate as a
leadership action is "to stay in the background keeping pressures off
the group, to keep quiet so that others may talk, to be calm in times of
uproar, to hesitate and to delay decisions.

c. The quality of a person's leadership is appraised in practice by


studying his followers. The number and kind of followers and the
strength and stability of their commitment to organizational goals can
define the quality of leadership in a person.

d. Leadership is situational. Different problems, different groups and


different attitudes within the same organization demand different
leadership qualities and styles.

4.30 Personal Traits of a leader. Personal traits, although they exist in person,
shall only become active when a certain group or situation calls for them. It must be
understood, therefore, that these traits can only be shown or measured after a
person becomes a leader. On the other hand, there are various traits of a person
which do not necessarily make him a leader. It appears that several traits of most
leaders are likewise found among non-leaders. These traits consequently do not
define a cause-and-effect relationship with leadership. However, the following
personal traits have been found to be the most correlated to successful
organizational leadership.

a. Intelligence. Leaders usually possess higher intelligence than the


average of his followers. The difference may not be so great but still it
normally exists, he needs an excellent analytical ability and
communication capacity to tackle the board problems and complicated
relationships in organizations.

b. Social Maturity and Breadth. A leader usually has broad interests


and activities. He is emotionally matured and possesses a high
frustration tolerance. His anti-social tendencies are at a minimum and
he prudently displays a reasonable self-assurance and self-respect.

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c. Inner Motivation and Achievement Drives. A leader has a strong


personal motivation to keep on accomplishing things. He is an
achiever. After reaching one goal, he strives to attain a higher level of
goal to satisfy his inner drives. He always keeps in mind that the
essence of leadership is the acceptance of responsibility.

d. Human Relations Attitude. A leader preserves and develops a


healthy respect for people. He maintains the dignity and mutual interest
among his followers realizing that the job is always done through them.
He approaches problems and identify solutions in consultation with the
people involved. In short, he is a subordinate-oriented leader.

4.31 Leadership as Role Behavior

a. Strong leadership has become increasingly evident that it is the result


of an effective role behavior. Leadership is tangibly shown by a
person's acts more than by his traits. It is true that traits considerably
influence acts but so do the subordinates, goals, and the environment
where the acts occur. In short, there are a number of variables highly
influencing the acts of a leader.

b. Leadership therefore is a role behavior which unites and stimulates


subordinates toward particular objectives in particular environment.

c. In his role behavior, leaders use three different skills. In application,


these skills are interrelated and used in combinations.

1) Technical. Knowledge or proficiency in any type of process. A


leader deals with things.

2) Human. Ability to interact effectively with people and exhort


teamwork or cooperation. A leader is concerned about the
people.

3) Conceptual. Ability to deal with long-range plans, broad


relationships and other attractions. A leader deals with ideas.

4.32 Some Leadership Functions in Practice. In a dynamic organization such


as the police, it is not enough that the commander performs his functions as required
by his authority and responsibility. The vital functions of planning, organizing,
motivating, communicating, and controlling command or units describe the core of
the commander's job. However, there are other functions which may influence the
success or failure of the organization. These are called leadership functions. They
are as follows:

a. Arbitrating. In every organization, conflict among members often


arises. An effective leader will resolve such disagreement by arbitrating

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or making a decision on the matter. While it is always expected that the


leader will make the right decision, it becomes more important that his
decisions redounds to making the organization more productive and
efficient.

b. Suggesting. A skillful leader applies the power of suggestion in


making decisions. Suggesting often permits the subordinate to retain
decisions and allow him to preserve his dignity. In this manner, a
subordinate feels empowered compared to being given a direct order.

c. Supplying Objectives. A leader usually supplies the objectives of the


organization by clearly defining them. This enables the subordinate to
work together towards it. Normally, organizational objectives do not
appear automatically and therefore unknown to members of the
organization. Thus, it must be supplied by the leader together with
suitable objectives and measures of performance.

d. Catalyzing. In organizations, some kind of force is needed to stir


subordinates into action. A leader must provide that force. When he
does, he is acting as a catalyst.

e. Providing Security. One very important factor to members of an


organization is personal security. A leader can provide a large measure
of security by maintaining stability under pressure or assuming a
positive or optimistic attitude even in the face of adversities. A leader
challenged by difficulties yet exhibits a positive attitude can contribute
to a successful leadership. Subordinates under this kind of leadership
tend to assimilate the attitude of their leader.

f. Representing. A leader represents the entire organization. He serves


as its symbol. As such, the impression he creates impacts the image of
the organization he represents.

g. Inspiring. Subordinates work more productively when their leader


gives them due recognition on their job. When they are inspired, they
work more enthusiastically towards the accomplishment of
organizational objectives. A leader must let his subordinates know
that their work is worthwhile and important.

h. Praising. Being considered as important in an organization is a human


need of every subordinate. He wants his work to be appreciated. A
leader can satisfy this need not by an empty flattery but by a sincere
pat on the back for a job well done. This will make subordinates
pleased and more involved in his work.

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Section 4-7. Staff Principles and Procedures

4.33 Staff Authority. It is the commander that delegates authority to a particular


staff officer to take action on matters within the bounds of command policies. The
staff issue orders in the name of the commander who retains responsibility for such.
The authority delegated to individual staff officers varies with the level and mission of
the command, the urgency of operations and the relationship of the staff officers
functional area with the primary mission of the command.

4.34 Staff Responsibility. Staff officers are each assigned with a functional areas
of interests. Each is responsible for the accomplishment of all staff actions within his
area of interest. This does not carry, however, command authority over other staff
officer or other elements of the command.

4.35 Staff Functions

a. The staff is organized as a Directorial body to assist the commanders


to discharge his functions. It is composed of staff officers specifically
ordered or detailed to take charge of the various broad fields of
interests over which the commander is concerned with.

b. The staff is commanded by the commander. It is supervised by the


Chief Directorial Staff.

The following are the five (5) functions which are common to all staff
officers:

1) Provide the commander with pertinent and evaluated


information in usable form;

2) Make estimates to assist the commander in deciding on a


course of action;

3) Make recommendations to assist the commander in reaching


decisions and in formulating policies;

4) Convert the commander's decisions into plans and orders; and

5) Supervise the execution of plans and orders.

4.36 Relationship between the Staff and Commanders and Staff of


Subordinate Commands

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a. Staff officers should avoid usurping the prerogatives and


responsibilities of commanders and staff of subordinate commands to
promote coordination and avoid unnecessary friction.

b. Staff officer may contact a subordinate commander to transmit orders


and instructions of higher commanders, to provide pieces of advice and
recommendations or to disseminate or exchange information. This
condition is applicable in the following situations:

1) When the higher commander specially authorizes staff members


to issue orders and instructions;

2) When the commander delegates operational control of a unit


to a staff officer;

3) When the technical or professional nature of certain activities


requires a special relationship; and

4) When the command organization includes a subordinate unit


that is assigned or attached for administrative control only.

c. The advice or recommendation of a staff officer may be accepted or


rejected by a subordinate commander in the same manner he handles
such with his own staff.

d. Respective staff officers of higher and lower commands may take staff-
to-staff contact for purposes of coordination and cooperation only. In
this case, the higher headquarters staff may not exercise independent
authority over the subordinate headquarters staff.

4.37 Staff Procedures

a. Staff officers should at all times closely follow standard procedures and
techniques in discharging their functions. These are the methods used
to accomplish staff functions or the "hows" of staff operations.

b. Staff procedures expedite the accomplishment of staff and techniques


used in good staff work. More particularly, they must know the detailed
procedures and techniques applied in their respective areas of
interests.

c. In accordance with scalar arrangements, staff officers must always


remember that the bases for all their actions are the command mission
and the commander's responsibilities, and that all their actions are only
means to accomplish an end and not the ends themselves.

4.38 Completed Staff Action. Actions of staff officers must be complete staff
actions. A completed staff action includes a thorough analysis of a problem,

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consideration of all feasible courses of action, and his recommended solution in


finished form which the commander can approve or disapprove. This procedure
usually gives more work for staff officers, but provides the commander more freedom
to think and decide.

4.39 Staff Coordination

a. Three reasons for coordination within a staff.

1) To insure expeditious and harmonious staff action in carrying


out the commander's plan;

2) To delineate particular tasks within the staff in order to avoid


conflicts and duplications; and

3) To make the necessary adjustments in plans and policies before


their implementation.

b. The Chief of Directorial Staff establishes procedures of coordinating


the various directorial staff's operations.

c. In specific staff action, the action officer assigned to a particular task is


responsible for staff coordination.

d. Staff coordination may be achieved through the following methods;

1) Informal and formal conferences of various staff members;

2) Briefings;

3) Prompt distribution of essential information, decisions and


orders within or among headquarters staff division/sections;

4) Formal routing of staff papers to appropriate directorial staff for


comment and concurrence; and

5) Close contact and exchange of information by each staff


division/section with the corresponding staff at higher, lower,
adjacent and supporting headquarters.

e. Staff coordination is time consuming. Obtaining complete coordination


or concurrence from the staff members when immediate action is
desired is not always possible. In such cases, the action officer
presents the plan or recommendation to the proper authority explaining
the urgency of a quick action on the matter. The referral authority may
call all concerned parties to obtain their concurrence or may approve
the recommendation without it. However interested staff elements are
later on informed of the action taken.

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4.40 Staff Supervision

a. The staff must constantly supervise the execution of plans and order
issued by, or in the name of the commander to insure proper
implementation or compliance.

b. Staff supervision may be conducted through:

1) Analysis of reports;

2) Staff visits; and

3) Staff inspections.

c. Through the analysis of reports, the staff can determine the progress of
command operations. Staff visits to subordinate units are made to
provide the guidance and assistance in their respective areas of
responsibilities. Staff inspections are conducted by staff officers as
directed by the commander.

4.41 Means of Communication by Staff

a. In accomplishing their functions and responsibilities, staff officers avail


of the following means of communication:

1) Personal contact as in the case of staff visits and inspections;

2) Police communication networks like telephone and radio;

3) Written communication like memorandum, letters,


endorsements, radio messages, etc.; and

4) Liaising. Liaising duties are not restricted to liaison officers


specifically designated as such; any staff officer may also
perform these duties.

b. Channels which may be used by staff in communicating with


subordinate units are the following:

1) Command Channels. These are used for commander-to-


commander interaction where all orders are issued in the name
of the commander;

2) Staff Channels. These are used for coordination and exchange


of information between counterpart staff element; and

3) Technical Channels. These are used by special staff officers


and by functional specialists of the coordinating staff for routine
technical reports and instructions as prescribed by the
commander.
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4.42 Procedures for Making Estimates

a. Estimates are prepared to meet particular requirements. A staff officer


can make a rapid mental, oral or written estimate depending on the
time available and the specific requirements of the commander.

1) A rapid mental estimate is made whenever a new item of


information is considered significant. It is limited in scope and is
intended for his use only.

2) An oral estimate is usually presented to the commander and


other staff officers upon request or during a briefing.

3) The written estimate which is normally more formal and


comprehensive is made for planning purposes of the
commander.

b. An estimate may have to be prepared before the availability of


extensive information in order to formulate tentative plans for future
operations. Such preliminary estimate is largely based on current
information and a number of assumptions on factors which cannot be
definitely established. These assumptions are usually about the
disposition and capabilities of friendly and hostile forces, the resources
available, and the material time needed to accomplish a certain course
of action. It is very important that the staff officer informs the
commander when the estimate is usually made to ascertain the
feasibility factors that point towards a decision on a certain course of
action.

c. The preparation of estimates is a continuing process. As new items of


information are received, estimates are revised to improved the quality
of recommendations and decisions of the commander.

4.43 Procedures for Presenting Recommendations

a. A staff officer should always be prepared to make a recommendation to


the commander on matters within his functional areas of interest. Such
recommendation should be based on the thorough analysis of
alternatives presented. Any observation concerning a functional area
which is not his primary responsibility is normally endorsed to the
appropriate staff officer.

b. In the analysis of problems and presentation of recommendations, a


staff officer may follow both the formal and informal procedures,
provided they are systematic. He must clearly explain the advantages

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and disadvantages of each alternative and then present his


recommendation candidly and objectively.

c. Whether the procedure is formal or informal, a staff officer must


carefully analyze and compare all feasible alternatives based on
accurate information available. He must clearly define the procedure
which may consist of written estimates, staff studies, or formal
briefings. An informal procedure may be verbal or on a person-to-
person basis.

d. The staff officer must be thoroughly prepared to make positive


recommendations when desired by the commander. When such
recommendation affects the functional areas of other staff officers, he
should coordinate with them. He should clearly identify the best
alternative from his point of view and state it in an appropriate forum
which requires the approval of the commander.

4.44 Procedures of Preparing Plans and Orders

a. The over-all responsibility in the preparation of plans is given to a


single staff officer. The other staff officers provide some elements or
positions of the plan or order that are applicable to their respective
functional scope.

b. Staff officers supplying some portions of the plan or order must


interpret the commander's desire with respect to their areas of interest,
prepare initial drafts, conduct necessary coordination and submit final
draft to staff officer responsible for the overall preparation.

c. The staff officer having responsibility for over-all preparation reviews


the component elements to insure consonance with the commander's
decision. He then assigns identification numbers to the plan or the
order and to annexes and appendixes, as needed; accomplishes final
staff coordination and submits the complete document to the Chief
Directorial Staff for command approval and signature. When the plan or
order has been signed, the responsible staff officer authenticates
copies as necessary and reproduces and distributes the document

d. Staff officers may prepare and issue fragmentary/supplementary


orders, either orally or in writing. Usually, these orders concern
immediate operational requirements. The Staff officer confers
informally with other staff officers concerned, and secures the Chief
Directorial Staff's guidance. When time is critical, staff officers with
delegated authority write and issue fragmentary/supplementary orders
in the name of the commander, then promptly inform the Chief

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Directorial Staff and any other concerned staff officers about such
orders.

4.45 Briefings. Briefings are made by the staff to keep the commander informed
with the current situation and problems facing the command.

4.46 Staff Studies. A staff study is a study technique in command organizations


depicting an analysis of problems and their corresponding solutions.

4.47 Reports and Summaries

a. Reports and summaries are used frequently to disseminate information


to higher, lower, and adjacent commands. Every staff division, section
or branch extensively prepares reports and summaries. The format and
time of distribution should be standardized within a command.

b. Only the minimum number of reports and summaries consistent with


the commander's need for information are required of subordinate
commands.

c. Reports and summaries should be submitted on time for the


commander to be able to use them in decision making.

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CHAPTER 5

CRIME PREVENTION AND SOLUTION

Section 5-1. General Concepts of Crime

5.1 General. The PNP, being a law enforcement organization is primarily tasked to
prevent crime before they are committed; and solve them when they have been
committed. It is therefore necessary for all PNP personnel to have a basic knowledge
and understanding of these two major concepts in policing - crime prevention and crime
solution.

5.2. Definition of Crime. As defined under Book I, Title 1, Chapter 1, Art. 3 of the
Revised Penal Code of the Philippines, crime is an act or omission punishable by law.

The word crime is derived from the latin root word cern, meaning "I decide, I
give judgment". Originally the Latin word crmen meant "charge" or "cry of distress."
The Ancient Greek word krima, from which the Latin cognate is derived, typically
referred to an intellectual mistake or an offense against the community, rather than a
private or moral wrong. The meaning "offense punishable by law" dates back to the late
14th century (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime).

5.3 Elements of a Crime. In the commission of a crime, criminologists and law


enforcers are required by law to prove the presence of three (3) elements of a crime.
They are:

a. Motive. The reason or intent of an individual to commit a crime.


b. Opportunity. The chance for an individual to commit a crime at a given
space and time.
c. Means. The ability of an individual to commit a crime.

In recognizing and identifying these elements, the commission of a crime may be


prevented by taking away any one (1) of the three (3) elements. This is the essence of
crime prevention activities.

Section 5-2 Crime Reporting

5.4 Crime reporting. It is the act of reporting a crime committed by the victim or
concerned citizens to the police and other similar law enforcement agencies/institutions.

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The police unit with the territorial jurisdiction where the crime was committed shall have
the primary responsibility of recording and reporting the same.

Crime reports are compiled by the PNP and presented in the form of crime
statistics which is a mathematical measure of the level or amount of crime prevalent in a
given area at a given time. It usually refers to figures compiled by the police and similar
law enforcement agencies to depict the picture of a crime based on the following:

a. Crime Volume. The number of crime incidents committed in a given area


over a period of time which include index and non-index crimes.

b. Index Crimes. Are crimes which are serious in nature and which occur
with sufficient frequency and regularity such that they serve as an index to
the crime situation. These are the crimes of murder, homicide, physical
injuries, carnapping, cattle rustling, robbery, theft and rape.

c. Non-Index Crimes. Are violations of special laws such as illegal logging


or local ordinances.

d. Crime Rate. The number of crime incidents in a given period of time for
every 100,000 inhabitants of an area.

e. Average Monthly Crime Rate. Crime rate divided into the number of
months in a year.

Section 5-3 Crime Prevention

5.5 Definition. Crime prevention as the word suggests, aims to prevent the
commission of crimes by adopting measures that leads to the early detection,
deterrence or denial of a crime. It involves intensifying police presence and
implementing strategies that remove the opportunities or means in committing crimes.
Crime prevention is a core function of the PNP.

5.6 Role in Crime Prevention. Anchored on the concept that law enforcements
principal objective should be prevention, the PNP has adopted crime prevention
strategies that are responsive to the needs of the community for public safety and
security. As Robert Peel theorized, the police are the people, and the people are the
police. Thus, crime prevention efforts must be a collaborative effort between the police
and the community that it serves.

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5.7 Basic Principles in Crime Prevention.

a. PNP members must lead the fight against all forms of criminality, including
insurgency, by utilizing active citizen involvement and community
empowerment. While law enforcement agencies have a major role in the
prevention of crime, they cannot effectively do the job alone. Community
members must be willing to participate actively in prevention strategies.

b. Crime Prevention efforts must be responsive to the unique peace and


order, cultural and economic conditions of the Philippines. A community
crime prevention program should address all elements of crime towards a
holistic approach to policing.

c. Crime prevention must be based on a thorough and accurate analysis of


demographics, crime statistics, and other related data. To be most
effective, the analysis should drive the development of a comprehensive
plan, not just isolated prevention activities. The plan should address all
constituent groups within the community, especially those groups and/or
neighborhoods at risk of criminal activity.

d. Crime prevention plans must adapt to the changing environment. Crime


Prevention may be achieved and complemented by the following police
initiatives:

1) Increased police presence;


2) Employment of PNP Integrated Patrol System (PIPS);
3) Active Police-Community Relations (PCR);
4) Employment of force multipliers/police volunteers;
5) Pro-active police investigation and intelligence networking; and
6) Utilization of crime data/statistics and analysis.

Section 5-4 Crime Solution

5.8 Definition. When crime prevention efforts fail to deny the commission of a
crime, the police take on its other crucial role of solving the crime. Crime solution is the
act of investigating the crime leading to the prosecution of its perpetrators.

5.9 Role in Crime Solution. The primary role of the PNP in crime solution is the
conduct of investigation. Investigation is the collection of facts to accomplish a three-
fold aim (Criminal Investigation Manual, 2011):

a. To identify the suspect;


b. To locate the suspect; and
c. To provide evidence of his guilt.

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A crime/case is considered solved when:

a. the offender/perpetrator has been identified;


b. the offender/perpetrator has been charged based on evidence;
c. the offender/perpetrator has been taken into custody; and
d. the offender/perpetrator has been charged before the prosecutors office
or court of appropriate jurisdiction.
e. elements beyond police control prevent the arrest of the offender, as when
the victim refuses to prosecute or the death of the offender;
f. arrest of one offender can solve several crimes or offenders may be
arrested in the process of solving crime.

A crime/case is considered cleared when:

a. at least one of the offenders has been identified;


b. there is sufficient evidence to charge the offender;
c. the offender has been charged in court, absent the taking of the offender
into police custody.

5.10 Principles of Investigation

a. Investigation is Jurisdictional. The Police Unit which has territorial


jurisdiction of the area of the armed confrontation, together with the SOCO
team, if any, shall immediately undertake the necessary investigation and
processing of the scene of the encounter. In cases where there is a slain
suspect, it shall submit the incident for inquest before the duty inquest
prosecutor prior to the removal of the body from the scene, except in
areas where there are no Inquest Prosecutors. In which case, the police
can proceed with the investigation (PNP Operational Procedures: 2010).

b. Investigation respects and upholds Human Rights. In the conduct of


police investigation, all PNP personnel must promote and protect the
citizens right to dignity, privacy, and freedom of movement. Suspects
shall be apprised of their rights by reciting the Miranda Warning.

c. Investigation ensures due process. All PNP personnel must protect the
citizens right to due process, presumption of innocence until proven guilty
by the court, and equal protection of the law.

d. Investigation subscribes to human-rights based policing. During


citizen contacts, all police personnel must exhibit professionalism,
courtesy, and respect for the rights and dignity of all persons.

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5.11 Measures of Efficiency. Police efficiency in solving crime shall be measured


through the following:

a. Crime Solution Efficiency (CSE). The percentage of solved cases out of


the total number of crime incidents handled by the police for a given
period of time. (LOI 02/09 Unit Periodic Crime Report April 22, 2009)

b. Crime Clearance Efficiency (CCE). The percentage of cleared cases out


of the total number of crime incidents handled by the police for a given
period of time. (LOI 02/09 Unit Periodic Crime Report April 22, 2009)

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CHAPTER 6
PUBLIC SAFETY AND SECURITY

Section 6-1 Concepts in Public Safety and Security

6.1 Definition. Public safety and security involves operations geared towards
protecting lives and properties, including measures that will save lives, minimize injuries
and establish control structures for rehabilitation of the community.

Public safety and security operations likewise include enforcing appropriate


actions on disaster management that includes natural and man-made disasters
including Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives (CBRNE).

As pronounced by our President during his term as a Senator in 2010, Our quest
must not only focus on ensuring the stability of the State and the security of our nation.
Our ultimate goal must be the safety and well-being of our people (Sen. Benigno S
Aquino III, Peace and Security Forum 2010).

6.2 National Security Goals. The government shall pursue the human
development approach in pursuing internal peace and security instead of military victory

The following elements are the primary goals of national security (National
Security Policy 2011-2016):

a. Socio-Political Stability. This aims to achieve peace and harmony


among all Filipinos, regardless of creed, ethnic origin, and social status.
The government and the people must engage in nation-building under the
rule of law, constitutional democracy, and the full respect for human rights.
At the same time, the government is accountable to the people and as
such, must ensure socio-political stability through good governance by
focusing on its purpose and outcomes for its citizenry and performing
efficiently and effectively in clearly defined roles and functions.

b. Territorial Integrity. This means that the territory of the country is intact
and under the effective control of the government. It is to ensure the
permanent inviolability of our national territory and its effective control by
the Government and the State. This includes the preservation of our
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and its protection from illegal incursions
and resource exploitation.

It is this geographic fact that the national interest is enhanced whereby,


the land territories as well as bodies of water within our Philippine
maritime jurisdiction are effectively secured.

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c. Economic Solidarity. It is to collectively pursue and build the economy


to be strong and capable of supporting national endeavors based on the
strength and solidarity of the Filipino people who have an organic stake in
it through participation and ownership.

This is the core interest of the national vision- to ensure that Filipinos
become stakeholders in economic and business enterprises so that they
will collectively defend, protect, and improve the economic system for
themselves and the future generations of Filipinos.

d. Ecological Balance. The national survival rests upon the effective


conservation of our natural environment in the face of industrial and
agricultural expansion and population growth. This dimension of national
security seeks to support development that is environmentally sustainable
for the benefit of the nation.

As the country sustains its economic growth, there is a clear indication


that the ecological balance is being threatened by natural calamities and
other man-made destructive activities. The environment, with its life
support systems, is in a position to sustain and secure development for
the benefit both of the present and future Filipino generations. Ecological
balance is a shared responsibility of all Filipinos, as individuals, families,
and communities.

e. Cultural Cohesiveness. This element implies that the Filipinos have


shown their collective sense of value to the principles of freedom and
human dignity of a person. These inherent manifestations of the Filipino
values have been shown when our forebears fought for our freedom
against their colonizers, authoritarian rulers and oppressive powers as
exemplified by the resistance of Lapu-Lapu, Jose Rizal, Apolinario
Mabini, Andres Bonifacio and Jose Abad Santos.

This also means that our people is imbued by a common set of values and
beliefs handed down by our forebears on moral and ethical standards.
These are drawn from our traditions and cultural heritage, embodying a
Filipino identity transcending socio-economic, religious, ethnic, and
linguistic differences.

f. Moral-Spiritual Consensus. The Filipino people must be propelled by the


national vision manifested in words and deeds, by patriotism, national
pride and the advancement of our national goals and interests. The
primordial element for our national survival is national unity, where people
are proud of their country, their culture and tradition, and their history.
Consequently, there is a moral and spiritual consensus among the
Filipinos on the wisdom of our shared national vision, as enunciated by the
President. This shared vision motivates the citizens to participate

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vigorously in the programs that promote the countrys security and


development objectives.

e. Peace and Harmony. The Philippines as a democratic country is


committed to world peace and the preservation of world order. National
security is engendered and sustained through harmonious relations with
our neighbors and allies. For this purpose, it is for the enduring interest of
the country to forge harmonious engagement and relationship with other
nations starting with the member-countries of the ASEAN.

The country and the people must pursue constructive and cordial relations
with all nations, and should be free from any control, interference or threat
of aggression from any of them.

Section 6-2 Fundamental Principles

6.3 Principles of Public Safety and Disaster Management (R.A 10121)

a. Uphold the people's constitutional rights to life and property by addressing


the root causes of vulnerabilities to disasters, strengthening the country's
institutional capacity for disaster risk reduction and management and
building the resilience of local communities to disasters including climate
change impacts;

b. Adhere to and adopt the universal norms, principles and standards of


humanitarian assistance and the global effort on risk reduction as concrete
expression of the country's commitment to overcome human sufferings
due to recurring disasters;

c. Incorporate internationally accepted principles of disaster risk


management in the creation and implementation of national, regional and
local sustainable development and poverty reduction strategies, policies,
plans and budgets;

d. Adopt a disaster risk reduction and management approach that is holistic,


comprehensive, integrated, and proactive in lessening the socio-economic
and environmental impacts of disasters including climate change, and
promote the involvement and participation of all sectors and all
stakeholders concerned, at all levels, especially the local community;

e. Develop, promote, and implement a comprehensive National Disaster


Risk Reduction and Management Plan (NDRRMP) that aims to strengthen
the capacity of the national government and the local government units
(LGUs), together with partner stakeholders, to build the disaster resilience

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of communities, and to institutionalize arrangements and measures for


reducing disaster risks, including projected climate risks, and enhancing
disaster preparedness and response capabilities at all levels;

f. Adopt and implement a coherent, comprehensive, integrated, efficient and


responsive disaster risk reduction program incorporated in the
development plan at various levels of government adhering to the
principles of good governance such as transparency and accountability
within the context of poverty alleviation and environmental protection;

g. Mainstream disaster risk reduction and climate change in development


processes such as policy formulation, socio-economic development
planning, budgeting, and governance, particularly in the areas of
environment, agriculture, water, energy, health, education, poverty
reduction, land-use and urban planning, and public infrastructure and
housing, among others;

h. Institutionalize the policies, structures, coordination mechanisms and


programs with continuing budget appropriation on disaster risk reduction
from national down to local levels towards building a disaster-resilient
nation and communities;

i. Mainstream disaster risk reduction into the peace process and conflict
resolution approaches in order to minimize loss of lives and damage to
property, and ensure that communities in conflict zones can immediately
go back to their normal lives during periods of intermittent conflicts;

j. Ensure that disaster risk reduction and climate change measures are
gender responsive, sensitive to indigenous knowledge systems, and
respectful of human rights;

k. Recognize the local risk patterns across the country and strengthen the
capacity of LGUs for disaster risk reduction and management through
decentralized powers, responsibilities, and resources at the regional and
local levels;

l. Recognize and strengthen the capacities of LGUs and communities in


mitigating and preparing for, responding to, and recovering from the
impact of disasters;

m. Engage the participation of civil society organizations (CSOs), the private


sector and volunteers in the government's disaster risk reduction
programs towards complementation of resources and effective delivery of
services to the citizenry;

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n. Develop and strengthen the capacities of vulnerable and marginalized


groups to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from the effects of
disasters;

o. Provide maximum care, assistance and services to individuals and


families affected by disaster, implement emergency rehabilitation projects
to lessen the impact of disaster, and facilitate resumption of normal social
and economic activities.

Section 6-3 Role in Public Safety and Security

6.4 Role in Disaster Risk Reduction and Management. The PNP is a member of
the National, Regional, City and Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Council. As such, it shall perform functions as prescribed by the council. (IRR on R.A.
10121 or the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Managem ent Law and PNP LOI
Saklolo for details).

a. The PNPs inherent duty for disaster risk reduction and management
includes the following:

1) Provision of area security;


2) Search, Rescue and Recovery operations;
3) Evacuation;
4) Assistance in Relief Operations; and
5) Facilitation of Community Rehabilitation efforts.

6.5 Roles in Public Safety and Security Operations

a. The Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) shall


exercise coordination with various government instrumentalities created
for purposes of enhancing peace and order, public safety and security.

b. The President of the Philippines shall be advised on peace and order,


public safety and security matters by the National Peace and Order
Council (NPOC) through its chairman- the SILG. The NPOC is composed
of various representatives from different sectors, who by virtue of their
assigned missions and functions have a role to discharge in the overall
peace and order, public safety and security effort.

c. The President of the Philippines shall exercise control and supervision


over the Philippine National Police thru the SILG, in a dual capacity as
Chairman of the National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM) and as Head
of the Department of Interior and Local Government. As chairman of

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NAPOLCOM, he heads the collegial body which exercises administrative


control and supervision over the PNP. As Secretary of the DILG, he is
authorized to delegate substantive and administrative power to any officer
of rank in the Department (Sec 10c, RA 6975).

d. The Chief, Philippine National Police shall assume direct command


responsibility over the PNP. He shall likewise be the principal police
adviser to the President, the National Security Council and the Secretary
of the Interior and Local Government.

Section 6-4 The Peace and Order Council

6.6 The Peace and Order Council

a. The Peace and Order Council is reorganized on the national, regional,


provincial, city and municipal levels of government (Executive Order Nr.
773, series 2009) to be constituted as follows:

1). The National Peace and Order Council (NPOC). It shall perform
the following functions:

(a) To contribute to the strategies of the National Security


Council that would effectively respond to peace and order
problems;

(b) To coordinate and monitor peace and order plans;

(c) To provide a forum for inter-disciplinary dialogue and


deliberation of major issues and problems affecting peace
and order;

(d) To perform such other duties and functions as the President


may direct.

2). It shall be composed of the following:

(a) The Chair of the National Peace and Order Council (NPOC)
shall be the Secretary of Interior and Local Government
(SILG).

(b) The members of the Council shall be composed of the


following:

o The Director-General of the National Security Council

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o The Executive Secretary


o The Secretary of Foreign Affairs
o The Secretary of National Defense
o The Secretary of Justice
o The Secretary of Agriculture
o The Secretary of Agrarian Reform
o The Secretary of Public Works
o The Secretary of Social Welfare and Development
o The Secretary of Health
o The Secretary of Trade and Industry
o The Secretary of Transportation
o The Secretary of Education
o The Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources
o The Press Secretary
o The Chairman of the Dangerous Drugs Board
o The Chairman of the National Commission on
Indigenous Peoples
o The Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process
o The Director-General, Presidential Management Staff
o The Director-General, Philippine Information Agency
o The Chairperson of the Presidential Anti-Graft
Commission
o The Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the
Philippines
o The Chief of the Philippine National Police
o The Director of the National Bureau of Investigation
o Three (3) representatives from the private sector who
shall be appointed by the President of the
Philippines.

3) The Regional Peace and Order Council (RPOC). It shall be


composed of the regions Provincial Governors, the Mayors of the
Highly Urbanized Cities, the Presidents of the Leagues of
Municipalities, the regional counterparts of the departments, offices
and agencies enumerated in paragraph (b) above, wherever
applicable, with the Chairman and Vice-Chairman to be appointed
by the SILG with the approval of the President of the Philippines
from among the members of the Council. In addition, there shall be
one representative of the Mayors of the Component Cities to be
chosen from among themselves. The Chairman of the RPOC shall
appoint the three (3) representatives of the private sector, upon
consultation with the members of the Council and upon acquiring
appropriate security clearances. The regional counterpart of the
CSAFP shall be the Commander of the Infantry Division.
Departments, offices and agencies with no regional and/or field
offices shall not sit in the RPOC.

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4) The Provincial Peace and Order Council (PPOC) shall be


composed of the provincial counterparts of the departments, offices
and agencies as enumerated in paragraph (b) above, wherever
applicable, with the Provincial Governor as Chairman and the Vice
Governor as Vice Chairman. In addition there shall be one
representative of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan to be chosen by it
from among its members. The Chairman of the PPOC shall appoint
the three (3) representatives of the private sector, upon
consultation with the members of the Council and with the approval
of the Commander of the Infantry Division and the Regional
Director of the PNP. The provincial counterpart of the CSAFP shall
be the Brigade Commander or, in the case of Palawan, the
Commander of the Western Command. Departments, offices and
agencies with no provincial and/or field offices shall not sit in the
PPOC.

5) The City or Municipal Peace and Order Council (CPOC or


MPOC) shall be composed of the city or municipal counterparts of
the departments, offices and agencies as enumerated in paragraph
(b) above, wherever applicable, with the Mayor as Chrirman and
the Vice Mayor as Vice Chairman. In addition, there shall be one
representative or the Sangguniang Panlungsod or Sangguniang
Bayan, as the case may be, to be chosen by the said Sanggunian
from among its members. The Chairman of the CPOC or MCOP
shall appoint the three (3) representatives from the private sector,
upon consultation with the members of the Council and upon
acquiring appropriate security clearances. Departments, offices and
agencies with no city, municipal, and/or field offices shall not sit in
the CPOC or MPOC.

6.7 Functions of the RPOC, PROC, CPOC and MPOC. These Peace and Order
Committees shall have the following functions and responsibilities:

a. Provide a forum for dialogue and deliberation of major issues and


problems affecting peace and order, including insurgency;

b. Recommend measures which will improve or enhance peace and order


and public safety in their respective areas of responsibility, including anti-
insurgency measures;

c. Recommend measures to converge and orchestrate internal security


operations efforts of civil authorities and agencies, military and police;

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d. Apply moral suasion to and/or recommend sanctions against local chief


executives who are giving material and political support to the Communist
rebels;

e. Monitor the provision of livelihood and infrastructure development


programs and projects in the remote rural and indigenous population
areas adopted to isolate them from the Communist rebels
Agitate/Arouse, Organize and Mobilize and ideological, political and
organization works;

f. Perform all other functions assigned by law, the President or the NPOC.

g. The Civilian Volunteer Organizations (CVOs) shall be managed and


supervised by the respective Regional, Provincial, City or Municipal
Directors of the PNP.

Section 6-5 The PNPs Strategy on Public Safety and Security Operations

6.8 Three-tiered Defense System. (refer to the PNP Three-Tiered Defense System
Manual for details)

a. Target Hardening. Target hardening is a deliberate and planned action


that makes it difficult for the criminals/terrorists to succeed in hitting their
targets. Once the potential criminal/terrorist target is identified,
government agencies, the private sector as well as the community, must
work closely together to create a security umbrella, within the internal and
external environs of the target. If necessary, organizational and individual
behavior must be modified to mitigate the consequences of incident and
crisis, and enhance linkages among key players. Target hardening also
involves preparation to minimize waste of lives and property as the
consequence of unstoppable incident. It is in this tier when the crisis
management team deals both with the law enforcement part and
emergency operation preparations. In the light of Weapons of Mass
Destruction, late deployment of emergency facilities may cause more
wasted lives and property than what can be prevented. The needs of law
enforcement to arrest the suspect/s and thus prevent an incident to
happen at all must be considered.

b. Intelligence Monitoring. Intelligence is knowing the threat and identifying


its potential targets. The community through the Local Government
Executives (LGE) must have its own intelligence activities in every village,
residential and commercial areas and elsewhere, making every citizen a

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vigilant watchperson. It is necessary that suspicious persons, unusual


movements or incidents and other irregular activities be adequately
monitored and reported to authorities.

c. Incident Management. Incident management refers to the sequence of


actions to be undertaken in case of disaster/disorder/crisis to mitigate their
effects and expedite the return to normalcy. In like manner, this involves
partnership among the Security Forces, LGUs and the Community. The
LGEs take the lead role and perform such acts of leadership to
demonstrate control of the situation, care of victims, justice to bear on the
suspects, orderly deployment and employment of resources and facilities
and dissemination of correct information and advice on the incident. The
Crisis Manager must take the community out of the panic and freeze
mode and help the community spring back to normalcy.

d. Legal offensive. It involves the efficient and well-coordinated conduct of


investigation, documentation and prosecution of all terrorism-related
cases, in coordination with the Department of National Defense
(DND)/Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), Department of Justice
(DOJ) and the Commission on Human Rights (CHR). It aims to
coordinate all government efforts to effectively charge, prosecute and
adjudicate terrorism-related cases to ensure that terrorists are placed
behind bars.

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CHAPTER 7

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Section 7-1 Personnel Management

7.1 Purpose. This chapter outlines policies, procedures and principles of personnel
administration in the Philippine National Police in view of the overriding objective of
developing competent, disciplined and values-oriented PNP personnel.
7.2 Meaning and Scope of Personnel Administration

a. In the traditional sense, it is one which consists of administrative


procedures by which PNP personnel are recruited, appointed, utilized
and treated in their employment relationship and replaced when they
are separated from the service.

b. In the more modernized progressive view, it is a system by which


competent personnel are obtained and provided a climate most
conducive to the development of proper attitudes and work ethics.
These are the essential factors that contribute to service excellence
and efficient performance of duty. It is the art of selecting new
personnel and making use of old ones in such a manner that quantity
of output and service are obtained from the working force.

c. In another sense, personnel administration is a method of developing


the potentials of personnel so that they can get maximum satisfaction
in their work and contribute their best to the organization.

d. Personnel administration, as much as it is a broad field of interest in


the PNP covering a wide range of personnel matters involving the
structuring of personnel system from recruitment planning and
processes to retirement systems and procedures. Essentially, it
underscores a variety of policies, procedures and principles governing
the effective utilization of manpower resources and the development of
personnel potential capabilities.
7.3 Importance of Personnel Administration. The foremost task of personnel
administration is the management of human resources. The heavy emphasis on this
score is based on the fact that the high caliber and strongly motivated personnel
constitute the most valuable asset of the PNP. The enthusiasm, loyalty and
cooperation brought about by sound personnel policies and procedures applied on
these vital assets are indisputably the basis for personnel satisfaction and for
ensuring cost- effectiveness.

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7.4 Objectives of Personnel Administration

a. The recruitment, screening, appointment and probation of personnel in


order to get the most qualified.

b. The selection of competent, service-oriented and disciplined work


force.

c. Career and personnel development through training programs, on-the-


job training, job rotation and development programs following the
principle-- "actual career training is the basis of positioning."

d. Maintenance of high morale and discipline among personnel with


emphasis on proper attitudes and good human relations.
7.5 Personnel Program. The preceding objectives are designed to blend both
efficiency and human relations equations. To pursue them, the personnel program
shall put emphasis on the following:

a. The development of a sound and responsive organizational structure to


carry out the personnel program where all responsibilities and
participants are clearly defined;

b. The establishment of a systematic process to entice competent


personnel through strategic and aggressive recruitment methods and
techniques;
c. A sound system of selection; appointing only those most qualified
applicants and placing them in jobs where they are best fitted and
establishing a standard maximum tenure in certain positions;

d. To enhance the officers progress in his career, each shall cycle


through a system of assignment rotation in commander or staff and
training duties and exposure to a variety of field/frontline
responsibilities, headquarters/office and instructor experiences
designed to enable him to advance his career development within the
organization.

All officers in their respective grades, except the technical service, are
required to serve or undertake the duties in the general police
operations work, police community operations job and administrative
and technical service;
e. The improvement of personnel skills, maintenance of high morale, and
preparation for promotions through comprehensive in-service training
programs;

f. A periodic evaluation of personnel efficiency to improve their


performance and to identify the most competent ones;

g. A promotion plan should be based on both merits and fitness. Only


qualified people brought into the service, in accordance with their
performance are promoted until they reach the highest ranking

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position. Pending case is not a bar to promotion based on the principle


of law that an accused is presumed innocent until proven otherwise.

h. Greater emphasis on human relations factors and on the improvement


of human relations skills of commander; and
i. Maintenance of high state of morale and discipline among personnel.
7.6 Emphasis on Merit. Without demeaning the importance of competence or
technical expertise of personnel and the methods of ascertaining its presence among
applicants, the PNP shall put equal or higher degree of recognition on the intangible.

Nonetheless every important factor of interest and zeal of personnel in the


police service is considered. The PNP shall find ways and means of judging the
degree to which every personnel is "committed" to his service, for this is the very
factor that principally constitutes merit. In the PNP, one man with enthusiasm and
loyalty is worth ten who consider their jobs merely as a source of income.
7.7 Openness of the Service and Mobility. To make the most of talents among
all personnel, the PNP service shall be open and shall facilitate mobility within the
entire organization. It shall occasionally infuse new blood into the organization and
stimulate new fields of assignment for personnel. Personnel policies shall not inhibit
movement of personnel within the organization. Under special circumstances,
assignment outside of the organization shall be encouraged. Interchange and
movement of personnel among other agencies of the government, however, based
on exigencies of the service, may be allowed only provided that it does not
jeopardize police recruitment.
7.8 Training as Part of Work Career. Training shall be viewed as an inherent
phase of the service instead of being an absence from or an exception to normal
police duties. In-service training and education programs shall be planned as a
regular part of the work career of personnel.

Following this line, all PNP uniformed personnel are bound to develop
themselves through regular career training in pursuit of service excellence. Career
schooling and continuous training shall be considered a public duty and not an
option or privilege that can be disregarded or skipped.

7.9 The Concept of Shared Decision-Making

a. The PNP adopts the concept of shared decision-making especially in


personnel decisions in order to motivate subordinates in their assigned
jobs. It shall forego all unreasonable restraints and inhibitions brought
about by vertical authority particularly on such matters as selection for
promotion, providing opportunities for training, recruitment, assignment
of personnel, judgment of performance and other vital personnel
decisions. More clearly, no single, commander shall affect the lives and
future of subordinates on the basis of his own limited perspective.

b. In order to tap the varied sources of achievement motivation among


subordinates, delegation of authority shall generally be based on faith,
confidence and competence. This is the core of shared responsibility
down the line. However selection of staff in the staff functions shall be

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based on shared experience principle. He who has much experience in


the field has rich experience to relate.
7.10 Concept of Assignment. Assignment of an officer in a position of major
responsibility more particularly Provincial/City Director and Chief of Police shall
strictly observe the two-year maximum tour-of-duty. The officer concerned shall be
responsible for ascertaining that he has not exceeded the maximum number of years
in his assignment. He shall see to it that no intervention from external forces shall
over rule this doctrine.

Likewise, assignment of officers in a position of collateral responsibility more


particularly major staff in the Police Regional Offices shall strictly observe the
qualification standards set forth by the authorities. Both commanders and the
individual concerned must be responsible in observing this doctrine.
7.11 Basic Personnel Management Policy. The Philippine National Police
personnel management is guided by the basic policy stipulated as the cornerstone of
personnel administration-- the treatment of PNP personnel as individual human
beings and not as machines impervious to feelings of affection and understanding.
The best of personnel policies becomes ineffective unless management applies it
intelligently and tempered with understanding. The PNP recognizes the compelling
necessity to make use of its personnel efficiently and productively. Thus, it shall
primarily develop policies and standards that will insure fair treatment of personnel
without necessarily jeopardizing organizational objectives.
7.12 Doctrine on Anonymous and Fictitious letter complaints. Anonymous or
fictitious letter-complaints shall be immediately validated by the personnel officer.
Evidence should be gathered on its origins and the matter being complained about
which shall serve as a basis in determining its validity. If the material allegations in
the anonymous/fictitious letter-complaint are validated, the subject of the complaint
shall be recommended for the filing of an administrative case. If it is not validated,
the same shall be recommended for outright dismissal.

Anonymous letter-complaints are unsigned letters of which their origin cannot


be immediately established. Fictitious letter-complaints are letters which has a name
and signature but its origin/author cannot be ascertained/ traced.
No complaint shall be entertained unless there is obvious truth or merit to the
allegation and is supported by documentary evidence. In which case, the person
complained of may be required to comment and may be a basis of the formal
complaints provided that the material allegations contained therein are validated.
7.13 Responsibilities

a. Commanders and staff officers are inherently responsible for the


efficient use of human resources in accordance with personnel
management in order to accomplish assigned tasks.

b. The Staff Officer on personnel is especially tasked to supervise the


application of personnel management principles and procedures, to
make appropriate recommendations for submission to the chief of staff
or to the commander, and to issue orders and instruction in the name
of commander when necessary.

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c. It is a shared responsibility of both the commander and the officer


concerned to strictly follow the required tenure in a certain position. No
personnel should be allowed to exceed the maximum two (2) years of
assignment to a major position of responsibility.

d. The responsibilities of personnel officers at all levels of command of


the PNP are generally the same; they only differ in scope and
emphasis.
e. All officers and PNCOs are inherently responsible for the efficient
performance of their duties, obligations, and responsibilities.
7.14 Personnel Management. All section staff shall assist the commander in
personnel management. However, it is the Personnel Officer who has the primary
staff responsibility to supervise the personnel administrator. He directly supervises
the implementation of and compliance to personnel management policies. He also
evaluates and makes recommendations on personnel management procedures to
improve the management of personnel matters involving police and civilian
personnel.
a. Personnel Officer

1) The Personnel Officer is responsible for the procurement,


assignment, reassignment and replacement of individuals.

2) He assists in maintaining a high state of morale and welfare by


supervising the execution of personnel policies (i.e. working
hours, leaves and passes).

3) He also supervises the implementation of policies on


promotions, awards and decorations, pay and allowances and
training and supplementary education program.

4) Through constant reevaluation of personnel activities, the


Personnel Officer measures the effectiveness of those activities
and makes recommendations for changes if necessary.
b. Non-Uniformed Personnel (NUP)

1) The Personnel Officer through the Non-Uniformed Personnel


Administration Division (NUPAD) is responsible for the
formulation of rules on recruitment, examination, assignment,
compensation, rating, promotion and also dismissal of non-
uniformed personnel.

2) He assists in the development and maintenance of conducive


working conditions and good employee relationships.
3) He ensures compliance with general Non-Uniformed Personnel
policies and may take the necessary personnel action in the
name of the commander to include activities to improve NUP
management.

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7.15 Unit Strength. It is the primary responsibility of the Personnel Officer to keep
the commander informed of the personnel strength of the command and to
accomplish the necessary staff actions in order to maintain unit strength. In doing so,
he makes a continuous estimate of the personnel situation and likewise furnishes
other staff officers the necessary information to enable them to formulate plans and
recommendations on the same matter.
7.16 Morale and Welfare

a. It shall be the staff responsibility of the Personnel Officer to determine


and maintain the state of morale of personnel under his command. He
discharges his responsibility through the evaluation of morale
indicators derived from staff officers on the morale of personnel. He
advises the commander on the state of morale of his personnel and
make appropriate recommendations thereto. He may at times take
personal supervision on some command activities that have direct
bearing on the morale of personnel.

b. The PNP Legal Assistance Board may act on applications for legal
assistance filed by PNP uniformed personnel relative to service-related
cases and may provide direct legal representation or allow for the
reimbursement of legal expenses as may be prescribed by PNP
policies.
c. Awards and decorations shall be given to deserving personnel in
accordance with the regulations and policies of the command and of
higher authorities. All recommendations for awards and decorations
shall be acted upon properly, efficiently and rapidly.

Awards and decorations shall be categorized into three, namely:


Operational Award for achievements related to police operations;
Administrative Award for achievements pertaining to administrative and
technical achievements; and Miscellaneous Awards for achievements
related to Police Community Relations and others. Each category will
have its parallel highest to lowest classification of award.
7.17 Discipline, Law and Order

a. The law creating the PNP -- RA 6975 provides the basic law on
discipline, law and order for the Philippine National Police and is
administered in accordance with various forum like civil court, Peoples
Law Enforcement Board (PLEB), Summary Dismissal Authority,
Directors Authority (all levels) and local government's authority.

b. The staff officer on personnel shall be responsible for the preparation


of enforcement policies on all matters pertaining to discipline, law and
order.

c. The Inspector General on the other hand is responsible for the


enforcement of laws, regulations and orders within the command. He
shall advise the commander on all matters concerning the maintenance
of law and order.

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d. Discipline, law and order shall be maintained through both preventive


and corrective measures.
7.18. Principle of Standard Uniform. The PNP uniform is the show window of
discipline within the organization. It is the tie that binds the organization and the
standard that is maintained by the organization. Therefore all PNP personnel must
adhere to the standard uniform set by the proper authority. Hence, any PNP
personnel found wearing unauthorized PNP uniform shall be sanctioned pursuant to
standing policies and regulations of the PNP.

Section 7-2 Training Administration and Management

7.19 Purpose and Scope. This section provides broad guidance and assistance
to all PNP personnel at all levels of Command who are responsible for the training of
individuals and units of the Philippine National Police. It includes the concepts,
principles and procedures involved in the training of PNP personnel. It likewise
explains the training objectives, methods and techniques adopted by the PNP along
with the various types of training conducted in order to accomplish the assigned PNP
mission.
7.20 Training Authority. Republic Act No. 6975 provides a system to train the
PNP thru the Philippine Public Safety College for career courses. However, the
enhancement and specialized courses shall be undertaken by the PNP thru the
Directorate for Human Resource and Doctrine Development (DHRDD) and its
operating arm--the PNP Training Service (PNPTS).
7.21 Training System. PNP In-service Training is administered by the PNP
Training Service (PNPTS) as the operating arm of the Directorate for Human
Resource and Doctrine Development (DHRDD) where training policies and
directions emanate. Other police training particularly career/mandatory trainings are
provided by the Philippine Public Safety College (PPSC) which is a separate and
distinct government bureau under the Department of the Interior and Local
Government. The delineations of their functions are as follows:

a. Directorate for Human Resource and Doctrine Development (DHRDD).


Created to assist the Chief, PNP in the formulation of policies and in the planning,
direction, coordination and supervision of all matters pertaining to human resource
and doctrine development; rationalizes and upgrades the development of systems
and doctrine for PNP units and personnel toward the attainment of the PNP vision
and missions and continuously develops the moral, spiritual, physical and mental
competence of PNP personnel;

b. Philippine Public Safety College (PPSC). Is mandated by Republic Act No.


6975 Section 66 as the premier educational institution for the training, human
resource development and continuing education of all personnel of the Philippine
National Police (PNP), the Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP), and the Bureau of Jail
Management and Penology (BJMP). PPSC is the umbrella organization that
provides direction, administration and control of the various education and training
programs offered by its component agencies namely: the National Police College

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(NPC); Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA), Police National Training


Institute (PNTI) with its 18 Regional Training Schools (RTS); Fire National Training
Institute (FNTI); Jail National Training Institute (JNTI); and the National Forensic
Science Training Institute (NFSTI). (refer to PPSC Manual)

c. PNP Training Service (PNPTS). Created under DPL G.O. No. 05-11 and
NAPOLCOM Resolution No. 2009-005 to serve as the in-service training
management facility of the PNP to enhance and accelerate the professionalization of
PNP personnel.

Table 7.1 Training Functions

DHRDD PPSC PNPTS


Provide Training Conduct Basic PNP Conduct In-service
Policies and Career/ Mandatory and training courses for
Directives Specialized Courses all PNP units and
Review and Evaluate through the following personnel.
PNP Training schools: Prepare the Master
Programs/Courses National Forensic Training Action Plan
Develop Doctrines on Science Training of the whole PNP.
Training and General Institute;
administration and Philippine National
operations of the PNP Police Academy;
Act as Liaison to Police National
PPSC. Training Institute; and
National Police College

7.22 The Master Training Action Plan or Annual Training Program


(MTAP/ATP). This Plan encompasses all the in-service training activities that are to
be implemented by the PNP annually to include program cost and other relevant
information, both for the uniformed and non-uniformed personnel.
7.23 Focal Training Areas

The training of the PNP concentrates on activities within the following focal
areas:
a. Police Discipline. It is very necessary that police officers and men
recognize and respect the law and authority and demonstrate
obedience without reservation to such law and authority. Training in
Police Discipline is continuous in the service. In almost all PNP
activities, principles of discipline are applied and are reinforced by such
activities.

b. Health, Strength, Endurance. Health, Strength and Endurance are


essential for the individual to withstand the hardship of operations. This
objective may be developed and maintained by observing the
principles of hygiene, by immersing in physical training and athletics,
and by engaging in progressive training exercises and sports
development requiring physical endurance.

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c. Morale and Esprit-de-Corps. This refers to the mental state of the


troops characterized by confidence, zeal and pride in their
organization. In peace, it is measured by their contentment and well-
being; in war, it is measured by their will and courage to execute the
arduous tasks assigned to them. Individual morale and sense of Esprit-
de-Corps denote optimism and confidence primarily on good
leadership, thorough and comprehensive training and pride of the
individual in himself and his unit.

d. Initiative and Adaptability. The energy and ability to initiate action


promptly are essential qualities of every individual member of the PNP.
The mission of any unit is accomplished rapidly when the necessary
independent actions of individuals and small groups are initiated. The
development of initiative and adaptability is a very critical factor to be
achieved in training. This objective may be effectively attained through
occupying positions of responsibility or those which require frequent
resourcefulness.

e. Leadership. The development of leadership is a primary consideration


in training. A leader must possess the professional and personal
qualities to be able to inspire confidence and loyalty among
subordinates.

f. Technical Proficiency. In police work, proficiency is required of all


PNP elements to insure the attainment of primary PNP missions. Thus,
every PNP member must possess the adequate knowledge and skills
to perform their duties effectively and accomplish assigned missions.
This may be the ultimate goal of PNP training elements specially so for
units whose function is largely police in nature. Therefore, PNP training
is geared towards the attainment of both technical and tactical
proficiency.

g. Specialization. Is the specialized skills and knowledge required in


every police work. PNP personnel must have individual field expertise
to effectively and proficiently perform their assigned position and tasks.
The attainment of the PNP vision and mission can largely be achieved
through quality training on core police functions namely, investigation,
operations, intelligence and police-community relations.

h. Task Orientation. The school must develop in all students the primary
task of the Law enforcement taking into consideration various
baccalaureate degrees earned by the students from college as some of
these students do not possess the necessary background. It should be
inculcated that all the learning gained from the training school are only
tools in the accomplishment of the given mission/tasks. The
accomplishment of a mission does not solely depend on the learning
applied but also on the intent and determination to achieve it.

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7.24 Training Objectives. Training objectives must be stated clearly and should
distinctly define the purpose and expected results of the training for the guidance of
those concerned. It serves as a sound basis of proper selection or design of
appropriate materials, content and methods. Thus, training objectives play a vital role
in planning.
7.25 Seven "Musts" in Training

a. Drills, Ceremonies, Courtesy and Discipline

b. Physical Fitness and Sports Development

c. Human Rights
d. Small Unit Leadership

e. Moral Values, Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards

f. Gender and Development


g. Vision, Mission and Strategy of the PNP
7.26 Basic Concepts in Training. The following basic concepts of training shall
govern all types of training in the Philippine National Police:
a. In training the personnel, the dignity of the individual shall be upheld at
all times. No system of any kind shall be established to provide trainer-
trainee relationships that will transgress the private rights and dignity of
individuals.

b. Given the proper leadership and training, the average individual can
become an effective law enforcer. This is the essence of training in the
Philippine National Police.

c. Training must progress from the basic to advanced subjects and from
individual to unit training up to combined training. This is established
for purposes of convenience in planning and to indicate the definite
stages of progress.

d. Skills may be acquired through practice and supervision. Training gives


an individual the conceptual and practical aspects of a course, not
necessarily skill. Through constant practice and supervision, skill is
likely to be developed in an individual.

e. Standardization of training doctrines, methods and techniques is


necessary to promote effectiveness and efficiency.

f. The responsibility for training of individual and unit as a whole rests on


the commander. Training as a responsibility of the commander should
not be taken by subordinates as a right or a privilege. Training should
be based on competence.

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g. In the PNP, training is most effective when it offers actual or simulated


situations where principles and techniques being taught are applied.

h. Training must be viewed as a duty of all PNP personnel under the


doctrine of promoting a culture of excellence in the organization. The
community deserves to have the best police personnel ever willing to
serve and protect with efficiency and competence.
7.27 Competency Training

a. Definition. Competency refers to an individuals knowledge, skills


and attitudes (KSA) that lead to superior performance. Competency
Training is a way of improving individual abilities or characteristics to
an agreed standard of proficiency by practice and instruction which is a
key to get better results. It encompasses all trainings and academic
development of every PNP personnel.

Training in the PNP is aligned with the strategic and operational


agenda at all levels.

b. Levels of Competency. The required competency level is the


standard of performance for each duty based on industry standard. The
industry refers to the type of industry (i.e. law enforcement) in which
the PNP organization is carrying out its activities.

The employees competency is usually assessed at the end of one (1)


year and no shorter than six (6) months particularly for new employees.

7.28 Competency Gap. It is the difference between the current competency level
of personnel and the required functional skill or competency. In other words, the
disparity or difference between the existing abilities and skills of your personnel and
what is expected of them to achieve is the skill and knowledge gap.

a. Identifying Competency Gap. Determining the Competency Gap is a


necessary part to improve the quality of human resource training and
development programs. In order to identify the competency gap of any
personnel, it is necessary to determine the following:

1) Types of competencies required to perform the job well;


2) Required competency level of the employee based on given
tasks; and
3) The industry competency standard for each of the position in the
organization.

b. Training Needs Assessment (TNA). It is a systematic approach of


identifying performance requirements and the gap between what
performance is required and what presently exists. The assessment is
done to clarify a problem, determine if training is the solution, analyze
performance, and characteristics of trainees.

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1) Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the


particular job duties and requirements and the relative
importance of these duties for a given job. It is a process where
judgments are made about data collected on a job.

An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is


conducted on the job, not the person. While data may be
collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires,
the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of
the job, not a description of the person.

The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the


job relatedness of employment procedures such as training.

Job Analysis is used in training needs assessment to identify or


develop:

(a) Training content


(b) Assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training
(c) Equipment to be used in delivering the training
(d) Methods of training (i.e. small group, computer-based,
video, classroom, etc.)

2) Performance Assessment. This is carried out by answering the


following questions:

(a) Is there a skill deficiency? If there is, what strategy should


be used to address this deficiency?

(b) If there is no skill deficiency, determine if the performance


desired is more punishing to the member than non-
performance; or the performance actually matters to the
member because there are significant consequences to
the level of performance.
7.29 Major Training Categories

a. There are two major categories of training in the PNP the individual
training and the unit training.
1) Individual training begins when the individual enters the PNP
service and continues throughout his stay in the service. Initially,
emphasis is placed in the various phases of training on
development of the individual as a basic police. Then, emphasis
is shifted to the development of his primary skill to perform a
duty assignment within a unit.

2) Unit training emphasizes the training of individuals to function


as members of a team or a unit. It integrates the smaller units
into coordinated battlefield teams. These units develop their
tactical skills, perfecting operating procedure and the use of

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weapons and equipment. Unit training continues to emphasize


individual training by providing the opportunity for basic-trained
police officers to learn the value of teamwork and to practice
their individual skills. Advanced individual training is continued
for all leaders and those specialists whose duties require
additional training during the development of unit proficiency.

b. While the above-named training categories apply to PNP training,


normally however, PNP training is confined to individual training. This
is largely due to the nature of police work which requires each and
every police-aspirant to be conversant with police duties. Seldom does
police work necessitate unit training in the above-defined category.
Normal police operations require only individual training.
c. There are instances, however, where two or more PNP units are
required to conduct operations such as those against lawless elements
and dissidents. Hence, certain PNP units in areas where dissidence or
banditry is rampant have to be trained as units.
d. While training is categorized, it shall be stratified according to the
general principles of responsibilities such as position of major
responsibility, position of collateral responsibility, position of
supervisory responsibility, position of front line responsibility, and
position of hands-on /lineman responsibility.
7.30 Subjects. The subject areas in training can be conveniently grouped into
three types, according to the broad objectives to be accomplished
a. General/ Basic subjects, by nature and content, are directed toward
developing police discipline in individuals and within units. Dismounted
drill, police courtesy, interior guard duty, physical training and marches,
human rights, moral value, are examples of these subjects.
b. Technical Subjects training include these subject areas designed to
develop the technical ability of the individual to perform their technical
function. Technical training of the unit depends largely on the
organization and mission of the unit but it generally includes training in
fundamental subjects designed to support its tactical performance.
c. Tactical training includes subjects on dry exercises conducted to train
the individual in his role and to develop the proficiency of the unit in
order to accomplish the mission for which it was organized.
Effectiveness in tactical training depends on previous experiences and
on the degree of realism achieved in the training exercises. This
training may be conducted in the field or in the garrison training areas.

7.31 Responsibility and Leadership. The development of leaders in all levels of


command is a major function of police training. Leadership potential must be
developed and exploited in all phases of training. An initial requirement of police
training is to develop a sense of responsibility in all personnel; that is to teach every
police to feel a personal obligation for the effective performance of his duties and for

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the efficient functioning of his unit. Those who are capable of leadership are given
the opportunity to command. A man of good character who has the intelligence and
the desire to lead can be made into an effective police leader through progressive
training and supervision. Diligent application of the principles and techniques by the
man himself is required. Leaders are trained in the duties of the grades which they
can be expected to assume at a particular situation.
7.32 Physical Training

a. A continuous command consideration and requirement in training is the


physical development and fitness of all individuals. The objective of
physical training is to develop police officers to be fully capable and
ready to perform their duty assignment or combat role, and to aid in
preservation of good health through exercise. Commanders must
insure that all personnel, regardless of branch or duty assignment,
engage in sufficient physical activity to develop and maintain the
necessary degree of physical fitness to prepare them for the strenuous
duties associated with police service.
b. Commanders plan the physical training programs based on the existing
state of initiated individual training and are continued in all subsequent
phases. Rules of health are personal cleanliness, ample sleep, sound
eating habits and healthful recreation must be stressed. Physical
fitness improves the attitude of the police toward his recognition of
physical improvement. His confidence increases in his ability to do his
part in a group of team performance. This confidence results in higher
morale, esprit de corps' and a higher sense of discipline. Commanders
and training officers must understand the stages of physical
conditioning and must be aware that these are gradual processes.
Once a satisfactory standard has been attained, it must be maintained
through formal physical training or tactical training.
7.33 Maintenance Training. Commanders are responsible for maintaining their
equipment in serviceable conditions. Personnel are trained on the proper use of
equipment. In addition, they should know how to inspect, clean, lubricate, make
limited adjustments to, and preserve equipment as authorized by appropriate
technical instructions. Sufficient time should be provided in the training schedules for
maintenance training and performances of this maintenance.
7.34 Character Guidance. During training, police officers are encouraged to
develop high standards of personal conduct and honesty, a sense of responsibility
toward duty, obligation toward their fellow police officers and a concern for their unit's
welfare. The commander supports this training by personal example and requires
exemplary conduct of his unit leaders. He encourages police units and other
agencies that sponsor wholesome recreation to direct their efforts toward the
upholding of the spiritual and moral values of the command.
7.35 Recreation. Healthful recreation and diversion are essential to efficiency. The
commander provides for recreation during off-duty hours and makes leave time
available to all members of his unit. He insures that all members of the command
know what recreational facilities are available. He explains to them and issues leave
policies.

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7.36 Training Management

a. Training Management is the planning, directing and supervising


necessary to accomplish the assigned training objective or requirement
within a specified time limit. It is a function of command and is a
responsibility of every commander. Commanders at all echelons are
responsible on measures used to implement training that provide for
the most economical and efficient use of manpower, facilities,
equipment, time and money.

b. Training Management must be intelligently studied, planned and


executed with proper consideration for the general and local conditions
affecting the conduct of training. Planning, within the guidance
furnished by higher headquarters, begins upon receipt of the mission
and evolves in the commander's general plan. The commander
assisted by his staff, must finalize each element within this plan and
publish the necessary directives for the implementation by subordinate
units. The commander then, plans and provides for the
accomplishment of the mission. The commander must constantly
review his training program during implementation and revise his
instructions to meet the changing conditions.
7.37 The Training Design
a. The Training Plan. It is the commander's determination of the manner
by which his unit can accomplish its training mission. It results from the
commander's evaluation of the training situation; it is announced to
subordinate units in the form of a training directive. Planning involves a
careful consideration by the commander and his staff of methods
suitable to the existing state of training, the personnel available, the
weather and climate and the training objectives. The scope of their
evaluation depends on the details contained in the directive from the
higher headquarters. During the evaluation analysis process, decisions
may be required on all elements considered, or may be required only
as to the training plan evolves. It includes such items as the
determination of the sequence of subjects or courses, the efficient
utilization of facilities, and the most economical use of training time. It
is only through careful evaluation of all factors that the commander can
develop his training plan.

The development of a training plan consists of an analysis of the


mission, determination of a system of organization for training, analysis
of the local training situations and decisions.
b. Training Program. It outlines the general plan for the conduct of
training for the entire organization for specific periods of time. These
are prepared and disseminated for the information of all personnel
concerned with training. The scope of each program depends on the
size of the organization and its overall training mission. In general, the
program amplifies the directive received from higher headquarters. It
directs and coordinates the training of subordinate units. The complete
program should contain all of the detailed information the subordinate

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commanders need to plan, direct, conduct and supervise the required


training. The normal medium for dissemination is the training
memorandum.

The training program should be prepared in a form that will


insure understanding by subordinate units, thus, precluding the
necessity for subsequent clarification. Generally, the program consists
of two elements - a body that contains specific information or
instruction applicable to all units, and annexes that may contain
voluminous information applicable to all units or specific instructions for
a single-type unit. Programs prepared by provincial or higher
commanders should contain, at a minimum, information concerning the
following items:
1) Effective Date. An effective date for implementation by
subordinate units must be specified to allow for adequate
planning by the commanders concerned. Training programs are
prepared and distributed well in advance of its implementation
date.
2) References. Adequate references must be cited and made
available for subordinate commanders use in detailed planning
for the training program. References enable the commanders to
fully understand the overall concept of the required training.
These references should be the same as those used by the
commander and his staff in developing the training plan. Some
applicable references are training directives from higher
headquarters, appropriate PNP training programs, subject
schedules and training manuals.
3) Training Objectives. The specific objectives to be
accomplished by each subordinate unit must be clearly defined.
In outlining these objectives, the commander should not
reiterate the broad mission(s) stated by higher headquarters;
instead, he should indicate the specific objectives to be
achieved in major subdivisions of required training. Training
objectives define what employees will be able to accomplish
after being trained.
4) Training Strategy/System of Training. The method of
organization determined to be the most effective to accomplish
the training mission must be explained in order to delineate
command and staff responsibilities. When the centralized
method is used, the control to be exercised in the overall
training, the organization of committees and other items
necessary for implementation of training must be clearly
outlined. When the responsibility is decentralized, the
exceptions to complete decentralization must be indicated.
Training strategies describe how training objectives can be
achieved.

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5) Training Time. Information should be included to indicate the


length of period in which stated training objectives must be
attained, the number of hours to be devoted to training in each
week, holidays to be excluded from training time, and any
exceptions as appropriate.
6) Standard of Training. Standards for training are uniform for
similar types of units cannot be altered because of the training
situation. Information should be included as to the level of
proficiency or standards to be attained. The training test (s) to
be administered and conducted during or upon completion of a
specified time interval or phase of training should be indicated.
In addition, the plan for conduct supervision should specify types
of inspections, procedures and the individuals responsibility for
their conduct.
7) Assignment and Allocation of Training Facilities. Complete
instructions should be included on the use of facilities to support
the selected system for training. The control of all facilities must
be coordinated with other items of the training program as
appropriate. This information may be included as an annex in
tabular form.
8) Allocation, Procurement and Control of Training Aids.
Sufficient de-filed information should be included as to the
availability, allocation and control of training aids to support the
conduct of training.
9) Training Schedules. Specific instructions should be included
on the preparation of unit weekly training schedules. Generally,
these instructions are prepared in such detail requiring separate
annexes.

10) Training records and reports. Specific instructions must be


stated concerning the individual and unit training records to be
maintained and the frequency are the type of training reports to
be rendered during the conduct of training. These instructions
may be contained in the unit SOP; however, instructions must
indicate compliance with or permissible deviation from normal
policy.
11) Miscellaneous training instructions. Additional paragraphs
may be added to include other instructions necessary on such
items as safety policies in the conduct of training, realism in
exercises, communication or policies to be enforced during the
implementation of the program. These may however, be
included in appropriate annexes.
c. Training Directive. This is the all-inclusive term given to oral
instructions or written training publications that are directive in nature,
regardless of contents or publishing headquarters.

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Generally, a directive establishes a definite policy or order, a


specific requirement or objective to be accomplished. Training
directives include such publications as training memorandum and
training schedules. At PNP, Regional and Provincial Command level,
the training directive normally takes the form of a training
memorandum. They are generally prepared by the training officer in a
written form and approved by the commander for a phase of training, a
specialized type of training or for a specified period of time. At
company level, the directive is in the form of training schedules
prepared by the company commander.
7.38 Training Supervision. Supervision is the direct, immediate guidance and
control of subordinates in the conduct of training. A commander supervises training
activities by means of recurrent inspection and mentoring. Inspection involves not
only visits to a unit, but also the evaluation of reports and records pertaining to that
unit. Mentoring refers to the advice the commander gives to subordinates on the
proper methods and manner of conducting training activities.
a. Responsibility. The commander is responsible for the training of his
unit. Within the limits of directives from higher headquarters, he
exercises this responsibility either by personally planning and
conducting the training or by directing and supervising the training
activities of subordinates.
b. Purpose. The effectiveness of a unit's training activities depends
largely on the subordinate's interpretation of the requirements of
training directives, on their ability to do what is required and on the
commander's reaction to changes in the training situation. The purpose
of supervision is to see that subordinates comply with the intent of
directives, to help them execute specific requirements and to determine
the validity or effectiveness of instructions.
c. Principles of Supervision

1) Effective supervision is based on sound leadership principles.


Supervision is the best means the commander has to influence
the training and combat readiness of his unit. The commander's
attitude toward the individuals and units he supervises is
important. It should be one of helpfulness, demonstrated
personally. It must adhere to accepted leadership techniques.
Such an approach develops mutual respect between superior
and subordinates and creates teamwork.

2) Supervision is essential to effective command and development


of subordinates. The commander is responsible for training and
developing subordinate commanders within his unit. Mission
type orders, minimum control of subordinates and a positive
counseling program are effective means for developing
subordinates maximum potential. Supervision is inherent to
command and vital to effective training. Conversely, excessive
control and supervision are primary causes for unsatisfactory
development of subordinates.

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3) Effective supervision stresses encouragement, praise and


minimal criticism. The commander gives special thought to
combining needed criticism with praise to insure that
subordinate units respond favorably to the training and that the
prestige of subordinate commanders is constantly enhanced in
the eyes of their men.
d. Steps in Supervision. Since a commander must spend some time on
planning and administrative matters, he cannot devote his full attention
to the supervision of his unit's training activities. To make the most of
the time he can devote to supervision, he must follow certain steps.
These steps are: (1) Plan; (2) Act; (3) Qualify; (4) Inspect; (5) Evaluate;
(6) Critique; and (7) Correct.
7.39 Training Monitoring and Evaluation

a. Training Evaluation is the process of collecting information needed to


determine the outcomes of training and their effectiveness in relation to the
attainment of training objectives. To conduct a training evaluation, the training needs,
learning environment, transfer of training strategy and learning objectives must be
considered.

b. Common Types of PNP Training Evaluation

1) Formative Evaluation refers to the evaluation of training


according to its design and development stages. Its aim is to ensure that the
training implemented is well organized and conducted according to the plan
and that trainees are satisfied with its conduct. This type of evaluation is often
referred to as training satisfaction survey.

2) Summative Evaluation refers to the evaluation that measures


the degree to which the training helped in bridging the competency gap or the
effect of training to the employees ability to perform his tasks according to
organizational standards. This type of assessment is sometimes called
training impact assessment.

In Kirkpatricks training evaluation framework shown below, Levels 1 & 2 are


considered under formative evaluation; while Levels 3 &4 are under the summative
evaluation category.

Table 7-2. Kirkpatricks training evaluation framework

Level Criteria Focus Evaluation


Category
1 Reactions Trainee satisfaction
2 Learning Acquisition of knowledge, Formative
skills, attitudes, behavior
3 Behavior Improvement on behavior
4 Results Training objectives achieved Summative
by trainees

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Section 7-3 Budgeting System

7.40 Executive Order Nr. 43 and the Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016
lays out the responsibility of planning, budgeting and implementation of programs, as
well as performance monitoring, evaluation and reporting to be guided by the results-
based management framework that focused on the results of spending.(DBM OPIF
Reference Guide: 2012)

7.41 Results-Based Management is a strategy of the Philippine Government that


focuses on performance and the achievement of outputs, outcomes and impacts.
The Organizational Performance Indicator Framework is its management tool. The
formulation of agency plans should therefore be guided by the following:

a. The Philippine Development Plan; and


b. The Public Investment Plan

7.42 The Organizational Performance Indicator Framework (OPIF). It is an


approach to expenditure management that directs resources for major final outputs
(MFOs) toward results and measures agency performance by key quality, quantity,
timeliness and cost indicators. It helps agencies to define and establish priority
expenditures through a logical process of:

a. Deciding on and planning outcomes;


b. Establishing relevant performance targets and measures;
c. Implementing activities to achieve outputs and outcomes; and
d. Monitoring, evaluating and reporting results.

OPIF promotes the following principles:

a. Fiscal Discipline. Living within the means or resources available to


the government. Accountability for results.

b. Allocative Efficiency. Spending money on the right things or right


priorities.

c. Operational Efficiency. Obtaining the best value for the money or


resources available.

7.43 The OPIF Logical Framework (OPIF Logframe) is a management tool used
to improve the design of interventions, most often at the project level. It involves
identifying strategic elements and their causal relationship, indicators and the
assumptions of risks that may influence success and failure. It facilitates planning,
execution and evaluation of a development intervention. (The PNPs OPIF Logical
framework is shown as Annex D)

7.44 The PNP Annual Operations Plans and Budget (AOPB).

a. Definition. It is an implementing instrument or execution mechanism


that provides for quantitative and qualitative measures of real-time

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program accomplishments or performance. It reflects the total


coordinated effort of management officials in so far as fiscal
administration and resource management are concerned.

b. The Operations Plans and Budget Committee (OPBC). The OPBC


is tasked to formulate the Annual Operations Plans and Budget. It is
chaired by The Chief of Directorial Staff to insure consistency and
maintain balance of resources within and among major activities of the
Command.

c. Preparation. Preparation of the operating program starts upon receipt


of the comprehensive allotment advice by the Director for
Comptrollership who temporarily distributes the funds by
program/project and expense class after taking into consideration the
PNP's Program and Budget Guidance, the Preliminary Operating Plan
and Budget Estimate and other guidelines from higher authorities. The
temporary allocation of fund is then presented to the OPBC which in
turn reconciles differences and corrects flaws, and allocated the budget
ceiling of the different major operating units. The approved allocation is
then distributed by the comptroller to the Program Directors who in turn
divide the peso allocation among the projects, activities and sub-
activities by major units. The program Directors then coordinate with
the Project Administrators to submit their respective programs of
expenditure, indicating the distribution by major unit,
program/project/activity, and object class.
7.45 Program Review and Analysis (PRA)

a. Definition. Provides a complete picture of how the resources were


used to accomplish objectives and programs. It is based on the
authorized operating program and budget and the accomplishment of
the unit or office for a given period of time.

b. Responsibility. The PRA is the responsibility of the Comptroller and


Budget and Fiscal Officers of the major units, including the Directorial
Staffs, program Directors, and Project Administrators.

c. Presentation. It is undertaken quarterly on a cumulative basis,


meaning that the semi-annual documentation includes the first and
second quarters, while the annual report covers the four (4) quarters of
the fiscal year.

The PRA is composed of two parts: the documented PRA and the oral
presentation which requires the condensation of the documented PRA
into a briefing manuscript. A consolidated Program Review and
Analysis is presented by the PNP Chief to NAPOLCOM on a semi-
annual basis. During these PRAs, the NAPOLCOM sits en banc to
review the PNP's performance vis-a-vis the available resources.

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Section 7-4 Procurement System

7.46 General. The PNP Procurement System abides by the rules and regulations
of R.A.9184 or the Government Procurement Reform Act of 2002 and its
Implementing Rules and Regulations.
7.47. Scope of Application. RA 9184 applies to the Procurement of the following,
regardless of source of funds- whether foreign or local- by all branches and
instrumentalities of government, its departments, offices and agencies:

a. Infrastructure Projects;
b. Goods; and
c. Consulting Services

7.48 Principles on Government Procurement (as stated in Article I, Sec 3 of RA


9184).

a. All procurement of the national government, its departments, bureaus,


offices and agencies, including state universities and colleges,
government-owned and/or controlled corporations, government
financial institutions and local government units, shall, in all cases, be
governed by these principles:
1) Transparency in the procurement process and in the
implementation of procurement contracts.
2) Competitiveness by extending equal opportunity to enable
private contracting parties who are eligible and qualified to
participate in public bidding.
3) Streamlined procurement process that will uniformly apply to all
government procurement. The procurement process shall be
simple and made adaptable to advances in modern technology
in order to ensure an effective and efficient method.
4) System of accountability where both the public officials
directly or indirectly involved in the procurement process as well
as in the implementation of procurement contracts and the
private parties that deal with government are, when warranted
by circumstances, investigated and held liable for their actions
relative thereto.
5) Public monitoring of the procurement process and the
implementation of awarded contracts with the end in view of
guaranteeing that these contracts are awarded pursuant to the
provisions of this Act and its implementing rules and regulations,
and that all these contracts are performed strictly according to
specifications.

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b. No government Procurement shall be undertaken unless it is in


accordance with the approved Annual Procurement Plan of the
Procuring Entity.

c. Each procuring entity shall establish a single Bids and Awards


Committee for its procurement. Separate BACs may be created where
the number and complexity of the items to be procured shall so
warrant. Similar committees for decentralized and lower level offices
may also be formed when deemed necessary by the Head of the
Procuring Entity.
d. All procurement shall be within the approved budget of the procuring
entity and should be meticulously and judiciously planned by the
procuring entity. Consistent with government fiscal discipline
measures, only those considered crucial to the efficient discharge of
governmental functions shall be included in the Annual Procurement
Plan (APP).

e. Procurement Service-Department of Budget and Management (PS-


DBM) shall provide a centralized procurement of common-use supplies
for the government in accordance with Letters of Instruction No. 755
and Executive Order No. 359, series of 1989.

7.49 The Bids and Award Committee (BAC). The BAC shall be responsible for
ensuring that the Procuring Entity abides by the standards set forth by law and shall
prepare a procurement monitoring report that shall be approved and submitted by
the Head of the Procuring Entity to the Government Procurement Policy Board
(GPPB) on a semestral basis. The BAC shall have the following functions:
a. Advertise and/or post the invitation to bid;

b. Conduct pre-procurement and pre-bid conferences;

c. Determine the eligibility of prospective bidders;

d. Receive bids;
e. Conduct the evaluation of bids;

f. Undertake post-qualification proceedings;

g. Recommend award of contracts to the Head of the Procuring


Entity or his duly authorized representative.

h. Recommend the imposition of sanctions;

i. Recommend to the Head of the Procuring Entity the use of


Alternative Methods of Procurement; and

i. Perform such other related functions as may be necessary.


7.50 PNP-NHQ BAC Composition. The BAC shall have at least five (5) members,
but not more than seven (7) members.

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7.51 The BAC Secretariat. The Head of the Procuring Entity shall create a
Secretariat which will serve as the main support unit of the BAC. An existing organic
office within the procuring entity may also be designated to serve as Secretariat.

7.52 The Philippine Government Electronic Procurement System (PhilGEPS).


The single portal that serves as the primary and definitive source of information on
all government procurement managed by the PS-DBM under the supervision of the
GPPB.

7-5. Accounting and Auditing System

7.53 General. The PNP Accounting and Auditing System abides by the New
Government Accounting System (NGAS). The NGAS Manual is prescribed by the
Commission on Audit pursuant to Article IX-D, Section 2 para (2),1987 Constitution
of the Republic of the Philippines which provides that:

The Commission on Audit shall have exclusive authority, subject to the


limitations in this Article, to define the scope of its audit and examination,
establish the techniques and methods required therefore, and promulgate
accounting and auditing rules and regulations, including those for the
prevention and disallowance of irregular, unnecessary, excessive,
extravagant, or unconscionable expenditures, or uses of government
funds and properties".

7.54 General Accounting Plan. The General Accounting Plan (GAP) shows the
overall accounting system of a government agency/unit. It includes the source
documents, the flow of transactions and its accumulation in the books of accounts
and finally their conversion into financial information/data presented in the financial
reports. (refer to NGAS Manual s. 2002)

The following accounting systems are:

a. Budgetary Accounts System;


b. Receipts/Income and Deposit System;
c. Disbursement System; and
d. Financial Reporting System.

7.55 Agency Budget Matrix (ABM). The ABM refers to a document which shows
the disaggregation of agency expenditures into components like, among others, by
source of appropriations, by allotment class and by need of clearance.
7.56 Financial Statements and Supporting Schedules. Financial statements
and their supporting schedules are the products of the government accounting
processes. These are the principal comprehensive means by which the information
accumulated and processed in the state accounting system is periodically
communicated to those who use them. The financial statements generally prepared
in the National Government are: the Balance Sheet, Statement of Income and
Expenses, Statement of Government Equity, and Statement of Cash Flows.

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CHAPTER 8

STRATEGY MANAGEMENT

Section 8-1. General Concepts

8.1 PNP P.A.T.R.O.L. Plan 2030. The PNP Peace and Order Agenda for
Transformation and upholding of the Rule-Of-Law Plan 2030 is the official
transformation and development program of the PNP crafted as a long-tern, well-
defined, integrated and synchronized strategic plan that utilizes the balanced
scorecard system to evaluate the overall performance of the PNP and its progress
towards strategic objectives. It is the product of the Integrated Transformation
Program of the PNP and the Performance Governance System.

8.2 Performance Governance System (PGS). This refers to the Philippine


adaptation of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) framework administered by the Institute
for Solidarity in Asia (ISA) and implemented by the PNP and other organizations as
part of the Philippine Governments commitment with its application for the
Millennium Challenge Corporation Grant. The PGS has a four-stage governance
path way that must be complied with to institutionalize the system. These stages are
as follows:

a. Initiation. The stage of initiation is for strategy formulation where the


PNP has developed its Charter Statement, strategic change agenda,
strategy map, the agency governance scorecard and portfolio of
strategic initiatives.

b. Compliance. The stage of compliance is for alignment of organization


and resources where the PNP has adopted a strategy-driven budget,
second-level scorecards, a multi-sectoral governance council and a
strategic Communications Plan.

c. Proficiency. The stage of proficiency is for integrating strategy into key


management processes where the PNP has established the scorecard
reports and performance analysis, operations strategy review by an
Office of Strategy Management with the multi-sectoral governance
council, strategy refresh with the multi-sectoral governance council and
Third Party Performance Audit.

d. Institutionalization. The stage of institutionalization is for linking


strategy to key management process where the PNP will implement a
scorecard infrastructure linked to individual performance, performance-
based rewards and incentives and the assessment of a third-party
performance audit

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Section 8-2 Change Agenda

8.3 General. The change agenda of the PNP is anchored on the principles of
transparency, accountability and stakeholders participation set on clear and well-
defined systems and procedures that are realistic, easily understandable,
measurable and time-bound. This defines the way how the PNP effectively and
efficiently delivers its mandate through human rights-based and community-oriented
policing.

8.4 Charter Statement. This refers to the PNP P.A.T.R.O.L. Plan 2030 Roadmap
which describes the vision, mission, mandate, philosophy and core values of the
organization. Most importantly, it illustrates the role of resource management
perspective, learning and growth perspective, process excellence perspective and
community perspective together with the stakeholders support, in achieving the
ultimate goal of being a highly capable, effective and credible police service by 2030.
(see PNP P.A.T.R.O.L. Plan 2030 Roadmap)

8.5 PGS Elements and Governance Mechanisms. The governance pathway of


the PGS identified the elements for PNPs strategic transformation and development.
The following are the governance mechanisms adopted by the PNP:

a. Center for Police Strategy Management (CPSM). The CPSM is the


office of strategy management of the PNP, which is mandated to
ensure proper management and monitoring of the agency scorecard,
conduct periodic review and evaluation, and make necessary
adjustments and amendments to the strategy. (see CPSM Manual for
details)

b. Cascading of the Strategy to Lower Units. Strategy and operations


review is conducted by the members of the TWG on PNP P.A.T.R.O.L.
Plan 2030 together with the personnel and staff of the CPSM. The
enhanced strategy map and PNP scorecard is cascaded to 17 Police
Regional Offices, 80 Provincial Police Offices, 1,723 police stations
and 148,000 PNP personnel to ensure alignment and proper execution.

1. Strategy Refresh. The strategy refresh facilitates an update of


the strategy map and scorecard to fit the changes in the
environment through the strategic objectives, strategic
indicators, targets and strategic initiatives.

2. Strategy Review. In executing the PNP strategy, the CPSM and


the TWG on PNP P.A.T.R.O.L. Plan 2030 conduct strategy
reviews on the delivery of police services to its customers.
Strategy is evaluated through the implementation of initiatives,
notable process improvements, and determination of the level of
performance of the organization based on the targets achieved
using the measures reflected in the scorecard.

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3. Operations Review. Operational review meetings assess short-


term performance and respond to problems that have arisen
recently and need immediate attention. The frequency of
meetings is influenced by the urgency as determined by the
Center for Police Strategy Management (CPSM) and Technical
Working Group (TWG) on PNP P.A.T.R.O.L. Plan 2030.

c. Linking Budget to the Strategy. The strategic initiatives shall be


properly budgeted and supported to achieve the targeted outcome. The
Annual Operations Plans and Budget (AOPB) operationalizes the
approved Annual Appropriations in terms of targets and financial
requirements per identified programs, activities and projects (PAPs).
The PAPs are determined and generated from the lowest units of the
PNP in the field up to the Directorial Staff level at the National
Headquarters and serves as basis of the Bottom-Up Budgeting
formulation which shall be cross-matched with the Major Final Output
(MFO).

d. National Advisory Group for Police Transformation and


Development (NAGPTD). The NAGPTD is a multi-sectoral
governance council that will help ensure the institutionalization of the
PNP P.A.T.R.O.L. Plan 2030. Regular meetings of the NAGPTD will be
held to provide insights and guidance on the pressing issues
concerning the PNP.

e. Communications Plan (COMPLAN). The COMPLAN on the PNP


P.A.T.R.O.L. Plan 2030 is an intensive information campaign on the
program to all internal and external stakeholders to strengthen the
implementation of its information, awareness and education campaign.
The PNP leadership must continue to improve the image of the police
as an efficient, competent and credible institution.

Section 8-3 Governance Scorecard

8.6 Definition. The PNP governance scorecard shows how the organizations
strategic objectives will be attained. Under the four perspectives of PGS, objectives
were identified, with corresponding measures, targets and strategic initiatives. (see
Annex F for PNP Scorecard)

8.7 Elements of Governance Scorecard. The PNP Governance Scorecard has


provided four (4) distinct but interrelated elements, as follows:

a. Objectives. The objectives are directed toward performance and


results that are measurable, specific, appropriate, realistic and timely.

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b. Measures. The measures will track and monitor the progress towards
the PNPs vision.

c. Targets. The targets represent the milestones needed to reach the


short, medium and long-term period that the PNP vision encompasses.

d. Initiatives. The portfolio of initiatives or programs of actions the PNP


envisions to undertake in order to meet the targets and to attain
specific objectives.

8.8 Perspectives in the PGS. An agency scorecard is divided into four


perspectives which represent the core functions of the organization. It consists of the
following:

a. Resource Management. The enabling resources in pursuit of its


mission should be adequate. Moreover, those resources provided
which are very limited should be used optimally. To help achieve
maximum utilization of resources, the PNP must observe high
standards of transparency and accountability in all its financial and
logistical transactions.

b. Learning and Growth. The PNP has to look forward into the future, in
which it does things much better and more efficient through a more
competent, capable and disciplined personnel and better core
processes than in the past. The PNP shall invest in its human
resources and processes so it can earn its stakeholders support and
undertake proper, efficient, and effective management of its resources.

c. Process Excellence. This refers to the different core operational


processes and practices the organization uses in carrying out its
mission. The four core processes of intelligence, investigation,
operations, and police community relations are given top
consideration.

d. Community. This refers to the objective of improving further the


performance of the PNP, and undertaking a sustained public
information program utilizing its amended Communications Plan, with a
view towards strengthening the partnership and cooperation with the
communities it serves. The community is ultimately best served by
highly capable and credible police personnel that effectively uphold the
rule of law resulting to a safer place to live, work and do business.

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CHAPTER 9

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Section 9-1. Administrative Sanctions

Every personnel is mandated by this doctrine to adhere to its provisions. Any


violation shall be dealt with in accordance with existing laws, rules and regulations
pertinent to the violation incurred. It is therefore the responsibility of the unit
commanders and Directors of offices to inform their subordinates of the provisions of
this doctrine.

Section 9-2 Separability Clause

This Manual rescinds the PNP Fundamental Doctrine of 1994. All policies,
rules and regulations in conflict with the provisions of this fundamental doctrine of the
PNP shall be deemed amended, repealed and or superseded.

Section 9-3 Effectivity

This Revised PNP Fundamental Doctrine shall take effect upon approval.

Section 9-4 Amendment

Any amendment or changes to be made shall be deliberated by a Doctrines


Board or a Technical Working Group created for this purpose. Amendment shall
ensue only after five (5) years upon approval of this manual.

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SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Extensive changes have been made throughout the manual to reflect the current
set-up, organizational environment and dynamics of the Philippine National
Police as a distinctly civilian law enforcement agency.

Revisions were made on general law enforcement principles throughout the


manual to incorporate Human Rights- based policing.

A publishers note was added to reflect and promote gender sensitivity and
equality.

The Committee Resolution was changed to NHQ-TWG Resolution in compliance


with existing rules and regulations governing doctrine development.

The Section on PNP Doctrines was extended to reflect the new categories of
doctrines. Examples for each type of doctrine were provided and an explanation
on the difference between manuals, policies and doctrines was added.

The PNP Vision was added as part of the PNPs journey to the Performance
Governance System.

Military terminologies and perspectives which the PNP does not use and adhere
to were changed or deleted completely.

The perspective on Internal Security Operations was changed to reflect the


Governments strategic shift from military approach to holistic approach in
addressing internal security problems.

The organizational structure, mission and functions of PNP key officers and the
names of offices and units were updated and attached as annexes.

The Chapter on Internal Security Operations was deleted as part of the strategic
shift of the Philippine Governments National Security Policy.

Chapter on Intelligence was deleted and incorporated as part of the Chapter on


Crime Prevention and Solution.

An additional Chapter on Crime Prevention and Solution was added to describe


the interconnected processes of investigation, intelligence, patrol operations and
police-community relations (QUAD).
An additional Chapter on Public Safety and Security was added to describe the
PNPs role in disaster and critical incident management including its relationship
with the Peace and Order Councils and other government agencies.

A Chapter on PNP Resource Management was added to incorporate the


administrative functions of the PNP comprising the sections on PNP Personnel
Management, Training Administration and Management, Budgeting System,
Procurement System, Accounting and Auditing System of the PNP.

References to detailed doctrines, manuals and issuances were reflected on each


section to guide readers of the manual.

The Standard Operating Procedures on the Preparation, Publication and


Distribution of PNP Manuals and Doctrines was included in the annexes as
reference to the readers.

A Glossary was provided with distinct definition of terms as used operationally


throughout the manual.

A reference guide was provided to accredit the sources of information in the


development of manuals.

A List of Abbreviations and Acronyms, Figures and Tables was provided for the
guidance of readers.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

ABM Agency Budget Matrix


AFP Armed Forces of the Philippines
AOM Administrative and Operations Manual
AOPB Annual Operations Plan and Budget
APP Annual Procurement Program
ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations
ATP Annual Training Program
BAC Bids and Awards Committee
BFP Bureau of Fire Protection
BJMP Bureau of Jail Management and Penology
BPAT Barangay Peacekeeping Action Team
BS Balance Scorecard
CCE Crime Clearance Efficiency
CD City Director
CODE-P Competence, Organization, Discipline, Excellence- Professionalism
CPNP Chief, Philippine National Police
CPO City Police Office
CSC Civil Service Commission
CSE Crime Solution Efficiency
CSW Complete Staff Work
CVO Civic Voluntary Organizations
DBM Department of Budget and Management
DC Directorate for Comptrollership
DHRDD Directorate for Human Resource and Doctrine Development
DI Directorate for Intelligence
DICTM Directorate for Information Communication Technology Management
DIDM Directorate for Investigation and Detective Management
DILG Department of the Interior and Local Government
DL Directorate for Logistics
DO Directorate for Operations
DPL Directorate for Plans
DPRM Directorate for Personnel and Records Management
D-Staff Directorial Staff
EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone
FNTI Fire National Training Institute
GAP General Accounting Plan
GO General Order
GPPB Government Procurement Policy Board
IPOPHIL Intellectual Property Office- Philippines
IRR Implementing Rules and Regulations
KSA Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes
LGE Local Government Executive
LGU Local Government Unit
LOGFRAME Logical Framework
LOI Letter of Instructions
MFO Major Final Output
MPS Municipal Police Station
MTAP Master Training Action Plan
MTDP Medium Term Development Plan
NAPOLCOM National Police Commission
NASU National Administrative Support Unit
NBI National Bureau of Investigation
NCRPO National Capital Region Police Office
NDRRMP National Disaster and Risk Reduction Master Plan
NFSTI National Forensic Science Training Institute
NGAS National Government Accounting System
NHQ National Headquarters
NOSU National Operational Support Unit
NPOC National Peace and Order Council
NSP National Security Plan
NSU National Support Unit
NUP Non-Uniformed Personnel
OPBC Operations Plan and Budget Committee
OPIF Organizational Performance Indicator Framework
PC/INP Philippine Constabulary/ Integrated National Police
PCO Police Commissioned Officer
PCR Position of Collateral Responsibility
PD Provincial Director
PDP Philippine Development Plan
PFLR Position of Front-line Responsibility
PGS Performance Governance System
PhilGEPS Philippine Government Electronic Procurement System
PHLR Position of Hands-on Responsibility
PIPS Police Integrated Patrol System
PLEB Peoples Law Enforcement Board
PMR Position of Major Responsibility
PNCO Police Non-commissioned officer
PNP Philippine National Police
PNPA Philippine National Police Academy
PNPTS PNP Training Service
PNTI Police National Training Institute
POP Police Operational Procedures
PPO Provincial Police Office
PPOC Provincial Peace and Order Council
PPSC Philippine Public Safety College
PRA Program Review and Analysis
PRO Police Regional Office
PRO-ARMM Police Regional Office- Autonomous Region for Muslim Mindanao
PRO-COR Police Regional Office- Cordillera
PSCRS Police Security Containment Ring System
PS-DBM Procurement Service- Department of Budget and Management
PSR Position of Supervisory Responsibility
RPOC Regional Peace and Order Council
SDS Secretary to the Directorial Staff
SO Special Order
SOCO Scene of the Crime Operations
SOP Standard Operating Procedures
TCDS The Chief Directorial Staff
TDCA The Deputy Chief PNP for Administration
TDCO The Deputy Chief PNP for Operations
TNA Training Needs Assessment
TWG Technical Working Group
GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Accountability- This refers to the obligation to account for the authority delegated
and tasks assigned to subordinates.

Administrative Doctrines - Provide guidance on the accomplishment of general


administrative functions or tasks of the PNP.

Allocative Efficiency- Spending money on the right things or right priorities.

Annual Operations Plans and Budget- It is an implementing instrument or


execution mechanism that provides for quantitative and qualitative measures of real-
time program accomplishments or performance.

Anonymous letter-complaints- are unsigned letters of which their origin cannot be


immediately established.

Authority- It is the right to decide and command.

Average Monthly Crime Rate- Crime rate divided into the number of months in a
year.

Best Practice Doctrine/Manual This manual describes or features an initiative,


activity, technique or method adopted outside the usual routine or procedural
requirement of police operations/administration that has been proven to deliver
desired results and leads to the fulfillment of certain police objectives.

Briefings- are made by the staff to keep the commander informed with the current
situation and problems facing the command.

Chain of Command- It is the hierarchal relationship of positions through which the


primary functions of the organization are performed.

Collateral function- is the function of the PNP that is done in collaboration with
other law enforcement agencies and police volunteers.
Command- shall be taken to mean the authority vested in an individual of the police
service over his subordinates by virtue of his rank or assignment.

Command Authority- This provides the commander with the right to plan, organize,
direct, coordinate and control PNP forces or units in order to accomplish an assigned
mission or task.
Command Channels- used for commander-to- commander interaction where all
orders are issued in the name of the commander;

Command Responsibility- The commander is responsible for all that his unit does
or fails to do.
Competency- refers to an individuals knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA) that
lead to superior performance

Competency Gap- It is the difference between the current competency level of


personnel and the required functional skill or competency.

Competency Training- is a way of improving individual abilities or characteristics to


an agreed standard of proficiency by practice and instruction which is a key to get
better results.

Complementary Doctrine - This manual is jointly formulated by two or more


bureaus/agencies/organizations in order to effect a certain operation.

Completed staff action- includes a thorough analysis of a problem, consideration


of all feasible courses of action, and his recommended solution in finished form
which the commander can approve or disapprove.

Conceptual Skills- Ability to deal with long-range plans, broad relationships and
other attractions

Crime - is an act or omission punishable by law.

Crime Clearance Efficiency- The percentage of cleared cases out of the total
number of crime incidents handled by the police for a given period of time.

Crime prevention- an act that aims to prevent the commission of crimes by


adopting measures that leads to the early detection, deterrence or denial of a crime.

Crime Rate- The number of crime incidents in a given period of time for every
100,000 inhabitants of an area.

Crime reporting- It is the act of reporting a crime committed by the victim or


concerned citizens to the police and other similar law enforcement
agencies/institutions.

Crime solution- is the act of investigating the crime leading to the prosecution of its
perpetrators.

Crime Solution Efficiency- The percentage of solved cases out of the total number
of crime incidents handled by the police for a given period of time.

Crime Volume- The number of crime incidents committed in a given area over a
period of time which include index and non-index crimes.

Criminal Means- The ability of an individual to commit a crime.

Criminal Motive- The reason or intent of an individual to commit a crime.


Criminal Opportunity- The chance for an individual to commit a crime at a given
space and time.

Cultural Cohesiveness- This element implies that the Filipinos have shown their
collective sense of value to the principles of freedom and human dignity of a person

Delegated Authority - It is the action by which the Chief, PNP assigns part of his
authority to his Deputies, Directorial Staff, Regional Directors and NSU Directors.

Directorial Staff Principle- Prescribes the directorial authority of the Directorate in


the national and regional levels and other equivalent units.

Document Security- Information and material in any form or any nature, the
safeguarding of which is necessary in the interest of national security and is
classified for such purpose by the responsible classifying authority.

Ecological Balance- The national survival rests upon the effective conservation of
our natural environment in the face of industrial and agricultural expansion and
population growth.

Economic power - depends on a variety of economic factors such as magnitude of


human and natural resources, agro-industrial capacity, extent of grade and
commerce, communication, system and others;
Economic Solidarity- It is to collectively pursue and build the economy to be strong
and capable of supporting national endeavors

Fictitious letter-complaints- are letters which has a name and signature but its
origin/author cannot be ascertained/ traced.

Fiscal Discipline- Living within the means or resources available to the government.

Formative Evaluation- refers to the evaluation of training according to its design


and development stages.

Fundamental Doctrine - It states the basic principles, policies and bases in the
planning, organization and management of the PNP in support of the PNP vision,
mission and strategic action plan towards the attainment of national objectives.

Functional Doctrines or Administrative and Operations Manual - Provide


guidance for routine operational and administrative functions of each unit in its fields
of interest.

Functional Principle- Prescribes the horizontal growth of the organization.

General/ Basic subjects- by nature and content, are directed toward developing
police discipline in individuals and within units.

Human Skills- Ability to interact effectively with people and exhort teamwork or
cooperation.
Incident management- refers to the sequence of actions to be undertaken in case
of disaster/disorder/crisis to mitigate their effects and expedite the return to
normalcy.

Index Crimes- Are crimes which are serious in nature and which occur with
sufficient frequency and regularity such that they serve as an index to the crime
situation. These are the crimes of murder, homicide, physical injuries, carnapping,
cattle rustling, robbery, theft and rape.

Individual training- begins when the individual enters the PNP service and
continues throughout his stay in the service

Intelligence- is knowing the threat and identifying its potential targets.

Investigation- is the collection of facts to identify the suspect; to locate the


suspect; and to provide evidence of his guilt.

Job Analysis- is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job
duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job.

Line and Staff Principle - Organizations must provide an orderly arrangement of


functions so that objectives can be accomplished effectively.

Line organization-refers to the direct accomplishment of objectives.

Maintenance Training- is the training on the proper use of equipment.

Merit- The degree to which a personnel is "committed" to the service.

Mission- The term refers to a duty assigned to a police unit or an individual.

Moral-Spiritual Consensus- The Filipino people must be propelled by the national


vision manifested in words and deeds, by patriotism, national pride and the
advancement of our national goals and interests

National interests- refer to any or all particular ends from which a nation finds
benefits or advantages for the welfare of its own people.

National objectives- are the aims, goals or ends toward which a national strategy is
directed.

National Strategy- is the art and science of employing the political, economic,
psycho-social and military/police powers of a nation in times of peace or war to
achieve national objectives.

National power- refers to the total strength and ability of the state to gain desired
objectives.
Non-Index Crimes- Are violations of special laws such as illegal logging or local
ordinances.

Operational Doctrines- They consist of principles and rules governing the planning,
organization, direction and employment and deployment of PNP forces in the
accomplishment of basic security operational mission in crime prevention and
solution, law enforcement, public safety and security.

Operational Efficiency- Obtaining the best value for the money or resources
available.

OPIF Logframe- is a management tool used to improve the design of interventions,


most often at the project level

Organization -is a system of coordinating activities of a group of people working in a


concentrated manner towards a common goal under authority and leadership.

Organizational Performance Indicator Framework - It is an approach to


expenditure management that directs resources for major final outputs (MFOs)
toward results and measures agency performance by key quality, quantity,
timeliness and cost indicators.

Performance Governance System - is a strategy in accomplishing its mandated


mission and functions complemented by the Balanced Scorecard system as its
management tool in measuring progress and performance of PNP units and
individual personnel.

Personnel Administration- one which consists of administrative procedures by


which PNP personnel are recruited, appointed, utilized and treated in their
employment relationship and replaced when they are separated from the service.

Physical training- is to develop police officers to be fully capable and ready to


perform their duty assignment or combat role, and to aid in preservation of good
health through exercise.

PNP Ethical Doctrine- It defines the fundamental principles governing the rules of
conduct, attitude, behavior and ethical norms of the PNP.

PNP Manuals and Doctrines - are authoritative statements of principles, policies,


procedures, rules and regulations prescribing the proper acquisition, use and
employment of the PNPs human and materiel resources to achieve planned
objectives.

Police power- is the combination of both the strength of the psycho-social and
political components.

Political power- is largely determined by the stability and credibility of the


government in whatever form it may be, its administrative machinery, the character
of its people, and the soundness of its domestic and foreign policies.
Position of Major Responsibility - A position that has a major decision-making
prerogative and ultimate assumption of responsibility or a key position of leadership.

Position of Collateral Responsibility - A position that has direct bearing on the


accomplishment of the mission/function of an officer holding the position of major
responsibility.

Position of Supervisory Responsibility - A position that assumes a primary


responsibility to supervise and orchestrate the activities of the command/unit or
office supportive/vital to the accomplishment of the mission/function of the officer
holding the position of major responsibility.

Position of Front-Line Responsibility - A position that assumes the: primary field


command responsibility.

Position of Hands-on Responsibility - A position that has the immediate hands-on


responsibility in the machine/equipment operation, clerks, resources operation or
plan execution.

Process Excellence- This refers to the different core operational processes and
practices the organization uses in carrying out its mission.

Program Review and Analysis- Provides a complete picture of how the resources
were used to accomplish objectives and programs. It is based on the authorized
operating program and budget and the accomplishment of the unit or office for a
given period of time.

Psychological power- is determined by the nationalistic temperament of the people,


the kind of social and moral fiber they have, the degree of faith they keep towards
their own institution, be it social, religious, educational, or cultural.

Public safety and security- involves operations geared towards protecting lives and
properties, including measures that will save lives, minimize injuries and establish
control structures for rehabilitation of the community.

Responsibility- It is the obligation to do something.

Results-Based Management- is a strategy of the Philippine Government that


focuses on performance and the achievement of outputs, outcomes and impacts

Scalar Principle- Prescribes the vertical hierarchy of organizations.

Socio-Political Stability- This aims to achieve peace and harmony among all
Filipinos, regardless of creed, ethnic origin, and social status

Span of Control- This relates to the number of subordinates a superior can


effectively supervise.

Specialization- Is the specialized skills and knowledge required in every police


work.
Staff- It is a coordinating body assigned to help the commander accomplish his
missions.

Staff Authority- Is the delegated authority to a particular staff officer to take action
on matters within the bounds of command policies

Staff Channels-used for coordination and exchange of information between


counterpart staff element; and

Staff Function- The function of the staff as a Directorial body to assist the
commanders to discharge his functions.

Staff organization - on the other hand, refers to organizations operating in an


advisory or facilitative capacity.

Staff Responsibility- the responsibility of a staff officer to accomplishment all staff


actions within his area of interest.

Staff Study- is a study technique in command organizations depicting an analysis of


problems and their corresponding solutions.

Summative Evaluation- refers to the evaluation that measures the degree to which
the training helped in bridging the competency gap or the effect of training to the
employees ability to perform his tasks according to organizational standards

Tactical training- includes subjects on dry exercises conducted to train the


individual in his role and to develop the proficiency of the unit in order to accomplish
the mission for which it was organized

Target hardening- is a deliberate and planned action that makes it difficult for the
criminals/terrorists to succeed in hitting their targets.

Technical Channels -used by special staff officers and by functional specialists of


the coordinating staff for routine technical reports and instructions as prescribed by
the commander.

Technical Skills- Knowledge or proficiency in any type of process

Technical Subjects training- include these subject areas designed to develop the
technical ability of the individual to perform their technical function.

Territorial Integrity- the means of ensuring that the territory of the country is intact
and under the effective control of the government.

Training Directive- This is the all-inclusive term given to oral instructions or written
training publications that are directive in nature, regardless of contents or publishing
headquarters.
Training Evaluation- is the process of collecting information needed to determine
the outcomes of training and their effectiveness in relation to the attainment of
training objectives

Training Management -is the planning, directing and supervising necessary to


accomplish the assigned training objective or requirement within a specified time
limit.

Training Needs Assessment- is a systematic approach of identifying performance


requirements and the gap between what performance is required and what
presently exists.

Training objectives- distinctly defines the purpose and expected results of the
training

Training Plan- It is the commander's determination of the manner by which his unit
can accomplish its training mission

Training Program- It outlines the general plan for the conduct of training for the
entire organization for specific periods of time

Training Strategy/System of Training- The method of organization determined to


be the most effective to accomplish the training mission

Training Supervision - is the direct, immediate guidance and control of


subordinates in the conduct of training.

Training Time- Information should be included to indicate the length of period in


which stated training objectives must be attained

Unit training- emphasizes the training of individuals to function as members of a


team or a unit.

Unity of Command- defines a hierarchical system in which a subordinate is


accountable to one and only one immediate superior.
REFERENCES
Legal References:

Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines,1986


Revised Penal Code of the Philippines, 1987
Republic Act 6975 An Act Creating the Philippine National Police, 1991
Republic Act 8551 PNP Reorganization Act
Republic Act 10121 Philippine Disaster and Risk Management Act of 2010
Republic Act. 9184 Government Procurement Reform Act 2002
IRR to R.A. 10121, NDRRMC, September 2010
Executive Order No 546, July 14, 2006
Executive Order No 110 series 1999
Executive Order No 359, series 1989
Executive Order No. 773, series 2009
PS-DBM LOI 775
Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016, NEDA
National Security Policy 2011-2016

Published Manuals:

AFPM-1, AFP Basic Doctrine, GHQ-AFP, 2002


PNP Ethical Doctrine, 1995
PNP Code of Ethics, 1992
PNP Strategic Focus CODE-P: 2013 and Beyond towards the Realization of
PATROL Plan 2030, NHQ PNP, 2013
PNP PATROL Plan 2030
PNP Doctrines and Doctrines Development as Guide, Filipino Amoguis, et.al,
1994
PNPM-DIDM-DS-9-1, PNP Criminal Investigation Manual, 2011
PNP Police Operational Procedures, 2010
Department of Budget and Management, OPIF Reference Guide, April 2012
PNP Three-tiered Defense System Handbook, 2002
PPSC Manual, 2012
New Government Accounting System Manual, COA, 2002.

PNP Issuances:

DPL MEMO CIRCULAR 97-01 dtd August 29, 1997 Organization Structure and
Staffing Pattern of the PNP
PNP LOI Saklolo
DPL G.O No. 05-11
NAPOLCOM Resolution No. 2009-005
NUP Merit and Promotion Plan
PNP SOP 2011-008 Guidelines on the Preparation, Publication and Distribution
of PNP Doctrines, Manuals and other Issuances, November 2011
LOI 02/09 Unit Periodic Crime Report April 22, 2009. DIDM

Books:

Kelly K Morrison, Leadership Skills: Developing Volunteers for Organizational


Success.Perseus Books Group: 1994

Miguel Coronel, Pro-Democracy, Peoples War,

Raymond A. Noe, Employee Training and Development, 4 th ed., USA:Mc Graw


Hill, 2008

Internet references:
www.wikipedia.com/crime, definition

Others:

Sir Robert Peele, Principles of Law Enforcement


UN General Assembly Resolution Nr 34/169, December 17, 1979
National Historical Institute Registry, PNP Seal December 1991
National Historical Institute Registry, PNP Badge June 2008
Philippine National Police
Camp Crame, Quezon City
Copyright 2013

All rights reserved. No part of this manual, may be reproduced or copied in any
form by means of graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, or
information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the Director,
Directorate of Human Resource and Doctrine Development (DHRDD) with present
address at the National Headquarters Building, Camp Crame, Quezon City.

Published by PNP DHRDD


PNP FUNDAMENTAL
DOCTRINE
(Revised)

October 2013
APPENDICES
APPENDIX B Revised PNP Fundamental Doctrine 2013

APPENDIX B

Functions of PNP Key Officers, Offices and Units

Section B-1. PNP National Headquarters,


Camp Rafael Crame, Quezon City

A. The Command Group

1. The Chief of the Philippine National Police (CPNP)

a. The Head of the Philippine National Police is known and


designated as the Chief of the Philippine National Police;
b. The CPNP commands, controls and supervises the
administration and operation of the PNP as a whole in the
execution of its vision, missions and functions.
2. The Deputy Chief Philippine National Police for Administration
(TDCA)

a. The next in line to the CPNP is known and designated as The


Deputy Chief Philippine National Police for Administration; and
b. The TDCA assists the CPNP in discharging the latters
responsibility pertaining to Administrative matters and acts as
CPNP in latters absence or inability.
3. The Deputy Chief Philippine National Police for Operations
(TDCO)

a. Assists the CPNP in the performance of the latters assigned


functions, duties and responsibilities pertaining to operations.
4. The Chief of Directorial Staff (TCDS)

a. The Chief of Directorial Staff (TCDS) coordinates, supervises


and directs the Directorial Staff in the performance of their
respective functions.
B. The Directorial Staff. The D-Staff assists the CPNP in the performance of his
assigned functions, duties and responsibilities pertaining to the D-Staffs respective
assigned task.

The Directorial staff of the PNP is known as the NHQ Directorial Staff. It is a
Staff which coordinates all the decisions affecting the PNP. It is headed by The Chief
of Directorial Staff (TCDS) and the Directors of the different Directorates;
APPENDIX B Revised PNP Fundamental Doctrine 2013

The Directorial staff is concerned with broad fields of interest, such as


Personnel, Intelligence, Operations, Logistics, Comptrollership, Police-Community
Relations, Investigation, Human Resources, Research and Doctrine Development
and Plans. They assist and advise the CPNP by coordinating all the offices
concerned. They also formulate and announce policies for the general operations of
the PNP.
The Secretary to the Directorial Staff (SDS). The Secretary to the
Directorial Staff is primarily tasked to assist the TCDS but secondarily to service the
D-Staff and miscellaneously servicing the C, PNP and acting as Protocol Officer of
the PNP.
1. The Director for Personnel and Records Management (TDPRM).
Advises and assists the CPNP in the exercise of his Command
functions on matters pertaining to personnel, both uniformed and non-
uniformed. He is responsible to the CPNP for planning, directing,
coordinating and supervising all personnel actions, directives and
policies of the Command; and perform related administrative functions
such as hospitalization benefits, personnel procurement, retirement
and others, and those that the CPNP may direct;
2. The Director for Intelligence (TDI). Conducts intelligence and
counter-intelligence operations in support of the PNP statutory
functions and assists in the overall effort to attain intelligence
objectives;
3. The Director for Operations (TDO). Plans, directs, coordinates and
supervises all activities of the Philippine National Police concerning
operations;
4. The Director for Logistics (TDL). Plans, supervises and coordinates
all supply, transportation, construction and real estate, repair and
maintenance of equipment and facilities, and miscellaneous related
logistical activities to insure the economical utilization of materials and
resources for the efficient accomplishment of the PNP missions;
5. The Director for Plans (TDPL). Prepares strategic and organizational
development plans for the PNP. He also revises and updates various
existing plans to implement PNP missions and vision including the
national strategic action plan;
6. The Director for Comptrollership (TDC). Assists and advises the
CPNP on the employment of financial resources and control of funds;
budgeting, to include the preparation and justification of estimates,
distribution and application of funds; accounting, to include fiscal cost
and property accounting; performance audit for which the command is
responsible for correction, analysis, summarization, and interpretation
of establishment within the command system for review, analysis,
testing evaluating of command programs; and the interpretation of the
review and analysis of such programs and activities.
APPENDIX B Revised PNP Fundamental Doctrine 2013

7. The Director for Police Community Relations (TDPCR). Assists and


advises the CPNP in planning, directing, coordinating, supervising and
controlling the Police-Community relations programs, projects and
activities of the PNP. DPCR shall coordinate and supervise all public
information functions within the Command; disseminate all information
regarding activities of the PNP to appropriate information media in
accordance with established security policies; plan positive and
continuous public relations program to gain and maintain public
goodwill and support; actively coordinate and participate in crime
prevention; and make observation and analysis on public opinion.
8. The Director for Investigation and Detective Management (TDIDM).
Assists the CPNP in the supervision, coordination and management of
the investigation of sensational cases, assistance to Interpol affairs;
and development and maintenance of crime information system;
9. The Director for Human Resource and Doctrine Development
(TDHRDD). Assists the Chief PNP in the formulation of policies and in
the planning, direction, coordination and supervision of all matters
pertaining to human resource and doctrine development; rationalizes
and upgrades the development of systems and doctrine for PNP units
and personnel toward the attainment of the PNP vision and missions
and continuously develop the moral, spiritual, physical and mental
competence of PNP personnel.
10. The Director for Research and Development (TDRD). Assists the
Chief, PNP in the areas of materiel Research and Development; test
and evaluation in administering the Commands self reliant
development projects (SRDP) which are of value to peace and order
and public safety, as directed by higher authority or on its own initiative
in support to the effective and efficient administration and operation of
the PNP.
11. The Director for Integrated Police Operations (TDIPO). Assist the
Chief, PNP in the conduct of inter-regional anti-criminality, counter-
terrorism and counter-insurgency operations against lawless elements
which transcend regional boundaries, and provide a system for the
promotion of regional socio-economic development. He shall act
dispositively on matters pertaining to his area of concern for inter-
operability and to facilitate broader exercise of the span of control of
the Chief, PNP.
Each TDIPO has separate functional supervision over the following
PROs:
a. TDIPO, Northern Luzon - PROs 1, 2, 3, COR
b. TDIPO, Southern Luzon - PROs 4A, 4B, 5

c. TDIPO, Visayas - PROs 6, 7, 8


APPENDIX B Revised PNP Fundamental Doctrine 2013

d. TDIPO, Western Mindanao - PROs 9, 12, ARMM

e. TDIPO, Eastern Mindanao - PROs 10, 11, 13


12. The Director for Information Communication Technology
Management (TDICTM). Tasked to assist the Chief, PNP in integrating
and standardizing all major PNP information systems and resources to
further improve PNP frontline services.
C. The Personal Staff. The Personal Staff assists the CPNP in his official
functions through advice, assistance, or service;
1. Inspector General, Internal Affairs Service (IG-IAS). (R.A 8551)
Functions:

a. Pro-actively conducts inspections and audits PNP personnel


and units;

b. Investigates complaints and gathers evidence in support of an


open investigation;
c. Conducts summary hearings on PNP members facing
administrative charges;
d. Submits a periodic report on the assessment, analysis, and
evaluation of the character and behavior of PNP personnel and
units to the Chief PNP and to the Commission;

e. Files appropriate criminal cases against PNP members before


the court as evidence warrants and assists in the prosecution of
the case;
f. Provides assistance to the Office of the Ombudsman in cases
involving the personnel of the PNP; and

g. Provides documents or recommendations with regard to the


promotion of the members of the PNP or the assignment of PNP
personnel to any key position.
2. Aide-de-Camp. Assists the CPNP in his personal, social and police
functions; and
3. Chief Executive Senior Police Officer (CESPO) . Advises the CPNP
on matters pertaining to the morale and welfare problems of Police
Non-Commissioned Officers (PNCOs).
4. Chief, Human Rights Affairs Office (C,HRAO). Oversees the
implementation of PNP guidelines and policies on human rights laws.

Functions:
APPENDIX B Revised PNP Fundamental Doctrine 2013

a. Integrates the PNP efforts and comes up with holistic


approach and systematic implementation of human rights
program and activities;

b. Reviews, formulates and recommends policies and


programs as well as administrative and legislative
measures to effectively implement human right laws;

c. Monitors the conduct of investigation, legal and judicial


processes of addressing human rights violations of PNP
personnel;

d. Undertakes information campaigns for media (local and


foreign) and interested sectors (eg. Advocates for press
freedom and human rights) to project government findings
and perspectives and measures being implemented
relative to human rights violation of PNP personnel;

e. Establishes and maintains linkages with concerned


agencies handling human rights violation cases against
PNP personnel; and

f. Performs other duties as directed by the Chief, PNP.

5. Spokesperson of the Chief PNP. Is responsible for


providing information to the media and other concerned
agencies relative to the official activities, programs,
actions and positions on current events of social issues of
the Chief, PNP and his Command Group.

Functions:

a. Provides information to the tri-media and other concerned


agencies regarding the Chief, PNPs official activities
actions and positions on current events or pertinent
issues, through scheduled briefings, direct responses to
media inquiries, press conferences and interviews with
the Chief, PNP and his Command Group;

b. Responds promptly to any disinformation or false


information affecting the organization;

c. Prepares official statements on behalf of the Chief, PNP;

d. Assists the Chief, Public Information Officer in the


research and drafting of speeches and other materials for
materials for public events, whenever necessary;

e. Performs other tasks as directed by the Chief, PNP.


APPENDIX B Revised PNP Fundamental Doctrine 2013

6. Center for Police Strategy Management. Coordinates and integrates


all strategy management processes, sustaining its strategy execution
and management, and instilling in the organization a culture of strategic
focus.
Functions:

a. Responsible for the integration of all strategy management


processes, sustaining strategy execution and management, and
instilling in the organization a culture of strategic focus;

b. Identifies and submits key priorities and strategic issues to the


Chief, PNP (thru: The Director for Plans/Strategy Director);
c. Assists and advises the PNP units in selecting targets and
identifying the strategic initiatives required to achieve targeted
performance on the Balanced Scorecards measures;

d. Facilitates the integration and coordination of programs, projects


and activities across functions and offices/units to align
strategies with operations and manage execution;
e. Develops and cascades the strategy and the agency scorecards
down to the lowest level of the organization;

f. Develops a comprehensive communications plan and education


process focused on building common understanding of the
strategy and to generate commitment and support from all
stakeholders;
g. Establishes and facilitates the process of identifying,
documenting and sharing lessons-learned and best practices
that can be adopted by the entire organization;

h. Oversees the review, validation and timely reporting of the


Balance Scorecard measures in collaboration with the TWG and
the National Advisory Group; and
i. Performs other duties as directed by the Chief, PNP or
the Director for Plans/Strategy Director.

D. National Support Units. The support units of the Philippine National Police
are the following:
1. National Administrative Support Units (NASUs)

a. Logistics Support Service (LSS)


b. Information Technology Management Service (ITMS)

c. Finance Service (FS)

d. Health Service (HS)


APPENDIX B Revised PNP Fundamental Doctrine 2013

e. Communications and Electronics Service (CES)

f. Chaplain Service (CHS)


g. Legal Service (LS)

h. Headquarters Support Service (HSS)

i. Engineering Service (ES)

j. PNP Training Service (PNP-TS)


k. PNP Retirement and Benefits Administration Service (PRBS)
2. National Operational Support Units (NOSUs)

a. Crime Laboratory (CL)

b. Highway Patrol Group (HPG)


c. Maritime Group (MG)
d. Police Security Protection Group (PSPG)

e. Intelligence Group (IG)

f. Special Action Force (SAF)


g. Criminal Investigation and Detection Group (CIDG)

h. Aviation Security Group (AVSEG)

i. Anti-Kidnapping Group (AKG)


j. Police Community Relations Group (PCRG)

k. Civil Security Group (CSG)

l. Anti-Cybercrime Group (ACG)


E. Field Units. The Field Units of the PNP are the frontline and operating
units/offices of the PNP which includes the PROs, NCRPO Police Districts, PPOs,
MPS, CPOs, CPS, RPSBs, PPSCs, CPSBs, tactical units of SAF, MG and AVSEG,
and the numbered stations of NCRPO.

The Field Units have the following functions:


1. Provide command, control and supervision of PNP operations within
the area of jurisdiction;
2. Provide administrative, communications, and logistical support to
organic and attached elements; and

3. Discharge functions in support of the overall PNP mission.


APPENDIX B Revised PNP Fundamental Doctrine 2013

The following are the major Field Units of the Philippine National Police:
17 Police Regional Offices (PROs)
NCRPO Camp Bagong Diwa, Bicutan, Taguig, Metro Manila
PRO 1 Camp BGen Oscar M. Florendo, San Fernando, La Union
PRO2 Camp Marcelo A. Adurru, Tuguegarao, Cagayan
PRO 3 Camp Julian Olivas, City of San Fernando, Pampanga
PRO 4A Camp Vicente Lim, Calamba, Laguna
PRO 4B Camp Efigenio C Navarro, Calapan City, Mindoro Oriental
PRO 5 Camp Gen Simeon A. Ola Legaspi City
PRO 6 Camp Martin Delgado, Iloilo City
PRO 7 Camp Sergio Osmea, Cebu City
PRO 8 Camp Ruperto Kangleon, Palo, Leyte
PRO 9 Camp Col Romeo A Abendan, Zamboanga City
PRO 10 Camp 1Lt Vicente G Alagar, Cagayan de Oro City
PRO 11 Camp Quintin M Merecido, Davao City
PRO 12 Camp Col Amado M Dumlao Sr., Tambler, General Santos City
PRO 13 Camp Rafael C Rodriguez, Butuan City
PRO ARMM Camp BGen Salipada Pendatum, Maguindanao
PRO COR Camp Bado Dangwa, La Trinidad, Benguet
5 NCRPO Police Districts
Manila Police District (MPD) U.N Avenue, Ermita, Manila
Quezon City Police District (QCPD) Camp Gen Tomas Karingal, Quezon City
Eastern Police District (EPD) Pasig City
Southern Police District (SPD) Fort Andres Bonifacio, Taguig City
Northern Police District NPD) Tanigue Street, Kaunlaran Village, Dagat-
dagatan, Caloocan City
80 Police Provincial Offices (PPOs)
131 City Police Offices (CPOs)
17 Regional Public Safety Battalions (RPSBs)
80 Provincial Public Safety Company (PPSCs)
131 City Public Safety Battalions (CPSBs)
1,507 Municipal Police Stations (MPS)
90 Component Police Stations (CPS)
37 NCRPO Numbered Police Stations (NPS)
Annex C

PNP Training System

Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG)

National Police Commission


(NAPOLCOM)

PPSC PNP

PNPA, NFSTI, DHRDD


NPC, PNTI,

PNP TS D-Staff,
FNTI, JNTI NSUs

17 RSTUs 17 PROs
APPENDIX D PNP OPIF

D : PNP OPIF LOGFRAME


APPENDIX E PNP PATROL PLAN 2030
PCSUPT RONILO V QUEBRAR
Deputy Director, DHRDD/
Chairman

PSSUPT AGUSTIN E SENOT


Chief, General Doctrine Development Division, DHRDD/
Vice Chairman

PSSUPT MANUEL CESAR PRIETO


Chief, Unit Training Program Development Division, DHRDD/

DHRDD-TWG
Member

PSSUPT JEROME S BAXINELA


Chief, Individual Training Program Development Division,
DHRDD/
Member

NUP Angelica G Ruetas


General Doctrine Development Division, DHRDD/
Researcher/Writer

NUP Ivy Anne B Robrigado


General Doctrine Development Division, DHRDD/
Researcher/Writer

NUP Mary Ann A Espiritu


General Doctrine Development Division, DHRDD/
Researcher

NUP Leilani R David


General Doctrine Development Division, DHRDD/
Researcher

SPO3 Susan F. Calendro


General Doctrine Development Division, DHRDD/
Encoder/Secretariat

PO1 Vic Bascar M Respicio


General Doctrine Development Division, DHRDD/
Technical Assistant