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# 1.

Laws of thermodynamics
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics

## 2. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:

When a body A is in thermal equilibrium with a body B, and also separately with a body C. then
B and C will be in thermal equilibrium with each other. This is known as the zeroth law of
thermodynamics. It is the basis of temperature measurement.

## 3. First Law of Thermodynamics

When a system undergoes a thermodynamic cycle then the net heat supplied to the system from
the surroundings is equal to net work done by the system on its surroundings.

where .

## The First Law of Thermodynamics may also be stated as follows:

Heat and work are mutually convertible but since energy can neither be created nor destroyed,
the total energy associated with an energy conversion remains constant.
E = Q W

## 4. Second Law of Thermodynamics

Clausius Statement

It is impossible for a self acting machine working in a cyclic process unaided by any external
agency, to convey heat from a body at a lower temperature to a body at a higher temperature.

Kelvin-Planck Statement

## It is impossible to construct an engine, which while operating in a cycle produces no other

effect except to extract heat from a single reservoir and do equivalent amount of work.

## 5. State the limitations of first law of thermodynamics.

First law does not specify the direction of flow of heat and work.
It also does not give any condition under which the work and heat transfer take place.
It doesn't tell why the whole of heat energy cannot be converted into mechanical work.
It doesnt explain the feasibility and spontaneity of a process
It doesnt tell why natural processes are unidirectional.
6. Define path function and point function.

Path function: Their magnitudes depend on the path followed during a process as well as the
end states.

## Work (W), heat (Q) are path functions.

The cyclic integral of a path function is non-zero.

Point Function: They depend on the state only, and not on how a system reaches that state.

## All properties are point functions.

The cyclic integral of a point function is zero.

## 7. Internal energy is a property

The internal energy is a state function of a system, because its value depends only on the current
state of the system and not on the path taken or processes undergone to prepare it. Hence, it is a
point function and a property of the system. It is an extensive property.

## 8. Define thermodynamic processes?

When a system changes its state from one equilibrium state to another equilibrium state, then
the path of successive states through which the system has passed is known as
thermodynamic process.

## 9. Write laws of perfect gases?

Boyels law: A law stating that the pressure of a given mass of an ideal gas is inversely
proportional to its volume at a constant temperature.

Charles law: A law stating that the volume of an ideal gas at constant pressure is directly
proportional to the absolute temperature

Gay-Lussac law: Gay-Lussac's law is an ideal gas law where at constant volume, the pressure of
an ideal gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature
Avagadros Law: A law stating that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and
pressure contain equal numbers of molecules.

10. Define the specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure?

Specific heat at constant volume: It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a

unit mass of gas through one degree when it is heated at a constant volume. It is denoted by cv.

Specific heat at constant pressure: It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of
a unit mass of gas through one degree when it is heated at a constant pressure.. It is denoted by
cp .

## A thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for

conversion into mechanical work, often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in
the system.

## It is an extensive properly and a state function

Its value depends upon mass of substance present in the system

At equilibrium .
For a cyclic process
For natural process i.e Increasing.
11. Throttling
A throttling process is defined as a process in which there is no change in enthalpy from state
one to state two, h1 = h2; no work is done, W = 0; and the process is adiabatic, Q = 0.

## 12. What do you mean by reversible work?

The work done in any reversible process is the area under the pv curve. The reversible
expansion does the maximum amount of work because the gas is pushing against the maximum
possible external pressure. The work done by any reversible process is known as reversible work.
13. Explain reversible and irreversible process?
A process is said to be reversible if both the system and surroundings can be restored to their
respective initial states by reversing the direction of the process.

Irreversible Process:

The process is said to be an irreversible process if it cannot return the system and the
surroundings to their original conditions when the process is reversed. All spontaneous processes
are irreversible.

Many factors contribute in making any process irreversible. The most common of these are

1) Friction

## 4) Mixing of two different substances.

14. Free Expansion: Free expansion is an irreversible process in which a gas expands into an
insulated evacuated chamber. It is also called Joule expansion.

Consider two vessels 1 and 2 interconnected by a short pipe with a valve A, and perfectly
thermally insulated. Initially let the vessel 1 is filled with a fluid at a certain pressure, and let 2
be completely evacuated. When the valve A is opened the fluid in 1 will expand rapidly to fill
both vessels 1 and 2. This is known as free or unresisted expansion. The process is highly
irreversible.
14. What is an adiabatic process?
An adiabatic process is one in which no heat is gained or lost by the system. The first law of
thermodynamics with Q=O shows that all the change in internal energy is in the form of
work done.

15. What is an adiabatic index? Why its value is greater than unity?

Adiabatic index or Ratio of specific heats is the ratio of the specific heat at constant
pressure to specific heat constant volume .It is sometimes also known as
the isentropic expansion factor and is denoted by .

Its value is greater than unity because the heat input for a constant-pressure process must be
greater than that for a constant-volume process because additional energy must be supplied to
account for the work done during the expansion. So Cp is greater than Cv for an ideal gas. For
air, Cp is 40% greater than Cv at temperatures near room temperature.

16. Enthalpy

Enthalpy (H) is the sum of the internal energy (U) and the product of pressure and volume (PV)
given by the equation: H=U+PV

h = u + pv

## 17. Quasi-static process

Working of Quasi-static process are those processes in which a system is taken from one state to
other in infinitesimal number of steps (slowly) such that there is always an equilibrium
maintained between system and surrounding.

Steady flow process is a process where: the fluid properties can change from point to point in the
control volume but remains the same at any fixed point during the whole process.
19. Physical significance of Entropy
The entropy of a substance is real physical quantity and is a definite function of the state of the
body like pressure, temperature, volume of internal energy.
It is difficult to form a tangible conception of this quantity because it cannot be felt like
temperature or pressure. We can, however, readily infer it from the following aspects:
Entropy and unavailable energy
The second law of thermodynamics tells us that whole amount of internal energy of any
substance is not convertible into useful work. A portion of this energy which is used for
doing useful work is called available energy. The remaining part of the energy which
cannot be converted into useful work is called unavailable energy. Entropy is a measure
of this unavailable energy. In fact, the entropy may be regarded as the unavailable energy
per unit temperature.
Entropy and disorder
Entropy is a measure of the disorder or randomness in the system. When a gas expands
into vacuum, water flows out of a reservoir, spontaneous chain reaction takes place, an
increase in the disorder occurs and therefore entropy increases.
Entropy and probability
Changes in order are expressed quantitatively in terms of entropy change, . How are
entropy and order in the system related? Since a disordered state is more probable for
systems than of order, the entropy and thermodynamic probabilities are closely related.

20. Prove

Heat supplied

Work done

## According to First Law of Thermodynamics

21. Derive an expression for work done in adiabatic process.

22. Derive expression for work done for reversible non flow process.

Consider a system contained in a frictionless piston and cylinder arrangement as shown in figure.

Let any small section (shaded area) , the pressure (p) of the system is constant. If A is the cross
sectional area of the piston, then force on the piston (F) causes the piston move through a
distance dx. Thus Work done by the system,

## Total Work done by the system from state 1 to 2

The work done in any reversible process is the area under the pv curve.

23. Prove Internal energy as a point function and a property of the system.

Consider a system which changes its state from state I to state 2 by following the path A, and
returns from state 2 to state 1 by following the path B (Fig.). So the system undergoes a cycle.
Writing the first law for path A

## And for path B

The processes A and B together constitute a cycle, for which

Similarly, had the system returned from state 2 to state 1 by following the path C instead of path
B

Therefore, it is seen that the change in energy between two states of a system is the same,
whatever path the system may follow in undergoing that change of state. Therefore, energy has a
definite value for every state of the system. Hence, it is a point function and a property of the
system.
Air Cycles
UNIT 1 AIR CYCLES
Structure
1.1 Introduction
Objectives

## 1.2 Carnot Cycles

1.3 Otto Cycle
1.4 Diesel Cycle
1.5 Dual Combustion Cycle
1.6 Steam Cycle
1.7 Rankine Cycle
1.8 Modified Rankine Cycle
1.9 Cycles in Engines
1.10 Mean Effective Pressure
1.11 Summary

1.1 INTRODUCTION
A cycle is defined as sequence of processes which end in the same final state of the
substance as the initial. The heat engines are devices which produce work by using heat
from a reservoir and rejecting heat to another constant temperature reservoir called heat
sink. Perhaps in earlier days some heat engines were developed which directly used the
heat from sun, hitherto all engines have been using heat produced from combustion of fuel.
Apart from heat source the engine has to have some working fluid that will absorb and
reject heat and undergo such processes as expansion and compression. For theoretical
study of cycles for engines it is assumed that some working fluid remains in the machine
and undergoes different processes over and over again. A number of standard cycles,
consisting of well known processes have been developed. We will study a few of them.
Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to
know Carnot cycles,
explain Otto cycle,
describe Diesel cycle,
appreciate Dual combustion cycle,
define steam cycle, and
explain modified Rankine cycle.

## 1.2 CARNOT CYCLE

Carnot was the first to study the performance of heat engine. Here, we describe the cycle
as shown in Figure 1.1. The engine is made of a piston in a cylinder again shown in the
same Figure. The cycle consists of four processes.
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Applied Thermal 1-2-isothermal expansion
Engineering
3-4-isothermal compression
During 1-2 and 2-3, work is performed by gas (air) on the piston, whereas during 3-4 and
4-1, work is performed on the gas by the piston.
At 1, a volume of air equal to V1 is contained in confined space between the piston and
cylinder walls. Also assume the mass of the air is m = 1 kg.
During isothermal expansion 1-2, a heat source (reservoir) is brought in contact with the
cylinder end and since expansion is at constant temperature, entire heat transferred from
hot body to the air is converted into work without any change in the internal energy.
V2 V
Thus, W12 = Q12 = p1 V1 ln = RT1 ln 2 ...
V1 V1
(i) P
1
Isothermal
T1
2

Isothermal 3
T2
V
1 4 2 3
Cylinder End
Heat Source and
Heat Sink here
Cylinder
Piston

## Figure 1.1 : Carnot Cycle

Similarly, at point 3, a heat sink at T3 is brought in contact with the cylinder end and heat
is transferred at T3 to the sink from air. Work is performed on the air by the piston and is
entirely equal to heat transferred to the sink without any change in the internal energy.
V3 V
Thus W34 = Q34 = p3 V3 ln = RT2 ln 3 ...
V4 V4
(ii)
During adiabatic expansion 2-3 no heat is transferred, so Q23 = 0.
The internal energy changes to perform work on piston.
p2V2 - p3V3 R
W23 = = (T2 - T3 ) ...
g -1 g -1
(iii)
During adiabatic compression 4-1, work is done upon air, no heat is transferred so
Q41 = 0 and
p1 V1 - p4 V4 R
W41 = = (T1 - T4 ) ...
g -1 g -1
(iv)

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Work obtained from the engine = W = Work done by the piston Work done on the Air Cycles
piston.
V2 R V R
RT1 ln + (T2 - T3 ) - RT2 ln 3 - (T1 - T4 )
V1 g - 1 V4 g - 1

g -1
T1 V3
=
T2 V2

g -1
T1 V4
=
T2 V1

V3 V4
\ =
V2 V1
V3 V2
or =
V4 V1

## Also note that T1 = T2 and T3 = T4

V2 V R R
W = RT1 ln - RT3 ln 2 + (T2 - T3 ) - (T2 - T3 )
V1 V1 g -1 g -1

V2
= R ln (T1 - T3 ) ...
V1
(v)
The heat received by the engine
V2
= Q12 = RT1 ln ...
V1
(vi)
The efficiency of the engine is defined as the ratio of work obtained to heat supplied
V
R ln 2 (T1 - T3 )
\ h= V1
V
R ln 2 T1
V1
T1 - T3
or h= ...
T1
(1.1)
Note that here T1 is the temperature of hot reservoir and T3 is the temperature of cold
reservoir of heat. Heat is abstracted by the engine from hot reservoir and rejected to cold
reservoir. The efficiency of the Carnot cycle is highest.

## 1.3 OTTO CYCLE

The most practical air cycle on which petrol engines work is the Otto cycle comprising
four processes, viz.
2-3 Constant volume heat rejection 7
Engineering
4-1 Constant volume heat addition (Figure 1.2).
Apparently no work is done on the piston or by the piston during constant volume
processes. Assume mass of air in the engine is 1 kg.
Heat rejected by the air in the engine during the process 2-3
Q23 = Cv (T2 T3)

P 1

2
4

V
Figure 1.2 : Otto Cycle

## Heat received during the process 4-1

Q41 = Cv (T1 T4)
Heat rejection during the process 2-3
Q23 = Cv (T2 T3)
\ W = Q41 Q23
Q41 - Q23 T1 - T4 - T2 + T3 T - T3
\ h= = =1- 2
Q41 T1 - T4 T1 - T4

V2 V3
Note = = r , where r is called compression ratio. It may also be pointed out here
V1 V4
that V1 = V4 is called the clearance volume
p1 V1 T1
= from gas equation
p2 V2 T2
g
p1 V2
=
p2 V1
1- g g -1
T1 V1 V
\ = = 2 = (r ) g - 1
T2 V2 V1
T4
Similarly = ( r ) g -1
T3

T1 T4
\ =
T2 T3

T1 T2
or =
T4 T3

8
T2 Air Cycles
- 1
T3 T3
Also h =1-
T4 T1 - 1
T
4
1
or h=1- ..
(r ) g - 1
(1.2)
From above expression it can be concluded that efficiency of Otto cycle increases with
compression ratio r. A compression ratio in the vicinity of 7-8 is commonly used in petrol
engines.
Example 1.1
Calculate efficiencies of a Carnot cycle for compression ratios of 7, 8, 9 and 10 for
air as working fluid.
Solution
Use g = 1.4 for air,
1
h=1-
(r ) g -1

r rg 1 1 / (r) g 1 h = 1 1/ (r) g 1

## 1.4 DIESEL CYCLE

This cycle is shown in Figure 1.3. Diesel engines using diesel fuel work on this cycle. The
main difference lies in the fact that at the end of compression process sufficiently high
temperature is obtained and fuel which is injected at this point ignites without any aid. In
case of Otto cycle, a spark is needed to cause ignition of the fuel which is present during
process of compression.
In this cycle, the heat is transferred to fuel during constant pressure process when fuel is
injected. The fuel burns during constant pressure process only. The gas (air) then expands
adiabatically followed by heat rejection which occurs at constant volume. The air is then
P 4 1

Adiabatic 2-3 : Constant volume heat rejection
2 4-1 : Constant pressure heat addition

3
V

## Figure 1.3 : Diesel Cycle

9
Engineering Efficiency of the cycle, h = =

Q41 - Q23
h=
Q41

C p (T1 - T4 ) - Cv (T2 - T3 )
=
C p (T1 - T4 )

T
T3 2 - 1
C (T - T3 ) T
3
=1- v 2 =1-
C p (T1 - T4 ) T1
g T4 - 1
T4
It may be noted that in case of diesel cycle the compression ratio is greater than expansion
ratio.
g -1
T4 V3
T3 V4
g -1
T V
For adiabatic expansion, 1 = 2
T2 V1

V3 V r
= r, 2 =
V4 V1 r

p1 V1 p V
\ = 4 4
T1 T4

r 1
or =
T1 T4

T1
or =r
T4

## For constant volume process, 2-3

p2 V2 p V
= 3 3
T2 T3

p2 T2
or =
p3 T3

g -1 g -1
T1 V2 r
= =
T2 V1 r
g -1
T4 V3
= = ( r ) g -1
T3 V4

10
Also, p2 V2g = p1 V1g = p1 r g or p2 ( r ) g = p1 (r) g Air Cycles

## and p3 V3g = p4 V4g or p3 ( r ) g = p4

p2 p T
\ = 1 (r) g = (r) g = 2
p3 p4 T3

T2 T1 T
Substituting for , and 3 in expression for h
T3 T4 T4

1 rg - 1
=1- ...
g ( r ) g -1 r-1
(1.3)
Diesel cycle normally has much higher compression ratio. For same compression ratio the
efficiency decreases for increasing cut off ratio.
Example 1.2
Calculate the efficiency of a diesel cycle for which compression ratio is 14 and cut
off ratio is 2. What will be the efficiency if cut off ratio is increased to 3.
Given g = 1.4.
Solution
Use r = 14 and r = 2 with g = 1.4 in Eq. (1.3).

1 21.4 - 1
h=1-
1.4 (14)0.4 2 -1

1 1.64
=1- = 0.59
4.02 1
or h = 59%. ...
(i)
Use r = 14 and r = 3 with g = 1.4 in Eq. (1.3)
1 31.4 - 1
h=1-
1.4 (14)0.4 3 -1

1 3.655
= 1- = 0.545
4.02 2
or h = 54.5 % ..
.(ii)

## 1.5 DUAL COMBUSTION CYCLE

It is more practical that heat is supplied partly during constant volume and partly during
constant pressure processes. Such a cycle, shown in Figure 1.4, is called dual combustion
cycle.
Heat addition during 4-5 (constant volume) and 5-1 (constant pressure) processes.
Heat rejection during 2-3 (constant volume process).
P5 V V
V5 = 1, = a, 3 = r , 1 = r
P4 V4 V5

## It can be shown that efficiency of dual combustion cycle is 11

Applied Thermal
1 a r g -1
Engineering h =1- ...
r g -1 g
(a - 1) + a (r - 1)
(1.4) P
5 1

2

## Figure 1.4 : Dual Combustion Cycle

There are many other cycles that are used in practice but we do not deal with them since
scope of the text is limited. Stirling cycle, Ericsson cycle and Brayton cycle are just
mentioned here. Another important cycle used with steam as working medium will be
discussed.

## 1.6 STEAM CYCLE

The cycles which use air as medium is known as air standard cycles. They are used in
internal combustion engines like petrol and diesel engines and in gas turbine. They are also
referred to as power cycles.
Apart from internal combustion engines and gas turbines in which heat is provided by
burning of fuel inside the body of engine or very close to turbine in combuster, a very
common and popular source of power is steam which was earlier used in steam engines
and turbine but former has been almost phased out because of its lower efficiency. Steam
turbine still remains the major source of power in large capacity in the range of few
hundred MW. The present day is seeing the advent of combined cycle power plants in
which both gas and steam turbines are used together.
The use of steam is based upon large latent heat which water absorbs when changes into
steam. Steam is produced at high pressure where its boiling point is high but when it
expands in the turbine its pressure reduces continuously and its boiling point
simultaneously reduces so it remains vapour until the end of expansion to very low
pressure. Thus, enough expansion work is obtained from steam.
The total cycle consists of water converting into steam, expansion of steam and steam
condensing into water.
The raising of steam requires a separate system called boiler which is a strong vessel with
a series of tubes. The water may evaporate in tube or outside the tube. In first case hot
gases pass outside the tubes and second case they pass inside the tube. The steam is stored
in the vessel from where it passes into turbine. The hot gases are produced by burning fuel
in the furnace which in earlier days used to be mainly coal but now-a-days liquid fuel,
gaseous fuel and pulverized coal are being preferred. The steam after passing through
turbine passes into condenser where it condenses into water at very low pressure. This
water through a pump is injected into the vessel (drum of the boiler) and thus the cycle
repeats.
The cycle on which the above system works is named Rankine cycle but before we go for
its description let us get familiar with some of the properties of water (steam) which is
known as pure substance because no impurities in it are permitted.

12
Since the fuel burns outside the engine, in the boiler, the steam engines and turbines have Air Cycles
also been sometimes called external combustion engines. This term, however, is not
popular.
Definition Related to Steam
Steam is a state of water, partially or fully vapourized. If steam contains water
particles it is wet. A saturated steam does not contain water particles. Water
vapourises at saturation temperature. There is a unique saturation temperature at
each pressure. The amount of heat absorbed by water anywhere between 0oC to its
saturation temperature is called Sensible heat (hf ). This is also known as enthalpy
of saturation. The heat absorbed by water at saturation temperature is called latent
heat (L). The process of evaporation will continue at constant temperature for a
given pressure until whole of water is converted into steam. The steam at the
saturation temperature is known as saturated steam. If water particles to the extent
of w kg are present along with Ms kg of saturated steam then the quality of steam
(or dryness fraction), x, is defined as
Ms
x= ...
Ms + w
(1.5)
The enthalpy of wet steam is given by
h = hf + xL ...
(1.6)
The enthalpy of saturated steam (x = 1)
hsat = hf + L ...
(1.7)
If steam continues to be heated from its saturation state then it absorbs heat and gets
superheated. The superheating is done at constant pressure. The enthalpy of
superheated steam is
hsup = hf + L + Cp (Tsup T) ...
(1.8)
Cp is the specific heat at constant pressure.
Volume of steam is much larger than the volume of water from which the steam is
obtained. The latter is negligible. Specific volume of wet steam and saturated steam
are correlated as
vsw = x vsat
vsw is volume of 1 kg of wet steam and vsat is volume of 1 kg of saturated steam. The
specific volumes of superheated and saturated steam are related as
Tsup
vsup = vsat ...
Tsat
(1.9)
since superheating is a constant pressure process.
A pressure volume diagram of Figure 1.5 illustrates water-vapour phases.
p

Superheating
Const.pr.Line Const. pr. Line
B C
Saturated Vapour
Saturated
Liquid Line Line 13
A
V
Applied Thermal
Engineering

## Figure 1.5 : Pressure-Volume Diagram

Steam can be expanded in all those manners as described in case of gas. One process
which was not described earlier is very common in steam practice and that is throttling. It
can be understood as expansion through a minute aperture like opening of a valve. In this
process, neither the work is done (W = 0) nor the heat is exchanged (Q = 0). Due to drop
in pressure the gas or steam comes out with a great velocity. But due to friction at the exit
heat is added and thus kinetic energy is converted into heat. This type of expansion is very
common with steam as it is produced at a much higher pressure and it may be necessary to
use it at a lower pressure. The steam is often throttled to much larger volume and lower
pressure in which process steam gets superheated even if it is wet.

## 1.7 RANKINE CYCLE

As was stated earlier a Rankine cycle consists of following processes :
1-2 : Pumping water from condenser to boiler, it requires work but the work
is very small in comparison of work and heat in other processes, hence
negligible.
2-3 : Constant pressure heat addition in the boiler, it can heat water into wet,
saturated or superheated steam.
3-4 : Expansion of steam in an engine or turbine, converting heat into work,
4-1 : Condensing steam into water at low pressure which is the exit pressure
of engine or turbine.
The work is obtained from expansion process 3-4 and heat is supplied during heating
process 2-3. The pumping work during 1-2 is negligible. The heat is rejected during
condensation process 4-1.
The cycle is represented in Figure 1.6.
P
2 3

1 4

V
Figure 1.6 : Rankine Cycle
W = h3 h4
Q = h3 h2
W h3 - h4
h= =
Q h3 - h2
(h2 h1) may be very small.

14
A schematic layout of plant working on Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 1.7. Air Cycles
3

Boiler Turbine

2 4

Condenser
Pump
1

## 1.8 MODIFIED RANKINE CYCLE

In a modified Rankine cycle, steam is not allowed to expand fully to point d as shown in
Figure 1.5 as it takes a long piston stroke, or several stages in the turbine. Steam is cut off
at some point D. Before D, the steam passes into condenser at constant volume. It
reduces the work but saves condenser space considerably.
Example 1.3
In a Rankine cycle, steam leaves the boiler and enters the turbine at 4 MPa and
400oC. It is expanded in two stages to 10 kPa.
At p3 = 4 MPa and 400oC, h3 = 3214.3 kJ/kg (Enthalpy of superheated steam)
At p4 = 10 kPa and exhaust temp., h4 = 2135.7 kJ/kg
At p2 = p3, h2f = 1087.3 kJ/kg
At p1 = p4, h1f = 194 kJ/kg
Calculate work done in the cycle and its efficiency.
Solution
Refer Figure 1.6
Work done, W = (h3 h4)
= (3214.3 2135)
Heat supplied = h3 h2
= 3214.3 194
3214.3 - 2135
\ h=
3214.3 - 194

1079.3
=
3020.3
or h = 0.357 or 35.7 %.

## 1.9 CYCLES IN ENGINES

Standard air cycles were discussed in last unit. Out of these the Carnot cycle is practically
not used. It involves an isothermal process followed by an adiabatic process in one stroke
15
Applied Thermal of the piston. Isothermal process is very slow whereas adiabatic is very fast and practically
Engineering it is impossible to vary the speed of the piston in a single stroke.
The Otto and Diesel cycles are practically followed in petrol and diesel engines
respectively. There are gas engines and paraffin engines which work on Otto cycle. Diesel
engine also works on dual combustion cycle. The paraffin engine can also work on Diesel
cycle.
It may be understood that for same compression ratio Otto cycle is more efficient than
Diesel cycle. Even otherwise, when diesel cycle works with a higher compression ratio this
cycle is not as efficient as Otto cycle. It is because burning of fuel at constant pressure is
less efficient than burning of fuel at constant volume. For this reason modern diesel
engines operate on dual combustion cycle in which, part of combustion occurs at constant
volume also.
EVO = Exhaust Valve Opens
1 EVC = Exhaust Valve Closes
SVO = Suction Valve Opens
SVC = Suction Valve Closes
IS = Ignition

p IS
4 EVO
2
SVC
SVO
3
EVC
V

## Figure 1.8 : An Indicator Diagram of a Petrol Engine

In actual engine cylinders, the entry and exit of gases takes place through valves which are
opened and closed at right moments. Separate mechanisms for valves are provided in the
engine. The pressure losses occur at the valves and the ideal cycles lose their sharpness at
points where process changes. For example, sharp change at point 2 in Figure 1.4 will not
be practically as sharp as shown in this Figure. If we obtain actual pV diagram from an
engine, this diagram must be the operation cycle of the engine. For example if pV diagram
is obtained from a spark ignition (petrol) engine then this diagram should be an Otto cycle.
Further the ideal cycle assumes some air or medium being heated and cooled cycle after
cycle but in actual engine fresh charge is taken in and spent gases are exhausted.
Therefore, this effect will also appear on the diagram obtained from the engine. The pV
diagram sensed from the engine is called its indicator diagram.
Figure 1.8 shows an indicator diagram of a petrol engine and an Otto cycle is
superimposed upon it (shown in broken lines).
The suction and exhaust lines can be clearly seen in indicator diagram. The area enclosed
between these lines represent the loss of work.

## 1.10 MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE

Mean effective pressure is the mean height of the pV diagram. It can be calculated
theoretically from
Work done per cycle
m.e.p = ...
Stroke volume
(1.10)
Mean effective pressure is that imaginary pressure which when will act continuously on
the piston will perform the same work as the varying pressure will perform. The m.e.p is
supposed to perform work only in one stroke which is power stroke. When from an
experimental measurement actual indicator diagram of the engine is obtained, the mean
effective pressure is calculated from
16
Area of indicator diagram Air Cycles
m.e.p = . . . (1.11)
Length of the diagram

Example 1.4
In a petrol engine the swept volume (stroke volume) is 0.13 m3. The temperature
T1 = 2000 K, T2 = 977 K, T3 = 333 K and T4 = 681 K. The engine produces power
stroke once in 2 revolution. The engine runs at
1000 r.p.m. Calculate
(a) Heat supplied
(b) Heat rejected
(c) Work done (all per cycle and per minute).
If the CV of the fuel is 45000 J/kg, what amount of fuel is required per minute? Use
Cv = 713 J/kg K, m = 0.1615 kg.
Solution
Refer Figure 1.8.
Heat is supplied from 4 to 1 which is constant volume process.
Q41 = m Cv (T1 T4)
= 0.1615 (2000 681) 713
= 152 10 3 J/cycle
Heat is rejected from 2 to 3 (a constant volume process)
Q23 = m Cv (T2 T3)
= 0.1615 713 (977 333)
= 74.2 103 J/cycle
\ Work done by the engine
W = Q41 Q23 = (152 74.2) 103
= 77.8 103 J/cycle ...
(i)
Since engine requires two revolution to complete a cycle and engine makes
1000 revolution in a minute.
Work done in a minute

## WN 77.8 103 1000

= =
2 2
= 38.9 10 6 J/min ...
(ii)

## Work 38.9 106

Power = = J/s or W
s 60
= 648 kW ...
(iii)
Work done W
= =
Heat supplied Q41

17
Applied Thermal 77.8 103
Engineering or = = 0.51 or 51% ...
152
(iv)
Heat is supplied by fuel
Q41 = mf CV

## Q41 152 103

Mass of fuel = m f = = kg per cycle
CV 45 103

= 3.37 kg/cycle
3.37 1000
Mass of fuel per min = = 1685 kg/min ...
2
(v)
Work done
m.e.p =
Stroke volume

77.8 103
=
0.13
= 0.6 MPa
Example 1.5
If stroke of the engine is two times its diameter of the cylinder in the Example 1.4,
can you calculate the work done upon the piston in one cycle?
Solution
Let diameter of the cylinder = d
p 2
Then area on which m.e.p acts = d
4
p 2
Swept volume (stroke volume) = d 2d
4
Since stroke, l = 2d
p 3
\ d = 0.13 m 3
2

(2 0.13)1/ 3
\ d =
p
d = 0.436 m

l = 0.872 m
The force on the piston, F = m. e. p area of piston
m.e.p = 0.6 10 6 N/m2 (from Example 1.1)
p
\ F = 0.6 106 (0.436) 2
4
= 0.09 106 N
This force displaces the piston over a distance equal to stroke.
W=Fl
= 0.09 106 0.872
18
= 78 103 J/stroke or per cycle. Air Cycles

## In Example 1.4, this work was calculated as 77.8 10 3 J/cycle.

There is negligible difference.
SAQ 1
(a) On how many criteria you can classify an IC Engine?
(b) In Example 1.4 all the heat of fuel has been assumed to have been converted
in work. Is it possible? Is there any other way of using the heat of fuel?
(c) A gas engine working on Otto cycle has a cylinder diameter 178 mm and
stroke of 254 mm. The clearance volume is 1.5 106 mm3. Calculate air
standard efficiency.
(d) In an air standard Carnot cycle heat is transferred to the working fluid at 410
K and heat is rejected at 276 K. The heat transfer to working fluid is 110
kJ/kg. The minimum pressure in the cycle is one atm. Assuming constant
specific heat of air, determine the cycle efficiency.
Use R = 287 J/kg K.

1.11 SUMMARY
The natural process requirement is that charge should be inhaled, be compressed to the
smallest possible volume (clearance volume), fuel should burn and expansion should take
place. The charge may consist of a mixture of fuel and air in case of engine operating on
Otto cycle and fuel will be such that can evaporate easily and mixed intimately with air.
The gaseous fuel and petrol (gasoline) are such fuels. The charge is compressed to the
extent, the fuel does not ignite on its own. The compression ratio is limited to 7 or 8. To
cause ignition a spark is generated.
The other kind of IC engine is the one which operates on Diesel cycle and uses diesel fuel,
another petroleum derivative. The air is the charge which is compressed to a high pressure
and temperature (compression ratio of 14 to 22). The temperature of compressed air is
greater than auto ignition temperature of diesel fuel which is injected into clearance
volume through an injector. The combustion occurs without any external aid.

SAQ 1
(a) Fuel type, Ideal cycle of operation, Number of strokes of piston per cycle of
operation, Type of ignition, Governing, Number of cylinders.
(b) All the heat produced by the fuel is not converted into work. Part of the heat
is carried away by exhaust gases and this has been taken into account by way
of heat rejected. Some heat is also rejected to cooling medium which is
19
Applied Thermal mostly water flowing through jacket of cylinder and head. This heat is about
Engineering 25% of heat of fuel, which means
Work done per cycle = Q41 0.25 Q41 Q23
= (0.75 152 74.2) 103
= 39.8 10 3 J

## 39.8 103 1000

Work done per sec. =
2 60
= 331.7 kJ/s
Power = 331.7 kW
p 2 p
(c) Stroke Volume = d L = (177.56) 2 254 = 6.286 106 mm3
4 4

= v2 - v1

## = v2 - v1 + v1 = (6.286 + 1.5) 10 6 = v2 = 7.786 106 mm 3

v2 7.786
Compression ratio = r = = = 5.2
v1 1.5

Use g = 1.4
1 1
\ h =1- g -1
=1- = 0.475 or 47.5%.
r (5.2) 0.4
Stroke v2 - v1

Clearance (v 1 = v4)

P
1

2
4

V
Figure 1.9 : Otto Cycle

## (d) T1 = 410 K, T3 = 276 K

T1 - T3 410 - 276
h= = = 0.327 or 32.7%.
T1 410

20
Gas Power Cycles Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

## 4.7 Comparison of Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycles:

The important variable factors which are used as the basis for comparison of the cycles

are compression ratio, peak pressure, heat addition, heat rejection and the net work. In

order to compare the performance of the Otto, Diesel and Dual combustion cycles,

some of the variable factors must be fixed. In this section, a comparison of these three

cycles is made for the same compression ratio, same heat addition, constant maximum

pressure and temperature, same heat rejection and net work output. This analysis will

show which cycle is more efficient for a given set of operating conditions.

## Case 1: Same Compression Ratio and Heat Addition:

The Otto cycle 1-2-3-4-1, the Diesel cycle 1-2-3'-4'-1 and the Dual cycle 1-2-2-3-4-1

are shown in p-V and T- diagram in Fig.4.7.1 (a) and (b) respectively for the same

## compression ratio and heat input.

2' 3"

2 3'
4'
4"
4
1
Isentropic Process

Volume
(a)

## Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Gas Power Cycles Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

Constant Pressure 3
2' 3"
2 3'

4'
4 4"
1
constant Volume

5 Entropy 6 6"6'
(b)

## Fig.4.7.1. Same compression ratio and heat addition

From the T-s diagram, it can be seen that Area 5-2-3-6 = Area 5-2-3'-6 = Area 5-2-2"-

3"-6" as this area represents the heat input which is the same for all cycles. All the

cycles start from the same initial state point 1 and the air is compressed from state 1 to

2 as the compression ratio is same. It is seen from the T-s diagram for the same heat

input, the heat rejection in Otto cycle (area 5-1-4-6) is minimum and heat rejection in

Diesel cycle (5-1-4'-6') is maximum.. Consequently, Otto cycle has the highest work

output and efficiency. Diesel cycle has the least efficiency and Dual cycle having the

## efficiency between the two.

One more observation can be made i.e., Otto cycle allows the working medium to

expand more whereas Diesel cycle is least in this respect. The reason is heat is added

before expansion in the case of Otto cycle and the last portion of heat supplied to the

## Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Gas Power Cycles Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

## Case 2: Same Compression Ratio and Heat Rejection:

2 3'

Isentropic Process 1

Volume
(a)

3'

2
4
1

Entropy
(b)

## Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Gas Power Cycles Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

## Efficiency of Otto cycle is given by [Figs.4.7.2 (a) and (b)],

QR
otto = 1 -
QS

Where, Qs is the heat supplied in the Otto cycle and is equal to the area under the curve

2-3 on the T-s diagram [Fig.4.7.2 (b)]. The efficiency of the Diesel cycle is given by,

QR
Diesel = 1 -
Qs

Where Qs is heat supplied in the Diesel cycle and is equal to the area under the curve

2-3' on the T-s diagram [Fig.4.7.2. (b)]. From the T-s diagram in Fig.4.7.2, it is clear that

Qs > Qs i.e., heat supplied in the Otto cycle is more than that of the Diesel cycle. Hence,

it is evident that, the efficiency of the Otto cycle is greater than the efficiency of the

## Case 3: Same Peak Pressure, Peak Temperature and Heat Rejection:

Figures 4.7.3 (a) and (b) show the Otto cycle 1-2-3-4 and Diesel cycle 1-2'-3-4 on p-V

and T-s coordinates, where the peak pressure and temperature and the amount of heat

## The efficiency of the Otto cycle,

QR
otto = 1 -
QS

Where, Qs in the area under the curve 2-3 in Fig.4.7.3 (b). The efficiency of the Diesel cycle, 1-

2-3'-3-4 is,

QR
Diesel = 1 -
Qs

## Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Gas Power Cycles Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

2' 3

2
4
1

Volume
(a)

2'
2 4

5 Entropy 6
(b)

## Fig.4.7.3. Same peak pressure and temperature

It is evident from Fig.4.7.3 that Qs > Qs. Therefore, the Diesel cycle efficiency is greater

than the Otto cycle efficiency when both engines are built to withstand the same thermal

## Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Gas Power Cycles Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

2' 3' 3

2 4
4'
1

Volume
(a)

3
3'
2'

2 4
4'
1

5 Entropy 6' 6
(b)

## Fig.4.7.4. Same maximum pressure and heat input.

For same maximum pressure and heat input, the Otto cycle (1-2-3-4-1) and Diesel cycle

(1-2'-3'-4'-1) are shown on p-V and T-s diagrams in Fig.4.7.4 (a) and (b) respectively. It

is evident from the figure that the heat rejection for Otto cycle (area 1-5-6-4 on T-s

## Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Gas Power Cycles Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

diagram) is more than the heat rejected in Diesel cycle (1-5-6'-4'). Hence Diesel cycle is

more efficient than Otto cycle for the condition of same maximum pressure and heat

input. One can make a note that with these conditions, the Diesel cycle has higher

compression ratio than that of Otto cycle. One should also note that the cycle which is

having higher efficiency allows maximum expansion. The Dual cycle efficiency will be

## Case 5: Same Maximum Pressure and Work Output:

The efficiency, can be written as

## Work done Work done

= =
Heat sup plied Work done + Heat rejected

Refer to T-s diagram in Fig.4.7.4 (b). For same work output the area 1-2-3-4 (work

output of Otto cycle) and area 1-2'-3'-4' (work output of Diesel cycle) are same. To

achieve this, the entropy at 3 should be greater than entropy at 3' .It is clear that the

heat rejection for Otto cycle is more than that of diesel cycle. Hence, for these

conditions, the Diesel cycle is more efficient than the Otto cycle. The efficiency of Dual

## Indian Institute of Technology Madras

UNIT 1

1. A cylinder contains 3 kg of air at a pressure of 300 bar and a temperature of 27 0C. Find the
volume of air occupied by the gas. Assume R for air is 287 j/kgK.
Given data

, v=?

## Characteristic gas equation

2. An ideal gas requires 1150 kj/kg of heat to raise its temperature from 200C to 1000C. When
heated at constant pressure. When heat is supplied to the same gas at constant volume the
heat requirement is 825 kj for the same temperature range. Determine the specific heat at
constant pressure and constant volume and the adiabatic exponent.
Given data

## Heat is supplied at constant volume

3. 1 kg of a gas expands reversible and adiabatically. It's temperature during the process falls
from 515k to 390 k while the volume is doubled. The gas does 92 kj of work in this process.
Find the values of cp and cv.

Given data

## Take logarithms on both sides, then

4. 0.44kg of air at 1800C expands adiabatically to three times its original volume and during the
process there is a fall in temperature to 150C. The work done during the process is 52.5kj.
Calculate Cp and Cv.
,

=
Take logarithms on both sides, then

5. A closed vessel contains 2 kg of CO2 at temperature 200C and pressure of 0.7bar, heat is
supplied to the vessel till the gas acquires pressure of 1.4 bar. Calculate 1. Final temperature
2. Work done on or by the gas 3. Heat added and 4. Change in internal energy. Take specific
heat of a gas at constant volume as 0.657 kj/kgk.

Given data

1. Final temperature

## 2. Work done on or by the gas

4. Change in internal energy

6. A system contains 0.15 m3 of a gas at a pressure of 3.8 bar and 150 0C. It is expanded
adiabatically till the pressure falls to 1 bar. The gas is then heated at a constant pressure till
its enthalpy increases by 70 kj. Determine the total work done. Take Cp=1 kj/kgk and Cv
=0.714 kj/kgk.

Given data

Process 1-2

Process 2-3
Increase in enthalpy

7. A mass of 0.05 kg of CO2 (mol weight 44) occupying a volume of 0.03 m3 at 1.025 bar is
compressed reversible until the pressure is 0.15bar. Calculate final temperature; work done
on the CO2, the heat flow to or from the cylinder walls 1. When the process is according to
law pv1.4=constant. 2. When the process is isothermal. 3. When the process takes place in a
perfectly thermally insulated cylinder assume CO2 to be a perfect gas and take =1.3.
Given data

## When the process is according to law pv1.4=constant.

2. When the process is isothermal.

Carnot Cycle.

## 1-2 isothermal expansion

3-4 isothermal compression

## 1-2...... Addition of heat at constant pressure.

3-4....... Rejection of heat at constant volume

## It is used in diesel engines, Generator sets and automobiles etc.

Cut-off ratio: The point at which fuel addition is stopped is called cut-off point and
the ratio of this fraction of the expansion stroke to the full stroke is called cut-off
ratio.

1
Otto cycle with the help of P-V and T-S diagram.

Otto cycle is a gas power cycle that is used in spark-ignition internal combustion
engines (modern petrol engines). This cycle was introduced by Dr. Nikolaus August Otto, a
German Engineer.

## 1-2 adiabatic expansion of the air.

2-3 rejection of heat by air at constant volume
4-1 supply of heat to the air at constant volume
Name the process of dual cycle. P-V and T-S diagram on dual cycle

## 1-2 Addition of heat at constant pressure

3-4 Rejection of heat at constant volume
5-1 Addition of heat at constant volume

2
What is heat engine? How heat engines are classified.
Heat Engines: Any type of engine which converts heat energy into mechanical work is
termed as a heat engine.
Classification of Heat Engines

## External Combustion Engines

Internal Combustion Engines

External Combustion Engines: In this case, combustion of fuel takes place outside the
cylinder. E.g. Steam engines. These engines are generally used for driving locomotives,
ships, generation of electric power etc.

## 1. What is IC engine? How to classify IC engines?

Internal Combustion Engines (I.C. Engines): In this case, combustion of the fuel with
oxygen of the air occurs within the cylinder of the engine.
Classification of I.C. Engines:
Internal combustion engines may be classified as given below:
1. According to cycle of operation:

## Two-stroke cycle engines

Four-stroke cycle engines

## 2. According to cycle of combustion:

Otto cycle engine
Diesel cycle engine
Dual-combustion

3. According to the fuel employed and the method of fuel supply to the engine cylinder:

Petrol engine
Diesel engine
Oil, Gas engine

## Spark ignition (S.L) engine

Compression ignition (C.I.) engine

## 5. According to method of cooling the cylinder:

Air-cooled engine
Water-cooled engine

## Single cylinder engine

Multi-cylinder engine

3
1. Greater mechanical simplicity.
2. Higher power output per unit weight
3. Low initial cost
4. Higher brake thermal efficiency
5. These units are compact and requires less space
6. Easy starting from cold conditions
1. I C engines cannot use solid fuels which are cheaper.
2. I C engines are susceptible to mechanical vibrations.

Different Parts of I.C. Engines (Parts Common to both Petrol and Diesel Engine):

Cylinder: It is a cylindrical block having cylindrical space inside for piston to make
reciprocating motion. Upper portion of cylinder which covers it from the top is called
cylinder head. This is manufactured by casting process and materials used are cast iron or
alloy steel.

Piston and Piston rings: Piston is a cylindrical part which reciprocates inside the cylinder
and is used for doing work and getting work. Pistons are made of cast iron, aluminum alloy.

Piston rings Piston has piston rings tightly fitted in groove around piston and provide a tight
seal so as to prevent leakage across piston and cylinder wall during pistons reciprocating
motion. Piston rings are made of silicon, cast iron, steel alloy by casting process.

Combustion space: It is the space available between the cylinder head and top of piston
when piston is at farthest position from crankshaft (TDC).

Intake manifold: It is the passage/duct connecting intake system to the inlet valve upon
cylinder. Through intake manifold the air/air-fuel mixture goes into cylinder.

4
Exhaust manifold: It is the passage/duct connecting exhaust system to the exhaust valve
upon cylinder. Through exhaust manifold burnt gases go out of cylinder.

Valves: Engine has both intake and exhaust type of valves which are operated by valve
operating mechanism comprising of cam, camshaft, follower, valve rod, rocker arm, valve
spring etc. Valves are generally of spring loaded type and made out of special alloy steels by
forging process.

Bearing: Bearings are required to support crank shaft. Bearings are made of white metal

Connecting rod: It is the member connecting piston and crankshaft. It has generally I section
and is made of steel by forging process.

Crank: It is the rigid member connecting the crankshaft and connecting rod. Crank is
mounted on crankshaft. Crank transfers motion from connecting rod to crankshaft as it is
linked to connecting rod through crank pin.

Crankshaft: It is the shaft at which useful positive work is available from the piston-cylinder
arrangement. Reciprocating motion of piston gets converted into rotary motion of crankshaft.
Crankshaft are manufactured by forging process from alloy steel.

Crankcase: Crankcase actually acts like a sump housing crank, crankshaft, connecting rod
and is attached to cylinder. These are made of aluminium alloy, steel, cast iron etc. by casting
process.

Gudgeon pin: It is the pin joining small end of the connecting rod and piston. This is made
of steel by forging process.

Cams and Camshafts: Cams are mounted upon camshaft for opening and closing the valves
at right timings and for correct duration. Camshaft gets motion from crankshaft through
timing gears.

## Piston area: It is the area of a circle of diameter equal to bore.

Stroke: It is the nominal distance travelled by the piston between two extreme positions in
the cylinder.

Dead centre: It refers to the extreme end positions inside the cylinder at which piston
reverses its motion.
Swept volume: It is the volume swept by piston while travelling from one dead centre to the
other. It may also be called stroke volume or displacement volume.
Mathematically, Swept volume = Piston area Stroke

Clearance volume: It is the volume space above the piston inside cylinder, when piston is at
top dead centre. It is provided for cushioning considerations and depends, largely upon
compression ratio.

5
Spark plug: It is the external igniter used for initiating combustion process. Spark plug is
activated by electrical energy fed by electrical system with engine.

Fuel injector: Fuel injector is an important part of diesel engine which breaks up the fuel and
sprays into the cylinder into very fine divided particles.

Explain the working principle of a 4 stroke diesel engine and 2-stroke diesel engine with
neat sketches.
Four Stroke Petrol Engine
The four stroke-cycles refers to its use in petrol engines, gas engines, light, oil engine and
heavy oil engines in which the mixture of air fuel are drawn in the engine cylinder. Since
ignition in these engines is due to a spark, therefore they are also called spark ignition
engines.

Suction Stroke: In this Stroke the inlet valve opens and proportionate fuel-air mixture is
sucked in the engine cylinder. Thus the piston moves from top dead centre (T.D.C.) to bottom
dead centre (B.D.C.). The exhaust valve remains closed throughout the stroke.
Compression Stroke: In this stroke both the inlet and exhaust valves remain closed during
the stroke. The piston moves towards (T.D.C.) and compresses the enclosed fuel-air mixture
drawn. Just before the end of this stroke the operating plug initiates a spark which ignites the
mixture and combustion takes place at constant pressure.
Power Stroke Or Expansion Stroke: In this stroke both the valves remain closed during the
start of this stroke but when the piston just reaches the B.D.C. the exhaust valve opens. When
the mixture is ignited by the spark plug the hot gases are produced which drive or throw the
piston from T.D.C. to B.D.C. and thus the work is obtained in this stroke.
Exhaust Stroke: This is the last stroke of the cycle. Here the gases from which the work has
been collected become useless after the completion of the expansion stroke and are made to
escape through exhaust valve to the atmosphere. This removal of gas is accomplished during

6
this stroke. The piston moves from B.D.C. to T.D.C. and the exhaust gases are driven out of
the engine cylinder; this is also called
Four Stroke Diesel Engine

Suction Stroke: With the movement of the piston from T.D.C. to B.D.C. during this stroke,
the inlet valve opens and the air at atmospheric pressure is drawn inside the engine cylinder;
the exhaust valve however remains closed. This operation is represented by the line 5-1
Compression Stroke: The air drawn at atmospheric pressure during the suction stroke is
compressed to high pressure and temperature as the piston moves from B.D.C. to T.D.C.
Both the inlet and exhaust valves do not open during any part of this stroke. This operation is
represented by 1-2
Power Stroke Or Expansion Stroke: As the piston starts moving from T.D.C to B.D.C, the
quantity of fuel is injected into the hot compressed air in fine sprays by the fuel injector and it
(fuel) starts burning at constant pressure shown by the line 2-3.
At the point 3 fuel supply is cut off. The fuel is injected at the end of compression stroke but
in actual practice the ignition of the fuel starts before the end of the compression stroke. The
hot gases of the cylinder expand adiabatically to point 4. Thus doing work on the piston.
Exhaust Stroke: The piston moves from the B.D.C. to T.D.C. and the exhaust gases escape
to the atmosphere through the exhaust valve. When the piston reaches the T.D.C. the exhaust
valve closes and the cycle is completed. This stroke is represented by the line 1-

## Working of a two stroke petrol engine.

A two-stroke petrol engine (used in scooters, motor cycles etc.).
The cylinder is connected to a closed crank chamber C.C. During the upward stroke of the
piston, the gases in cylinder are compressed and at the same time fresh air and fuel (petrol)
mixture enters the crank chamber through the inlet port.
When the piston moves downwards, inlet port covered by the piston and the mixture in the
crank chamber is compressed the piston is moving upwards and is compressing an explosive

7
change which has previously been supplied to cylinder. Ignition takes place at the end of the
stroke. The piston then travels downwards due to expansion of the gases and near the end of
this stroke the piston uncovers the exhaust port (E.P.) and the burnt exhaust gases escape
through this port.

The transfer port (T.P.) then is uncovered immediately, and the compressed charge from the crank
chamber flows into the cylinder and is deflected upwards by the crown provided on the head of the
piston.

## Working of a two stroke Diesel engine.

The cylinder is connected to a closed crank chamber C.C. During the upward stroke of the
piston, the gases in cylinder are compressed and at the same time the air at atmospheric
pressure is drawn into chamber through the inlet port.
When the piston moves downwards, inlet port covered by the piston and the air in the crank
chamber is compressed the piston is moving upwards and is compressing an explosive
change which has previously been supplied to cylinder. The quantity of fuel is injected into
the hot compressed air in fine sprays by the fuel injector and it (fuel) starts burning at

8
constant pressure. The piston then travels downwards due to expansion of the gases and near
the end of this stroke the piston uncovers the exhaust port (E.P.) and the burnt exhaust gases
escape through this port.
The transfer port (T.P.) then is uncovered immediately, and the compressed air from the
crank chamber flows into the cylinder and is deflected upwards by the crown provided on the
Differentiate between petrol and diesel engines.
SI engine CI engine
It works on Otto cycle It works on Diesel/Dual cycle
Compression ratio is from 5 to 15. Compression ratio is from 12 to 30.
Petrol (Gasoline) is used as fuel. Diesel is used as fuel.
Fuel should have low self ignition
Fuel should have high self ignition temperature. temperature.
A mixture of air and fuel is sucked inside the
cylinder during suction process. Air alone is sucked during suction process.
Carburettor is required for preparing air-fuel
mixture. Carburetor is not required.
Fuel is injected after compression. For
Fuel goes into cylinder alongwith air during injection of fuel a fuel pump and injector is
suction required
Ignition of fuel takes place on its own due
Spark plug is required to initiate combustion. to high temperature of air inside cylinder.
Combustion takes place isochorically. Combustion takes place isobarically.
Due to low compression ratio the engine To withstand high Compression ratio the
structure is light. engine structure is sturdy.
Engine speed is higher. Engine speed is lower.
Efficiency is low. Efficiency is high.

## 2-stroke engine 4-stroke engine

One cycle is completed in one revolution of One cycle is completed in two revolution of
crankshaft. crankshaft.
Power stroke is available in each Power stroke is available in alternate
revolution of crankshaft. revolution of crankshaft.
Thermal efficiency is low. Thermal efficiency is high
Volumetric efficiency is less due to less time Volumetric efficiency is high due to large
time available for suction. available for suction.
Lighter flywheel is required due to more Heavier flywheel is required due to less
uniform torque available. uniform torque available.

## Engine is compact and light in weight. Engine is heavy.

Cooling requirements are less. Cooling requirements are high.
Valves are not required Complex valve operating mechanism is
required.
Cost is low. Cost is high.
Used in light vehicles and small engines. Used in heavy duty vehicles and bigger
engines

9
Write the difference between two stroke and four stroke engines?
In a two stroke engine, the working cycle is completed in two strokes of the piston or one
revolution of the crankshaft. In a four stroke engine, the working cycle is completed in four
strokes of the piston or two revolutions of the crankshaft.

## Compare relative advantages and disadvantages of 4 stroke engine and 2-stroke

engines.
Relative advantages of 4 stroke engine over 2-stroke engines.
Greater fuel efficiency
Less pollution
No extra oil or lubricant is added to fuel.
Wastage of fuel less
More durability

## Relative advantages of 2 stroke engine over 4-stroke engines.

Simple design & construction
More powerful
work in any position
Less expensive

## Indicator diagram of Four stroke diesel and petrol E ngines

Indicator diagram: Indicator diagram is the graphical description of pressure and volume
variations occurring inside cylinder. An indicator diagram for a four-stroke internal
combustion engine is shown in Fig along with the four different processes.

10
Indicator diagram of Two stroke diesel and petrol E ngines

## Valve timing diagram

Valve timing Diagram A valve timing diagram is a representation of the positions of the
crank when the various operations as inlet valve opening, closing, exhaust valve opening and
closing and also the beginning and end of various strokes

Valve overlap is the period during the valve timing where both the intake and
exhaust valves are open.

Port timing diagram: The diagram which shows the position of crank at which the above
ports are open and close are called as port timing diagram.

11
What is pre-ignition (premature combustion)?

The definition of pre-ignition is the ignition of the fuel/air charge prior to the spark plug
firing. Pre-ignition caused by some other ignition source such as an overheated spark plug tip,
carbon deposits in the combustion chamber and, rarely, a burned exhaust valve; all act as a
glow plug to ignite the charge.

## High compression ratio

Overheated spark plug point
Incandescent carbon deposit on cylinder wall.
Overheated exhaust valve
It may occur due to faulty timing of spark production.

Effects of Pre-ignition

## Reduce useful work per cycle

Increase heat losses from engine
Reduction in the thermal efficiency
Subjected the engine components to excessive pressure

Detonation (Knocking)
Knocking in CI Engines: A very high rate of pressure rise due to auto-ignition of fuel
accumulated during long delay period in CI engines amounts to a direct blow on piston
producing diesel knock

Knocking in SI engines: it is the auto-ignition of end gas due to its smaller delay period,
which produces opposite pressure wave to the normal pressure rise due to spark, resulting in
detonation

Effects of detonation
Noise
Mechanical damage
Increase heat transfer
Pre-ignition
Decrease in power out put
Factors reducing Knocking
Factor SI engines CI engines
Compression Ratio Low High
Inlet Temp Low High
Inlet Pressure Low High
Fuel SIT High Low
Delay Period Long Short
Combustion Wall Temp Low High
Speed High Low
Cylinder Size Small Large

12
Octane number
SI engine fuels are characterized in respect to its resistance to abnormal combustion by
its rating in terms of Octane number. Octane number of fuel is determined by
comparing the combustion performance of actual fuel with that of reference fuel. Octane
number is defined as the percentage by volume of iso-octane in a mixture of iso-octane
(C8H18) and n-heptane (C7H16).
Cetane number
CI engine fuels are also characterized by a rating given in terms of Cetane number
which also indicates the resistance of fuel to knocking. Cetane number for any fuel is
given by percentage by volume of cetane (C16 H34) in a mixture of cetane and -methyl
naphthalene (C10H7CH3) which offers the combustion characteristics similar to that of
test fuel.

Super-charging in IC engines

## The method of increasing the inlet air density is called Supercharging

The most efficient method of increasing the power of an engine is by supercharging, i.e.
increasing the flow of air into the engine to enable more fuel to be burnt.

## Supercharging can be done both for SI engines as well as CI engines

Supercharging methods:

## I) Superchargers: A Supercharger is run by the mechanical drive, powered by engine

power.

2) Turbo chargers: A turbocharger uses the unused energy in the exhaust gases to drive a
turbine directly connected by a co-axial shaft to a rotary compressor in the air intake
system.

Effects of Supercharging

For CI Engines. Smoother running, low F/A ratio, durability & reliability and lower bsfc,
Better scavenging; Increase in power output better combustion & higher, mechanical
efficiency, Turbulence Effect (Higher BP)

## SI Engines: SI Engines. Knocking tendency as ignition delay, Power o/p limited by

What is scavenging?

It is the process of clearing or sweeping out the exhaust gases from the combustion chamber
of the cylinder.

The scavenging is necessary only in two stroke engines since piston does not help for
clearing the burned gas from the cylinder.

13
What is the need of Scavenging? Explain the types of scavenging.

It is necessary that cylinder should not have any burnt gases because they mixed with the
fresh incoming charge and reduce its strength. Power will loss if the fresh charge is diluted by
the exhaust gases.

Types of Scavenging

1. Cross flow scavenging: In this method, the transfer port and exhaust port are situated on
the opposite sides of the engine cylinder. The piston crown is designed into a particular
shape, so that the fresh charge moves upwards and pushes out the burnt gases in the form
of cross flow.

2. Backflow or loop scavenging: In this method, the inlet and outlet ports are situated on the
same side of the engine cylinder. The fresh charge, while entering into the engine cylinder,
forms a loop and pushes out the burnt gases.

3. Uniflow scavenging: In this method, the fresh charge, while entering from one side
(sometimes two sides) of the engine cylinder pushes out the gases through the exit valve
situated on the top of the cylinder. In uniflow scavenging, both the fresh charge and burnt
gases move in the same upward direction.

## State the function of a carburettor in a petrol engine?

Carburettor thoroughly mixes petrol and air in correct proportion and sends into cylinder
following Bernoullis principle. It maintains correct air fuel ratio depending on the load speed
of the engine.

## State the function of Radiator

The purpose of the radiator is to cool down the water received from the engine.

## State the necessities for cooling of an engine.

The temperature of the burning gases in the engine cylinder reaches up to 1500 to
2000C, which is above the melting point of the material of the cylinder body and head of
the engine. Therefore, if the heat is not dissipated, it would result in the failure of the
cylinder material.
Due to very high temperatures, the film of the lubricating oil will get oxidized, thus
producing carbon deposits on the surface. This will result in piston seizure.

14
Due to overheating, large temperature differences may lead to a distortion of the engine
components due to the thermal stresses set up. Higher temperatures also lower the
volumetric efficiency of the engine.

## Types of Cooling System

There are two types of cooling systems:
(i) Air cooling system and
(ii) Water-cooling system.
Air Cooled System
Air cooled system is generally used in small engines say up to 15-20 kW and in aero plane
engines.
In this system fins or extended surfaces are provided on the cylinder walls, cylinder head, etc.
Heat generated due to combustion in the engine cylinder will be conducted to the fins and
when the air flows over the fins, heat will be dissipated to air.
The amount of heat dissipated to air depends upon :
(a) Amount of air flowing through the fins.
(b) Fin surface area.
(c) Thermal conductivity of metal used for fins.
Cooled System Cooled System

## (a) System is light. (a) Comparatively it is less

(b) There are no leakages. efficient.
(c)Coolant and antifreeze (b) It is used in aero planes
solutions are not required. and motorcycle engines
where the engines are
exposed to air directly.

Water-cooling system:
In this method, cooling water jackets are provided around the cylinder, cylinder head, valve
seats etc. The water when circulated through the jackets, it absorbs heat of combustion. This
hot water will then be cooling in the radiator partially by a fan and partially by the flow
developed by the forward motion of the vehicle. The cooled water is again recirculated
through the water jackets.

15
Anti-Freeze Solutions
In order to prevent the water in the cooling system from freezing, some chemical solutions
which are known as anti-freeze solutions are mixed with water. In cold areas, if the engine is
kept without this solution for some time, the water may freeze and expand leading to

Lubrication system

Purpose of lubrication
To reduce the friction between moving parts
To minimize the vibration.
To reduce the wear and tear.
To reduce the corrosion and carbon deposits.
To reduce the heat of moving parts.
To minimise the power lost due to friction.
To reduce the noise created by the moving parts.
.
Engine Lubricating System

Splash system
Forced feed system

## Splash Lubrication System

The simple sketch of splash lubrication system is lubricating oil is filled in the sump. Scoop
is attached to the big end of connecting rod. When every time the piston reaches bottom dead
centre (B DC) the scoop dip into the sump and carries the lubricating oil. The lubricating oil
is splashed to the piston, cylinder, small & big end of connecting rod, main bearing and can
shaft bearing. The splashed oil settles on the engine parts and then falls into the sump.

## Pressure Lubrication System

In this system lubrication oil is applied to the engine parts under pressure using a pressure
pump. the simple diagram of pressure lubrication system The oil pump is submerged in the
sump . The oil from the sump is delivered to the oil filter. The pressure of oil is increased by
the pump. The oil is forced under pressure to different parts of engine through oil tubes (or)
oil holes. Separate oil tubes carry oil to the bearing. From the bearing oil floats to the
connecting rod through the oil hole between the connecting rod and crank shaft. Then this oil
flows to the piston pin though oil hole and sprayed over the piston, piston rings, cylinder
valves and other engine parts.

Ignition System
Basically Convectional Ignition systems are of 2 types:

## (a) Battery or Coil Ignition System, and

(b) Magneto Ignition System.

## Battery or Coil Ignition System

Battery ignition system was generally used in 4-wheelers, but now-a-days it is more
commonly used in 2-wheelers also.

16
Working: When the ignition switch is closed and engine in cranked, as soon as the contact
breaker closes, a low voltage current will flow through the primary winding. When the
contact breaker opens the contact, the magnetic field begins to collapse. Because of this
collapsing magnetic field, current will be induced in the secondary winding. And because of
more turns (@ 21000 turns) of secondary, voltage goes unto 28000-30000 volts. This high
voltage current is brought to centre of the distributor rotor. Distributor rotor rotates and
supplies this high voltage current to proper stark plug depending upon the engine firing order.
When the high voltage current jumps the spark plug gap, it produces the spark and the charge
is ignited-combustion starts-products of combustion expand and produce power.

## Magneto Ignition System

Magneto ignition system is mainly used in 2-wheelers, kick start engines.(Example, Bajaj
Scooters, Boxer, Victor, Splendor, Passion, etc.).

In this case magneto will produce and supply the required current to the primary winding. In
this case as shown, we can have rotating magneto with fixed coil or rotating coil with fixed
magneto for producing and supplying current to primary, remaining arrangement is same as
that of a battery ignition system.

17
Battery Ignition Magneto Ignition

## Battery is a must.. No battery needed

Battery supplies current in primary circuit Magneto produces the required current for
primary circuit
A good spark is available at low speed also. During starting the quality of spark is poor
due to slow speed.
Occupies more space Very much compact
Recharging is a must in case battery gets No such arrangement required.
discharged.
Mostly employed in car and bus for which Used on motorcycles, scooters, etc
it is required to crank the engine.
.
Firing Order
Firing order indicates the sequence or order in which the firing impulses occur in a multi-
cylinder spark ignition engine. It is chosen to give a uniform torque, and hence a uniform
distribution of firing per revolution of the engine.

Spark plug: It is the external igniter used for initiating combustion process. Spark plug is
activated by electrical energy fed by electrical system with engine.

## The spark plug has two primary functions:

To ignite the air/fuel mixture.
To remove heat from the combustion chamber.
It mainly consists of a central electrode and metal tongue. Central electrode is covered by
means of porcelain insulating material. The high tension voltage of the order of 30000 volts is
applied across the spark electrodes, current jumps from one electrode to another producing a
spark.

Carburettor:

1. Air flows into the top of the carburetor from the car's air intake.
2. When the engine is first started, the choke (blue) can be set so it almost blocks the top of
the pipe to reduce the amount of air coming in (increasing the fuel content of the mixture
entering the cylinders).

18
3. In the center of the tube, the air is forced through a narrow kink called a venturi. This
makes it speed up and causes its pressure to drop.
4. The drop in air pressure creates suction on the fuel pipe (right), drawing in fuel (orange).
5. The throttle (green) is a valve that swivels to open or close the pipe. When the throttle is
open, more air and fuel flows to the cylinders so the engine produces more power and the
car goes faster.
6. The mixture of air and fuel flows down into the cylinders.
7. Fuel (orange) is supplied from a mini-fuel tank called the float-feed chamber.
8. As the fuel level falls, a float in the chamber falls and opens a valve at the top.
9. When the valve opens, more fuel flows in to replenish the chamber from the main gas
tank. This makes the float rise and close the valve again.

## Types of Injection Systems

Air (Blast) Injection System: In air blast injection system, fuel is forced into the cylinder by
means of compressed air. This system is little used universally at present, because it requires
a multistage air compressor, which increases engine weight and reduces brake power. This
method is capable of producing better atomization and penetration of fuel resulting in higher
brake mean effective pressure.

Solid Injection System: In solid injection, the liquid fuel is injected directly into the
combustion chamber without the aid of compressed air. Hence, it is termed as airless
mechanical injection or solid injection.

## Common rail system

Individual pump system

Common rail system: In this system, a high-pressure pump supplies fuel to a fuel header as
shown. The high-pressure in the header forces the fuel to each of the nozzles located in the

19
cylinders. At the proper time, a mechanically operated (by means of push rod and rocker arm)
valve allows the fuel to enter the cylinder through nozzle.

## Individual Pump Nozzle Systems.

In this system, each cylinder is provided with one pump and one Injector. This type differs
from the unit Injector In that the pump and Injector are separated from each other, i.e. the
injector is located on the cylinder, while the pump is placed on the side of the engine. The
quantity of fuel Injected is again controlled by the effective stroke of the plunger.

Fuel injector.
Fuel injector is an important part of diesel engine which breaks up the fuel and sprays into the
cylinder into a very fine divided particles.
Feeding fuel
Atomising fuel

Governing of IC Engines
The process of providing any arrangement, which will keep the engine speed constant
(according to the changing load conditions) is known as governing of I.C. engines. Though
there are many methods for the governing of I.C. engines, yet the following are important :

20
1. Hit and miss governing. In this system of governing, whenever the engine starts running
at higher speed (due to decreased load), some explosions are omitted or missed. This is done
with the help of a centrifugal governor. This method of governing is widely used for I. C.
engines of smaller capacity or gas engines.
2. Qualitative governing. In this system of governing, a control valve is fitted in the fuel
delivery pipe, which controls the quantity of fuel to be mixed in the charge. The movement of
control valve is regulated by the centrifugal governor through rack and pinion arrangement.

3. Quantitative governing. In this system of governing, the quality of charge (i.e. air-fuel
ratio of the mixture) is kept constant. But the quantity of mixture supplied to the engine
cylinder is varied by means of a throttle valve which is regulated by the centrifugal governor
through rack and pinion arrangement.

2. Describe the Morse test for determining the indicated power of a multi cylinder
Morse test is experimental method for estimating the friction power of the multi cylinder
engine. Here engine is first run up to certain speed of rotation. Subsequently, one by one each
cylinder of the engine is isolated from contributing to shaft work either by switching off
electric supply to spark plug or by stopping fuel supply. When one cylinder is not producing
power i.e. due to its isolation then also piston reciprocates in this cylinder similar to other
cylinders thus the frictional losses remain constant for the shaft running at same speed. When
second cylinder is cut then also frictional losses remain same but the brake power and
indicated power get reduced accordingly. This process of cutting off each cylinder one by one
is carried out till last cylinder and the brake power is measured by dynamometer attached to
crank shaft which is maintained to run at same speed of rotation when cylinders are cut off
one by one.

Friction power depends on the speed and not upon the load on the engine.

Indicated power: It refers to the power available inside the cylinder i.e. the power provided
to piston. It is measured from the indicator diagram which is obtained using indicator
mechanism.

Brake power: It refers to the power available at crankshaft i.e. it is the useful shaft work.
Brake power is usually measured by absorption or transmission type dynamometers.

Friction power: It refers to the power lost due to friction and other reasons. It is quantified
by the difference between indicated power and brake power.

## What is meant by thermal efficiency of I.C engine

Thermal efficiency is the percentage of energy taken from the combustion which is actually
converted to mechanical work.

## What is meant by Mechanical efficiency of I.C engine

21
Mechanical efficiency is the percentage of energy that the engine puts out after subtracting
mechanical losses such as friction, compared to what the engine would put out with no power
loss.

## What is meant by Volumetric efficiency of I.C engine

Volumetric efficiency is the relationship between how much air and fuel has been taken into
the cylinder, compared to how much air and fuel is required to fill the cylinder under normal
atmospheric pressure.

## Volume of charge admitted at NTP

Volumetric efficiency() =
Swept volume of the piston

## Define compression ratio

It is the ratio of the total cylinder volume when piston is at BDC to the clearance volume.

Total volume vs + vc
compression ratio = =
Clearance volume vc

## Define brake thermal efficiency of I.C engine

Thermal efficiency of an engine is defined as the ratio of the output to that of the
chemical energy input in the form of fuel supply. It may be based on brake or indicated
output.
B. P 3600
Brake thermal efficiency() =
mf C

## What is Indicated mean effective pressure?

Mean Effective Pressure and Torque Mean effective pressure is defined as a
hypothetical/average pressure which is assumed to be acting on the piston throughout the
power stroke.
as
Indicated mean effective pressure (bar)= l

## s=scale of spring in bar/mm

l=Length of diagram in mm

22
UNIT 4

1. The compression ratio of an Otto cycle is 8 and the suction temperature and pressure are
300k and 100 mpa respectively, heat supplied in the constant volume process is 540 kj/kg.
The air flow rate is 100 kg/ h. Assume =1.4 and cv=0.71 kj/ kgk and determine the power
output, the mean effective pressure and the efficiency.

Given data

2.297
=629

=233.64 kJ

= 4.02* Kpa

2. A four stroke Diesel engine has a cylinder bore of 150mm and a stroke of 250mm. The crank
shaft speed is 300rpm and fuel consumption is 1.2 kg/h having a calorific value of 39900
kj/kg. the indicated mean effective pressure is 5.5 bar. If the compression ratio is 15 and cut
off ratio is 1.8. Calculate the relative efficiency, taking 1.4.
Given data

## We know that Indicated power

3. In an otto cycle , the temperature at the beginning and end of the is entropic compression are
316 k and 596k respectively. Determine the air standard efficiency and the compression ratio.
Take = 1.4.
Given data

4. A four cylinder two stroke cycle petrol engine develops 23.5 kW brake power at 2500 rpm.
The mean effective pressure on each piston is 8.5 bar and the mechanical efficiency is
85percentage. Calculate the diameter and strike of each cylinder, assuming the length of
stroke equal to 1.5 times the diameter of cylinder.

Given data

L=length of stroke=1.5d

Area of the

## We know that Indicated power

L=length of stroke=1.5d=0.0825m

5. A four cylinder engine running at 1200rpm gave 18.6 kW brake power. The average torque
when one cylinder was cut out was 105 Nm. Determine the indicated thermal efficiency if the
calorific value of the fuel is 42000 kj/ kg and the engine uses 0.34 kg of petrol per brake
power hour.

Given data
Since the average torque when one cylinder was cut out was 105 Nm

= 0.75

0.75*4=3

## We know that Indicated power

6. An air standard Diesel engine has compression ratio of 18, the heat transferred to the working
fluid per cycle is 1800 kj/ kg. at the beginning of the compression stroke the pressure is 1 bar
and the temperature 300k. Calculate thermal efficiency, mean effective pressure.

Given data

## Assume J/kgK for air

*

=718.63 kJ

=1328.45Kpa=13.2bar
7. A large four stroke cycle Diesel engine runs at 2000rpm. The engine has displacement of 25
liters and a brake mean effective pressure of 0.6 MN/m2. It consumes 0.018kg/s of fuel
(colorific value equal to 42000 kj/ kg). Determine the brake power and brake thermal
efficiency.

Brake power
9. GAS TURBINES
9.1. INTRODUCTION:
A gas turbine is a prime mover from which we can get mechanical work or
power. It is a rotary machine similar in principle to a steam turbine regarding continuous
and steady flow of working medium and similar to an I.C. engine regarding its working
medium and combustion. (Closed cycle gas turbine has external combustion).
A simple gas turbine plant consists of 3 main components, a compressor, a
combustion chamber and a turbine. Air is taken from atmosphere and compressed in a
compressor. To get high pressure of working fluid for expansion, a compressor is
required. The quantity of working fluid and speed required are more, so, generally a
centrifugal or axial flow compressor is employed. The compressor is coupled to the
turbine shaft and is driven by the turbine.
The compressed air is then passed to a combustion chamber where fuel is burnt and
products of combustion are made to impinge and expand over rings of turbine blades with
high velocity and work is produced. The combustion chamber is required to get a higher
temperature of the working fluid.
If there were no losses in either compressor or turbine, then power developed by the
turbine would be just equal to that absorbed by the compressor which is coupled to the
turbine and work available would be zero. But, power developed by the turbine can
be increased by increasing the volume of the working fluid at constant pressure or
increasing the pressure keeping the volume constant. Either of these may be done by
adding heat so that the temperature of the working fluid is increased after compression.
In an actual turbine, about 2/3 of the work produced by the turbine is absorbed
by the compressor and the remaining 1/3 is the useful work output available.
Commonly liquid fuels are used in gas turbines. Gaseous fuels are used where they
are available in natural form or as by-product. Solid fuels also can be used in pulverised
form.
Gas turbines are used in air craft's and industrial power generation. These are also
used in combined gas-steam cycles, for crude oil pumping etc.

## 9.2. CLASSIFICATION OF GAS TURBINES:

Gas turbines may be classified in different ways on the basis of the following:
1. According to the Process of Combustion:
(a) Constant pressure or continuous combustion type. The cycle working on this
principle is called Joule or Brayton cycle
(b) Explosion or constant volume type. The cycle working on this principle is
called Atkinson cycle.
2. According to Action of Expansion:
(a) Impulse turbine
(b) Impulse-reaction turbine
3. According to Path of Working Fluid:
(a) Open cycle gas turbine
(b) Closed cycle gas turbine
(c) Semi closed gas turbine
4. According to the Direction of Flow:
(a) Axial flow

A gas turbine in which air is heated in the combustion chamber at constant volume
is known as constant volume combustion or explosion type gas turbine and was known
as Holzworth gas turbine. This type entailed the use of valves and consequent
intermittent operation. So, they became obsolete.
A gas turbine in which air is heated in the combustion chamber at constant pressure
is known as constant pressure gas turbine. All most all the turbines manufactured today
are constant pressure type.
An open cycle gas turbine is one in which working fluid enters from atmosphere and
exhausts to atmosphere. A closed cycle gas turbine is one in which the working fluid
is confined within the plant.
A semi closed cycle gas turbine is a combination of 2 turbines. One working on
open cycle and other on closed cycle. The open cycle gas turbine is used to drive the main
generator. The closed cycle gas turbine is used to drive the air compressor. Now a days,
these are not used on commercial basis.
9.3. SIMPLE OPEN CYCLE GAS TURBINE (CONSTANT PRESSURE HEAT ADDITION):
The Joule or Brayton cycle is the most idealized cycle for the simple open cycle
constant pressure gas turbine. In this gas turbine, the entire flow comes from atmosphere
and returns to atmosphere.
Atmospheric air is compressed from pressure p1 to a high pressure p2 in the
compressor and then delivered to the combustion chamber where fuel is injected and
burned. The source of energy is the combustion of fuel. The fuel is burnt in the air stream
and products of combustion become part of the working fluid. Due to combustion,
heat is added to the working fluid from T2 to T3 The products of combustion are
expanded in the turbine (Generally reaction type) from p2 to atmospheric pressure and
then discharged into atmosphere. The mass of the gas flowing through the turbine is
more than that flowing through the compressor by the mass of fuel added.
Very high air-fuel ratios (of the order of 60:1 to 200:1) are used in gas turbines and
so, mass of fuel added can be neglected to simplify the analysis. So, the gas stream after
combustion may be considered to be having the same properties as that of air.
The Fig.9.1(a) and (b) show a simple open cycle gas turbine plant.
Fig.9.1: Simple open cycle gas turbine

This turbine is also called as continuous combustion gas turbine as combustion of fuel
takes place continuously.
With the absence of heat exchangers, and advantage of direct combustion, (Heat to
working fluid is transferred by direct combustion of fuel in combustion chamber), these are
less bulky and less inexpensive. These are suitable for transport and peak generating sets
etc. The Fig.9.2 shows the P-V and T-S diagrams for the cycle.

## Fig.9.2: Open cycle gas turbine

In the open cycle gas turbine, the products of combustion are left into atmosphere
and cannot be used again. So, the cycle is assumed to be completed by cooling the
exhaust gases at constant pressure to original temperature.
In the diagrams, the line 4-1 has no meaning. It does not represent any process
in any component.
As the turbine and compressor are mechanically coupled, the net work available is
equal to the difference between work done by the turbine and work consumed by the
compressor.
In actual cycle, the turbine blades are cooled by bleeding compressed air from
compressor to increase the life of the blades. In air standard cycle, cooling is not
considered.
A gas turbine is started using a motor and is allowed to obtain some minimum
speed called coming in speed before the fuel is turned on. When turbine starts running,
the motor is cut off.
When a gas turbine is used in a power plant, whole of the expansion takes place in the
turbine and the generator mounted on the shaft generates electricity. When it is used in jet
engines, the gases are expanded partially in turbine so that the turbine output is just
enough to drive the compressor and its accessories. Rest of the expansion takes place in a
nozzle put in the exhaust of the turbine to produce a high velocity jet for propulsion of air
craft (to get thrust) in the opposite direction of jet according to Newton's third law of
motion.
9.4. CLOSED CYCLE GAS TURBIE (CONSTANT PRESSURE HEAT ADDITION):
This turbine also works on Joule's or Brayton's cycle. The Fig.9.3 shows a closed cycle
gas turbine plant.

## Fig.9.3: Closed cycle gas turbine plant

In this turbine, the working substance is confined within the plant and the same
substance having specified mass flows continuously within the system.
As the same working fluid circulates continuously within the system, gases of higher
density than air must be used as working fluid, the heat must be supplied through a heat
exchanger (generally called - Air heater) from an external source and heat must be
rejected from the system through another heat exchanger called cooler. As fuel burns
externally this is an external combustion engine.
The Fig.9.4 shows P-V and T-S diagrams of the cycle.

## Fig.9.4: Closed cycle gas turbine

At point 1, cold gas enters the compressor and shaft work is done on compressor to
raise the pressure and temperature. At point 2, the gas passes to a heater where heat is
supplied and temperature of gas raises further. At point 3, hot gases enter the turbine
where it expands to a lower pressure. The shaft work flows in 2 directions - part of the
work serves to run the compressor and the remaining is the useful power. At point 4,
the exhaust gases flow to cooler where heat is rejected and the gas is restored to its
initial conditions. Now this gas or air is again made to flow into compressor.
In the cycle, compression and expansion are isentropic, heat addition and rejection
take place at constant pressure.
In flow through heater, the effect of friction or turbulence may lead to pressure
loss and consequent available energy loss. Thus, for ideal performance, heating is
assumed to be at constant pressure.
There is no point in wasting heat from turbine. So, this component is made to be
adiabatic. For ideal performance, expansion is assumed to be reversible adiabatic or
isentropic.
In cooler, our aim is to cool but avoid any pressure loss. So, ideal process is constant
pressure cooling.
The closed cycle gas turbine plant is similar to steam turbine plant as follows:

## STEAM TURBINE GAS TURBINE

Boiler Air Heater
Condenser Pre Cooler
Feed Water Pump Compressor
Turbine Turbine

## 9.5. SEMI CLOSED CYCLE GAS TURBINE:

When some part of the working fluid is confined to the plant and another part flows
into and from the atmosphere, it is called semi closed cycle gas turbine.
The Fig.9.5 shows a semi closed cycle gas turbine plant.

## Fig.9.5: Semi closed gas turbine plant

It is basically a high pressure system. For same power output, the component
parts are smaller than an open cycle. It gives a better load performance compared to open
system.
The basic working medium is air. Compressed air from auxiliary compressor and
exhaust air of turbine driving compressor passing through the pre-cooler enters the
high pressure air before entering the air heater splits in 2 parts, one part serving the
power turbine is used for internal combustion in the air heater and another part which
does not mix with the fuel is heated by the heat of external combustion so that all the time
this part of air may be circulated in a closed system. The exhaust of power turbine goes to
atmosphere.

9.6. CLOSED CYCLE GAS TURBINE VERSUS OPEN CYCLE GAS TURBINE:

## The following are the advantages of closed cycle plant:

1. These are external combustion plants. Because of external firing, a wide variety of
cheaper fuels can be burned. The product of combustion does not come in direct
contact with turbine blades and so there is no fouling of blades and heat transfer
surfaces. The working fluid does not contain combustion products, the parts are not
subjected to carbon deposits and remains relatively clean. The compressor also
remains free of dust and other foreign deposits as the working medium is cleaned
before putting into the system. With this, life of plant increases.
2. For same temperature limits, the thermal efficiency is higher.
3. In closed cycle plant, the working fluid is placed in the system under an initial
overall high pressure. So, size of the plant is reduced.
As the working medium is not involved in combustion, gases of higher density and
higher specific heat than air such as xenon, krypton, argon etc. can be used as
working fluid.
With increased density of working fluid, size of all parts can be reduced for same
power output. It also permits use of higher temperature.
4. The open cycle plant must necessarily operate on air. The closed cycle plant may
use any gas (generally monoatomic gases such as krypton argon etc.) which gives
increased plant efficiency and power output.
5. In open cycle gas turbine, the gas from turbine is exhausted into atmosphere.
In closed cycle gas turbine, the exhaust from turbine passes into a cooling
chamber and reused again.
6. In open cycle gas turbine plant the part load efficiency is low because load
regulation is achieved by varying turbine inlet temperature.
In closed cycle gas turbine, operating at constant speed, load regulation is
achieved by changing the pressure level in the system through varying quantity of
working fluid in the cycle, temperature remaining constant. This results in improved
The following are the disadvantages of closed cycle:
1. In closed cycle paint, a coolant is required for turbine exhaust, before it enters the
compressor. In open cycle gas turbine, atmosphere acts as sink and so no coolant is
required.
2. The load control of closed system is complex and costly. As the initial pressure -
compressor inlet pressure is high, and working fluid is other than air, the system
has to be gas tight and strong enough to resist higher pressures.
3. The maintenance cost is high.
4. The system is complicated.
5. Overall gas to gas heat transfer coefficients are of low magnitude and hence a
relatively larger heater is required which is relatively in efficient.
6. In closed cycle plant, the advantage of efficient internal combustion is eliminated.

## 9.7. ACTUAL BRAYTON CYCLE: REAL GAS TURBINE CYCLE:

The actual gas turbine cycle differs from theoretical cycle in the following main respects.

## Fig.9.6: Ideal and Actual Gas turbine cycle

Fig.9.6.shows the ideal and actual gas turbine cycles on P-V and T-S diagram.

Because of high fluid velocities in the system, friction occurs among molecules of
air and between air and the casing. This causes internal generation of heat.

1. Due to frictional losses in the compressor and turbine, the compression and expansion
processes are not frictionless but take place with some increase in entropy.
(Irreversible adiabatic processes) In ideal case, the compressor and turbine
efficiencies are 100% but in actual practice, the efficiencies are less.
2. The fluid velocities are high in turbo machinery, hence the change in kinetic energy
between inlet and outlet of each component should be considered. This may be taken
care of considering stagnation values of properties instead of static values.
3. The mass of gas flowing through the turbine is (1 + F/A) times the mass of air
flowing through the compressor where F/A represents Fuel-Air ratio.
4. A small pressure loss occurs in the combustion chamber and exhaust hood to
turbine which can be neglected for simplification of problems.
= = this pressure drop occurs due to fluid friction.

5. The specific heals of the working fluid vary throughout the cycle due to changes of
temperature and chemical composition. The specific heal of products of combustion is
slightly higher than that of air.
6. Some power is lost in transmitting power between turbine and compressor due to bearing
and windage friction and in driving the ancillary components as fuel and oil pumps.
In the diagram, p3 - p2 represents the pressure loss in the combustion chamber. In this
cycle,
1-2 : Ideal isentropic compression
1-2 : Actual compression
3-4 : Ideal or Theoretical expansion
3-4 : Actual expansion

Analysis of open cycle gas turbine can be taken up in the same way as closed cycle
gas turbine. Equations derived for closed cycle gas turbine can be used for open cycle gas
turbine also. Similarly, whatever modifications we do to an open cycle gas turbine to
improve its efficiency, can be done on closed cycle gas turbine also.
9.8. ANALYSIS OF CLOSED CYCLE GAS TURBINE (JOULE OR BRAYTON CYCLE):
The Fig.9.7. shows P-V and T-S diagrams of a closed cycle gas turbine

## Fig.9.7: Joules or Brayton cycle

Generally, the following assumptions are made in the analysis of an ideal gas turbine cycle:
1. The compression and expansion processes in the compressor and turbine are
2. The kinetic energy of the working fluid doesnt change between inlet and outlet of
each component
3. There is no loss of pressure anywhere in the ducts. Also, there is no loss of pressure
in combustion chamber, and heat exchangers. (Intercooler, reheater etc.).
4. The working fluid is a perfect gas with constant specific heats and has the
same composition throughout the cycle. Also, mass flow of gas is constant
throughout the cycle.
5. If used, the heat exchanger is of counter flow type and has 100% efficiency. The
temperature rise on cold side is maximum possible and exactly equal to temperature
drop on hot side.

## Referring to the figure,

1-2 : Isentropic compression in compressor
2-3 : Constant pressure heat addition in combustion chamber
3-4 : Isentropic expansion in turbine
4-1 : Constant pressure heat rejection

## For the flow of 1 kg of working fluid,

Heat supplied during the cycle : Qsup = (h3 - h2) = Cp (T3 - T2)
Heat rejected during the cycle : Qrej = ( h4 - hl ) = Cp (T4 - T1)
Work done by the turbine : WT = (h3 - h4) = Cp (T3 - T4)
Work absorbed by the compressor: WC= (h2 - h1) = Cp (T2 - T1)

## Net work = (Work done by turbine - Work absorbed by the compressor)

= WT - WC
= {Cp (T3 - T4) - Cp (T2 - T1)}
Net heat = (Heat supplied during the cycle - Heat rejected during the cycle)
= Qsup - Qrej
= {Cp (T3 - T2) - Cp (T4 - T1)}

W= Q

Wnet = Qnet

## Wnet= Qsup - Qrej = {Cp (T3 - T2) - Cp (T4 - T1)}

Thermal efficiency = =

=

=

= 1-

We know that
Compression and expansion processes are isentropic processes (pv= c)

= and =

= = = =

= =

## Now cycle efficiency,

= 1-

= 1-

= 1-

= 1-

= 1-

So, we observe from the above equation that thermal efficiency or efficiency of
Brayton cycle is same as that of Otto cycle. For the turbine and compressor work, we
have neglected the change in kinetic and potential energies. We assume that change in
energies is negligibly small compared with changes of enthalpy.
The efficiency increases progressively with increasing value of pressure ratio as
shown in Fig.9.8.

## Fig.9.8: Thermal efficiency vs. Pressure ratio

When a gas turbine is used in electricity generating plant, whole of the expansion of
gas takes place in turbine and the generator mounted on the shaft of turbine generates
electricity. Such turbine is known as power turbine.
When it is used in jet engines, the gas is expanded partially in the turbine to
drive the compressor and accessories and rest of the expansion takes place in a nozzle
placed immediately after turbine, to produce high velocity jet for propulsion of air
craft, it is known as Aviation or aircraft turbine.
The ideal efficiency of the cycle is independent of maximum and minimum cycle
temperatures and depends on pressure ratio only. The work ratio depends upon the
pressure ratio as well as temperature ratio.
However, the thermal efficiency or efficiency of actual cycle with irreversibilities in
compression and expansion processes depends on maximum and minimum temperatures
of the cycle and the pressure ratio. Minimum temperature is fixed by atmospheric
temperature and maximum temperature depends upon the metallurgical state of the
compressor and highly stressed turbine blades.
The value of optimum pressure ratio for maximum thermal efficiency is small. So,
the plants are generally designed for optimum pressure ratio for maximum specific work
output. With higher temperature, the optimum value of pressure ratio for both maximum
thermal efficiency and specific work output increase.

## 9.9. MACHINE EFFICIENCIES:

In a gas turbine plant, the compressor and turbine have individual efficiencies.

Turbine efficiency =

Compressor efficiency =

These definitions are based on internal work or dont take into consideration
(a) Bearing losses
(b) Transmission losses
(c) Auxiliary equipment power
All these losses follow different laws from thermodynamic laws being function of
speed rather than rate of flow and none of them return energy to the gas. So, they are
mentioned as - Mechanical losses.
When these efficiencies are taken into account, the T-S diagram gets modified as
shown in Fig.9.9.

## Fig.9.9: Closed cycle gas turbine

Referring to the diagram,
1-2: Isentropic compression
1-2: Actual compression
3-4: Isentropic expansion
3-4: Actual expansion

Turbine efficiency =

=

=

Compressor efficiency =

=

=

9.10. CYCLE AIR RATE
The Thermal efficiency is a measure of fuel economy. In many applications,
especially in aviation, size of plant is also important. The size of plant depends on the rate
of flow of air in relation to useful power output.

Air rate is defined as the air flow required in kgs. per kwh output. Thus,

Air rate AR =

The reciprocal of air rate is termed as specified power. Air rate is the criterion of the
size of the plant. Lower the air rate, smaller the plant size.
9.11. WORK RATIO
It is the ratio of net work obtained from the plant to the turbine work.

Work ratio rw =

=
=

= 1-

= 1-

A good gas turbine should have high thermal efficiency, low air rate and high work
ratio. The cycle efficiency is a function of pressure ratio only whereas work ratio is a
function of pressure ratio and temperature ratio, of the cycle. Thus, in actual plants, the
efficiency depends upon both pressure ratio and temperature ratio. Hence, to increase
work ratio and consequently the plant efficiency, the inlet temperature to compressor T1
should be as low as possible and the temperature at the end of compression T3 should be as
high as possible.
In practice, the lower temperature is normally the atmospheric temperature and
higher temperature is decided by the metallurgical conditions - The temperature the
material of the compressor can withstand.
To increase work ratio either compressor work should be decreased or turbine work
should be increased.
9.12. METHODS TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY AND SPECIFIC OUTPUT OF
SIMPLE CYCLE:
The efficiency and work ratio of simple gas turbine are very low. These may be
increased by the following methods.
1. Regeneration
2. Increasing the turbine output
3. Reducing the compressor input

Regeneration is done by preheating the air with the exhaust of the turbine thus saving
fuel.

## The turbine output may be increased by:

(a) Reheating: The whole expansion in the turbine is carried out in 2 or more stages and
reheating of gas is done after each stage.
(b) Increasing the value of maximum cycle temperature. This requires better quality of fuel,
materials which can withstand higher temperatures and methods to cool the blade
material.
The compressor input can be reduced by:
(a) Intercooling: Whole compression is carried out in 2 or more stages and the air or gas
is cooled after compression in each stage.
(b) Water Injection: By injecting water at inlet to compressor, work output and efficiency
can be increased.
By designing the turbine and compressor efficiently, turbine work can be increased and
compressor work can be decreased to some extent.

## 9.12.1. GAS TURBINE CYCLE WITH HEAT EXCHANGER OR REGENERATOR:

The exhaust gases from a gas turbine carry a large quantity of heat with them
as their temperature remains still high. To achieve fuel economy, the heat from hot
exhaust gases from turbine can be used. The heat of exhaust gases can be transferred to
air before going to combustion chamber; thereby reducing the mass of fuel supplied in the
combustion chamber. In the plant, the air delivered by the compressor passes through a
heat exchanger (Regenerator) through which exhaust gases from turbine flow in opposite
direction. Essentially it is a counter flow heat exchanger. As there is a saving in fuel
consumption by employing a heat exchanger, the thermal efficiency will be higher
accordingly. The net work is not affected by the addition of regenerator, but only amount
of heat required to be supplied is decreased.
The Fig.9.10 shows an open cycle gas turbine plant with a regenerator.

## Fig.9.10: Open cycle gas turbine with regenerator

The Fig.9.11 shows corresponding T-S diagrams of actual and ideal cycle
Fig.9.11: Open cycle gas turbine with regenerator

The process 1 -2-x-3-4-y-1 shows the ideal cycle, The high pressure air at state
(2) from compressor passes through the regenerator where it is heated at constant pressure
by exhaust gases and consequently, the temperature of exhaust gases drops down.
With perfect heat exchange in the regenerator, in ideal case, theoretically it is
possible to raise the temperature of the compressed air from T2 to Tx = T4 and lower the
temperature of gas leaving the turbine from T4 to Ty = T2 In other words, temperature of
air leaving the heat exchanger will be equal to temperature of exhaust gas entering the
regenerator and the temperature of exhaust gas leaving the regenerator will be equal to
temperature of air entering the regenerator. The air from regenerator at temperature 4
then passes through the combustion chamber where it is heated from Tx to T3.
The amount of heat required from external source is reduced by Qx. So, heat
required from external source to raise the temperature to T3 is only:

## Qx = (h3 hx) = Cp (T3 Tx) = Cp (T3 T4)

The maximum temperature to which the air could be heated in the heat exchanger is ideally
that of exhaust gases, but less than this is obtained in obtained in practice because a
temperature gradient must exit for an unassisted transfer of energy. The effectiveness of the
heat exchanger is given by :

Effectiveness =

=

=

A regenerator improves thermal efficiency but does not improve the work ratio. The
work ratio may be increased either by decreasing the compressor work or by increasing the
turbine work.

## 9.12.2. GAS TURBINE CYCLE WITH INTERCOOLER:

First, the atmospheric air is compressed in the first stage compressor (also called as
low pressure compressor) to some intermediate pressure pi. The temperature rises from T1
to T2. Now, this compressed air passes to an intercooler. In ideal intercooler, the
compressed air is cooled to its original temperature (T3 = T1) but keeping the pressure
constant pi. Now, this cooled, compressed air is again compressed in the second stage
compressor. (Also called as High pressure compressor) to final pressure p2 and after
second stage compression, the compressed air goes to combustion chamber.
The Fig.9.12 shows an open cycle gas turbine plant with an intercooler.

## Fig.9.12: Open cycle gas turbine with intercooler

The Fig.9.13 shows corresponding T-S diagrams of actual and ideal cycle with inter
cooling.

## Fig.9.13: Open cycle gas turbine with intercooler

On T-S diagram, near origin, the pressure lines are close and they get separated
widely with increasing values of entropy. So, it is obvious from the idea! T-S diagram
that vertical intercept 3-4 is smaller than 2-a. So, it is obvious that work done on
compressor is decreased with intercooling at intermediate pressure.
If the whole compression is carried out in a single stage from 1 to a: (from p1 to p2) then
heat supplied in the combustion chamber would be (h5 - ha) only. But, by employing
intercooling, heat supplied is increased by (ha-h4). Heat supplied in the intercooler is a
complete loss as it is not converted into useful work. So, the effect of intercooling is
to decrease the thermal efficiency.
The specific work output is maximum when pressure ratios of both the compressors
are equal (p2/p1 =P4/P3) unless a regenerator is employed, the efficiency reduces.

## In case of ideal cycle, thermal efficiency

Thermal efficiency = =

Heat supplied during the cycle : Qsup = (h5 h4') = Cp (T5 T4')
Heat rejected during the cycle : Qrej = ( h6' - hl ) = Cp (T6' - T1)
Work done by the turbine : WT = (h5 h6') = Cp (T5 T6')
Work absorbed by the compressor: WC = WLPC + WHPC
Low pressure compressor work = WLPC = (h2' - h1) = Cp (T2' - T1)
High pressure compressor work = WHPC = (h4' h3) = Cp (T4' T3)

## Work absorbed by the compressor: WC = (h2' - h1) + (h4' h3)

= Cp (T2' - T1) + Cp (T4' T3)

## Net work = (Work done by turbine - Work absorbed by the compressor)

= WT - WC
= {Cp (T3 - T4) [Cp (T2' - T1) + Cp (T4' T3)]}

For perfect intercooling; T1 = T3 After first stage compression, if the air can be
cooled back to original atmospheric tempeature, then it is called perfect intercooling.
For minimum compressor work;

Pressure ratio ( rp ) = =

Intermediate pressure = p2 =

For minimum compressor work and perfect intercooling, work input for 2 stages is
equal or work is equally shared between 2 stages.
When intercooling is to be employed, supply of cooling water is a must. Intercooled
compression is generally not used because of bulk and large quantity of cooling
water requirement.

## 9.12.3. GAS TURBINES WITH REHEATING:

The output of a gas turbine plant can be increased considerably by expanding the hot
gases in 2 or more stages of turbines with a reheater between 2 stages.
The Fig.9.14 shows an open cycle gas turbine plant with a reheater.

## Fig.9.14: Open cycle gas turbine with a reheater

The Fig.9.15 shows actual and ideal T-S diagram

## Fig.9.15: Open cycle gas turbine with reheating

The hot gases from the combustion chamber are expanded partially in first stage
turbine (3-4) and then heated again in a device called - reheater at constant pressure
and then finally expanded in the second stage turbine. (5-6). the first stage turbine is
also called as High pressure turbine and second stage turbine is called as Low pressure
turbine.
In case of ideal cycle, thermal efficiency

Thermal efficiency = =

Heat supplied during the cycle : Qsup = (h3 h2') = Cp (T3 T2') + Cp (T5 T4')
Heat rejected during the cycle : Qrej = ( h6' - hl ) = Cp (T6' - T1)
Work done by the compressor : WC = (h2' h1) = Cp (T2' T1)
Work absorbed by the turbine : WT = WLPT + WHPT
Low pressure turbine work = WLPT = (h5 h6') = Cp (T5 - T6')
High pressure turbine work = WHPT = (h3 h4') = Cp (T3 T4')

## Work absorbed by the turbine : WT = (h5 h6') + (h3 h4')

= Cp (T5 - T6') + Cp (T3 T4')

## Net work = (Work done by turbine - Work absorbed by the compressor)

= WT - WC
= {[Cp (T5 - T6') + Cp(T3 T4')] - Cp (T2' T1) }

In reheat cycle, the compressor work remains constant but turbine work increases.
The verticle distance (3 - b) is less than (3 - 4) + (5 - 6). So, by expanding the gases in 2
stages, turbine work is increased.
For ideal reheating, T3 = T5. This temperature being maximum in the cycle has
certain limits due to material of nozzle and highly stressed turbine blades - Metallurgical
conditions of the materials. The reheating can be extended to more than 2 stages but
seldom done.
If index of expansion is same for both stages and reheating is perfect; then for
maximum work of turbine;
Pressure ratio ( rp ) = =
Intermediate pressure = p4 =

Pressure ratios for both the turbines are equal. This indicates that for maximum
work, temperature drops are equal in both turbines and work output from both turbines is
equal.
With reheating, specific work output and work ratio increase but thermal efficiency
decreases due to higher exhaust temperature. This reduction in efficiency becomes
less severe as maximum cycle temperature is increased.
Although network is increased by reheating, heat supplied is also increased. If work is
not obtained proportionately for the extra amount of heat supplied during reheating, then the
net effect may be reduction in thermal efficiency.
9.13. GAS TURBINE WITH COMBINED PROCESSES:
The following figures show arrangement of different components and T-S diagram
when the above said processes are combined in open cycle gas turbine. The above
processes can be implemented in case of closed cycle gas turbines also.
9.13.1. GAS TURBINE WITH INTERCOOLING AND REGENERATION:
The Fig.9.16 shows an open cycle gas turbine plant and its corresponding T-S diagram

## Fig.9.16: Open Cycle Gas Turbine with Intercooling and Regeneration

By using intercooling and regeneration systems, the output and thermal efficiency
are increased. The output is increased due to intercooling and efficiency due to
regeneration.
9.13.2. GAS TURBINE WITH REHEAT AND REGENERATION:
The Fig.9.17 shows an open cycle gas turbine plant with reheat and regeneration
corresponding T-S diagram.

## The reduction in thermal efficiency due to reheat can be overcome by combining it

with regenerator because the higher exhaust gas temperature is fully utilised in the heat
exchanger.
The efficiency of heat exchange cycle is more with reheat than without reheat.

## 9.13.3. GAS TURBINE WITH INTERCOOLING AND REHEATING:

The Fig.9.18 shows open cycle gas turbine plant with intercooling and reheating a
corresponding T-S diagram.
The output of this cycle is much more but thermal efficiency is less compared to
simple cycle as there is no regenerator to increase the thermal efficiency.
Fig.9.18: Open cycle gas turbine with intercooling and reheating

## 9.13.4. GAS TURBINE WITH INTERCOOLING, REGENERATION AND

REHEATING:
The Fig.9.19 shows an open cycle gas turbine with intercooling, regeneration and
reheating and corresponding T - S diagram.
The power output as well as thermal efficiency of this cycle is much greater than
simple cycle. Power output is increased due to reheat and intercooling while thermal
efficiency increases due to regeneration.

Note: For solving problems on gas turbines, it is important to know the temperatures at all
states in the cycle.
Fig.9.19: Open cycle gas turbine with intercooling, regeneration and reheating

## 9.14. EFFECT OF OPERATING VARIABLES ON THERMAL EFFICIENCY:

The thermal efficiency of an actual, simple open cycle gas turbine depends on the following
variables:
1. Pressure ratio (p2/p1)

## 3. Compressor inlet (T1).

4. Turbine efficiency.
5. Compressor efficiency.
9.14.1. EFFECT OF PRESSURE RATIO AND TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURE:

Fig.9.20: Variation of thermal efficiency with turbine inlet temperature and pressure
ratio

The Fig.9.20 shows the variation of thermal efficiency with turbine inlet
temperature and pressure ratio. When other variables are kept constant, thermal
efficiency increases as the turbine inlet temperature increases. For each value of turbine
inlet temperature, there exists an optimum pressure ratio which gives maximum thermal
efficiency. For lower values of turbine inlet temperature, the thermal efficiency
increases first and then after reaching a maximum value, drops rapidly. For higher
values of turbine inlet temperature, the peaks of the curves are flatter and give greater
range of optimum value of pressure ratio. The turbine inlet temperature is limited by the
blade material to withstand high thermal stresses.
As the pressure ratio increases, the thermal efficiency also increases to a maximum
value and then drops with further increase of pressure ratio.

## 9.14.2. EFFECT OF COMPRESSOR INLET TEMPERATURE OR

TEMPERATURE OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR:
The Fig.9.21 shows variation of thermal efficiency with compressor inlet temperature.
As the temperature of the air (atmospheric air) at compressor inlet reduces, the
thermal efficiency increases.
Fig.9.21: Variation of Thermal efficiency with compressor inlet temperature

## 9.14.3. EFFECT OF TURBINE AND COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCIES:

The Fig.9.22 shows variation of thermal efficiency with turbine and compressor efficiencies.

## Fig.9.22: Variation of thermal efficiency with efficiency of turbine and compressor

The thermal efficiency is very sensitive to changes in the efficiencies of compressor
and turbine. As these efficiencies increase, the thermal efficiency increases. There is a
particular pressure ratio for each set of component efficiency.

## 9.15. GAS TURBINE COMPONENTS

The basic components in a gas turbine plant are:
1. Compressor
2. Combustion chamber
3. Turbine.
For proper and efficient running of the plant, there are auxiliary systems, like
cooling, lubrication etc. The overall efficiency of the plant depends upon its
component efficiencies.

## 9.15.1. COMBUSTION CHAMBERS:

The combustion chamber plays a vital role in a gas turbine plant. It has to burn large
amount of fuel with extensive volume of air supplied by the compressor and has to release
the heated air to give a smooth steam of gas at uniform temperature at all conditions
required by the turbine. In open cycle gas turbine, the air - fuel ratio varies from 50:1 to
200:1 to get efficient combustion.
In open cycle gas turbine plant, the function of combustion chamber is to
satisfy many requirements - high combustion efficiency, lower pressure drop, stability and
efficiency at all air-fuel ratios, high degree of mixing, low emission of pollutants,
reliability and durability etc. The requirements may vary depending upon the application
of gas turbine. For aviation purposes, small size and low weight are important while for
industrial applications, long life is important. In some applications, multi fuel capability
may be desired.
The main function of a combustion chamber is to effect the chemical combustion of
oxygen present in the air with carbon and hydrogen components of fuel.

## The requirements of a combustion chamber are:

1. Primary requirement is efficiency, satisfactory combustion.
2. The transfer of energy should be with minimum pressure loss.
3. The combustion efficiency should be high.
4. Flame stability should be maintained at all air-fuel ratios, range of pressures
and inlet temperatures.
5. There should be high degree of mixing (cold air with hot products of
combustion) and no deposits of carbon.
6. It should have minimum size, weight and frontal area.
7. The heat loss due to friction, turbulence and radiation should be minimum.
8. It should have maximum life, high reliability and minimum maintenance.

## Types of combustion chambers:

There are 3 important types of combustion chambers:
1. Tubular or can type combustion chamber.
2. Annular combustion chamber
3. annular or turbo annular combustion chamber. These are shown in Fig.9.23.

## In type (a), a cylindrical liner is mounted concentrically inside a cylindrical casing.

These are most suitable for air craft gas turbines using centrifugal compressors because the
air stream is already divided by the diffuser vanes.
In type (b), an annular liner is mounted concentrically inside an annular casing. The
combustion chamber is made up of 4 concentric surfaces surrounding the axis of the
rotor forming 3 chambers on either side of the rotor. The middle casing acts as a tube for
flame, the inner and outer casings act as air casing. Working is similar to that of can type
combustion chamber. At the front end, a series of burners are provided on a support plate.
Type (c) is a modification of annular chamber. The air casing is a common annular
chamber. Independent flame tubes are provided in the air casing. A group of
cylindrical liners is arranged inside a single annular casing. It combines the compactness
of annular chamber with the advantages of tubular system- It gives better agitation of gas.

Combustion process:
The combustion of a fuel involves.
1. Breaking of heavy hydrocarbons into lighter ones.
2. Thorough mixing of these molecules with oxygen molecules.
3. Vaporization of droplets.
4. Chemical reaction between the molecules.

Air from compressor enters the combustion chamber at a high velocity of about 175
m/sec. At this speed of air, combustion can't be initiated and sustained properly. So, the
combustion chamber must diffuse it - reduce the velocity and raise its static pressure. It is
achieved with a diffuser.
The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber is about 16:1 while the
operating ratio is about 100: 1 to 120:1. So, for combustion, the air should be introduced
in stages - i.e., the fuel must be burned with part of entering air. This is achieved by
means of a flame tube (combustion liner) that has various devices for air distribution along
the chamber.
The air enters the combustion chamber in 3 stages - primary, secondary and teritary
(dilution). Around 15 - 20 % of air (primary) enters first for combustion. Air -fuel ratio in
the primary zone is around 15: 1. About 30% of total air then enters the secondary zone
through the holes in the flame tube. For high combustion efficiency, the air must be
introduced carefully to avoid dropping down of the temperature of the flame reducing the
reaction rate. Finally, in the dilution zone, remaining air is mixed with the products of
combustion to cool them to the temperature required at the turbine inlet. Sufficient
turbulence should be provided so that cold air steam mixes thoroughly with hot products
of combustion to give uniform outlet temperature distribution.
A spark initiated by spark plug initiates combustion and for this purpose, an ignition
system is provided.
Can type combustion chamber:
The Fig.9.24 shows a typical can type combustion chamber.

## Fig.9.24: Can type combustion chamber

In this, the air leaving the compressor is split into several streams and each stream is
supplied to a cylindrical can type combustion chamber. In this chamber, the air - fuel ratio
varies from 60: 1 to 120: 1. Air velocity at entrance to combustion chamber is limited to 75
m/sec. usually, the fuel is refined kerosene.
The primary air is introduced directly into fuel burner and the secondary air enters
the annulus round the flame tube.
The main function of primary air is to mix with the atomised fuel forming a turbulent
mixture and get ignited. Other functions of primary air are:
1. It keeps preventing carbon formation on burner tip.
2. It is passed through swirl vanes which cause reversal of gas flow. It helps in
stabilization of flame - extinction of (lame by high velocity air is prevented.
3. It produces an envelope around the flame and prevents the flame touching the walls.

The secondary air cools the upper portion of flame tube and then enters the
secondary or combustion zone. It helps in complete combustion through dilution holes.
It keeps the gas agitated forming a homogeneous mixture, preventing hot spots in the
flame tube. Dissociation losses are recovered.
For flame stability, there is a limit for air - fuel ratio and the limit is taken at flame
blow out. Unstability of flame results in rough running with consequent effect on the life of
combustion chamber. To prevent heat loss from the combustion zone, the flame tube is
often provided with a refractory lining.

## Comparison of combustion chambers

combustion chambers
Table.9.1. Comparison of combustion chambers
Factors affecting performance of combustion chamber:
The following factors affect the performance of a combustion chamber
1. Pressure loss
2. Outlet temperature distribution
3. Combustion stability
4. Combustion efficiency
5. Combustion intensity.

## The pressure loss in a combustion chamber is due to 2 reasons

(a) Skin friction and turbulence
(b) Rise in temperature due to combustion.
A uniform outlet temperature distribution helps in reducing hot spots and thermal
Stability of combustion refers to smooth burning and ability of flame to sustain over a
wide operating range. Beyond certain limits of air- fuel ratios (rich and weak), the flame
becomes unstable.

9.15.2. COMPRESSORS:
A gas turbine compressor must be able to handle large volumes of the working
fluid at considerable high pressure with highest possible efficiency. Also, it must function
well when coupled to the gas turbine which runs at very high speed. - about 40000 RPM.
To meet these requirements, only centrifugal or axial flow compressors can be
employed. Reciprocating compressors can't be used with gas turbines.
(For details of compressors, kindly refer Thermal engineering - I of the same publishers).

9.15.3. TURBINES
The turbines used in the gas turbine plant are of radial flow type or axial flow type
similar to steam turbines. Radial flow turbine has limited applications and used only in
small engines axial flow turbine is widely used in many applications. Similar to steam
turbines, the gas turbines also may be of impulse or reaction types.
In aviation, small size and low weight of turbine are essential at the cost of
operating life. Generally 2 stages of expansion are employed and remaining expansion
takes place in a nozzle to produce jet thrust.
In industrial applications, fuel economy and long life are important. Large number
of stages is employed in these turbines.

## * Analysis of gas turbines is similar to steam turbines.

9.16. PERFORMANCE OF GAS TURBINES:

## 9.17. APPLICATIONS OF GAS TURBINES:

The most important application is in aviation. On land, they have wide application in
oil fields. Main advantages of gas turbines are: Simplicity, high power/weight ratio,
smooth running, high reliability, suitability for combined cycle etc. The applications are:

Aviation: Compared to reciprocating I.C. engines, for same power, gas turbines
are smaller in size and lower in weight. So, widely used in aviation.
Central Stations: For electric generating stations, gas turbines are used for both
base load regeneration and for peak loads. Low initial cost, quick starting and
possibility of remote control make gas turbines very useful. In case of total
breakdown of electrical supply, gas turbines are still capable of starting - They can
operate completely independent of main electric supply.
An open cycle gas turbine doesn't require a source of water and so they have
very useful application in power stations having limited water resources.
Combination with Steam Plant: Exhaust of gas turbine is about 400C and
temperature of flue gases in steam plants is about 200C. The energy can be
recovered to
o Generate low pressure steam for different purposes
o To preheat air or feed water for the boiler.

## By combining with steam plant, the overall efficiency can be increased.

Industry: Gas turbines have been used for transport of natural gas, crude oil
pumping, chemical processing, refineries, power supply for laboratories, blast
furnace air etc.
Transportation: Gas turbines can be used on locomotives and cars. Advantages of
gas turbines in vehicles;
o Uniform torque and absence of vibrations. Smooth operation and better
comfort.
o Compact and light
o Reduced pollution due to complete combustion
o Cheaper fuels can be employed.
o Easy to control and less maintenance
o Easy cold starting and less lubrication.
Disadvantages are - Poor part load efficiency, braking is not easy, initial cost, delay in
acceleration due to high inertia of parts.

Marine: In marine field, gas turbines have limited applications. War ships are
powered by gas turbines. Although the specific fuel consumption is poor in this
field, they give higher speeds.

Space: Gas turbines can be used in turbojet and turbo prop for providing thrust.
9.18. COMPARISON OF GAS TURBINES WITH STEAM TURBINES:

The following are the advantages and disadvantages of gas turbines over steam turbines:
1. No feed water system is required
2. Components in the system are less
3. Maintenance cost is less as generally the working fluid is air (closed cycle gas
turbine may use other gases).
4. No condensing plant.
5. No boiler is required.
6. It is quick to start
7. It has low power/weight ratio - advantageous in aviation.
8. Operating pressure is low
9. The initial and operating costs are less.
10. With changing load conditions, it is easy to control.
11. It requires less space for installation.

1. The part load efficiency is poor.
2. Although cooled, the life of turbine is less due to high temperature.
3. Thermal efficiency is slightly lower.
4. Air rate is higher.

## 9.19. COMPARISON OF GAS TURBINES WITH I.C. ENGINES

The following are the advantages of gas turbines over I.C. engines:
1. For unit power, the specific weight is lower and size is smaller - important for
aviation
2. Installation and running cost is less
3. Efficiency is higher.
4. Balance is better due to absence of reciprocating parts.
5. Torque produced is uniform and so no flywheel is required.
6. Lubrication and ignition systems are simple.
7. It can run at very high speed.
8. The pressures are comparatively low.
9. The exhaust is free from smoke and less polluting.
10. Simple gas turbines require no cooling. Even modified cycles require little
cooling.
11. In gas turbines, expansion is carried out upto atmospheric pressure which increases
the work done. Due to absence of reciprocating parts, its mechanical efficiency is
also higher. (95 - 97%) compared to I.C. engines (85%).
12. In gas turbines, the processes take place in different components and so they can
be designed, tested and developed individually. This allows greater variation in the
arrangement depending upon duty, desired performance and space.
13. Gas turbine is a simple plant, needs less maintenance.
14. Gas turbine is a rugged machine and so it can be left uncared for a long period.
15. Gas turbines especially closed cycle gas turbines can burn almost any type of
fuel without affecting the efficiency too much.
16. The capacity or output of I.C. engines is limited by poor volumetric efficiency
at high speeds. Detonation and knocking also limit their capacity. In gas
turbines, the flow is steady and continuous and so there's no problem of
detonation and knocking.
1. I.C. engines are much more efficient than gas turbines.
2. The maximum pressure and temperature are low compared to I.C. engines. The
tempera- tures in gas turbines are kept in limit due to metallurgical limitations of
3. Gas turbines have poor part load efficiency.
4. Gas turbines are sensitive to component efficiencies. Reduction in the efficiency
of one component affects the overall efficiency of the plant.
5. In gas turbines, mass flow rate is very high which results in large exhaust losses.
6. To obtain high efficiency closer to that of I.C. engines, gas turbines should be
provided with regenerator etc. which increase complexity and cost of the plant.
7. Gas turbine is not a self starting unit. Power required to start it is high.
8. For gas turbines, cost of manufacture is high due to use of high resistant
materials and special manufacturing processes for blades.
9. Gas turbines are slow in response to acceleration.
10. Gas turbines run at high speeds and so a costly reduction gear has to be used for
normal industrial applications.
9.20. CONSTANT VOLUME COMBUSTION TURBINE
The Fig.9.26 shows the typical performance characteristics of gas turbines.

## Fig.9.26: Constant volume combustion gas turbine cycle

In a constant volume combustion turbine, the compressed air from an air compressor C is
admitted into the combustion chamber D through the valve A when the valve A is closed, the fuel is
admitted into the combustion chamber by means of a fuel pump P. then the mixture is ignited by
means of spark plug S. the combustion takes place at constant volume with increase of pressure. The
valve B opens and the hot gases flow to the turbine T, and finally they are discharged into
atmosphere. The energy of hot gases is thereby converted into mechanical energy. For continuous
running of the turbine these operations are repeated.
The main demerit associated with this type of turbine is that the pressure difference and
velocities of hot gases are not constant; so the turbine speed fluctuates.
UNIT 7

1. A gas turbine plant with a pressure ratio of 1:5 takes in air at 15 C. The maximum
temperature is 600C and develops 2200 kW. The turbine and compressor efficiencies are
equal to 0.85. Assume cp=1 kj/ kgk and cv=0.714 kj/kgk, determine actual overall efficiency
of the turbine and mass of the air circulated by the turbine.

2. In a ideal brayton cycle air from the atmosphere at 1 atm 300k is compressed to 6 atm and
the maximum cycle temperature is limited to 1100k by using large air fuel ratio. If the heat
supply is 100 MW , find the thermal efficiency of the cycle, work ratio, power output, energy
flow rate of the exhaust gas leaving the turbine.

3. In a constant pressure open cycle gas turbine air enters at 1 bar and 20C and leaves the
compressed at 5 bar. Calculate a) the quantity of air circulation in the plant develops 1065
kW. B) heat supplied per kg of air circulation c ) thermal efficiency of the cycle

4. Using the following data temperature of gases entering the turbine equal to 680 C pressure
loss in the combustion chamber equal to 0.1 bar, efficiency comp 85%,efficiency turbine
80%, efficiency combustion 85 %, gamma= 1.4 and cp=1.024 kj/ kgk for air and gas.
1. Title: Measurement of dryness fraction by Separating Calorimeter, Throttling
Calorimeter, Separating and Throttling Calorimeter.
2. Learning objectives:
2.1. Intellectual skills:
a) Measurement of Dryness fraction of steam.
b) Understanding various methods of measurement of Dryness fraction.
2.2. Motor skills:
a) Arrangement of various components for set up of Throttling, Separating,
Separating and Throttling calorimeter.
b) To measure the quality of steam.
3. Prior concept:
a) Steam generation, Steam quality
b) Steam properties
4. New concept:
1. Separating calorimeter:

The quality of wet steam is usually defined by its dryness fraction. When the dryness
fraction, pressure and temperature of the steam are known, then the state of wet steam is
fully defined. In a steam plant it is at times necessary to know the state of the steam. For
wet steam, this entails finding the dryness fraction. When the steam is very wet, we make
use of a separating calorimeter.

## Fig. 3.1 Separating calorimeter [xiii]

The steam is collected out of the main steam supply and enters the separator from the top.
The steam is forced to make a sharp turn when it hits the perforated cup (or any other
mechanism that produces the same effect). This results in a vortex motion in the steam, and
water separates out by the centrifugal action. The droplets then remain inside the separator
and are collected at the bottom, where the level can be recorded from the water glass. The dry
steam will pass out of the calorimeter into a small condenser for the collection of the
condensate. However, not all the water droplets remain in the collector tank. Some water
droplets pass through to the condenser, and hence this calorimeter only gives a close
approximation of the dryness fraction of the steam.

From the results obtained from the two collectors, the dryness fraction may then be found
from

Dryness fraction =

x=

Where,

## M is the mass of dry steam and

m is the mass of suspended water separated in the calorimeter in the same time.

Procedure:

## 1. Observe the setup

2. Identify all the connected equipments
3. Check the range of pressure gauge
4. Open the steam supply valve for a few seconds
5. Measure the condensate formed due to condensation of the moisture in the steam.
6. Measure the condensate formed due to condensation of the dry steam

Observation Table:

1 Boiler steam pressure, p1 (bar)
2 Mass of condensate collected, m (kg)
3 Mass of dry steam, M (kg)

Calculation:

## Dryness fraction (x) =

x=

Result:

The dryness fraction of the sample taken from the main stream is ______________________.

Example:

## In a laboratory experiment, a sample of wet steam is allowed to pass through a

separating calorimeter. At some instant, the water collected in the chamber was 0.1 kg
whereas the condensed steam was found to be 1.25 kg. Determine the dryness fraction of the
steam entering the calorimeter.

Solution:

## Dryness fraction of the steam x =

= 0.926
2. Throttling calorimeter:
If we have steam that is nearly dry, we make use of a throttling calorimeter as shown
in figure. This calorimeter is operated by first opening the stop valve fully so that the steam is
not partially throttled as it passes through the apparatus for a while to allow the pressure and
temperature to stabilize. If the pressure is very close to atmospheric pressure, the saturation
should be around 100C, it may be assumed that the steam is superheated.

When the conditions have become steady, the gauge pressure before throttling is read
from the pressure gauge. After throttling, the temperature and gauge pressure are read from
the thermometer and manometer respectively. The barometric pressure is also recorded.

From equation = ,

We have at p1 = at p2

+x = + Cp ( - )

And thus x=

Procedure:

## 1. Observe the setup

2. Identify all the connected equipments
3. Check the range of pressure gauge
4. Check the range of thermometer
5. Check the range of manometer
6. Open the steam supply valve for a short time
7. Measure the steam chest pressure (p1)
8. Measure the steam outlet pressure (p2)
9. Measure the outlet steam temperature (t2)

Observation Table:

1 Boiler steam pressure, p1 (bar)
2 Steam outlet pressure, p2 (bar)
3 Steam outlet temperature (C)

## a. Enthalpy of feed water ( ): ________________

b. Enthalpy of wet steam ( ):________________

## a. Saturation temperature at (p2): ____________________

b. Degree of superheat: Outlet steam temperature Saturation temperature
=( - )
= _____________
c. Enthalpy of superheated steam (hg2): ______________________

Calculations:

at p1 = at p2
+x = + Cp ( - )

And thus x=

x = _________________

Result:

The dryness fraction of the sample taken from the main stream is ______________________.
Example:

A throttling calorimeter is used to measure the dryness fraction of the steam in the
steam main which has steam flowing at a pressure of 8 bar. The steam after passing through
the calorimeter is at 1 bar pressure and 115 C.

Calculate the dryness fraction of the steam in the main. Take Cps = 2.1 kJ/kg K.

Solution:

## 1. Condition of steam before throttling:

Pressure, p1 = 8 bar, dryness fraction, x =?
2. Condition of steam after throttling:
Pressure, p2 = 1 bar, Temperature, = = 115C.

## c. Enthalpy of feed water ( ): 720.9 kJ/kg

d. Enthalpy of wet steam ( ): 2046.5 kJ/kg

## d. Saturation temperature at (p2): 99.6 C

e. Degree of superheat: Outlet steam temperature Saturation temperature
=( - )

= 115 99.6

at p1 = at p2
+x = + Cp ( - )

## 720.9 + x * 2046.5 = 417.5 + 2257.9 + 2.1 * (115 99.6)

x=

x = 0.97
3. Separating and throttling calorimeter:

If the steam whose dryness fraction is to be determined is very wet then throttling to
atmospheric pressure may not be sufficient to ensure superheated steam at exit. In this case it
is necessary to dry the steam partially, before throttling. This is done by passing the steam
sample from the main through a separating calorimeter as shown in figure. The steam is made
to change direction suddenly, and the water, being denser than the dry steam is separated out.
The quantity of water which is separated out (mw) is measured at the separator, the steam
remaining which now has a higher dryness fraction, is passed through the throttling
calorimeter. With the combined separating and throttling calorimeter it is necessary to
condense the steam after throttling and measure the amount of condensate (m s). If a throttling
calorimeter only is sufficient, there is no need to measure condensate, the pressure and
temperature measurements at exit being sufficient.

Let,

## = Dryness fraction of the steam at Throttling Calorimeter

Dryness fraction at 2 is , therefore, the mass of dry steam leaving the separating
calorimeter is equal to ms and this must be the mass of dry vapour in the sample drawn
from the main at state 1.

## Hence fraction in main, = =

The dryness fraction can be determined as follows:

= = + * ..at p2

= + + Cps ( - ) at pressure p3

## From Enthalpy at 2 = Enthalpy at 3

x2 =

The values of and are read from steam tables at pressure p2. The pressure in
the separator is small so that p1 is approximately equal to p2.

Procedure:

## 1. Observe the setup

2. Identify all the connected equipments
3. Check the range of pressure gauge
4. Check the range of thermometer
5. Check the range of manometer
6. Open the steam supply valve for a short time
7. Measure the steam chest pressure (p1)
8. Measure the steam outlet pressure (p2)
9. Measure the outlet steam temperature

Observation table:

1 Boiler steam pressure, p1 (bar)
2 Boiler steam temperature, (C)
3 Water condensate formed in separating calorimeter, m w (kg)
4 Steam outlet pressure at throttling calorimeter, p 2 (bar)
5 Outlet steam temperature from throttling calorimeter, (C)
6 Outlet steam pressure from throttling calorimeter, p 3 (bar)
7 Condensate collected at the throttling calorimeter, ms (kg)

## a. Enthalpy of feed water at state 2, : __________________

b. Enthalpy of wet steam at state 2, : _____________________
c. Temperature of the output steam ( )) : _________________
d. Saturation temperature at p3: ____________________
e. Degree of superheat: Outlet steam temperature Saturation temperature
=( - )
= _____________
f. Enthalpy of feed water at p3: _________________________
g. Enthalpy of wet steam at p3: _____________________________________
h. Enthalpy of Superheated steam at p3: __________________

Calculations:

1. x1 =

x1 =

x1 = _______________

2. = + + Cps ( - )

= ________________

3. = = + *
x2 =

x2 = ___________

4. = + *

= _____________

Result:

The dryness fraction of the sample taken from the main stream is ______________________.
Example:

## In a laboratory experiment, the following observations were taken with a separating

and a throttling calorimeter to find the dryness fraction of steam:

## a. Total quantity of steam passed = 36 kg

b. Water drained from separator = 1.8 kg
c. Steam pressure before throttling = 12 bar
d. Temperature of steam after throttling = 110 C
e. Pressure after throttling = 1.013 bar
f. Specific heat of steam = 2.1 kJ/kg K

Solution:

Given:

Let,

## x2 = Dryness fraction for throttling calorimeter

x = Actual dryness fraction entering the combined separating and throttling calorimeter

## From steam table, properties of steam

a. = 798.4 kJ/kg
b. = 1984.3 kJ/kg
c. Temperature of the output steam ( ) : 110 C
d. Saturation temperature of the output steam ( ) at p3: 100 C
e. Enthalpy of feed water at p3 ( ): 419.1 kJ /kg
f. Enthalpy of wet steam at p3( ): 2256.9 kJ/kg
g. Enthalpy of Superheated steam at p3: 2276 kJ/kg
Calculations:

## 1. We know that mass of dry steam, ms = (ms +mw) - mw

= 36 1.8

= 34.2 kg

= = 0.95 . x1

2. = + + Cps ( - )

## = 419.1 + 2256.9 + 2.1 * (110 - 100)

= 2697 kJ /kg

3. = = + *

x2 =

= 0.9568

4. Actual dryness fraction of the steam entering the combined separating and throttling
calorimeter,
x= *
x = 0.95 * 0.9568
x = 0.909 .. Ans
UNIT-III

## What is steam boiler? How they are classified?

Boiler, also called steam generator is the engineering device which generates steam at
constant pressure. It is a closed vessel, generally made of steel in which vaporization of water
takes place. Heat required for vaporization may be provided by the combustion of fuel in
furnace.
Boilers can be classified as
(a) Based upon the orientation/axis of the shell:
Vertical boiler
Horizontal boiler
Inclined boiler
(b) Based upon utility of boiler:
Stationery boiler
Portable boiler (Locomotive boiler& Marine boiler)
(c) Based on type of firing employed:
Externally fired boilers
Internally fired boilers
(d) Based upon the tube content:
Fire tube boilers (Cornish boiler, Cochran boiler, Lancashire boiler,
Locomotive boiler etc).
Water tube boilers (Babcock-Wilcox boiler, La-Mont boiler, Benson boiler
etc).
(e) Based on type of fuel used:
Solid fuel fired boilers
Liquid fuel fired boilers
Gas fired boilers.
(f) Based on circulation:
Natural circulation boilers
Forced circulation boilers
(g) Based on extent of firing
Fired boilers
Unfired boilers
Supplementary fired boilers

## Requirements of a Good Boiler

A good boiler should meet the following requirements.
1. It should provide maximum quantity of steam at required pressure and temperature
and at required quality (dryness fraction) with minimum fuel consumption.
2. It should be safe in working and should confirm to safety regulations.
3. Initial, installation and maintenance costs should be low enough.
4. It should be capable of quick starting, rapidly meet the fluctuations of load.
5. All components should be easily accessible for inspection and repair.
6. It should be light in weight and occupy less space.
7. Minimum refractory material should be used.
8. The heating surface should be from any type of deposits.
9. The water and flue gas circuits should allow maximum fluid velocity without
excessive frictional losses.

1
Enumerate the factors which should be considered while selecting boiler.
The following factors should be considered for selecting a boiler.
1. The power required and working pressure
2. Rate of steam generation
3. Geographical position of the plant
4. Availability of fuel and water
6. Type of fuel to be used
7. Type of application
8. Floor area and erection facility
9. Accessibility for cleaning, repairs and inspection

## Low pressure boilers

A boiler which generates steam at a pressure upto 30 bar is called low pressure boiler.
Cornish, Cochran, locomotive boilers etc. are low pressure boilers.

## High pressure boiler

A boiler which generates steam at a pressure higher than 80 bar is called - High pressure
boiler. Lamont, Velox boilers etc. are high pressure boilers.

What is fire tube boiler? What are the Advantages of fire tube boilers?
These are also called as - Smoke tube boilers. In these boilers, the hot flue gases pass
through inside of the tubes and water surrounds the tubes.
In these boilers, the steam pressure is about 10 - 20 bar and evaporative capacities range
from 200 - 9000 kgs of water per hour. Under Normal conditions, their thermal efficiency
varies from 65 - 70%.
These boilers may have one or more number of tubes passing through a cylindrical shell
which may be horizontal or vertical. They have compact design and low cost. So, they are
also called as - Economical boilers.

## The following are the important fire tube boilers.

1. Simple vertical boiler
2. Lancashire boiler
3. Cornish boiler
4. Cochran or vertical multi tubular boiler
5. Scotch marine boiler
6. Locomotive boiler

## Advantages of fire tube boilers

(a) More flexible and can meet sudden steam demand without much pressure fluctuations.
(b) Less sensitive to the failure of feed water supply.
(c) Rigid and simple in construction.

What is water tube boiler? What are the Advantages of water tube boilers?

In these boilers, water passes inside the tubes while hot gases surround the tubes. These
are extensively used because they are built for high pressures and large evaporative

2
capacities. They are safe, quick steaming, flexible in construction and operation.
They consists of small drums which form small part of the total heating surface and
greater part of heating surface is provided by number of water tubes fitted outside the drum
in the furnace.

## Water tube boilers may be mainly classified into 2 groups:

1. Straight horizontal tube boilers
2. Bent tube boilers
Babcock & Wilcox boiler is an example of straight tube boilers
Stirling boiler is an example of bent tube boilers
Steam generation rate is large.
Maximum pressure of steam generation is quite high (125 bar and above).
In case of explosion the steam generation may not stop in water tube boilers as the
place of explosion in tubes can be plugged easily.
Easy to fabricate and transport due to the small size of drum.
Water more readily accessible for cleaning, inspection and maintenance.

## It is less suitable for impure and sedimentary water

water treatment is very essential for water tube boilers.
Maintenance cost is high.
Failure in feed water supply

## Differentiate between water and fire tube boilers.

Fire tube boiler Water tube boiler
In Fire-tube boilers hot flue gases pass through In Water-tube boilers water passes through tubes
tubes and water surrounds them. and hot flue gasses surround them.

## The working pressure is high enough, up to 250 bar

These are operated at low pressures up to 20 bar.
in super critical boilers.

The rate of steam generation and quality of The rate of steam generation and quality of steam
steam are very low, therefore, not suitable for are better and suitable for power generation.
power generation.

## Load fluctuations cannot be handled. Load fluctuations can be easily handled.

It requires more floor area for a given output. It requires less floor area for a given output

## These are light in weight, hence transportation is

These are bulky and difficult to transport.
not a problem.

## Overall efficiency is up to 75%. Overall efficiency with an economizer is up to

90%.

3
Water doesnt circulate in a definite direction. Direction of water circulated is well defined.

The drum size is large and damage caused by If any water tube is damaged, it can be easily
bursting is large. replaced or repaired.

It requires more floor area for a given output. It requires less floor area for a given output

Simple in design, easy to erect and low Complex, design, difficult to erect and high
maintenance cost. maintenance cost.

Even less skill operators are sufficient for Skilled operators are required for operation.
efficient operation.

The treatment of feed water is not very essential, Treatment of feed water is very essential as small
as overheating due to scale formation cannot scale deposits inside the tubes can cause
burst thick shell. overheating and bursting.

## Simple vertical boiler:

The image shows the simplest form of an internally fired vertical fire-tube boiler. It does
not require heavy foundation and requires very small floor area.

4
Cylindrical shell: The shell is vertical and it attached to the bottom of the furnace.
Greater portion of the shell is full of water which surrounds the furnace also. Remaining
portion is steam space. The shell may be of about 1.25 metres diameter and 2.0 meters
height.
Cross-tubes: One or more cross tubes are either riveted or flanged to the furnace to
increase the heating surface and to improve the water circulation.
Furnace (or fire box): Combustion of coal takes place in the furnace (fire box).
Grate: It is placed at the bottom of fire box and coal is fed on it for burning.
Fire door: Coal is fed to the grate through the fire door.
Chimney (or stack): The chimney (stack) passes from the top of the firebox through the
top of the shell.
Manhole: It is provided on the top of the shell to enable a man to enter into it and inspect
and repair the boiler from inside it. It is also, meant for cleaning the interior of the boiler
shell and exterior of the combustion chamber and stack (chimney).
Hand holes: These are provided in the shell opposite to the ends of each cross tube for
cleaning the cross tube.
Ash pit: It is provide for collecting the ash deposit, which can be removed away at
intervals.

Working: The fuel (coal) is fed into the grate through the fire hole and is burnt. The ash
pit placed below the grate collect the ashes of the burning fuel. The combustion gas flows
from the furnace, passes around the cross tubes and escapes to the atmosphere through the
chimney. Water goes by natural circulation due to convection currents, from the lower
end of the cross tube and comes out from the higher end.
The working pressure of the simple vertical boiler does not exceed 70 N/cm^2.

Cochron Boiler

It is a multi-tubular vertical fire tube boiler having a number of horizontal fire tubes. T is the
modification of a simple vertical boiler where the heating surface has been increased by
means of a number of fire tubes.

It consists of Shell, Crate, Fire box, Flue pipe, Fire tubes, Combustion chamber, Chimney,
Man-hole.

## Shell: It is hemispherical on the top, where space is provided for steam.

Grate: It is placed at the bottom of the furnace where coal is burnt.
Fire box (furnace): It is also dome-shaped like the shell so that the gases can be deflected
back till they are passed out through the flue pipe to the combustion chamber.
Flue pipe: It is a short passage connecting the fire box with the combustion chamber.
Fire tubes: A number of horizontal fire tubes are provided, thereby the heating surface is
increased.
Combustion chamber: It is lined with fire bricks on the side of the shell to prevent

5
overheating of the boiler. Hot gases enter the fire tubes from the flue pipe through the
combustion chamber.
Chimney: It is provided for the exit of the flue gases to the atmosphere from the smoke box.
Manhole: It is provided for inspection and repair of the interior of the boiler shell.
Normal size of a Cochran boiler:
Shell diameter 2.75 meters:
Height of the shell 6 meters.

## Working of the Cochran boiler:

Coal is fed into the grate through the fire hole and burnt. Ash formed during burning is
collected in the ashpit provided just below the grate and then it is removed manually.
The host gases from the grate pass through the flue pipe to the combustion chamber. The hot
gases from the combustion chamber flow through the horizontal fire tubes and transfer the
heat to the water by convection. The flue gases coming out of fire tubes pass through the
smoke box and are exhausted to the atmosphere through the chimney.
Smoke box is provided with a door for cleaning the fire tubes and smoke box.

6
Salient features of Cochran boiler:

The dome shape of the furnace causes the hot gases to deflect back and pass through the flue.
The un-burnt fuel if any will also be deflected back.

Spherical shape of the top of the shell and the fire box gives higher area by volume ratio.

## It is well suited for small capacity requirements.

Lancashire Boiler
Lancashire Boiler is a stationary, fire tube, internally fired, horizontal and natural circulation
boiler. Lancashire boilers are reliable and bear over load.

## Construction of Lancashire Boiler:

It consists of cylindrical shell, Furnace tubes, bottom flue and side flues, Grate, Fire Bridge,
Dampers

7
Cylindrical shell: It is placed in horizontal position over a brick work. It is partly filled up
with water. The water level inside the shell is well above the furnace tubes.

Furnace tubes, bottom flue and side flues: Two large internal furnace tubes (flue tubes)
extend from one end to the other end of the shell. The flues are built-up of ordinary brick
lined with fire bricks. One bottom flue and two side flues are formed by brick setting, as
shown in the figure.

Grate: The grate is provided at the front end of the main flue tubes. Coal is fed to the grate
through the fire hole.

Fire bridge: A brickwork fire bridge is provided at the end of the grate to prevent the flow of
coal and ash particles into the interior of the furnace (flue) tubes. Otherwise the coal and ash
particles carried with gases form deposits on the interior of the tubes and prevent the heat
transfer to the water.

Dampers: Dampers is in the form of sliding doors are placed at the end of the side flues to
control the flow of gases from side flues to the chimney flue.

## Working of Lancashire boiler

Coal is fed to the grate through the fire hole and is burnt. The hot gases leaving the grate
move along the furnace (flue) tubes upto the back end of the shell and then in the downward
direction to the bottom flue. The bottom of the shell is thus first heated. The hot gases,
passing through the bottom flue, travel upto the front end of the boiler, where they divide into
two streams and pass to the side flues. This makes the two sides of the boiler shell to become
heated. Passing along the two side flues, the hot gases travel upto the back end of the boiler to
the chimney flue. They are then discharged into the atmosphere through the chimney.

With the help of this arrangement of flow passages of hot gases, the bottom of the shell is
first heated and then its sides. The heat is transferred to water through the surface of the two
flue tubes (which remain in water) and bottom and sides of the shell.

## Salient features of Lancashire Boiler

The arrangement of flues in this boiler increases the heating surface of shell to a large
extent.
It is suitable where a large reserve of steam and hot water is needed.
Its maintenance is easy.
Superheated can be easily incorporated into the system at the end of the main flue
tubes. Thus overall efficiency of the boiler can be increased.

8
Explain the working principle of Babcock Wilcox boiler with a neat sketch
It is a water tube boiler used in steam power plants. In this, water is circulated inside the
tubes and hot gases flow over the tubes.

Construction:
The Babcock and Wilcox Boiler consists of Steam and water drum (boiler shell), Water
tubes, Uptake-header and down corner, Grate, Furnace, Baffles, Super heater, Mud box,
Inspection door, Damper.

Steam and water drum (boiler shell): One half of the drum which is horizontal is filled up
with water and steam remains on the other half. It is about 8 meters in length and 2 meter in
diameter.
Water tubes: Water tubes are placed between the drum and furnace in an inclined position
(at an angle of 10 to 15 degree) to promote water circulation. These tubes are connected to
the uptake-header and the down-comer as shown.

9

The drum is connected at one end to the uptake-header by short tubes and at the other end to
the down-corner by long tubes.

## Furnace : Furnace is kept below the uptake-header.

Baffles: The fire-brick baffles, two in number, are provided to deflect the hot flue gases.

Super heater: The boiler is fitted with a super heater tube which is placed just under the
drum and above the water tubes

Mud box: Mud box is provided at the bottom end of the down comer. The mud or sediments
in the water are collected in the mud box and it is blown-off time to time by means of a blow
off cock.

Inspection doors: Inspection doors are provided for cleaning and inspection of the boiler.

## Working of Babcock and Wilcox Boiler:

Coal is fed to the grate through the fire door and is burnt.

## Flow of flue gases:

The hot flue gases rise upward and pass across the left-side portion of the water tubes. The
baffles deflect the flue gases and hence the flue gases travel in the zig-zag manner (i.e., the
hot gases are deflected by the baffles to move in the upward direction, then downward and
again in the upward direction) over the water tubes and along the superheater. The flue gases
finally escape to atmosphere through chimney.

Water circulation:

That portion of water tubes which is just above the furnace is heated comparatively at a
higher temperature than the rest of it. Water, its density being decreased, rises into the drum
through the uptake-header. Here the steam and water are separated in the drum. Steam being
lighter is collected in the upper part of the drum. The water from the drum comes down
through the down comer into the water tubes.

A continuous circulation of water from the drum to the water tubes and water tubes to the
drum is thus maintained. The circulation of water is maintained by convective currents and is
known as natural circulation.

A damper is fitted as shown to regulate the flue gas outlet and hence the draught.

10
Boiler Draught
The rate of steam generation is a boiler depends upon the rate of burning of fuel. The
rate of burning of fuel depends upon the availability of fresh air. The fresh air will enter the
furnace if the gases of combustion are exhausted from the combustion chamber of the boiler.
This is possible only when a difference of pressure is maintained above and below the grate.
This difference of pressures is known as Draught.
Draught may be defined as the small pressure difference which causes flow of air and
gases (in and out) through the boiler.
In a boiler, the function of draught is to force the air to combustion and to carry away
the products of combustion - flue gases out of boiler. Its intensity is expressed in mm of water
Main objects of producing draught:
1. To provide adequate supply of air for combustion of fuel.
2. To clear the gases of combustion from the furnace.
3. To discharge the gases to atmosphere through chimney to avoid pollution.

## Factors that determine amount of draught:

The amount of draught produced depends upon the following factors :
1. Rate of burning of fuel.
2. Depth of fuel bed.
3. Method of burning the fuel.
4. Type and condition (size, moisture content etc.) of fuel.
5. Design of combustion chamber or furnace.
6. Resistance offered in flue gas circuit (Resistance to flue gases while flowing through -
Economiser, superheater, air preheater etc.).

Types of draught:

Natural Draught
It is produced employing chimney. The natural draught is produced by a chimney due to the
fact that the hot gases inside the chimney are lighter than the outside cold air i.e. density
difference of hot gases inside chimney and cold atmospheric air. Thus in a boiler unit the
combustion products (hot) rise from fuel bed through chimney, and are replaced by fresh air
(cold) entering the grate.
It means that amount of draught produced by a chimney depends upon flue-gas temperature.
Intensity of draught produced by chimney also depends upon height of chimney.

Artificial Draught
Artificial draught refers to the externally created draught employing some equipment for it. In
the modern large power plants this draught produced by chimney is insufficient and requires
some artificial method.
For same steam generation the fuel consumption gets reduced by up to 15% with use of
artificial draught in a boiler.
Artificial draught may be produced either by mechanical means such as fans, blowers etc. or
by using steam jet for producing draught. Thus artificial draught can be classified as,
(i) Mechanical draught
(ii) Steam jet draught.

11
Mechanical Draught
Mechanical draught produced using fans, blowers etc. could be of forced type, induced type
or the combination of the two.
Forced draught: It is the arrangement in which high pressure air is delivered to the furnace
so as to force flue gases out through stack. Air under pressure may be fed to stokers or grate
for which a fan/blower is put at the bottom of furnace.
Induced draught: Induced draught is the one in which the suction created on furnace side
draws flue gases and throws them out through small chimney/stack. Fan is located at base of
chimney in induced draught so as to reduce pressure at fuel bed below atmospheric pressure.
Power required to drive the fan/blower in case of induced draught is less than that in case of
forced draught fan.

## Steam Jet Draught

When a jet of steam is used to produce draught, it is called - Steam jet draught. As in
case of mechanical draught, steam jet draught is also of 2 types : Forced steam jet draught
and induced steam jet draught.

## Forced Draught Induced Draught

The fan is placed before the grate. Fan is placed after the grate.

Pressure inside furnace is above atmospheric. Pressure inside furnace is below atmospheric.

Gives better control. The air is penetrated into the Sucks air from fuel bed and forces gases into
fuel bed better. So, rate of burning of fuel is more. the chimney.
It handles hot air plus flue gases. More
As it handles only cold air, volume to be handled is
volume is to be handled and so requires more
less and so requires less fan power.
fan power.
All leakages are outward and so there's serious danger All leakages are inward and heavy air
of blow out if fire doors are opened while the fan is infiltration may occur reducing the available
operating. draught.
As it handles hot flue gases whose
As cold air is handled, it doesn't require water cooled
temperature is high, it requires water cooled
bearings.
bearings.

Boiler Efficiency
Boiler efficiency quantifies how effectively the heat is being used in boiler. Thus it could be
given by.
Heat used in steam generation
Boiler efficiency =
Total heat available due to fuel burning

12
Boiler Accessories
Boiler accessories are the components which are installed to increase the efficiency of the
boiler.

1. Air pre-heater
2. Economiser
3. Super heater
4. Feed pump

Air Pre-heater

## Air Pre-heater (Tubular Type)

Function

The function of air pre-heater is to further utilize the heat of flue gases after coming out of
economizer to preheat the air used in furnace or oil burner.

Construction

It is a plate type or tubular type or storage heat exchanger, in which flue gases pass through
the tubes on one side of plate and air pass on other side. In storage type a rotor fitted with
mesh or matrix alternatively come in the passage of flue gases and air thus exchanging heat.
A tubular type air-heater is as shown in fig .

Economizer

The economizer is a device, which serves to recover some of the heat being carried by
exhaust flue gases. The heat thus recovered is utilized in raised temperature in feed water
being supplied to the boiler. If the water is raised and thus there is a saving in the
consumption of fuel.

13
The economizer unit is installed in the path of the flue gases between the boiler and the
chimney.

## Construction & working

Economizers are of two types as (i) External type (ii) Internal type. A vertical tube external
economizer is shown in fig.

External economizer

It is employed for boilers of medium pressure range. Here a number of vertical tubes made of
cast iron are connected to common headers at the bottom and top. Feed water flow into the
bottom header and then through the vertical tubes flow out from the top header. Hot flue
gases escaping from the boiler are directed to flow across the outside surface of tubes thus
indirectly heating the feed water flowing inside. These are operated by chain and pulley
system and while moving up and down slowly scrap the soot over the wall of tubes and so
increase the heat transfer rate.

## 1. Stresses produced in the boiler material due to temperature difference of boiler

material and feed water are reduced because of increase in feed water temperature.

2. Evaporative capacity of boiler increases as less heat will be required to generate steam
if feed water temperature is already high due to preheating.

3. Overall efficiency of boiler increases because of more steam produced per kg of fuel
burnt.

Super heater

The function of super heater is to increase the temperature of steam beyond its saturation
temperature. It is a type of heat exchanger. Hot flue gases coming out of burner are first

14
directed through super heater before the boiler. The main advantage of superheating of steam
comes in power plants, where steam is expanded through a turbine.
According to the mode of heat transfer, super heaters are of 3 types.
1. Convective super heater.
3. Combination super heater.

Feed pump: The pressure inside a steaming boiler is high and so the feed water has to be
raised in pressure before its entry can be affected in the boiler. Feed pump is a device which
raised the pressure of water and forces it into the boiler.

## Construction & working

The feed pump used in boiler is of two types (i) Reciprocating type (ii) Rotary type.

The discharge pressure of a single stage centrifugal pump is not high enough to overcome the
high pressure of boiler so multistage centrifugal pump is used as a boiler feed pump.

## In stationary low pressure boiler used in processing industries, a multistage centrifugal

pump run by an electrical motor is more suitable. In multistage centrifugal pump, a number
of centrifugal casing are so attached to each other. In each stage the pressure of water goes
on increasing and discharge pressure of final stage is so high as to overcome the internal
pressure of boiler.

## Multistage centrifugal pumps

15
Boiler mountings
These are the fittings, which are necessarily mounted on the boiler for the safety of the boiler
and for complete control the process of steam generation.
Various boiler mountings are

## 1. Two safety valve

2. Two water level indicators
3. Pressure gauge
4. Fusible plug
5. Steam stop valve
6. Feed check valve
7. Blow-of cock
8. Man and mud hole

Water level indicator: Water level indicator is fitted outside the boiler shell to indicate the
water level in the boiler through a glass tube.

The unit consists of a strong glass tube whose ends pass through stuffing boxes consists of
heat resisting rubber packing to prevent leakage steam and water. The flanges are bolted to
front end plate of the boiler, the upper flange being fitted to the steam space and the lower to
water space in the boiler. There are two cocks namely steam cock and water cock which
communicate the boiler shell spaces to the gauge glass tube. When the handle of the cocks
are vertical, they are in operation and the water level in the tube corresponds to water level in
the shell. A red mark on the glass tube indicates the safe water level.

16
Fusible plug: It is a safety device used for preventing the level of water from going down
below a critical point and thus avoids overheating.

Fusible plug is mounted at crown plate of combustion chamber. Fusible plug has gun
metal body and a copper plug put with fusible metal at interface of copper plug and gun
metal body. As water level goes down the heat available from furnace could not be
completely utilized for steam formation and so the overheating may cause melting of
fusible metal. Fusible metal is a low melting point metal. Thus upon melting of lining the
copper plug falls down and water falls from this opening onto furnace and thus quenches
fire.

Blow of cock: The blow of cock serves to drain out the water from the boiler periodically for
any one of the following reasons:

1) To discharge mud, scale and other impurities which settle down at the bottom of the
boiler?
2) To empty the boiler for internal cleaning and inspection.
3) To lower the water level rapidly if the level becomes too high.

## The unit is fitted at the lowest portion of the boiler

Manhole and mud box: Manhole provides opening for cleaning, inspection and maintenance
purpose. Mud box is a collection chamber for collecting the mud.

17
Feed check valve: The feed check valve has the following two functions to perform:

## 1. To allow the feed water to pass into the boiler.

2. To prevent the back flow of water from the boiler in the events of the failure of the
feed pump.

## Feed check valve

Stop valve: The function of the steam stop valve is to shut off or regulate the flow of steam
from the boiler to the steam pipe or from the steam pipe to the engine. When used for the
former purpose, it is called junction valve. Usually the junction valve means a regulating
valve of larger size and a stop valve refers to a regulating valve of smaller size.

The junction valve is mounted on the highest part of the steam space of the boiler and is
connected to the steam pipe, which carries the steam to the engine.

18
Safety valve:
The main function of a safety valve is to discharge excess pressure generated in the boiler
than the designed or working pressure. This is done automatically by discharging the excess
steam to atmosphere as soon as maximum pressure is reached "and brings down the pressure
to the normal working limit. Usually, boilers are fitted with two safety valves as a pre
cautionary measure. They are placed on the top of the boiler and directly on the boiler.

## There are four types of safety valves:

2. Lever safety valve.

## Lever safety valve

The principle of operation of this type of safety valve depends upon the second system of
levers.

When the pressure of the steam in the boiler is equal to the working pressure, the
valve remains at its position firmly. When the pressure of steam becomes higher, the valve is
lifted with the lever and the weight. Consequently, the excess steam escapes through the
passages between the valve and seat and hence the pressure of steam decreases to normal
working pressure.

Pressure gauge: Each boiler has to be provided with a pressure gauge, which record the
pressure at which the steam is being generated in the boiler.

The gauge is usually mounted at the front top of the boiler shell or drum. The gauge should to
be clearly visible to the attendant so that he can easily record the pressure reading.
Bourdon tube pressure gauge:

19
Cornish Boiler
Cornish boiler is much like the Lancashire boiler. Cornish boiler has the ability to produce
steam at the rate of 1350 kg/hr and can take the maximum pressure of about 12 bar. Cornish
boiler is a fire tube type of boiler that is hot gases flow in tubes and water surround these
tubes in shell.

## Working of the Cornish boiler

Fuel is added in the grate area where it burn to produce hot gases. There hot gases move into
the fire tube which takes it inside the shell where it exchanges its heat with surrounding
water. Water takes heat and after some time it starts boiling to produce steam. Hot gases
upon reaching at the end of the fire tube, divided into two section and each move into the
one of two side flue which take them once again at the front section of the boiler where they
are move into the bottom flue and bottom flue take them toward the chimney. Chimney
throws these gases out of the boiler into the atmosphere. In these process hot gases travels
complete length of boiler thrice that is once in fire tube then in side flue and at last bottom
flue. Maximum heat transfer is taken place at fire tube and shell section then taken place at
side flue and at last at bottom flue.
Priming is a condition in the boiler of a steam locomotive in which water is carried over into
the steam delivery. It may be caused by impurities in the water, which foams up as it boils, or
simply too high a water level. It is harmful to the valves and pistons, as lubrication is washed
away, and can be dangerous as any water collecting in the cylinders is not compressible and
if trapped may fracture the cylinder head or piston.

20
Phase Change Substance
Property Tables
in

SI Units

for

## ME 201 Section 001

Spring 2012

Craig W. Somerton
Asscoiate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineeirng
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824
somerton@egr.msu.edu

1

## Table C.1aSI Saturation Temperature Table for Steam in SI Units 3

Table C.1bSI Saturation Pressure Table for Steam in SI Units 10
Table C.1cSI Superheated Vapor Table for Steam in SI Units 15
Table C.1dSI Compressed Liquid Table for Steam in SI Units 25

2
Table C.1aSI Saturation Temperature Table for Steam in SI Units

## T Psat vf vg vfg hf hg hfg uf ug ufg sf sg sfg

C kPa m3/kg m3/kg m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K kJ/kg K kJ/kg K
0 0.6119 0.000995 205.94 205.93 0.9007 2500.02 2499.12 0.9001 2374.02 2373.12 -0.0013 9.1582 9.1595
2 0.7066 0.000995 179.63 179.63 9.2488 2504.40 2495.15 9.2481 2377.48 2368.24 0.0297 9.1052 9.0755
4 0.8140 0.000996 157.04 157.04 17.5909 2508.60 2491.01 17.5901 2380.76 2363.17 0.0604 9.0531 8.9928
6 0.9357 0.000996 137.59 137.59 25.9279 2512.64 2486.72 25.9269 2383.90 2357.97 0.0908 9.0020 8.9113
8 1.0732 0.000997 120.82 120.82 34.2606 2516.58 2482.31 34.2595 2386.91 2352.66 0.1209 8.9519 8.8309
10 1.2282 0.000997 106.31 106.31 42.5897 2520.42 2477.83 42.5885 2389.84 2347.25 0.1508 8.9026 8.7518
12 1.4026 0.000998 93.74 93.74 50.9160 2524.19 2473.27 50.9146 2392.70 2341.79 0.1804 8.8542 8.6738
14 1.5985 0.000999 82.83 82.83 59.2401 2527.90 2468.66 59.2385 2395.51 2336.27 0.2098 8.8066 8.5969
16 1.8180 0.000999 73.33 73.33 67.5625 2531.58 2464.02 67.5607 2398.27 2330.71 0.2389 8.7599 8.5211
18 2.0635 0.001000 65.04 65.04 75.8837 2535.23 2459.34 75.8817 2401.01 2325.13 0.2678 8.7141 8.4463
20 2.3376 0.001000 57.80 57.80 84.2043 2538.85 2454.65 84.2020 2403.73 2319.53 0.2964 8.6690 8.3725
22 2.6431 0.001001 51.47 51.46 92.5247 2542.46 2449.94 92.5220 2406.43 2313.91 0.3249 8.6247 8.2998
24 2.9830 0.001002 45.90 45.90 100.845 2546.06 2445.21 100.842 2409.12 2308.28 0.3531 8.5811 8.2280
26 3.3604 0.001002 41.02 41.02 109.166 2549.65 2440.48 109.163 2411.81 2302.65 0.3811 8.5384 8.1572
28 3.7789 0.001003 36.72 36.71 117.488 2553.23 2435.74 117.484 2414.49 2297.01 0.4090 8.4963 8.0874
30 4.2420 0.001004 32.92 32.92 125.811 2556.81 2431.00 125.807 2417.17 2291.36 0.4366 8.4550 8.0184
32 4.7536 0.001005 29.57 29.56 134.136 2560.39 2426.25 134.131 2419.84 2285.71 0.4640 8.4143 7.9503
34 5.3181 0.001005 26.60 26.60 142.462 2563.96 2421.50 142.456 2422.52 2280.06 0.4913 8.3744 7.8831
36 5.9398 0.001006 23.96 23.96 150.790 2567.53 2416.74 150.784 2425.19 2274.40 0.5183 8.3351 7.8168
38 6.6235 0.001007 21.62 21.62 159.120 2571.09 2411.97 159.113 2427.86 2268.74 0.5452 8.2964 7.7512
40 7.3743 0.001008 19.54 19.54 167.452 2574.65 2407.20 167.444 2430.52 2263.08 0.5719 8.2584 7.6865
42 8.1975 0.001009 17.69 17.69 175.786 2578.20 2402.41 175.778 2433.18 2257.41 0.5985 8.2210 7.6226
44 9.0987 0.001009 16.04 16.03 184.123 2581.75 2397.63 184.114 2435.84 2251.73 0.6248 8.1843 7.5594
46 10.084 0.001010 14.56 14.56 192.463 2585.29 2392.83 192.452 2438.50 2246.04 0.6510 8.1481 7.4970
48 11.160 0.001011 13.23 13.23 200.805 2588.82 2388.02 200.794 2441.14 2240.35 0.6771 8.1125 7.4354
50 12.333 0.001012 12.05 12.04 209.150 2592.34 2383.19 209.137 2443.78 2234.65 0.7030 8.0775 7.3745
52 13.610 0.001013 10.98 10.98 217.498 2595.86 2378.36 217.484 2446.42 2228.93 0.7287 8.0430 7.3143
3
T Psat vf vg vfg hf hg hfg uf ug ufg sf sg sfg
C kPa m3/kg m3/kg m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K kJ/kg K kJ/kg K
54 14.999 0.001014 10.02 10.02 225.848 2599.36 2373.51 225.833 2449.04 2223.21 0.7543 8.0091 7.2547
56 16.507 0.001015 9.159 9.158 234.202 2602.85 2368.65 234.185 2451.66 2217.48 0.7798 7.9757 7.1959
58 18.143 0.001016 8.381 8.380 242.558 2606.34 2363.78 242.540 2454.27 2211.73 0.8051 7.9428 7.1377
60 19.916 0.001017 7.679 7.678 250.918 2609.80 2358.89 250.898 2456.87 2205.97 0.8302 7.9104 7.0802
62 21.834 0.001018 7.044 7.043 259.281 2613.26 2353.98 259.259 2459.46 2200.20 0.8552 7.8786 7.0234
64 23.906 0.001019 6.470 6.469 267.647 2616.70 2349.05 267.623 2462.04 2194.41 0.8801 7.8472 6.9671
66 26.144 0.001020 5.949 5.948 276.016 2620.13 2344.11 275.990 2464.61 2188.62 0.9048 7.8163 6.9115
68 28.557 0.001021 5.476 5.475 284.389 2623.54 2339.15 284.360 2467.16 2182.80 0.9294 7.7859 6.8564
70 31.156 0.001023 5.047 5.046 292.765 2626.94 2334.18 292.733 2469.71 2176.97 0.9539 7.7559 6.8020
72 33.952 0.001024 4.656 4.655 301.144 2630.32 2329.18 301.109 2472.24 2171.13 0.9782 7.7263 6.7481
74 36.957 0.001025 4.300 4.299 309.527 2633.69 2324.16 309.489 2474.76 2165.27 1.0024 7.6972 6.6948
76 40.184 0.001026 3.976 3.975 317.913 2637.04 2319.13 317.872 2477.27 2159.40 1.0265 7.6686 6.6421
78 43.645 0.001028 3.680 3.679 326.303 2640.37 2314.07 326.258 2479.76 2153.51 1.0505 7.6403 6.5899
80 47.353 0.001029 3.409 3.408 334.696 2643.69 2308.99 334.648 2482.25 2147.60 1.0743 7.6125 6.5382
82 51.322 0.001030 3.162 3.161 343.093 2646.99 2303.90 343.040 2484.72 2141.68 1.0980 7.5850 6.4870
84 55.567 0.001032 2.935 2.934 351.494 2650.27 2298.78 351.437 2487.17 2135.74 1.1216 7.5579 6.4364
86 60.102 0.001033 2.727 2.726 359.899 2653.53 2293.64 359.837 2489.62 2129.78 1.1450 7.5313 6.3862
88 64.942 0.001034 2.537 2.536 368.308 2656.78 2288.47 368.240 2492.04 2123.80 1.1684 7.5050 6.3366
90 70.104 0.001036 2.361 2.360 376.720 2660.01 2283.29 376.648 2494.46 2117.81 1.1916 7.4790 6.2874
92 75.603 0.001037 2.200 2.199 385.137 2663.21 2278.08 385.059 2496.86 2111.80 1.2147 7.4534 6.2387
94 81.457 0.001039 2.052 2.051 393.558 2666.40 2272.84 393.474 2499.25 2105.77 1.2377 7.4282 6.1905
96 87.683 0.001040 1.915 1.914 401.984 2669.57 2267.58 401.893 2501.62 2099.73 1.2606 7.4033 6.1427
98 94.299 0.001042 1.789 1.788 410.414 2672.72 2262.30 410.316 2503.98 2093.66 1.2833 7.3787 6.0954
100 101.325 0.001043 1.673 1.672 418.849 2675.84 2256.99 418.743 2506.32 2087.57 1.3060 7.3545 6.0485
102 108.778 0.001045 1.566 1.565 427.289 2678.95 2251.66 427.175 2508.64 2081.47 1.3285 7.3306 6.0020
104 116.678 0.001046 1.466 1.465 435.733 2682.03 2246.30 435.611 2510.95 2075.34 1.3510 7.3070 5.9560
106 125.047 0.001048 1.374 1.373 444.183 2685.09 2240.91 444.052 2513.25 2069.19 1.3733 7.2837 5.9103
108 133.905 0.001050 1.289 1.288 452.638 2688.13 2235.49 452.498 2515.52 2063.03 1.3955 7.2606 5.8651
110 143.273 0.001051 1.210 1.209 461.099 2691.14 2230.04 460.948 2517.78 2056.83 1.4177 7.2379 5.8203
4
T Psat vf vg vfg hf hg hfg uf ug ufg sf sg sfg
C kPa m3/kg m3/kg m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K kJ/kg K kJ/kg K
112 153.173 0.001053 1.137 1.136 469.565 2694.13 2224.57 469.404 2520.03 2050.62 1.4397 7.2155 5.7758
114 163.628 0.001055 1.069 1.068 478.038 2697.10 2219.06 477.865 2522.25 2044.38 1.4616 7.1933 5.7318
116 174.662 0.001057 1.005 1.004 486.516 2700.04 2213.52 486.332 2524.46 2038.12 1.4834 7.1715 5.6880
118 186.297 0.001058 0.946389 0.945331 495.001 2702.95 2207.95 494.804 2526.64 2031.84 1.5051 7.1498 5.6447
120 198.559 0.001060 0.891572 0.890512 503.493 2705.84 2202.35 503.282 2528.81 2025.53 1.5267 7.1285 5.6017
122 211.472 0.001062 0.840500 0.839438 511.991 2708.70 2196.71 511.766 2530.96 2019.19 1.5483 7.1074 5.5591
124 225.062 0.001064 0.792881 0.791817 520.496 2711.53 2191.04 520.257 2533.09 2012.83 1.5697 7.0865 5.5168
126 239.354 0.001066 0.748448 0.747382 529.009 2714.34 2185.33 528.754 2535.19 2006.44 1.5910 7.0659 5.4749
128 254.377 0.001068 0.706958 0.705890 537.530 2717.11 2179.58 537.258 2537.28 2000.02 1.6123 7.0455 5.4332
130 270.156 0.001070 0.668188 0.667118 546.058 2719.86 2173.80 545.769 2539.34 1993.57 1.6334 7.0254 5.3919
132 286.720 0.001072 0.631933 0.630861 554.595 2722.57 2167.98 554.287 2541.38 1987.09 1.6545 7.0054 5.3510
134 304.097 0.001074 0.598007 0.596933 563.140 2725.25 2162.11 562.813 2543.40 1980.59 1.6754 6.9857 5.3103
136 322.317 0.001076 0.566238 0.565162 571.693 2727.90 2156.21 571.347 2545.39 1974.05 1.6963 6.9662 5.2699
138 341.408 0.001078 0.536469 0.535391 580.256 2730.52 2150.26 579.888 2547.36 1967.47 1.7171 6.9469 5.2298
140 361.402 0.001080 0.508556 0.507476 588.828 2733.10 2144.27 588.438 2549.31 1960.87 1.7378 6.9279 5.1900
142 382.328 0.001082 0.482365 0.481283 597.410 2735.65 2138.24 596.996 2551.23 1954.23 1.7585 6.9090 5.1505
144 404.219 0.001084 0.457774 0.456690 606.002 2738.16 2132.16 605.564 2553.12 1947.55 1.7790 6.8903 5.1113
146 427.106 0.001086 0.434672 0.433585 614.604 2740.64 2126.03 614.140 2554.98 1940.84 1.7995 6.8718 5.0723
148 451.022 0.001089 0.412954 0.411865 623.217 2743.07 2119.86 622.726 2556.82 1934.10 1.8199 6.8535 5.0336
150 476.000 0.001091 0.392524 0.391433 631.841 2745.47 2113.63 631.322 2558.63 1927.31 1.8402 6.8353 4.9952
152 502.073 0.001093 0.373295 0.372202 640.477 2747.84 2107.36 639.928 2560.41 1920.49 1.8604 6.8174 4.9570
154 529.277 0.001095 0.355186 0.354090 649.124 2750.16 2101.04 648.544 2562.17 1913.62 1.8806 6.7996 4.9190
156 557.644 0.001098 0.338120 0.337023 657.783 2752.44 2094.66 657.170 2563.89 1906.72 1.9006 6.7819 4.8813
158 587.212 0.001100 0.322029 0.320930 666.454 2754.68 2088.23 665.808 2565.58 1899.77 1.9206 6.7645 4.8438
160 618.016 0.001102 0.306849 0.305747 675.138 2756.88 2081.74 674.457 2567.24 1892.79 1.9406 6.7472 4.8066
162 650.092 0.001105 0.292519 0.291414 683.836 2759.04 2075.20 683.117 2568.87 1885.75 1.9604 6.7300 4.7696
164 683.477 0.001107 0.278985 0.277878 692.546 2761.15 2068.60 691.790 2570.47 1878.68 1.9802 6.7130 4.7328
166 718.210 0.001110 0.266195 0.265085 701.271 2763.22 2061.95 700.474 2572.03 1871.56 2.0000 6.6961 4.6962
168 754.328 0.001112 0.254102 0.252990 710.010 2765.24 2055.23 709.171 2573.56 1864.39 2.0196 6.6794 4.6598
5
T Psat vf vg vfg hf hg hfg uf ug ufg sf sg sfg
C kPa m3/kg m3/kg m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K kJ/kg K kJ/kg K
170 791.870 0.001115 0.242662 0.241547 718.764 2767.22 2048.45 717.881 2575.06 1857.18 2.0392 6.6628 4.6236
172 830.875 0.001117 0.231834 0.230717 727.532 2769.15 2041.62 726.604 2576.52 1849.92 2.0588 6.6464 4.5876
174 871.384 0.001120 0.221580 0.220461 736.316 2771.03 2034.71 735.340 2577.95 1842.61 2.0782 6.6301 4.5518
176 913.436 0.001122 0.211865 0.210743 745.116 2772.87 2027.75 744.091 2579.34 1835.25 2.0976 6.6139 4.5162
178 957.072 0.001125 0.202656 0.201531 753.931 2774.65 2020.72 752.855 2580.69 1827.84 2.1170 6.5978 4.4808
180 1002.34 0.001128 0.193922 0.192794 762.764 2776.39 2013.62 761.634 2582.01 1820.38 2.1363 6.5818 4.4456
182 1049.27 0.001130 0.185635 0.184504 771.613 2778.07 2006.46 770.427 2583.29 1812.87 2.1555 6.5660 4.4105
184 1097.91 0.001133 0.177767 0.176634 780.480 2779.71 1999.23 779.236 2584.54 1805.30 2.1747 6.5502 4.3756
186 1148.30 0.001136 0.170295 0.169159 789.364 2781.29 1991.93 788.060 2585.74 1797.68 2.1938 6.5346 4.3408
188 1200.50 0.001139 0.163195 0.162057 798.266 2782.82 1984.56 796.899 2586.91 1790.01 2.2129 6.5191 4.3062
190 1254.53 0.001141 0.156446 0.155304 807.187 2784.30 1977.11 805.755 2588.03 1782.28 2.2319 6.5037 4.2718
192 1310.45 0.001144 0.150027 0.148882 816.127 2785.72 1969.60 814.627 2589.12 1774.49 2.2508 6.4883 4.2375
194 1368.30 0.001147 0.143919 0.142772 825.086 2787.09 1962.01 823.516 2590.17 1766.65 2.2697 6.4731 4.2033
196 1428.14 0.001150 0.138105 0.136955 834.064 2788.41 1954.34 832.422 2591.18 1758.75 2.2886 6.4579 4.1693
198 1489.99 0.001153 0.132568 0.131415 843.063 2789.67 1946.61 841.345 2592.14 1750.80 2.3074 6.4428 4.1354
200 1553.92 0.001156 0.127293 0.126137 852.082 2790.87 1938.79 850.286 2593.07 1742.78 2.3262 6.4279 4.1017
202 1619.96 0.001159 0.122266 0.121106 861.123 2792.02 1930.89 859.244 2593.95 1734.71 2.3449 6.4129 4.0681
204 1688.17 0.001163 0.117472 0.116309 870.184 2793.11 1922.92 868.222 2594.79 1726.57 2.3635 6.3981 4.0346
206 1758.60 0.001166 0.112899 0.111733 879.268 2794.14 1914.87 877.217 2595.59 1718.38 2.3822 6.3833 4.0012
208 1831.29 0.001169 0.108535 0.107366 888.373 2795.11 1906.74 886.232 2596.35 1710.12 2.4007 6.3686 3.9679
210 1906.30 0.001172 0.104369 0.103196 897.501 2796.02 1898.52 895.267 2597.06 1701.80 2.4193 6.3540 3.9347
212 1983.67 0.001176 0.100390 0.099214 906.653 2796.88 1890.22 904.321 2597.74 1693.41 2.4377 6.3394 3.9017
214 2063.46 0.001179 0.096588 0.095409 915.828 2797.67 1881.84 913.395 2598.36 1684.97 2.4562 6.3249 3.8687
216 2145.71 0.001182 0.092955 0.091773 925.026 2798.40 1873.38 922.489 2598.95 1676.46 2.4746 6.3104 3.8358
218 2230.49 0.001186 0.089481 0.088295 934.250 2799.07 1864.82 931.605 2599.49 1667.88 2.4929 6.2960 3.8031
220 2317.83 0.001189 0.086158 0.084969 943.498 2799.68 1856.19 940.741 2599.98 1659.24 2.5113 6.2817 3.7704
222 2407.80 0.001193 0.082979 0.081785 952.772 2800.23 1847.46 949.899 2600.44 1650.54 2.5295 6.2673 3.7378
224 2500.45 0.001197 0.079935 0.078738 962.071 2800.72 1838.65 959.079 2600.84 1641.77 2.5478 6.2530 3.7053
226 2595.84 0.001200 0.077021 0.075820 971.397 2801.14 1829.74 968.281 2601.21 1632.93 2.5660 6.2388 3.6728
6
T Psat vf vg vfg hf hg hfg uf ug ufg sf sg sfg
C kPa m3/kg m3/kg m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K kJ/kg K kJ/kg K
228 2694.01 0.001204 0.074229 0.073025 980.750 2801.50 1820.75 977.506 2601.53 1624.02 2.5841 6.2246 3.6404
230 2795.02 0.001208 0.071555 0.070346 990.131 2801.80 1811.67 986.754 2601.80 1615.05 2.6023 6.2104 3.6081
232 2898.94 0.001212 0.068991 0.067779 999.539 2802.03 1802.49 996.025 2602.03 1606.00 2.6204 6.1963 3.5759
234 3005.81 0.001216 0.066532 0.065316 1008.98 2802.19 1793.22 1005.32 2602.21 1596.89 2.6384 6.1821 3.5437
236 3115.69 0.001220 0.064174 0.062954 1018.44 2802.30 1783.85 1014.64 2602.35 1587.71 2.6564 6.1680 3.5116
238 3228.65 0.001224 0.061911 0.060687 1027.94 2802.33 1774.39 1023.99 2602.44 1578.46 2.6744 6.1539 3.4795
240 3344.74 0.001228 0.059739 0.058511 1037.46 2802.30 1764.84 1033.36 2602.49 1569.13 2.6923 6.1398 3.4475
242 3464.02 0.001233 0.057654 0.056421 1047.02 2802.21 1755.19 1042.75 2602.49 1559.74 2.7102 6.1258 3.4155
244 3586.55 0.001237 0.055651 0.054414 1056.61 2802.05 1745.43 1052.17 2602.45 1550.28 2.7281 6.1117 3.3836
246 3712.39 0.001242 0.053727 0.052486 1066.23 2801.82 1735.58 1061.62 2602.36 1540.74 2.7460 6.0977 3.3517
248 3841.61 0.001246 0.051878 0.050632 1075.89 2801.52 1725.63 1071.10 2602.23 1531.13 2.7638 6.0836 3.3199
250 3974.26 0.001251 0.050100 0.048850 1085.58 2801.16 1715.58 1080.60 2602.05 1521.44 2.7815 6.0696 3.2880
252 4110.40 0.001256 0.048391 0.047135 1095.30 2800.73 1705.43 1090.14 2601.82 1511.68 2.7993 6.0555 3.2562
254 4250.11 0.001260 0.046747 0.045486 1105.06 2800.23 1695.17 1099.70 2601.55 1501.85 2.8170 6.0414 3.2245
256 4393.44 0.001265 0.045164 0.043899 1114.85 2799.66 1684.81 1109.29 2601.23 1491.94 2.8346 6.0273 3.1927
258 4540.47 0.001270 0.043641 0.042371 1124.69 2799.02 1674.34 1118.92 2600.87 1481.95 2.8523 6.0132 3.1610
260 4691.25 0.001275 0.042175 0.040900 1134.56 2798.32 1663.76 1128.57 2600.46 1471.89 2.8699 5.9991 3.1293
262 4845.85 0.001281 0.040763 0.039483 1144.47 2797.54 1653.08 1138.26 2600.01 1461.75 2.8874 5.9850 3.0976
264 5004.33 0.001286 0.039403 0.038117 1154.42 2796.70 1642.28 1147.98 2599.51 1451.53 2.9050 5.9708 3.0659
266 5166.78 0.001291 0.038093 0.036801 1164.41 2795.79 1631.38 1157.74 2598.97 1441.23 2.9225 5.9566 3.0342
268 5333.25 0.001297 0.036829 0.035532 1174.44 2794.80 1620.36 1167.53 2598.38 1430.86 2.9399 5.9424 3.0025
270 5503.82 0.001303 0.035612 0.034309 1184.52 2793.75 1609.23 1177.35 2597.75 1420.40 2.9574 5.9282 2.9708
272 5678.56 0.001309 0.034437 0.033129 1194.64 2792.62 1597.98 1187.21 2597.07 1409.86 2.9748 5.9139 2.9391
274 5857.53 0.001315 0.033304 0.031990 1204.81 2791.43 1586.62 1197.11 2596.35 1399.23 2.9921 5.8995 2.9074
276 6040.80 0.001321 0.032211 0.030891 1215.03 2790.16 1575.13 1207.05 2595.58 1388.53 3.0094 5.8852 2.8757
278 6228.47 0.001327 0.031157 0.029830 1225.29 2788.82 1563.53 1217.03 2594.76 1377.73 3.0267 5.8707 2.8440
280 6420.58 0.001333 0.030138 0.028805 1235.61 2787.41 1551.80 1227.05 2593.91 1366.86 3.0440 5.8562 2.8123
282 6617.23 0.001340 0.029155 0.027816 1245.98 2785.93 1539.95 1237.12 2593.01 1355.89 3.0612 5.8417 2.7805
284 6818.48 0.001346 0.028206 0.026859 1256.40 2784.38 1527.98 1247.22 2592.06 1344.84 3.0784 5.8271 2.7488
7
T Psat vf vg vfg hf hg hfg uf ug ufg sf sg sfg
C kPa m3/kg m3/kg m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K kJ/kg K kJ/kg K
286 7024.42 0.001353 0.027288 0.025935 1266.88 2782.75 1515.87 1257.38 2591.07 1333.69 3.0955 5.8125 2.7170
288 7235.11 0.001360 0.026402 0.025042 1277.42 2781.06 1503.64 1267.58 2590.03 1322.46 3.1126 5.7977 2.6852
290 7450.65 0.001367 0.025545 0.024178 1288.01 2779.29 1491.27 1277.83 2588.96 1311.13 3.1296 5.7830 2.6533
292 7671.10 0.001374 0.024717 0.023343 1298.67 2777.44 1478.77 1288.13 2587.83 1299.71 3.1466 5.7681 2.6215
294 7896.54 0.001382 0.023917 0.022535 1309.39 2775.53 1466.14 1298.48 2586.67 1288.19 3.1635 5.7532 2.5896
296 8127.07 0.001389 0.023142 0.021753 1320.18 2773.54 1453.36 1308.89 2585.46 1276.57 3.1804 5.7382 2.5578
298 8362.76 0.001397 0.022393 0.020996 1331.03 2771.47 1440.44 1319.35 2584.20 1264.85 3.1972 5.7231 2.5259
300 8603.69 0.001405 0.021669 0.020263 1341.96 2769.34 1427.38 1329.87 2582.91 1253.04 3.2139 5.7079 2.4940
302 8849.96 0.001413 0.020967 0.019554 1352.96 2767.13 1414.16 1340.45 2581.57 1241.11 3.2306 5.6927 2.4621
304 9101.63 0.001421 0.020288 0.018867 1364.04 2764.84 1400.80 1351.10 2580.18 1229.08 3.2472 5.6773 2.4302
306 9358.81 0.001430 0.019631 0.018201 1375.19 2762.48 1387.29 1361.81 2578.76 1216.95 3.2636 5.6619 2.3982
308 9621.58 0.001439 0.018995 0.017556 1386.43 2760.05 1373.62 1372.59 2577.29 1204.70 3.2800 5.6463 2.3664
310 9890.03 0.001448 0.018379 0.016931 1397.76 2757.54 1359.78 1383.44 2575.77 1192.34 3.2962 5.6307 2.3345
312 10164.24 0.001457 0.017782 0.016325 1409.17 2754.96 1345.79 1394.36 2574.22 1179.86 3.3123 5.6150 2.3027
314 10444.32 0.001466 0.017203 0.015737 1420.68 2752.30 1331.62 1405.36 2572.62 1167.26 3.3282 5.5991 2.2709
316 10730.34 0.001476 0.016643 0.015167 1432.28 2749.56 1317.28 1416.44 2570.98 1154.54 3.3439 5.5832 2.2393
318 11022.41 0.001486 0.016100 0.014614 1443.98 2746.75 1302.77 1427.61 2569.30 1141.69 3.3594 5.5671 2.2077
320 11320.63 0.001496 0.015573 0.014078 1455.79 2743.87 1288.08 1438.86 2567.57 1128.71 3.3746 5.5510 2.1764
322 11625.08 0.001506 0.015063 0.013557 1467.71 2740.91 1273.20 1450.20 2565.80 1115.60 3.3895 5.5347 2.1452
324 11935.86 0.001517 0.014568 0.013052 1479.74 2737.87 1258.13 1461.64 2563.99 1102.35 3.4041 5.5183 2.1142
326 12253.07 0.001527 0.014088 0.012561 1491.88 2734.76 1242.87 1473.17 2562.13 1088.96 3.4182 5.5018 2.0836
328 12576.82 0.001538 0.013623 0.012084 1504.15 2731.57 1227.41 1484.81 2560.24 1075.43 3.4318 5.4851 2.0533
330 12907.21 0.001550 0.013171 0.011622 1516.55 2728.30 1211.75 1496.55 2558.29 1061.74 3.4448 5.4684 2.0235
332 13244.33 0.001561 0.012733 0.011172 1529.09 2724.96 1195.87 1508.41 2556.31 1047.90 3.4571 5.4515 1.9944
334 13588.29 0.001573 0.012308 0.010735 1541.76 2721.54 1179.78 1520.38 2554.28 1033.90 3.4685 5.4344 1.9659
336 13939.20 0.001585 0.011896 0.010311 1554.57 2718.04 1163.46 1532.48 2552.21 1019.74 3.4788 5.4173 1.9384
338 14297.16 0.001598 0.011496 0.009898 1567.54 2714.46 1146.92 1544.70 2550.10 1005.40 3.4879 5.4000 1.9121
340 14662.29 0.001611 0.011108 0.009497 1580.67 2710.81 1130.14 1557.05 2547.94 990.89 3.4953 5.3825 1.8872
342 15034.68 0.001624 0.010731 0.009107 1593.96 2707.08 1113.11 1569.55 2545.74 976.19 3.5009 5.3649 1.8641
8
T Psat vf vg vfg hf hg hfg uf ug ufg sf sg sfg
C kPa m3/kg m3/kg m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K kJ/kg K kJ/kg K
344 15414.47 0.001637 0.010365 0.008728 1607.42 2703.26 1095.84 1582.19 2543.50 961.31 3.5040 5.3472 1.8433
346 15801.74 0.001651 0.010009 0.008359 1621.07 2699.38 1078.31 1594.98 2541.21 946.23 3.5040 5.3294 1.8254
348 16196.63 0.001665 0.009664 0.008000 1634.90 2695.41 1060.51 1607.93 2538.88 930.94 3.5002 5.3114 1.8111
350 16599.25 0.001679 0.009330 0.007650 1648.92 2691.36 1042.44 1621.05 2536.50 915.45 3.4915 5.2932 1.8017
352 17009.71 0.001694 0.009004 0.007311 1663.15 2687.24 1024.08 1634.34 2534.07 899.73 3.4764 5.2749 1.7985
354 17428.13 0.001709 0.008689 0.006980 1677.60 2683.03 1005.43 1647.81 2531.60 883.79 3.4528 5.2565 1.8036
356 17854.64 0.001724 0.008382 0.006658 1692.26 2678.75 986.48 1661.47 2529.09 867.61 3.4179 5.2378 1.8199
358 18289.36 0.001740 0.008084 0.006344 1707.16 2674.38 967.22 1675.33 2526.52 851.19 3.3676 5.2191 1.8515
360 18732.41 0.001756 0.007795 0.006039 1722.30 2669.94 947.64 1689.40 2523.91 834.51 3.2954 5.2002 1.9047
362 19183.91 0.001773 0.007514 0.005741 1737.69 2665.41 927.72 1703.68 2521.26 817.57 3.1918 5.1811 1.9893
364 19644.00 0.001790 0.007242 0.005452 1753.35 2660.81 907.45 1718.19 2518.55 800.36 3.0409 5.1619 2.1210
366 20112.81 0.001807 0.006977 0.005170 1769.28 2656.12 886.84 1732.93 2515.79 782.86 2.8150 5.1425 2.3276
368 20590.46 0.001825 0.006720 0.004895 1785.50 2651.35 865.85 1747.93 2512.99 765.06 2.4610 5.1230 2.6620
370 21077.08 0.001843 0.006470 0.004627 1802.03 2646.50 844.48 1763.17 2510.13 746.95 1.8582 5.1033 3.2451
372 21572.82 0.001862 0.006228 0.004366 1818.86 2641.57 822.71 1778.69 2507.22 728.53 0.5970 5.0835 4.4864
374 22077.81 0.001881 0.005993 0.004111 1836.02 2636.56 800.54 1794.49 2504.26 709.77 -19.7443 5.0635 24.8077

9
Table C.1bSI Saturation Pressure Table for Steam in SI Units

## P T vf vg vfg hf hg hfg uf ug ufg sf sg sfg

3 3 3
kPa C m /kg m /kg m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kg K) kJ/(kg K) kJ/(kg K)

1 6.99 0.000997 128.97 128.97 29.40 2514.61 2485.21 29.40 2385.64 2356.24 0.1058 8.9770 8.8713
2 17.50 0.001000 67.00 67.00 73.42 2534.32 2460.90 73.42 2400.31 2326.89 0.2606 8.7254 8.4648
3 24.09 0.001002 45.66 45.66 100.97 2546.23 2445.26 100.97 2409.25 2308.28 0.3544 8.5791 8.2247
4 28.98 0.001003 34.79 34.79 121.38 2554.99 2433.61 121.38 2415.82 2294.44 0.4225 8.4759 8.0534
5 32.90 0.001005 28.19 28.18 137.74 2561.99 2424.25 137.73 2421.06 2283.33 0.4763 8.3963 7.9200
6 36.19 0.001006 23.73 23.73 151.46 2567.86 2416.40 151.45 2425.46 2274.00 0.5208 8.3314 7.8106
7 39.03 0.001007 20.52 20.52 163.32 2572.92 2409.60 163.32 2429.25 2265.93 0.5590 8.2768 7.7178
8 41.54 0.001008 18.10 18.10 173.80 2577.38 2403.58 173.79 2432.59 2258.79 0.5924 8.2296 7.6372
9 43.79 0.001009 16.20 16.20 183.21 2581.38 2398.17 183.20 2435.58 2252.38 0.6221 8.1881 7.5660
10 45.84 0.001010 14.67 14.67 191.75 2585.00 2393.25 191.74 2438.29 2246.55 0.6489 8.1510 7.5021
15 54.00 0.001014 10.02 10.02 225.85 2599.36 2373.51 225.84 2449.04 2223.20 0.7543 8.0091 7.2547
20 60.09 0.001017 7.65 7.65 251.31 2609.96 2358.65 251.29 2456.97 2205.68 0.8313 7.9090 7.0777
25 64.99 0.001020 6.20 6.20 271.83 2618.41 2346.58 271.80 2463.30 2191.49 0.8924 7.8318 6.9394
30 69.13 0.001022 5.23 5.23 289.13 2625.46 2336.33 289.10 2468.58 2179.48 0.9432 7.7689 6.8257
35 72.71 0.001024 4.53 4.52 304.15 2631.52 2327.37 304.11 2473.12 2169.01 0.9869 7.7159 6.7291
40 75.89 0.001026 3.99 3.99 317.46 2636.85 2319.39 317.42 2477.11 2159.69 1.0252 7.6702 6.6450
45 78.74 0.001028 3.58 3.58 329.45 2641.61 2312.16 329.40 2480.68 2151.27 1.0594 7.6299 6.5705
50 81.35 0.001030 3.24 3.24 340.37 2645.91 2305.54 340.32 2483.90 2143.58 1.0903 7.5939 6.5036
55 83.74 0.001031 2.96 2.96 350.42 2649.84 2299.43 350.36 2486.84 2136.48 1.1185 7.5615 6.4429
60 85.96 0.001033 2.73 2.73 359.73 2653.46 2293.73 359.67 2489.55 2129.89 1.1446 7.5319 6.3873
65 88.02 0.001034 2.53 2.53 368.42 2656.82 2288.40 368.35 2492.07 2123.72 1.1687 7.5047 6.3360
70 89.96 0.001036 2.36 2.36 376.57 2659.94 2283.38 376.49 2494.41 2117.92 1.1912 7.4795 6.2883
75 91.79 0.001037 2.22 2.22 384.25 2662.87 2278.62 384.17 2496.61 2112.43 1.2123 7.4561 6.2438
80 93.51 0.001038 2.09 2.09 391.52 2665.63 2274.11 391.44 2498.67 2107.23 1.2322 7.4343 6.2021
85 95.15 0.001040 1.97 1.97 398.43 2668.23 2269.81 398.34 2500.62 2102.28 1.2510 7.4138 6.1628
90 96.72 0.001041 1.87 1.87 405.00 2670.70 2265.69 404.91 2502.47 2097.56 1.2688 7.3945 6.1256
95 98.21 0.001042 1.78 1.78 411.29 2673.04 2261.75 411.19 2504.23 2093.04 1.2858 7.3762 6.0904
10
P T vf vg vfg hf hg hfg uf ug ufg sf sg sfg
3 3 3
kPa C m /kg m /kg m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kg K) kJ/(kg K) kJ/(kg K)

100 99.63 0.001043 1.69 1.69 417.31 2675.27 2257.96 417.20 2505.90 2088.70 1.3020 7.3589 6.0569
125 105.99 0.001048 1.37 1.37 444.14 2685.08 2240.93 444.01 2513.25 2069.24 1.3734 7.2838 5.9104
150 111.37 0.001053 1.16 1.16 466.91 2693.20 2226.29 466.75 2519.34 2052.59 1.4330 7.2225 5.7895
175 116.06 0.001057 1.00 1.00 486.78 2700.13 2213.35 486.59 2524.54 2037.95 1.4843 7.1708 5.6865
200 120.23 0.001061 0.8855 0.8844 504.47 2706.17 2201.70 504.26 2529.07 2024.82 1.5295 7.1260 5.5966
225 123.99 0.001064 0.7930 0.7920 520.46 2711.52 2191.06 520.22 2533.09 2012.86 1.5699 7.0866 5.5167
250 127.43 0.001067 0.7185 0.7175 535.09 2716.32 2181.23 534.83 2536.69 2001.86 1.6065 7.0513 5.4448
275 130.60 0.001070 0.6571 0.6561 548.60 2720.67 2172.07 548.30 2539.95 1991.65 1.6400 7.0194 5.3794
300 133.54 0.001073 0.6057 0.6046 561.16 2724.63 2163.47 560.84 2542.93 1982.09 1.6710 6.9903 5.3193
325 136.29 0.001076 0.5619 0.5608 572.92 2728.28 2155.36 572.57 2545.67 1973.10 1.6997 6.9635 5.2637
350 138.87 0.001079 0.5241 0.5230 583.98 2731.64 2147.66 583.61 2548.20 1964.59 1.7266 6.9386 5.2120
375 141.31 0.001081 0.4913 0.4902 594.44 2734.77 2140.33 594.04 2550.55 1956.51 1.7518 6.9155 5.1637
400 143.62 0.001084 0.4624 0.4613 604.37 2737.68 2133.31 603.93 2552.74 1948.80 1.7756 6.8938 5.1182
425 145.81 0.001086 0.4368 0.4357 613.82 2740.41 2126.59 613.36 2554.79 1941.43 1.7982 6.8735 5.0753
450 147.91 0.001088 0.4139 0.4128 622.85 2742.97 2120.12 622.36 2556.71 1934.36 1.8196 6.8543 5.0347
475 149.91 0.001091 0.3934 0.3923 631.49 2745.37 2113.88 630.97 2558.52 1927.55 1.8400 6.8361 4.9961
500 151.84 0.001093 0.3748 0.3737 639.79 2747.64 2107.86 639.24 2560.23 1920.99 1.8595 6.8188 4.9594
525 153.68 0.001095 0.3580 0.3569 647.77 2749.79 2102.02 647.19 2561.85 1914.65 1.8781 6.8024 4.9243
550 155.46 0.001097 0.3426 0.3415 655.46 2751.83 2096.37 654.86 2563.38 1908.52 1.8960 6.7867 4.8907
575 157.17 0.001099 0.3286 0.3275 662.89 2753.76 2090.87 662.26 2564.83 1902.58 1.9132 6.7717 4.8585
600 158.83 0.001101 0.3156 0.3145 670.07 2755.60 2085.52 669.41 2566.22 1896.80 1.9298 6.7573 4.8275
625 160.43 0.001103 0.3037 0.3026 677.03 2757.35 2080.32 676.34 2567.54 1891.19 1.9458 6.7435 4.7977
650 161.98 0.001105 0.2927 0.2915 683.78 2759.02 2075.24 683.06 2568.79 1885.73 1.9612 6.7302 4.7690
675 163.49 0.001106 0.2824 0.2813 690.33 2760.61 2070.28 689.58 2569.99 1880.41 1.9762 6.7174 4.7412
700 164.95 0.001108 0.2728 0.2717 696.70 2762.13 2065.43 695.92 2571.14 1875.22 1.9906 6.7050 4.7144
725 166.37 0.001110 0.2639 0.2628 702.90 2763.59 2060.69 702.09 2572.24 1870.15 2.0047 6.6931 4.6884
750 167.75 0.001112 0.2556 0.2545 708.93 2764.99 2056.05 708.10 2573.29 1865.19 2.0183 6.6815 4.6632
775 169.09 0.001113 0.2478 0.2467 714.82 2766.33 2051.51 713.96 2574.30 1860.35 2.0315 6.6703 4.6388
800 170.40 0.001115 0.2404 0.2393 720.57 2767.61 2047.05 719.67 2575.27 1855.60 2.0444 6.6595 4.6151
11
P T vf vg vfg hf hg hfg uf ug ufg sf sg sfg
3 3 3
kPa C m /kg m /kg m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kg K) kJ/(kg K) kJ/(kg K)

825 171.68 0.001117 0.2335 0.2324 726.18 2768.85 2042.67 725.25 2576.20 1850.95 2.0570 6.6490 4.5920
850 172.93 0.001118 0.2270 0.2259 731.66 2770.03 2038.37 730.71 2577.10 1846.39 2.0692 6.6388 4.5696
875 174.15 0.001120 0.2208 0.2197 737.02 2771.17 2034.15 736.04 2577.96 1841.92 2.0811 6.6288 4.5477
900 175.35 0.001121 0.2150 0.2139 742.27 2772.27 2030.00 741.26 2578.79 1837.53 2.0927 6.6191 4.5264
925 176.51 0.001123 0.2094 0.2083 747.41 2773.33 2025.92 746.37 2579.59 1833.22 2.1041 6.6097 4.5056
950 177.66 0.001124 0.2042 0.2031 752.45 2774.35 2021.90 751.38 2580.36 1828.98 2.1152 6.6005 4.4853
975 178.78 0.001126 0.1992 0.1981 757.39 2775.33 2017.95 756.29 2581.10 1824.82 2.1261 6.5916 4.4655
1000 179.87 0.001127 0.1945 0.1933 762.23 2776.28 2014.05 761.10 2581.82 1820.72 2.1367 6.5828 4.4462
1250 189.80 0.001141 0.1571 0.1560 806.32 2784.16 1977.84 804.89 2587.79 1782.90 2.2321 6.5052 4.2730
1500 198.28 0.001154 0.1318 0.1307 844.32 2789.84 1945.52 842.59 2592.12 1749.53 2.3127 6.4407 4.1280
1750 205.72 0.001165 0.1135 0.1124 877.95 2793.99 1916.04 875.91 2595.31 1719.40 2.3828 6.3854 4.0026
2000 212.37 0.001176 0.099676 0.098500 908.29 2797.03 1888.74 905.94 2597.67 1691.74 2.4450 6.3367 3.8917
2250 218.40 0.001187 0.088799 0.087612 936.04 2799.20 1863.16 933.37 2599.41 1666.04 2.5012 6.2931 3.7920
2500 223.94 0.001197 0.080025 0.078828 961.70 2800.70 1839.01 958.71 2600.64 1641.94 2.5524 6.2535 3.7010
2750 229.06 0.001206 0.072792 0.071586 985.63 2801.67 1816.03 982.31 2601.49 1619.17 2.5997 6.2170 3.6173
3000 233.84 0.001216 0.066724 0.065508 1008.11 2802.18 1794.07 1004.47 2602.01 1597.55 2.6437 6.1832 3.5396
3250 238.32 0.001225 0.061557 0.060332 1029.35 2802.33 1772.98 1025.37 2602.27 1576.90 2.6848 6.1517 3.4669
3500 242.54 0.001234 0.057103 0.055869 1049.52 2802.17 1752.65 1045.20 2602.31 1557.11 2.7234 6.1220 3.3985
3750 246.54 0.001243 0.053222 0.051979 1068.75 2801.74 1732.99 1064.09 2602.16 1538.07 2.7600 6.0939 3.3339
4000 250.34 0.001252 0.049808 0.048557 1087.16 2801.09 1713.93 1082.15 2601.86 1519.71 2.7947 6.0672 3.2725
4250 253.96 0.001260 0.046782 0.045522 1104.83 2800.24 1695.41 1099.48 2601.41 1501.94 2.8277 6.0417 3.2140
4500 257.42 0.001269 0.044080 0.042811 1121.85 2799.22 1677.37 1116.14 2600.86 1484.71 2.8593 6.0174 3.1581
4750 260.73 0.001277 0.041652 0.040375 1138.28 2798.04 1659.76 1132.21 2600.19 1467.98 2.8895 5.9940 3.1044
5000 263.92 0.001286 0.039458 0.038173 1154.18 2796.74 1642.55 1147.75 2599.44 1451.69 2.9186 5.9714 3.0528
5250 266.98 0.001294 0.037466 0.036171 1169.60 2795.31 1625.71 1162.81 2598.62 1435.81 2.9466 5.9497 3.0031
5500 269.94 0.001303 0.035648 0.034345 1184.58 2793.78 1609.20 1177.41 2597.72 1420.30 2.9736 5.9286 2.9550
5750 272.80 0.001311 0.033982 0.032671 1199.16 2792.16 1593.00 1191.62 2596.76 1405.14 2.9998 5.9082 2.9084
6000 275.56 0.001319 0.032449 0.031130 1213.37 2790.45 1577.08 1205.45 2595.75 1390.30 3.0251 5.8883 2.8633
6250 278.23 0.001328 0.031035 0.029708 1227.24 2788.66 1561.42 1218.94 2594.69 1375.75 3.0496 5.8690 2.8194
12
P T vf vg vfg hf hg hfg uf ug ufg sf sg sfg
3 3 3
kPa C m /kg m /kg m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kg K) kJ/(kg K) kJ/(kg K)

6500 280.83 0.001336 0.029726 0.028390 1240.80 2786.81 1546.01 1232.11 2593.59 1361.47 3.0735 5.8502 2.7767
6750 283.35 0.001344 0.028510 0.027166 1254.07 2784.89 1530.82 1245.00 2592.45 1347.45 3.0968 5.8319 2.7351
7000 285.80 0.001352 0.027377 0.026025 1267.07 2782.92 1515.84 1257.61 2591.28 1333.67 3.1194 5.8139 2.6945
7250 288.19 0.001361 0.026320 0.024960 1279.83 2780.89 1501.06 1269.97 2590.07 1320.10 3.1415 5.7964 2.6548
7500 290.51 0.001369 0.025331 0.023962 1292.36 2778.82 1486.46 1282.09 2588.84 1306.75 3.1631 5.7792 2.6160
7750 292.78 0.001377 0.024403 0.023026 1304.67 2776.71 1472.03 1294.00 2587.58 1293.58 3.1843 5.7623 2.5780
8000 294.99 0.001385 0.023531 0.022145 1316.79 2774.55 1457.76 1305.70 2586.30 1280.60 3.2050 5.7458 2.5408
8250 297.15 0.001394 0.022710 0.021316 1328.72 2772.36 1443.64 1317.22 2585.01 1267.79 3.2253 5.7295 2.5043
8500 299.26 0.001402 0.021935 0.020533 1340.47 2770.14 1429.66 1328.56 2583.69 1255.13 3.2452 5.7136 2.4684
8750 301.32 0.001410 0.021203 0.019793 1352.07 2767.89 1415.82 1339.73 2582.36 1242.63 3.2647 5.6979 2.4331
9000 303.34 0.001419 0.020511 0.019092 1363.51 2765.61 1402.09 1350.75 2581.01 1230.26 3.2840 5.6824 2.3984
9250 305.31 0.001427 0.019854 0.018427 1374.82 2763.30 1388.48 1361.62 2579.65 1218.03 3.3029 5.6672 2.3643
9500 307.25 0.001435 0.019231 0.017795 1385.99 2760.97 1374.98 1372.35 2578.28 1205.92 3.3215 5.6522 2.3306
9750 309.15 0.001444 0.018638 0.017194 1397.04 2758.62 1361.58 1382.96 2576.89 1193.93 3.3399 5.6374 2.2975
10000 311.01 0.001452 0.018074 0.016622 1407.97 2756.24 1348.28 1393.44 2575.50 1182.05 3.3580 5.6228 2.2647
10500 314.63 0.001469 0.017025 0.015555 1429.51 2751.44 1321.93 1414.09 2572.68 1158.60 3.3936 5.5941 2.2005
11000 318.12 0.001486 0.016067 0.014581 1450.68 2746.58 1295.90 1434.33 2569.84 1135.51 3.4283 5.5662 2.1378
11500 321.50 0.001503 0.015190 0.013687 1471.51 2741.66 1270.15 1454.23 2566.97 1112.75 3.4624 5.5388 2.0764
12000 324.76 0.001521 0.014384 0.012864 1492.06 2736.70 1244.64 1473.81 2564.09 1090.28 3.4958 5.5120 2.0162
12500 327.92 0.001538 0.013641 0.012103 1512.35 2731.69 1219.34 1493.13 2561.18 1068.06 3.5287 5.4858 1.9571
13000 330.99 0.001555 0.012953 0.011398 1532.43 2726.66 1194.23 1512.21 2558.27 1046.06 3.5611 5.4600 1.8989
13500 333.97 0.001573 0.012315 0.010742 1552.32 2721.59 1169.27 1531.08 2555.34 1024.26 3.5932 5.4347 1.8415
14000 336.87 0.001591 0.011721 0.010131 1572.04 2716.50 1144.45 1549.77 2552.40 1002.62 3.6250 5.4098 1.7848
14500 339.69 0.001609 0.011168 0.009559 1591.64 2711.39 1119.75 1568.32 2549.45 981.14 3.6564 5.3853 1.7288
15000 342.43 0.001627 0.010650 0.009024 1611.12 2706.26 1095.13 1586.72 2546.50 959.78 3.6877 5.3611 1.6734
15500 345.11 0.001645 0.010166 0.008521 1630.52 2701.11 1070.60 1605.02 2543.54 938.52 3.7189 5.3373 1.6184
16000 347.73 0.001663 0.009711 0.008048 1649.84 2695.96 1046.12 1623.23 2540.58 917.35 3.7499 5.3138 1.5639
16500 350.28 0.001681 0.009284 0.007602 1669.11 2690.79 1021.68 1641.37 2537.61 896.24 3.7808 5.2907 1.5098
17000 352.77 0.001700 0.008881 0.007181 1688.34 2685.62 997.28 1659.45 2534.64 875.19 3.8118 5.2678 1.4560
13
P T vf vg vfg hf hg hfg uf ug ufg sf sg sfg
3 3 3
kPa C m /kg m /kg m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kg K) kJ/(kg K) kJ/(kg K)

17500 355.21 0.001718 0.008501 0.006783 1707.55 2680.44 972.89 1677.48 2531.66 854.18 3.8427 5.2452 1.4025
18000 357.60 0.001737 0.008143 0.006406 1726.76 2675.26 948.50 1695.49 2528.68 833.19 3.8737 5.2228 1.3492
18500 359.94 0.001756 0.007804 0.006048 1745.97 2670.07 924.10 1713.48 2525.70 812.22 3.9047 5.2007 1.2960
19000 362.23 0.001775 0.007482 0.005708 1765.20 2664.88 899.69 1731.47 2522.72 791.24 3.9359 5.1789 1.2430
19500 364.48 0.001794 0.007178 0.005384 1784.46 2659.70 875.24 1749.47 2519.73 770.25 3.9671 5.1573 1.1902
20000 366.68 0.001813 0.006889 0.005076 1803.76 2654.51 850.75 1767.49 2516.73 749.24 3.9986 5.1359 1.1373
20500 368.84 0.001833 0.006614 0.004781 1823.11 2649.32 826.21 1785.54 2513.74 728.19 4.0302 5.1147 1.0845
21000 370.96 0.001852 0.006353 0.004501 1842.53 2644.14 801.61 1803.63 2510.73 707.10 4.0620 5.0938 1.0318
21500 373.05 0.001872 0.006104 0.004232 1862.01 2638.96 776.95 1821.77 2507.73 685.96 4.0941 5.0730 0.9790
22000 375.09 0.001892 0.005867 0.003975 1881.57 2633.79 752.21 1839.96 2504.72 664.76 4.1264 5.0525 0.9261

14
Table C.1cSI Superheated Vapor Table for Steam in SI Units
P=0.01 MPa P=0.05 MPa P=0.1 MPa
T v h u s T v h u s T v h u s
3 3 3
C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)

45.84 14.6711 2585.00 2438.29 8.1510 81.35 3.2403 2645.91 2483.90 7.5939 99.63 1.6937 2675.27 2505.90 7.3589
50 14.8674 2592.98 2444.31 8.1759
100 17.1975 2688.13 2516.16 8.4497 100 3.4187 2682.94 2512.00 7.6959 100 1.6956 2676.01 2506.45 7.3610
150 19.5146 2783.36 2588.21 8.6891 150 3.8901 2780.49 2585.99 7.9412 150 1.9369 2776.81 2583.13 7.6146
200 21.8271 2879.50 2661.23 8.9039 200 4.3566 2877.68 2659.85 8.1583 200 2.1727 2875.37 2658.10 7.8347
250 24.1377 2976.88 2735.50 9.0995 250 4.8211 2975.61 2734.56 8.3550 250 2.4064 2974.01 2733.36 8.0329
300 26.4473 3075.66 2811.18 9.2798 300 5.2845 3074.71 2810.49 8.5359 300 2.6391 3073.52 2809.61 8.2146
350 28.7562 3175.93 2888.37 9.4475 350 5.7473 3175.19 2887.83 8.7040 350 2.8712 3174.27 2887.15 8.3831
400 31.0649 3277.76 2967.11 9.6047 400 6.2097 3277.17 2966.68 8.8614 400 3.1029 3276.43 2966.14 8.5407
450 33.3733 3381.21 3047.48 9.7529 450 6.6720 3380.72 3047.12 9.0097 450 3.3343 3380.11 3046.68 8.6893
500 35.6815 3486.32 3129.50 9.8934 500 7.1341 3485.90 3129.20 9.1504 500 3.5657 3485.38 3128.82 8.8300
550 37.9896 3593.10 3213.21 10.0272 550 7.5961 3592.75 3212.95 9.2843 550 3.7969 3592.31 3212.62 8.9640
600 40.2977 3701.60 3298.63 10.1552 600 8.0580 3701.29 3298.40 9.4123 600 4.0280 3700.91 3298.11 9.0921
650 42.6057 3811.83 3385.77 10.2779 650 8.5198 3811.56 3385.57 9.5350 650 4.2591 3811.22 3385.31 9.2149
700 44.9137 3923.81 3474.67 10.3960 700 8.9816 3923.57 3474.49 9.6532 700 4.4901 3923.26 3474.26 9.3331
750 47.2216 4037.54 3565.33 10.5100 750 9.4434 4037.33 3565.16 9.7672 750 4.7211 4037.06 3564.95 9.4471
800 49.5295 4153.05 3657.76 10.6202 800 9.9051 4152.86 3657.61 9.8774 800 4.9520 4152.62 3657.42 9.5574
850 51.8373 4270.35 3751.98 10.7270 850 10.3668 4270.18 3751.84 9.9843 850 5.1830 4269.96 3751.66 9.6642
900 54.1452 4389.44 3847.99 10.8308 900 10.8285 4389.28 3847.86 10.0880 900 5.4139 4389.08 3847.69 9.7680
950 56.4530 4510.33 3945.80 10.9317 950 11.2902 4510.19 3945.68 10.1889 950 5.6448 4510.01 3945.53 9.8689
1000 58.7608 4633.03 4045.42 11.0300 1000 11.7518 4632.90 4045.31 10.2872 1000 5.8757 4632.74 4045.17 9.9673
1050 61.0686 4757.55 4146.86 11.1259 1050 12.2135 4757.43 4146.76 10.3832 1050 6.1066 4757.28 4146.62 10.0632
1100 63.3764 4883.89 4250.12 11.2196 1100 12.6751 4883.78 4250.02 10.4769 1100 6.3374 4883.64 4249.89 10.1569
1150 65.6842 5012.05 4355.21 11.3113 1150 13.1367 5011.95 4355.11 10.5686 1150 6.5683 5011.82 4354.99 10.2486
1200 67.9920 5142.04 4462.12 11.4010 1200 13.5983 5141.95 4462.03 10.6583 1200 6.7991 5141.83 4461.92 10.3384
1250 70.2997 5273.87 4570.87 11.4890 1250 14.0600 5273.78 4570.78 10.7463 1250 7.0300 5273.67 4570.68 10.4264
1300 72.6075 5407.53 4681.46 11.5754 1300 14.5216 5407.45 4681.38 10.8327 1300 7.2608 5407.35 4681.27 10.5128
15
P=0.2 MPa P=0.3 MPa
T v h u s T v h u s
3 3
C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)

120.23 0.8855 2706.17 2529.07 7.1260 133.54 0.6057 2724.63 2542.93 6.9903
150 0.9599 2769.10 2577.12 7.2804 150 0.6340 2760.92 2570.72 7.0779
200 1.0807 2870.64 2654.50 7.5073 200 0.7166 2865.77 2650.79 7.3122
250 1.1991 2970.76 2730.94 7.7084 250 0.7966 2967.47 2728.48 7.5166
300 1.3164 3071.13 2807.85 7.8916 300 0.8755 3068.72 2806.07 7.7014
350 1.4331 3172.42 2885.80 8.0610 350 0.9537 3170.55 2884.44 7.8717
400 1.5494 3274.94 2965.06 8.2193 400 1.0316 3273.44 2963.97 8.0306
450 1.6655 3378.88 3045.78 8.3682 450 1.1092 3377.65 3044.88 8.1799
500 1.7814 3484.35 3128.06 8.5092 500 1.1867 3483.31 3127.30 8.3211
550 1.8973 3591.42 3211.96 8.6434 550 1.2641 3590.53 3211.31 8.4555
600 2.0130 3700.13 3297.53 8.7716 600 1.3413 3699.36 3296.96 8.5838
650 2.1287 3810.54 3384.80 8.8945 650 1.4186 3809.86 3384.29 8.7069
700 2.2443 3922.66 3473.79 9.0128 700 1.4958 3922.06 3473.33 8.8252
750 2.3599 4036.52 3564.53 9.1269 750 1.5729 4035.98 3564.11 8.9394
800 2.4755 4152.14 3657.03 9.2372 800 1.6500 4151.65 3656.65 9.0497
850 2.5911 4269.52 3751.31 9.3441 850 1.7271 4269.08 3750.95 9.1567
900 2.7066 4388.69 3847.37 9.4479 900 1.8042 4388.29 3847.04 9.2605
950 2.8221 4509.65 3945.22 9.5488 950 1.8812 4509.28 3944.92 9.3615
1000 2.9376 4632.41 4044.88 9.6472 1000 1.9583 4632.08 4044.59 9.4599
1050 3.0531 4756.97 4146.35 9.7432 1050 2.0353 4756.67 4146.08 9.5559
1100 3.1686 4883.36 4249.64 9.8369 1100 2.1123 4883.08 4249.38 9.6496
1150 3.2841 5011.56 4354.75 9.9286 1150 2.1893 5011.31 4354.51 9.7413
1200 3.3995 5141.59 4461.69 10.0184 1200 2.2663 5141.36 4461.46 9.8311
1250 3.5150 5273.46 4570.46 10.1064 1250 2.3433 5273.24 4570.24 9.9192
1300 3.6305 5407.15 4681.06 10.1928 1300 2.4203 5406.95 4680.85 10.0055

16
P=0.4 MPa P=0.5 MPa P=0.6 MPa
T v h u s T v h u s T v h u s
3 3 3
C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
143.62 0.4624 2737.68 2552.74 6.8938 151.84 0.3748 2747.64 2560.23 6.8188 158.83 0.3156 2755.60 2566.22 6.7573
150 0.4708 2752.26 2563.93 6.9288
200 0.5345 2860.75 2646.96 7.1713 200 0.4251 2855.58 2643.01 7.0598 200 0.3522 2850.25 2638.93 6.9669
250 0.5953 2964.11 2725.97 7.3790 250 0.4746 2960.70 2723.42 7.2711 250 0.3940 2957.24 2720.82 7.1820
300 0.6550 3066.28 2804.27 7.5655 300 0.5227 3063.82 2802.46 7.4594 300 0.4345 3061.33 2800.62 7.3720
350 0.7140 3168.68 2883.06 7.7368 350 0.5702 3166.79 2881.68 7.6316 350 0.4743 3164.89 2880.29 7.5452
400 0.7727 3271.94 2962.87 7.8962 400 0.6173 3270.44 2961.78 7.7916 400 0.5138 3268.93 2960.67 7.7058
450 0.8311 3376.41 3043.98 8.0459 450 0.6642 3375.17 3043.08 7.9416 450 0.5529 3373.93 3042.17 7.8563
500 0.8893 3482.27 3126.54 8.1874 500 0.7109 3481.23 3125.78 8.0834 500 0.5920 3480.18 3125.01 7.9983
550 0.9475 3589.63 3210.65 8.3219 550 0.7575 3588.74 3209.99 8.2182 550 0.6309 3587.85 3209.33 8.1332
600 1.0055 3698.59 3296.38 8.4504 600 0.8040 3697.81 3295.80 8.3468 600 0.6697 3697.04 3295.23 8.2620
650 1.0635 3809.18 3383.78 8.5736 650 0.8505 3808.50 3383.26 8.4700 650 0.7085 3807.82 3382.75 8.3854
700 1.1215 3921.46 3472.87 8.6920 700 0.8969 3920.86 3472.41 8.5886 700 0.7472 3920.25 3471.95 8.5040
750 1.1794 4035.45 3563.70 8.8062 750 0.9433 4034.91 3563.28 8.7028 750 0.7859 4034.37 3562.86 8.6183
800 1.2373 4151.17 3656.27 8.9166 800 0.9896 4150.69 3655.88 8.8133 800 0.8245 4150.20 3655.50 8.7288
850 1.2951 4268.65 3750.60 9.0236 850 1.0359 4268.21 3750.25 8.9203 850 0.8631 4267.77 3749.89 8.8359
900 1.3530 4387.89 3846.71 9.1275 900 1.0822 4387.50 3846.38 9.0242 900 0.9017 4387.10 3846.06 8.9398
950 1.4108 4508.92 3944.61 9.2285 950 1.1285 4508.56 3944.31 9.1253 950 0.9403 4508.20 3944.00 9.0409
1000 1.4686 4631.75 4044.31 9.3269 1000 1.1748 4631.42 4044.02 9.2237 1000 0.9789 4631.09 4043.74 9.1394
1050 1.5264 4756.37 4145.81 9.4229 1050 1.2210 4756.07 4145.54 9.3197 1050 1.0175 4755.77 4145.27 9.2354
1100 1.5842 4882.80 4249.13 9.5167 1100 1.2673 4882.53 4248.88 9.4135 1100 1.0560 4882.25 4248.62 9.3292
1150 1.6420 5011.05 4354.27 9.6084 1150 1.3135 5010.80 4354.03 9.5053 1150 1.0946 5010.54 4353.79 9.4210
1200 1.6997 5141.12 4461.23 9.6982 1200 1.3598 5140.89 4461.00 9.5951 1200 1.1331 5140.65 4460.77 9.5108
1250 1.7575 5273.02 4570.02 9.7863 1250 1.4060 5272.81 4569.80 9.6832 1250 1.1717 5272.59 4569.58 9.5989
1300 1.8153 5406.75 4680.65 9.8727 1300 1.4522 5406.55 4680.44 9.7696 1300 1.2102 5406.35 4680.23 9.6853

17
P=0.7 MPa P=0.8 MPa P=0.9 MPa
T v h u s T v h u s T v h u s
3 3 3
C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
164.95 0.2728 2762.13 2571.14 6.7050 170.40 0.2404 2767.61 2575.27 6.6595 175.35 0.2150 2772.27 2578.79 6.6191
200 0.3001 2844.77 2634.73 6.8867 200 0.2609 2839.14 2630.40 6.8157 200 0.2304 2833.34 2625.94 6.7517
250 0.3365 2953.72 2718.18 7.1057 250 0.2933 2950.14 2715.49 7.0389 250 0.2597 2946.51 2712.76 6.9792
300 0.3715 3058.82 2798.77 7.2976 300 0.3242 3056.29 2796.89 7.2327 300 0.2875 3053.73 2795.00 7.1750
350 0.4058 3162.98 2878.90 7.4718 350 0.3545 3161.06 2877.49 7.4080 350 0.3145 3159.13 2876.07 7.3513
400 0.4398 3267.41 2959.57 7.6330 400 0.3843 3265.89 2958.46 7.5697 400 0.3411 3264.36 2957.34 7.5137
450 0.4735 3372.69 3041.26 7.7839 450 0.4139 3371.44 3040.35 7.7210 450 0.3675 3370.19 3039.44 7.6654
500 0.5070 3479.14 3124.25 7.9262 500 0.4433 3478.09 3123.48 7.8636 500 0.3937 3477.04 3122.71 7.8082
550 0.5404 3586.96 3208.67 8.0613 550 0.4726 3586.06 3208.01 7.9989 550 0.4198 3585.16 3207.35 7.9437
600 0.5737 3696.26 3294.65 8.1902 600 0.5018 3695.49 3294.07 8.1279 600 0.4458 3694.71 3293.49 8.0729
650 0.6070 3807.14 3382.24 8.3137 650 0.5309 3806.46 3381.72 8.2515 650 0.4717 3805.78 3381.21 8.1966
700 0.6402 3919.65 3471.49 8.4324 700 0.5600 3919.05 3471.03 8.3703 700 0.4976 3918.44 3470.57 8.3154
750 0.6734 4033.83 3562.44 8.5468 750 0.5891 4033.29 3562.02 8.4847 750 0.5235 4032.75 3561.60 8.4300
800 0.7066 4149.72 3655.12 8.6573 800 0.6181 4149.23 3654.73 8.5954 800 0.5493 4148.75 3654.35 8.5406
850 0.7397 4267.34 3749.54 8.7644 850 0.6471 4266.90 3749.19 8.7025 850 0.5751 4266.46 3748.83 8.6478
900 0.7728 4386.70 3845.73 8.8684 900 0.6761 4386.31 3845.40 8.8065 900 0.6009 4385.91 3845.07 8.7519
950 0.8059 4507.84 3943.69 8.9695 950 0.7051 4507.48 3943.39 8.9077 950 0.6267 4507.12 3943.08 8.8531
1000 0.8390 4630.76 4043.45 9.0680 1000 0.7341 4630.43 4043.16 9.0062 1000 0.6525 4630.10 4042.88 8.9516
1050 0.8721 4755.46 4145.00 9.1641 1050 0.7630 4755.16 4144.74 9.1023 1050 0.6782 4754.86 4144.47 9.0477
1100 0.9051 4881.97 4248.37 9.2579 1100 0.7920 4881.69 4248.11 9.1961 1100 0.7040 4881.42 4247.86 9.1416
1150 0.9382 5010.29 4353.54 9.3497 1150 0.8209 5010.03 4353.30 9.2879 1150 0.7297 5009.78 4353.06 9.2334
1200 0.9713 5140.42 4460.54 9.4396 1200 0.8498 5140.18 4460.31 9.3778 1200 0.7554 5139.95 4460.09 9.3233
1250 1.0043 5272.37 4569.37 9.5276 1250 0.8788 5272.15 4569.15 9.4659 1250 0.7811 5271.94 4568.93 9.4114
1300 1.0373 5406.15 4680.02 9.6140 1300 0.9077 5405.95 4679.81 9.5523 1300 0.8068 5405.75 4679.61 9.4978

18
P=1 MPa P=2 MPa P=3 MPa
T v h u s T v h u s T v h u s
3 3 3
C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
179.87 0.1945 2776.28 2581.82 6.5828 212.37 0.0997 2797.03 2597.67 6.3367 233.84 0.0667 2802.18 2602.01 6.1832
200 0.2060 2827.37 2621.35 6.6931
250 0.2328 2942.81 2709.98 6.9252 250 0.1115 2902.49 2679.45 6.5453 250 0.0706 2854.98 2643.17 6.2856
300 0.2581 3051.15 2793.09 7.1230 300 0.1256 3023.98 2772.87 6.7673 300 0.0812 2994.15 2750.54 6.5400
350 0.2825 3157.19 2874.65 7.3004 350 0.1386 3137.15 2859.90 6.9566 350 0.0906 3115.95 2844.23 6.7439
400 0.3066 3262.82 2956.22 7.4634 400 0.1512 3247.18 2944.77 7.1265 400 0.0994 3230.96 2932.87 6.9215
450 0.3304 3368.93 3038.52 7.6155 450 0.1635 3356.24 3029.24 7.2827 450 0.1078 3343.24 3019.72 7.0824
500 0.3541 3475.99 3121.94 7.7586 500 0.1756 3465.40 3114.17 7.4287 500 0.1161 3454.64 3106.27 7.2313
550 0.3776 3584.27 3206.69 7.8943 550 0.1876 3575.25 3200.03 7.5664 550 0.1243 3566.13 3193.30 7.3710
600 0.4010 3693.93 3292.91 8.0236 600 0.1995 3686.13 3287.10 7.6971 600 0.1323 3678.27 3281.24 7.5033
650 0.4244 3805.10 3380.70 8.1474 650 0.2114 3798.26 3375.54 7.8220 650 0.1403 3791.39 3370.36 7.6293
700 0.4477 3917.84 3470.10 8.2663 700 0.2232 3911.79 3465.48 7.9417 700 0.1483 3905.72 3460.83 7.7499
750 0.4710 4032.22 3561.18 8.3809 750 0.2349 4026.82 3556.99 8.0570 750 0.1562 4021.41 3552.78 7.8658
800 0.4943 4148.27 3653.97 8.4917 800 0.2466 4143.42 3650.13 8.1682 800 0.1641 4138.57 3646.28 7.9776
850 0.5175 4266.03 3748.48 8.5989 850 0.2584 4261.65 3744.94 8.2759 850 0.1720 4257.27 3741.40 8.0857
900 0.5408 4385.52 3844.74 8.7030 900 0.2700 4381.55 3841.47 8.3804 900 0.1798 4377.58 3838.18 8.1905
950 0.5640 4506.76 3942.78 8.8042 950 0.2817 4503.14 3939.72 8.4818 950 0.1876 4499.53 3936.66 8.2922
1000 0.5872 4629.77 4042.59 8.9027 1000 0.2934 4626.47 4039.73 8.5807 1000 0.1954 4623.16 4036.86 8.3913
1050 0.6104 4754.56 4144.20 8.9989 1050 0.3050 4751.53 4141.50 8.6770 1050 0.2032 4748.51 4138.81 8.4879
1100 0.6335 4881.14 4247.60 9.0928 1100 0.3166 4878.36 4245.06 8.7711 1100 0.2110 4875.58 4242.52 8.5821
1150 0.6567 5009.52 4352.82 9.1846 1150 0.3283 5006.97 4350.41 8.8631 1150 0.2188 5004.41 4348.00 8.6743
1200 0.6799 5139.71 4459.86 9.2745 1200 0.3399 5137.36 4457.57 8.9531 1200 0.2266 5135.01 4455.28 8.7644
1250 0.7030 5271.72 4568.71 9.3626 1250 0.3515 5269.55 4566.53 9.0413 1250 0.2343 5267.38 4564.35 8.8528
1300 0.7262 5405.55 4679.40 9.4491 1300 0.3631 5403.55 4677.31 9.1279 1300 0.2421 5401.54 4675.23 8.9395

19
P=4 MPa P=5 MPa P=6 MPa
T v h u s T v h u s T v h u s
3 3 3
C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
250.34 0.0498 2801.09 2601.86 6.0672 263.92 0.0395 2796.74 2599.44 5.9714 275.56 0.0324 2790.45 2595.75 5.8883
300 0.0589 2961.28 2725.77 6.3624 300 0.0453 2924.84 2698.15 6.2087 300 0.0362 2884.12 2667.11 6.0671
350 0.0665 3093.49 2827.56 6.5837 350 0.0520 3069.68 2809.80 6.4513 350 0.0423 3044.35 2790.83 6.3356
400 0.0734 3214.16 2920.50 6.7700 400 0.0578 3196.74 2907.63 6.6476 400 0.0474 3178.68 2894.25 6.5431
450 0.0800 3329.95 3009.96 6.9360 450 0.0633 3316.34 2999.95 6.8190 450 0.0521 3302.42 2989.68 6.7204
500 0.0864 3443.72 3098.24 7.0881 500 0.0685 3432.63 3090.07 6.9745 500 0.0566 3421.38 3081.77 6.8795
550 0.0926 3556.93 3186.49 7.2300 550 0.0736 3547.62 3179.60 7.1186 550 0.0609 3538.23 3172.64 7.0260
600 0.0988 3670.36 3275.33 7.3638 600 0.0786 3662.39 3269.38 7.2539 600 0.0652 3654.36 3263.39 7.1629
650 0.1048 3784.49 3365.15 7.4909 650 0.0835 3777.56 3359.91 7.3822 650 0.0693 3770.59 3354.64 7.2924
700 0.1109 3899.64 3456.17 7.6123 700 0.0884 3893.53 3451.49 7.5045 700 0.0734 3887.40 3446.80 7.4156
750 0.1169 4016.00 3548.56 7.7289 750 0.0932 4010.56 3544.33 7.6218 750 0.0775 4005.12 3540.10 7.5335
800 0.1228 4133.71 3642.43 7.8412 800 0.0981 4128.85 3638.57 7.7347 800 0.0815 4123.97 3634.71 7.6469
850 0.1288 4252.89 3737.86 7.9498 850 0.1028 4248.50 3734.31 7.8436 850 0.0856 4244.11 3730.76 7.7563
900 0.1347 4373.60 3834.90 8.0549 900 0.1076 4369.63 3831.61 7.9491 900 0.0896 4365.65 3828.33 7.8622
950 0.1406 4495.91 3933.60 8.1570 950 0.1124 4492.30 3930.54 8.0515 950 0.0935 4488.68 3927.48 7.9649
1000 0.1465 4619.86 4034.00 8.2563 1000 0.1171 4616.56 4031.13 8.1511 1000 0.0975 4613.25 4028.27 8.0647
1050 0.1523 4745.48 4136.12 8.3531 1050 0.1218 4742.46 4133.42 8.2481 1050 0.1015 4739.43 4130.73 8.1619
1100 0.1582 4872.81 4239.98 8.4475 1100 0.1265 4870.03 4237.43 8.3427 1100 0.1054 4867.25 4234.89 8.2567
1150 0.1641 5001.86 4345.59 8.5398 1150 0.1312 4999.30 4343.19 8.4352 1150 0.1093 4996.75 4340.78 8.3493
1200 0.1699 5132.65 4452.99 8.6301 1200 0.1359 5130.30 4450.70 8.5256 1200 0.1133 5127.95 4448.41 8.4399
1250 0.1758 5265.21 4562.17 8.7186 1250 0.1406 5263.04 4559.99 8.6142 1250 0.1172 5260.87 4557.81 8.5287
1300 0.1816 5399.54 4673.15 8.8054 1300 0.1453 5397.54 4671.07 8.7011 1300 0.1211 5395.54 4668.98 8.6157

20
P=7 MPa P=8 MPa P=9 MPa
T v h u s T v h u s T v h u s
3 3 3
C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
285.80 0.0274 2782.92 2591.28 5.8139 294.99 0.0235 2774.55 2586.30 5.7458 303.34 0.0205 2765.61 2581.01 5.6824
300 0.0295 2838.29 2632.00 5.9301 300 0.0243 2786.34 2592.01 5.7928
350 0.0353 3017.34 2770.51 6.2303 350 0.0300 2988.43 2748.67 6.1318 350 0.0258 2957.37 2725.10 6.0373
400 0.0399 3159.93 2880.32 6.4506 400 0.0343 3140.45 2865.79 6.3667 400 0.0299 3120.18 2850.63 6.2890
450 0.0441 3288.18 2979.16 6.6345 450 0.0382 3273.60 2968.36 6.5576 450 0.0335 3258.67 2957.29 6.4876
500 0.0481 3409.96 3073.33 6.7973 500 0.0417 3398.36 3064.76 6.7245 500 0.0367 3386.60 3056.04 6.6587
550 0.0519 3528.74 3165.60 6.9462 550 0.0451 3519.16 3158.49 6.8759 550 0.0398 3509.48 3151.30 6.8127
600 0.0556 3646.29 3257.35 7.0848 600 0.0484 3638.15 3251.27 7.0162 600 0.0428 3629.97 3245.14 6.9548
650 0.0592 3763.59 3349.35 7.2155 650 0.0516 3756.56 3344.04 7.1481 650 0.0456 3749.49 3338.69 7.0879
700 0.0627 3881.25 3442.09 7.3396 700 0.0547 3875.09 3437.36 7.2731 700 0.0485 3868.90 3432.62 7.2139
750 0.0663 3999.67 3535.85 7.4582 750 0.0578 3994.20 3531.59 7.3925 750 0.0513 3988.72 3527.32 7.3339
800 0.0698 4119.09 3630.84 7.5722 800 0.0609 4114.20 3626.96 7.5070 800 0.0540 4109.31 3623.08 7.4490
850 0.0732 4239.71 3727.20 7.6820 850 0.0640 4235.31 3723.64 7.6173 850 0.0568 4230.91 3720.08 7.5597
900 0.0767 4361.67 3825.04 7.7883 900 0.0670 4357.68 3821.74 7.7238 900 0.0595 4353.70 3818.45 7.6667
950 0.0801 4485.05 3924.42 7.8913 950 0.0700 4481.43 3921.35 7.8271 950 0.0622 4477.81 3918.28 7.7703
1000 0.0835 4609.95 4025.40 7.9913 1000 0.0730 4606.64 4022.53 7.9275 1000 0.0649 4603.33 4019.66 7.8708
1050 0.0869 4736.40 4128.03 8.0887 1050 0.0760 4733.38 4125.33 8.0251 1050 0.0675 4730.35 4122.64 7.9687
1100 0.0903 4864.48 4232.34 8.1837 1100 0.0790 4861.70 4229.80 8.1203 1100 0.0702 4858.92 4227.25 8.0641
1150 0.0937 4994.20 4338.37 8.2765 1150 0.0820 4991.64 4335.96 8.2132 1150 0.0728 4989.09 4333.55 8.1572
1200 0.0971 5125.60 4446.12 8.3673 1200 0.0849 5123.24 4443.83 8.3041 1200 0.0755 5120.89 4441.54 8.2482
1250 0.1004 5258.70 4555.63 8.4561 1250 0.0879 5256.53 4553.45 8.3931 1250 0.0781 5254.36 4551.27 8.3373
1300 0.1038 5393.53 4666.90 8.5432 1300 0.0908 5391.53 4664.82 8.4803 1300 0.0808 5389.53 4662.74 8.4246

21
P=10 MPa P=15 MPa P=20 MPa
T v h u s T v h u s T v h u s
3 3 3
C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
311.01 0.0181 2756.24 2575.50 5.6228 342.43 0.0107 2706.26 2546.50 5.3611 366.689 0.0069 2654.51 2516.73 5.1359
350 0.0224 2923.89 2699.59 5.9450 350 0.0117 2708.18 2533.17 5.4669
400 0.0264 3099.05 2834.78 6.2158 400 0.0157 2977.97 2742.95 5.8848 400 0.0100 2822.06 2622.61 5.5597
450 0.0297 3243.39 2945.92 6.4228 450 0.0185 3161.01 2884.18 6.1475 450 0.0127 3066.73 2812.55 5.9112
500 0.0327 3374.66 3047.18 6.5984 500 0.0208 3312.26 3000.66 6.3498 500 0.0147 3245.05 2950.09 6.1499
550 0.0356 3499.71 3144.03 6.7551 550 0.0229 3449.49 3106.55 6.5219 550 0.0165 3396.99 3067.15 6.3405
600 0.0383 3621.73 3238.97 6.8991 600 0.0248 3579.77 3207.48 6.6756 600 0.0181 3536.61 3174.96 6.5052
650 0.0409 3742.40 3333.32 7.0334 650 0.0267 3706.47 3306.10 6.8167 650 0.0196 3669.85 3278.29 6.6536
700 0.0435 3862.69 3427.86 7.1603 700 0.0285 3831.39 3403.84 6.9485 700 0.0210 3799.67 3379.45 6.7905
750 0.0460 3983.23 3523.05 7.2811 750 0.0303 3955.60 3501.51 7.0729 750 0.0224 3927.72 3479.76 6.9188
800 0.0485 4104.40 3619.19 7.3967 800 0.0320 4079.78 3599.66 7.1914 800 0.0238 4054.99 3579.98 7.0403
850 0.0510 4226.50 3716.51 7.5079 850 0.0337 4204.38 3698.61 7.3049 850 0.0251 4182.16 3680.63 7.1561
900 0.0535 4349.71 3815.15 7.6153 900 0.0354 4329.72 3798.62 7.4141 900 0.0264 4309.66 3782.04 7.2672
950 0.0559 4474.18 3915.21 7.7191 950 0.0371 4456.02 3899.85 7.5195 950 0.0277 4437.83 3884.45 7.3741
1000 0.0583 4600.02 4016.79 7.8200 1000 0.0387 4583.47 4002.43 7.6216 1000 0.0289 4566.88 3988.04 7.4775
1050 0.0607 4727.32 4119.94 7.9180 1050 0.0404 4712.17 4106.45 7.7207 1050 0.0302 4697.01 4092.94 7.5778
1100 0.0631 4856.14 4224.71 8.0136 1100 0.0420 4842.24 4211.98 7.8172 1100 0.0315 4828.34 4199.24 7.6752
1150 0.0655 4986.53 4331.14 8.1069 1150 0.0436 4973.75 4319.09 7.9113 1150 0.0327 4960.97 4307.03 7.7701
1200 0.0679 5118.54 4439.25 8.1980 1200 0.0453 5106.77 4427.81 8.0031 1200 0.0339 5095.00 4416.36 7.8626
1250 0.0703 5252.19 4549.09 8.2872 1250 0.0469 5241.34 4538.18 8.0930 1250 0.0352 5230.49 4527.28 7.9531
1300 0.0727 5387.52 4660.65 8.3746 1300 0.0485 5377.51 4650.24 8.1809 1300 0.0364 5367.50 4639.83 8.0416

22
P=25 MPa P=30 MPa P=35 MPa
T v h u s T v h u s T v h u s
3 3 3
C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
375 0.0037 2323.01 2230.15 4.7502 375 0.0000 1864.90 1865.05 4.0293
400 0.0062 2615.28 2460.46 5.1933 400 0.0033 2337.03 2239.35 4.7452 400 0.0007 1962.14 1938.34 4.1738
450 0.0092 2957.09 2727.97 5.6848 450 0.0067 2827.66 2626.51 5.4515 450 0.0048 2673.01 2503.38 5.1979
500 0.0111 3172.48 2894.88 5.9733 500 0.0087 3093.85 2834.28 5.8082 500 0.0069 3008.30 2767.38 5.6477
550 0.0127 3342.29 3025.80 6.1863 550 0.0101 3285.47 2982.50 6.0487 550 0.0083 3226.63 2937.20 5.9217
600 0.0140 3492.38 3141.50 6.3634 600 0.0113 3447.25 3107.20 6.2396 600 0.0094 3401.45 3072.17 6.1280
650 0.0153 3632.64 3249.95 6.5197 650 0.0125 3594.97 3221.19 6.4041 650 0.0104 3557.00 3192.09 6.3013
700 0.0165 3767.59 3354.76 6.6620 700 0.0135 3735.24 3329.81 6.5521 700 0.0114 3702.71 3304.68 6.4551
750 0.0177 3899.60 3457.81 6.7943 750 0.0145 3871.31 3435.69 6.6885 750 0.0123 3842.89 3413.46 6.5956
800 0.0188 4030.06 3560.18 6.9188 800 0.0155 4005.00 3540.27 6.8161 800 0.0131 3979.86 3520.28 6.7263
850 0.0199 4159.84 3662.56 7.0370 850 0.0164 4137.45 3644.42 6.9367 850 0.0140 4114.98 3626.22 6.8493
900 0.0210 4289.55 3765.40 7.1500 900 0.0174 4269.38 3748.72 7.0516 900 0.0148 4249.17 3731.99 6.9662
950 0.0220 4419.59 3869.02 7.2585 950 0.0183 4401.33 3853.55 7.1618 950 0.0156 4383.03 3838.06 7.0780
1000 0.0231 4550.28 3973.64 7.3633 1000 0.0191 4533.65 3959.21 7.2678 1000 0.0163 4517.01 3944.77 7.1853
1050 0.0241 4681.83 4079.42 7.4646 1050 0.0200 4666.65 4065.89 7.3702 1050 0.0171 4651.44 4052.35 7.2889
1100 0.0251 4814.43 4186.50 7.5630 1100 0.0209 4800.51 4173.75 7.4695 1100 0.0179 4786.58 4161.00 7.3891
1150 0.0261 4948.19 4294.97 7.6586 1150 0.0217 4935.41 4282.91 7.5660 1150 0.0186 4922.62 4270.85 7.4864
1200 0.0271 5083.24 4404.91 7.7519 1200 0.0226 5071.47 4393.46 7.6600 1200 0.0194 5059.70 4382.01 7.5811
1250 0.0281 5219.64 4516.38 7.8429 1250 0.0234 5208.80 4505.48 7.7517 1250 0.0201 5197.95 4494.57 7.6734
1300 0.0291 5357.49 4629.42 7.9320 1300 0.0243 5347.47 4619.01 7.8412 1300 0.0208 5337.46 4608.60 7.7635

23
P=40 MPa P=45 MPa P=50 MPa
T v h u s T v h u s T v h u s
3 3 3
C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
450 0.0033 2486.71 2352.91 4.9122 450 0.0021 2261.37 2168.54 4.5820 450 0.0009 1988.61 1942.86 4.1946
500 0.0055 2914.81 2693.09 5.4868 500 0.0045 2812.23 2610.16 5.3218 500 0.0036 2699.21 2517.17 5.1494
550 0.0069 3165.89 2889.87 5.8020 550 0.0058 3103.38 2840.46 5.6875 550 0.0050 3039.26 2788.95 5.5768
600 0.0080 3355.22 3036.56 6.0255 600 0.0069 3308.86 3000.54 5.9302 600 0.0060 3262.71 2964.29 5.8407
650 0.0089 3518.92 3162.81 6.2079 650 0.0077 3480.97 3133.47 6.1219 650 0.0068 3443.38 3104.25 6.0420
700 0.0098 3670.12 3279.45 6.3675 700 0.0085 3637.61 3254.22 6.2872 700 0.0075 3605.33 3229.10 6.2130
750 0.0106 3814.42 3391.16 6.5121 750 0.0093 3785.96 3368.84 6.4359 750 0.0082 3757.62 3346.57 6.3656
800 0.0114 3954.66 3500.23 6.6459 800 0.0100 3929.44 3480.15 6.5728 800 0.0089 3904.26 3460.08 6.5055
850 0.0121 4092.47 3607.98 6.7714 850 0.0107 4069.93 3589.70 6.7008 850 0.0095 4047.39 3571.42 6.6359
900 0.0128 4228.91 3715.23 6.8903 900 0.0113 4208.63 3698.45 6.8216 900 0.0101 4188.34 3681.64 6.7587
950 0.0136 4364.70 3822.55 7.0036 950 0.0120 4346.35 3807.01 6.9366 950 0.0107 4327.98 3791.46 6.8752
1000 0.0143 4500.34 3930.31 7.1123 1000 0.0126 4483.66 3915.83 7.0466 1000 0.0113 4466.97 3901.35 6.9866
1050 0.0149 4636.23 4038.80 7.2170 1050 0.0132 4621.01 4025.24 7.1524 1050 0.0119 4605.78 4011.67 7.0935
1100 0.0156 4772.65 4148.24 7.3182 1100 0.0138 4758.71 4135.47 7.2546 1100 0.0124 4744.77 4122.70 7.1966
1150 0.0163 4909.82 4258.78 7.4163 1150 0.0145 4897.03 4246.71 7.3535 1150 0.0130 4884.23 4234.64 7.2964
1200 0.0169 5047.93 4370.56 7.5117 1200 0.0150 5036.15 4359.11 7.4496 1200 0.0135 5024.38 4347.65 7.3932
1250 0.0176 5187.10 4483.67 7.6046 1250 0.0156 5176.25 4472.77 7.5431 1250 0.0141 5165.40 4461.87 7.4873
1300 0.0182 5327.45 4598.19 7.6952 1300 0.0162 5317.44 4587.79 7.6343 1300 0.0146 5307.43 4577.38 7.5790

24
Table C.1dSI Compressed Liquid Table for Steam in SI Units

## P=5 MPa P=10 MPa P=15 MPa

T v h u s T v h u s T v h u s
C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
0 0.000995 5.91 0.94 -0.0057 0 0.000995 10.85 0.91 -0.0100 0 0.000995 15.72 0.80 -0.0143
20 0.001000 88.93 83.93 0.2919 20 0.001000 93.59 83.59 0.2873 20 0.001000 98.20 83.20 0.2828
40 0.001008 171.90 166.86 0.5671 40 0.001008 176.32 166.24 0.5623 40 0.001008 180.69 165.57 0.5576
60 0.001017 255.11 250.02 0.8251 60 0.001017 259.29 249.12 0.8201 60 0.001017 263.45 248.19 0.8151
80 0.001029 338.63 333.49 1.0689 80 0.001029 342.60 332.31 1.0636 80 0.001029 346.55 331.12 1.0583
100 0.001043 422.52 417.30 1.3003 100 0.001043 426.27 415.84 1.2946 100 0.001043 430.03 414.38 1.2890
120 0.001060 506.87 501.57 1.5208 120 0.001060 510.40 499.80 1.5147 120 0.001060 513.94 498.04 1.5086
140 0.001080 591.85 586.45 1.7316 140 0.001080 595.13 584.33 1.7250 140 0.001080 598.43 582.23 1.7185
160 0.001102 677.72 672.20 1.9342 160 0.001102 680.69 669.67 1.9270 160 0.001102 683.71 667.17 1.9200
180 0.001128 764.80 759.16 2.1299 180 0.001128 767.39 756.11 2.1220 180 0.001128 770.03 753.12 2.1143
200 0.001156 853.48 847.69 2.3200 200 0.001156 855.56 844.00 2.3113 200 0.001156 857.73 840.39 2.3028
220 0.001189 944.22 938.27 2.5059 220 0.001189 945.65 933.75 2.4961 220 0.001189 947.19 929.35 2.4866
240 0.001228 1037.62 1031.47 2.6885 240 0.001228 1038.19 1025.90 2.6773 240 0.001228 1038.94 1020.51 2.6664
260 0.001275 1134.52 1128.14 2.8690 260 0.001275 1133.98 1121.23 2.8557 260 0.001275 1133.71 1114.58 2.8430
280 0.001333 1234.26 1220.93 3.0324 280 0.001333 1232.70 1212.70 3.0170
300 0.001405 1340.98 1326.93 3.2082 300 0.001405 1337.81 1316.74 3.1884
320 0.001496 1452.08 1429.64 3.3544
340 0.001611 1580.19 1556.03 3.4924
263.92 0.001286 1154.18 1147.75 2.9186 311.01 0.001452 1407.97 1393.44 3.3580 342.43 0.001627 1611.12 1586.72 3.6877

25
P=20 MPa P=30 MPa P=50 MPa
T v h u s T v h u s T v h u s
3 3 3
C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK) C m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kgK)
0 0.000995 20.52 0.62 -0.0185 0 0.000995 29.89 0.05 -0.0269 0 0.000995 47.79 -1.94 -0.0434
20 0.001000 102.75 82.74 0.2784 20 0.001000 111.68 81.66 0.2695 20 0.001000 128.83 78.80 0.2523
40 0.001008 185.02 164.87 0.5529 40 0.001008 193.55 163.32 0.5436 40 0.001008 210.12 159.74 0.5256
60 0.001017 267.58 247.24 0.8101 60 0.001017 275.77 245.26 0.8004 60 0.001017 291.85 241.00 0.7814
80 0.001029 350.50 329.92 1.0530 80 0.001029 358.36 327.50 1.0427 80 0.001029 373.98 322.54 1.0227
100 0.001043 433.79 412.92 1.2834 100 0.001043 441.33 410.03 1.2725 100 0.001043 456.45 404.28 1.2513
120 0.001060 517.51 496.30 1.5027 120 0.001060 524.68 492.87 1.4910 120 0.001060 539.22 486.20 1.4686
140 0.001080 601.77 580.17 1.7121 140 0.001080 608.51 576.11 1.6996 140 0.001080 622.32 568.33 1.6758
160 0.001102 686.76 664.71 1.9131 160 0.001102 692.98 659.91 1.8996 160 0.001102 705.89 650.77 1.8741
180 0.001128 772.73 750.18 2.1068 180 0.001128 778.29 744.47 2.0922 180 0.001128 790.07 733.70 2.0648
200 0.001156 859.98 836.85 2.2945 200 0.001156 864.70 830.02 2.2785 200 0.001156 875.11 817.30 2.2489
220 0.001189 948.86 925.07 2.4773 220 0.001189 952.53 916.85 2.4596 220 0.001189 961.29 901.82 2.4274
240 0.001228 1039.86 1015.29 2.6559 240 0.001228 1042.22 1005.36 2.6360 240 0.001228 1049.03 987.61 2.6009
260 0.001275 1133.69 1108.18 2.8309 260 0.001275 1134.43 1096.17 2.8082 260 0.001275 1139.00 1075.22 2.7696
280 0.001333 1231.51 1204.85 3.0024 280 0.001333 1230.26 1190.27 2.9760 280 0.001333 1232.26 1165.61 2.9336
300 0.001405 1335.18 1307.08 3.1702 300 0.001405 1331.52 1289.37 3.1382 300 0.001405 1330.65 1260.40 3.0927
320 0.001496 1447.69 1417.77 3.3295 320 0.001496 1441.15 1396.28 3.2890 320 0.001496 1437.09 1362.31 3.2447
340 0.001611 1573.68 1541.46 3.4524 340 0.001611 1563.73 1515.41 3.3962 340 0.001611 1556.18 1475.65 3.3793
360 0.001756 1720.14 1685.01 3.2727 360 0.001756 1706.18 1653.49 3.1761 360 0.001756 1694.86 1607.04 3.4224
366.68 0.001813 1803.76 1767.49 3.9986 400 0.002174 2095.44 2030.24 5.1882 400 0.002174 2075.84 1967.16 4.7255

26
UNIT 2

1. A boiler is supplied with feed water at a temperature of 450C. The water is converted into
steam at a pressure of 5.5 bar and a temperature of 1880C. Determine the quantity of heat
supplied per kg of steam. Assume suitable data.
2. One kg of steam at 18 bar and 280c under a constant pressure process until the quality of
steam becomes 0.5 dry. Find the work done, the heat transferred and the change in entropy.
3. A Regid container is filled with steam at 7 bar and 200c. At what temperature and pressure
will the steam starts condense when the container is cooled? To what temperature and
pressure must the container be cooled to condense 50percentage of the steam mass.
5. STEAM NOZZLES
5.1. INTRODUCTION
In steam turbines, the overall transformation of heat energy of steam into
mechanical work takes place in two stages. The available energy of steam is first
converted into kinetic energy and then this kinetic energy is transformed into mechanical
work. The first step is accomplished with devices called steam nozzles.
A steam nozzle is a duct or passage of smoothly varying cross sectional area
which converts heat energy of steam into kinetic energy. The shape of nozzle is designed
such that it will perform this conversion of energy with minimum loss.
When steam flows through a nozzle, expansion of steam takes place. During this
expansion, the pressure of steam decreases and also the heat content (Enthalpy). With the
expenditure of enthalpy, the velocity and specific volume increase. Also, with the
expansion of steam, there will be condensation of steam with varying dryness fraction.
The mass of steam passing through any section of nozzle remains constant. So,
the variation of pressure and the cross section of nozzle depend upon the velocity,
specific volume and dryness fraction of steam. The velocity increases continuously from
entrance to exit of the nozzle.
The cross section of the nozzles may be circular, rectangular, elliptical or square.
The smallest section in the nozzle is known as throat.
The nozzles are used in steam and gas turbines, jet engines, for propulsion of
rocket motors, flow measurements, in injectors for pumping water, in ejectors for
removing air from condensers etc. The major function of nozzles is to produce a jet of
steam or gas with high velocity to drive steam or gas turbines. So, the nozzles are located
just before the steam or gas turbines. When the nozzles velocity gas is produced and there
will be no question of condensation and hence dryness fraction

When the nozzles are used with steam turbines, they perform the following functions.
1. They convert part of heat energy of steam (obtained from boiler) into kinetic
energy.
2. In case of impulse turbines (details of steam turbines are given in the chapter -
steam turbines), the nozzles direct the jet of high velocity steam against the blades
of rotor which then convert the kinetic energy of steam into mechanical (shaft)
work.

In case of reaction turbines, the nozzles discharge high velocity steam on to the rotor
blades. The reactive force of steam against the nozzle produces motion of rotor and work
is obtained. When a fluid is decelerated in a duct or passage (velocity decreases) causing
a rise in pressure during the travel along the stream, then the duct or passage is known as
- Diffuser. Diffusers are extensively used in centrifugal, axial flow compressors, ramjets
and combustion chambers etc.,
We study about steam nozzles only - Nozzles in which the working fluid is steam.

## There are three important types of steam nozzles:

1. Convergent nozzie.
2. Divergent nozzle.
3. Convergent - divergent nozzle.
Fig.5.1: Types of Steam Nozzles
If the cross section of the nozzle decreases continuously from entrance to exit;
then it is called Convergent nozzle.
If the cross section of a nozzle increases continuously from entrance to exit then it
is called Divergent nozzle.
If the cross section of a nozzle decreases first upto certain length and then
increases upto exit; then it is called Convergent - Divergent nozzle. This is used mostly
in various types of steam turbines. The three types of the nozzle are shown in fig.5.1

## 5.3. FLOW OF STEAM THROUGH NOZZLES

In most of the cases, the steam enters the nozzle with low velocity compared to
exit velocity, and it is generally neglected. As already mentioned, the function of a nozzle
is to convert internal energy of steam into kinetic energy and this is done by expanding
the steam from a high pressure/?j to a low pressurep2.
The flow of steam through nozzles may be regarded as adiabatic expansion
because in nozzles, the velocity of steam is so high that there will be no time available for
heat exchange with surroundings and so heat is neither supplied nor rejected. However,
work is performed by increasing the kinetic energy of steam. Also, in a nozzle, the
change of potential energy is negligible and no work is done on or by the fluid.
The expansion of steam in a nozzle is not a free expansion and the steam is not
throttled because it has a very high velocity at the end of expansion and the pressure as
well as enthalpy decrease as expansion takes place. The pressure at which steam leaves
the nozzle is known as Back pressure.
In actual practice, always some friction is produced between steam and the walls
of the nozzle; this friction causes resistance for the flow of steam, which is converted into
heat. This heat tends to dry the steam. So, for the design of a nozzle, the effect of friction
has to be considered.
There is a phenomenon known as - super saturation that occurs in the flow of
steam through nozzles. This is due to time lag in the condensation of steam during
expansion. This super saturated flow affects mass and condition of the steam discharged.
So, the flow of steam through a nozzle may be regarded as either:

## 1. Reversible adiabatic or isentropic flow.

2. Adiabatic flow modified by friction.
3. Super saturated flow.
The nozzle as a system is shown in fig.5.2 where plane 1 is the entrance of the nozzle
and plane 2 is the exit of the nozzle.

Fig.5.2: A Nozzle

## Fig.5.3: Expansion of Steam

The analysis of steam nozzles is also valid for gas nozzles (Nozzles in which the
working fluid is a gas) where dryness fraction x=1. Super saturation is limited to flow of
steam only and it doesn't occur in gas nozzles.
5.4. EQUATION OF CONTINUITY
Let us consider the flow of steam through a nozzle.
Let
m = Mass flow rate of steam kg/sec
A = Cross sectional area at any section m2
C = Velocity of steam m/sec
Vs= Specific volume of steam m3/kg

According to continuity equation, mass flow rate at any section remains constant.
So, for steady flow of fluid,
m =A. = = = constant
mVs = A.C
For points 1,2 etc., along the length of the nozzle.

This equation is valid if steam is filled completely in every section of the nozzle

To allow the expansion to take place properly, area at any section of nozzle must
be such that it will accommodate steam whatever volume and velocity may prevail at that
point.
The mass flow is same at all sections of the nozzle. So, area of cross section
varies as (C/Vs). The manner in which C and Vs vary depend upon the properties of the
fluid flowing. So, the shape or contour of the nozzle depends upon the nature of the fluid
flowing.
For a liquid substance, Vs remains almost constant with change of pressure. With
decreasing pressure, the velocity of substance C increases and so the value of (C/Vs) goes
on increasing. So, the cross sectional area, 4 should decrease with decrease of pressure.
The Fig.5.4.(a) shows proper contour of longitudinal section of a nozzle suitable
for a liquid. This is a convergent nozzle. While both velocities K and specific volume Vs
increase, the rate of increase of specific volume is less than that of velocity resulting in
increasing value of (C/Vx).

## Fig.5.4: General Forms of Nozzles

Fig.5.4.(b) shows proper contour for some hypothetical substance for which both
velocity and specific volume increase at same rate so that their ratio C/Vs remains
constant at all sections. So, the cross sectional area A should be constant at all points and
the nozzle becomes a plain tube.
Fig.5.4.(c) shows a divergent nozzle suitable for a fluid for which (C/Vs) decrease
with the drop of pressure. The specific volume increases at a faster rate tha\$ velocity with
the drop of pressure. So, the cross sectional area should increase as the pressure
decreases.
Fig.5.4.(d) shows widely used general form of convergent - divergent nozzle;
suitable for gases and vapours. While velocity and specific volume both increases from
start, velocity increases faster than specific volume first but after a certain critical point,
specific volume increases more rapidly than velocity. So, the value of (C/Vs) first
increases to a maximum value and then decreases requiring a nozzle of convergent -
divergent form.
5.5. GENERAL FLOW ANALYSIS
For calculating the variations of area of nozzle, it is essential to know how the
expansion takes place. In what way the enthalpy and specific volume vary along the
length of nozzle. It has been already mentioned that the expansion process is assumed to
be adiabatic and hence for ideal frictionless case, the entropy remains constant in the
nozzle.
The fig.5.5 shows the variation of velocity, specific volume and area along the
length of a nozzle. It is assumed that equal pressure drop occurs in each unit length of the
nozzle.

Fig.5.5: Variation of Velocity, Specific Volume and Area along the length of a Nozzle

At high pressures, the specific volume increases at first slowly as pressure drops
while velocity increases at a faster rate. As the expansion proceeds, the specific volume
increases faster than velocity. So, as we proceed from high pressure p1 to a low pressure
p2 at the exit of the nozzle, the area decreases to a minimum and then increases resulting
convergent divergent form of the nozzle.
The point in the nozzle where area is minimum is called throat and the pressure at
the throat is called - critical pressure. At this section; the mass flow per unit area is
maximum.
The velocity of fluid at the throat of a nozzle operating at its designed pressure
ratio (when the flow rate is maximum) is equal to velocity of sound, and it is called -
Sonic velocity. The flow upto throat is sub sonic and the flow after throat is supersonic
(greater than velocity of sound).
In nozzles, accelerated flow takes place - the velocity increases and pressure
decreases with the flow of fluid. If the fluid velocity is less than the sound or sonic
velocity, then the area of the nozzle must decreases; i.e., the nozzle must converge which
results in converging portion. As we know, the velocity increases continuously in a
nozzle from inlet to exit.
After throat, the fluid velocity becomes greater than sonic velocity and to
accelerate flow; the area must increase or thenozzle must diverge resulting in diverging
portion of nozzle.
The ratio of fluid velocity to local sound velocity is known as - Mach
number.
The fig.5.6 shows a general form of convergent - divergent nozzle. (Also called De-lavel
nozzle)
Fig.5.6: Convergent Divergent Nozzle

A convergent nozzle is used if exit pressure is equal to or more than the critical
pressure and convergent - divergent nozzle is used if exit pressure is less than the critical
pressure.
As already mentioned, the velocity of steam at inlet to a nozzle is very small
compared to exit velocity. Low velocity implies large inlet area and most nozzles are
shaped in such as way that the inlet area is large and converges rapidly to throat area.
A ventruimeter which is used for flow measurement of fluids is also convergent
divergent in shape. But, in it, there is no continuous rise or fall of pressure. So, it is
neither a complete nozzle nor a diffuser. In its convergent portion, the pressure is
decreasing, velocity is rising and this portion acts as a sub sonic nozzle. In the divergent
portion, pressure is rising, velocity is falling and this portion acts as subsonic diffuser.
The pressure at throat may not necessarily imply sonic velocity.
The ratio of critical pressure to initial pressure is called - critical pressure ratio
(p2/p1) - At the throat, the pressure is critical (velocity of fluid equals to sound velocity),
area is minimum and mass flow per unit area is maximum.
With liquids, convergent - divergent shape is never used because the sonic
velocity in liquids is very high (About 1500 m/sec compare to about 330 m/sec in air)
which is out of the limit of practical velocities used.

## 5.6. STEADY FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

Consider steady flow of 1kg of steam through a nozzle.
Let
P1 and P2 =Pressures at inlet and exit
C1 and C2 =Velocities at inlet and exit
Vs1 and Vs2 = Specific volumes at inlet and exit
u1 and u2 = Internal energy at inlet and exit
Z1 and Z2 = Elevation at inlet and exit
h1 and h2 = Enthalpy at inlet and exit
q = Heat supplied if any
w = Work done if any
For a steady flow process (without any accumulation of the fluid between inlet and exit),
by the principle of conservation of energy;

## Energy at entrance or inlet = Energy at exit.

Work done in forcing 1kg of steam into nozzle+ Initial internal energy + Initial kinetic
energy +Initial potential energy + Heat supplied if any from the surroundings

= Work done in sending out 1 kg of steam from nozzle +Final internal energy +
Final kinetic energy + Final potential energy +Work done if any to the surroundings.

## P1 v1 + u1=h1 Enthalpy of steam at inlet

P2 v2 +u2 = h2 Enthalpy of steam at outlet
Generally, changes in potential energy are negligible.
gZ1= gZ2

## If no heat is supplied from surroundings; then q = 0.

If no work is done to the surroundings, then w = 0.

h1+ = h2 +

This is the steady flow energy equation of a nozzle. In this equation; the effect of friction
is not considered.

## 5.7. FLOW OF STEAM THROUGH A CONVERGENT - DIVERGENT NOZZLE

The fig.5.7 shows a convergent - divergent nozzle.

## Fig.5.7: Convergent Divergent Nozzle

In the converging portion 1-2 (From inlet to throat), there is a drop in steam
pressure with a rise in its velocity. Also, there is a drop in the enthalpy of the steam. This
drop of enthalpy is not utilised in doing external work but converted into kinetic energy.
In the divergent portion 2-3 (From throat to exit), there is further drop of steam
pressure with a further rise in its velocity. Again, there is a drop in the enthalpy which is
converted into kinetic energy.
Now, at the outlet, steam leaves the nozzles with high velocity and low pressure.
5.8. EFFECT OF FRICTION IN A NOZZLE; NOZZLE EFFICIENCY
When steam flows through a nozzle, for a given pressure drop, the final velocity
of steam gets reduced because of the following losses:
1. The friction between steam and walls of nozzle.
2. Internal friction of steam itself.
3. Shock losses.
Most of the friction in a convergent divergent nozzle occurs in the divergent
portion -between throat and exit. Due to the effect of friction, the actual flow through a
nozzle is not isentropic but still approximately adiabatic. The effects of friction are:

## 1. The enthalpy drop is reduced and hence the final velocity.

2. The kinetic energy gets converted into heat due to friction and is absorbed by the
steam. Due to this, the final dryness fraction of steam increases.
3. Steam becomes more dry due to increased dryness fraction and hence specific
volume of steam increases and mass flow rate decreases.

The effect of friction is shown on the h-s diagram or Mother chart in fig.5.8.

## Fig.5.8: Effect of friction in a Nozzle

Point A represents the initial condition of steam which enters the nozzle in a dry
saturated state. If the effect of friction is neglected, the expansion of steam from entrance
to throat is represented by A-B and that from throat to exit by B-C. The whole expansion
from A to C is isentropic. The heat drop (hA - hc) is known as - Isentropic heat drop or
Rankine heat drop.
In actual practice, the expansion process is modified by friction. Let point B'
represent the final condition of steam. Now, AB' represents the actual expansion -
Adiabatic expansion. Dryness fraction at B' is more than at C. So, the effect of friction is
to improve the quality of the steam.
The heat drop (hA - hB') is the actual enthalpy drop during the expansion of steam
when effect of friction is considered and is known as - useful heat drop. The useful heat
drop is less than the isentropic heat drop.
If the steam enters the nozzle in a super heated condition, then during expansion,
the friction tends to super heat the steam.
The ratio of actual or useful heat drop to isentropic heat drop is known as -
Coefficient of nozzle or nozzle efficiency. K.
nozzle = K = Nozzle efficiency

=
The efficiency of a nozzle generally varies from 0.85 to 0.95. The efficiency of a
nozzle depends upon the following factors:
1. Material of the nozzle.
2. Size and shape of the nozzle.
3. Finish of the nozzle.
4. Angle of divergence.
5. Nature of the fluid and its state,
6. Friction.
7. Fluid velocity.
8. Turbulence in the flow passages.

## 5.9. COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE

The effect of friction on mass flow is taken into account by the term - Coefficient
of discharge. It is defined as the ratio of actual mass flow rate to mass flow rate
corresponding to isentropic expansion.
5.10. VELOCITY OF STEAM
Steam enters the nozzle with high pressure and low velocity and leaves the nozzle
with high velocity and low pressure. The initial velocity compared to exit velocity is so
small and is generally neglected.
Let
C1= Velocity of steam at entrance of nozzle m/sec.
C2= Velocity of steam at any section of nozzle m/sec
h1 = Enthalpy of entering steam kJ/kg
h2= Enthalpy of steam at the section considered kJ/kg
For unit mass flow of steam, we have the steady flow energy equation:
h1 + = h2 +
= + (h1- h2)

The gain in kinetic energy between any two sections is equal to loss of enthalpy. Enthalpy
drop hd = (hl - h2)
= + (hd)
Neglecting the velocity of entering steam or velocity of approach;

= (hd)

2
c2 = 2 hd =2000 hd

c2 = = 44.72 m/sec.

In actual practice, always certain amount of friction exits between steam and the
surfaces of the nozzle. This reduces the enthalpy drop by 10-15 percent and hence the exit
velocity of steam is also reduced correspondingly.

## Considering the effect of friction;

c2 = 44.72
K = Nozzle efficiency or coefficient of nozzle.

## 5.11. VELOCITY COEFFICIENT

In the problems of nozzles, sometimes, the term velocity coefficient is used for
accounting the effects of friction.
Velocity coefficient is defined as the ratio of actual exit velocity to exit velocity
when the flow is isentropic for the same pressure drop.

## Velocity coefficient =CV =

= =
The velocity coefficient depends upon the dimensions of the nozzle, roughness of the
nozzle walls, velocity of flow, friction etc.

## 5.12. MASS OF STEAM DISCHARGED THROUGH A NOZZLE

The steam flowing through a nozzle approximately follows the equation
pvn = constant.
where n = 1.135 for saturated steam
= 1.300 for superheated steam.

## For wet steam, from Zenner's equations;

n = 1.035 + 0.1 x1 . Where
x1= Initial dryness fraction of steam.
Let p1 = Initial pressure of steam - N/m2
v1 = Initial volume of 1 kg of steam - m3/kg
p2 = Pressure of steam at throat - N/m2
3
v2 - Volume of steam at pressure p2 - m /kg
2
A = Cross sectional area of nozzle -m
V2 = Velocity of leaving steam - m/sec.

## Work done during Rankine cycle (Rankine area)

= Drop in enthalpy

## Gain in kinetic energy = (Neglecting initial velocity)

Gain in kinetic energy is equal to enthalpy drop.

## Volume of steam flowing / sec

= Cross sectional area of nozzle x velocity.
=A.V2
Volume of 1 kg of steam i.e., specific volume of steam at pressure p2 = v2 m3/kg
Then, mass of steam discharged through the nozzle per second
Substituting the value of v2 from equation (3);

This equation gives mass of steam in kgs/sec flowing through a nozzle for a pressure drop
from p1to p2

## 5.13. CRITICAL PRESSURE RATIO

From equation (4); the rate of mass flow of steam per unit is given by:

The mass flow per unit are has maximum value at 'throat' which has minimum area.
The value of pressure ratio (p2/p1) at throat can be calculated from equation (5)
corresponding to maximum value of m/A. Except the ratio (p2/p1), all other terms in this
equation are constant. So, m/A will be maximum when
is maximum.

Differentiating the above expression with respect to (p2/p1) and equating to zero for a
maximum discharge per unit area.
The ratio (p2/p1) is known as - Critical pressure ratio and its value depends upon
the value of index n. The pressure at throat is known as - Critical pressure and the ratio
of pressure at minimum cross section i.e., throat (p2) to initial pressure - pressure at
entrance (p1) is known as critical pressure ratio. The area of throat of all steam
nozzles should be designed on this ratio.
The following table gives approximate values of index n and corresponding
values of critical pressure ratio.

## Initial Condition of Steam Value of Index n Critical Pressure Ratio

Super heated or super saturated 1.300 0.546
Dry saturated 1.135 0.578
Wet 1.113 0.582
(1.035 + 0.1 x1) x1 = Initial dryness fraction
of steam

## 5.14. PHYSICAL EXPLANATION OF CRITICAL PRESSURE

Suppose there are two vessels A and B which are joined by a diaphragm
containing a convergent nozzle as shown in fig.5.9.

## Fig.5.9: Convergent Nozzle

Fig.5.10: Critical Pressure
Let the vessel A contains steam at pressure p1 while pressure p2 in vessel B is
varied at will.
Let the pressure p2 in vessel B initially is equal to pressure p1. Then no flow takes
place. Now, if p2 is reduced gradually, the discharge through the nozzle will increase
accordingly as shown in fig.5.10. When the pressure p2 approaches a 'critical' value, the
rate of discharge also approaches a maximum value. If p2 is reduced below this critical
value, rate of discharge doesn't increase but remains constant as that at 'critical pressure'
and fluid expands violently to p2. The ratio of exit pressure p2 to inlet pressure p1 is called
- critical pressure ratio.
We know that velocity of steam at any section in the nozzle is

## For maximum discharge, critical pressure ratio

The above equation represents the local velocity of sound in steam at pressure p2
and density 2 = 1/v2. So, the velocity of steam in adiabatic and frictionless flow reaches
the velocity of sound in steam at throat and this velocity is known as - Sonic velocity.
When friction is present, sonic velocity in steam occurs just beyond throat.
The critical pressure gives the velocity of steam at throat equal to velocity of
sound. In a convergent - divergent nozzle, the flow in convergent portion of nozzle is sub
sonic (less than the velocity of sound), sonic at throat and in divergent portion, it is
supersonic (More than the velocity of sound). For a convergent - divergent nozzle, the
cross sectional area of throat fixes the mass flow through the nozzle for fixed inlet
conditions.
To increase the velocity of steam above sonic velocity (To supersonic velocity) by
expanding the steam below critical pressure, divergent portion for the nozzle is necessary.

## 5.15. DIAMETERS OF THROAT AND EXIT FOR MAXIMUM DISCHARGE

Consider a convergent - divergent nozzle. The fig. 5.11 shows h-s diagram for the
nozzle.

## Let P1 = Initial pressure of steam -N/m.

h1 = Enthalpy of inlet steam - KJ/kg.
p2, p3, h2, h3 = Corresponding value at throat.
x1 = Dryness and exit fraction of steam at inlet.
x2 - Dryness fraction of steam at throat
V2 = Velocity of steam at throat - m/sec
v = Specific volume of steam at throat corresponding to
2 pressure p2
(From steam tables) m 3/kg

## x3, V3, v3, A3 = Corresponding values at

exit. m - Mass of steam discharged kg
The first step is to estimate the critical or throat pressure (p2) for the given initial
conditions of steam.
Now on the Mollier chart (h-s chart), locate points. It is a point where the initial
pressure (p1) line meets the given dryness fraction (x1) line. Through A; draw a vertical
line to meet critical pressure (p2) line at B. AB represents expansion of steam from inlet to
throat. Extend the line AB to meet the exit pressure line (p3) at C. BC represents
expansion from throat to exit, i.e., expansion in divergent portion.
Now, find out the values of enthalpy and dryness fraction for points A, B, C from
the chart. Considering the flow of steam from inlet to throat:
Enthalpy drop =h1 =h1 - h2
Velocity of steam at throat = V2 = 44.7 hd
Mass of steam discharged / sec.

## (vs2 specific volume of dry saturated steam)

If the nozzle is convergent, then, the nozzle terminates at throat and hence throat
is the exit of the nozzle.
For a convergent - divergent nozzle; consider the flow of steam from entrance to exit.
Enthalpy drop =he = h1-h3

## Vs3 = Specific volume of dry saturated steam at pressure p3.

Knowing the value of 'm', areas of diameters of throat and exit can be determined.
5.16. LENGTH OF A NOZZLE
The length of convergent portion should be very short to reduce surface friction
and generally its length is about 6 mm. The convergence of the walls tends to stabilize the
flow as shown in fig.5.12.

## Fig.5.12: Length of Nozzle

In the divergent portion of the nozzle, on account of inertia, high velocity steam
has the tendency to flow along the axis is the form of circular jet of area equal to throat
area. If the divergence is rapid; steam will not occupy the increased area provided. So,
steam may pass out through the divergent portion without drop of pressure as shown in
Fig. 5.12(a).
So, the divergent portion should have sufficient length so that steam has enough
time to occupy the full cross sectional area thus resulting in drop of pressure and increase
in kinetic energy. This requires gradual increase in area. In practice, the length of nozzle
from throat to exit is such that the included cone angle is about 10 as shown in Fig.
5.12(c).
5.17. SUPER SATURATED OR META STABLE FLOW
When a super heated vapour expands adiabatically or isentropically, the vapour
begins to condense when saturated vapour line is reached. As expansion continues below
this line into wet region, condensation proceeds gradually and steam becomes more and
more wet there is always a stable mixture of steam and condensate (liquid) at any point
during expansion. This type of expansion is in thermal equilibrium and is shown in Fig.
5.13 on T-s and h-s diagrams.

## Fig.5.13: Expansion of Steam under Thermal Equilibrium

The point S in expansion lies on saturation line and represents the point at which
condensation within the vapour just begins. The condensation of steam occurs when
steam passes through certain distance in the nozzle and after certain short interval of time.
When steam flows through the nozzle, the discharge of steam through the nozzle
will be slightly less than the theoretical discharge due to the effect of friction. But,
during the flow of wet steam through the nozzle, the measured discharge is slightly
greater than the theoretical discharge even though we consider the effect of friction.
Normally, condensation starts around tiny dust particles which are always
present in commercial steam plants in sufficient quantity. When steam is free of foreign
particles, condensation process is delayed and the temperature of the steam continues to
fall. This is known as - super saturation. When certain degree of super saturation is
reached, the presence of dust particles has no effect on condensation and equilibrium
between vapours and liquid phases is attained completely and also instantaneously.
In normal condensation, the random kinetic energy of the molecules falls to a
level which is insufficient to overcome the attractive forces of the molecules and some
of the slower moving molecules join together to form tiny droplets of water. A certain
time interval is essential for the collection of these molecules to form droplets.
In actual practice, the velocity of steam in sonic or even supersonic and the
convergent portion of the nozzle is so short the molecules of steam find no sufficient
time to collect and form droplets and steam doesn't condense at the saturation
temperature corresponding to the pressure but continues to expand with fall in
temperature but without condensation. As a result, equilibiurm between liquid and
vapour phases is delayed. The expansion takes place very rapidly and condensation can't
keep pace with expansion and lags behind. Due to this, the steam remains in an
unnatural dry or super heated state.
The steam in such conditions is said to be 'super - saturated' or ' meta - stable'. It is
also called - Super cooled steam and its temperature at any pressure is less than the
saturation temperature; corresponding to that pressure. The flow of super saturated steam
through the nozzle is called - super saturated or meta stable or non - equilibrium flow.
Super saturation means that steam doesn't condense at the saturation temperature
corresponding to the pressure as it occurs in case of equilibrium pressure as it occurs in
case of equilibrium flow.In the state of 'super saturation', the steam is under cooled to a
temperature less than that corresponding to its pressure; hence, the density of steam
increases and hence the measured discharge increases than the calculated theoretical
discharge. Experiments showed that in the absence of dust; dry saturated steam when
suddenly expanded, doesn't condense until its density is about 8 times that of saturated
vapour of the same pressure.

## The reasons for super saturated flow are:

1. The flow of steam is so rapid that it doesn't allow time for transfer of heat. It may
take about 0.001 second only for steam to travel from inlet to exit of nozzle.
2. There may not be any dust particles which generally form nucleus for
condensation. At a certain instant, the supersaturated steam condenses suddenly
to its natural state.
Thus, flow of steam through a nozzle may be regarded as either ideal adiabatic or
adiabatic flow modified by friction and super saturation.
The fig. 5.14 shows the super saturated flow on T-s and h-s diagrams.

## Fig.5.14: Super Saturated Flow

Point A' represents the position of initial super heated steam at entrance pressure
p1. The line A' - A represents isentropic expansion of steam in thermal equilibrium upto
saturation line. Line AC represents isentropic expansion of steam in super saturated
region. Upto the point at which condensation occurs, the state of steam is not of stable
equilibrium not unstable equilibrium either, since a small disturbance will cause
condensation to commence. So, steam in this condition is said to be in meta stable state.
Point C represents the meta stable state. It is obtained by drawing a vertical line from
points to Wilson line. At C; the steam condenses suddenly. Line CD represents
condensation of steam at constant enthalpy. Point D is obtained by drawing a horizontal
line through C to meet throat pressure p2 of the nozzle. Line DF represents isentropic
expansion of steam in the divergent portion in thermal equilibrium. During the partial
condensation of steam DF, sufficient amount of heat is released which raises the
temperature back to saturation temperature.
Following relations may be used for solving problems on super saturated flow:

## 5.18. EFFECTS OF SUPER SATURATION

The following are the important effects that occur during super saturated flow of steam in
a nozzle.
1. As the condensation doesn't take place during super saturated expansion, the
temperature at which super saturation occurs will be less than the super saturation
temperature corresponding to the pressure. So, the density of super saturated
steam will be more than that for equilibrium conditions. (Generally 8 times that of
ordinary saturated vapour at the corresponding pressure) This gives increase in
the mass of steam discharged
2. Due to super saturation, the entropy and specific volume increase.
3. Super saturation increases slightly the dryness fraction.
4. For some pressure limits, super saturation reduces enthalpy drop slightly. As
velocity is proportional to square root of enthalpy drop; exit velocity is also
reduced slightly.
When meta stable conditions exist in the nozzle; Mollier chart (H-S chart) should not
be used and the expansion must be considered to follow the law pv1.3 = C i.e., with index
of expansion for super heated steam. The problems on super saturated flow can't be
solved by Mollier chart unless Wilson line is drawn on it.

## 5.19. WILSON LINE

Generally, there is a limit upto which super saturated flow is possible. This limit
of super saturation is represented by a curve known as - Wilson line, on the Mollier
diagram. Above this curve, steam is super saturated and super heated. Beyond Wilson
line, there is no super saturation. At Wilson line condensation occurs suddenly and
irreversibly at constant enthalpy and then remains in stable condition. The result is to
reduce heat drop slightly during expansion causing corresponding reduction in exit
velocity and final dryness fraction increases slightly.
The limiting condition of under cooling at which condensation begins and restores
the conditions of thermal equilibrium is called Wilson line.
Generally, Wilson line closely follows 0.96 dryness fraction line. In nozzles, this
limit may be within the nozzle or after the vapour leaves the nozzle.

## 5.20. DEGREE OF UNDER COOLING

It is the difference between super saturated steam temperature and saturation
temperature at that pressure. Refer T-S diagram of fig. 3.14.
The temperature T2 ' is less than the normal temperature of steam at pressure p2.
The state C is known as - Under cooled as the temperature of steam is lesser than the
saturation temperature at pressure p2'. The amount of under cooling (Difference in
temperatures) is known as - Degree of under cooling.
Degree of under cooling = T2 T 2 '

There is a limit to the degree of under cooling possible and the limit to which the
super saturated flow is possible is given by - Wilson line. The region between the Wilson
line and the dry saturated line is called - Super saturated zone.
When Wilson line is reached, condensation begins at constant enthalpy and
pressure remains unaltered.

## DEGREE OF SUPER SATURATION

The ratio of pressures corresponding to temperature of super saturated steam and
saturation temperature is known as - Degree of super saturation.
UNIT 5

1. Steam enters a group of nozzles of a steam turbine at 12bar and 220c and leaves at 1.2
bar. The steam turbine develops 220 kW with a specific steam consumption of 13.5
kg/kwh. If the diameter of the nozzles at throat is 7 mm. Calculate number of nozzles.
2. Steam is supplied to a nozzle at 3.5bar and 0.96 dry. The steam enters the nozzle at 240
m/s. The pressure drops to 0.8 bar. Determine the velocity and dryness fraction of the
steam when it leaves the nozzle.
3. Discuss the effect of friction during the expansion of steam through a convergent
divergent nozzle when steam at entry to true nozzle is saturated
4. Calculate the throat area of nozzle supplied with steam at 10 bar and 200c. The rate of
flow of steam is 1.2 kg/s. Neglect friction and assume the velocity at inlet to be small
5. Steam enters a group of nozzles of a steam turbine at 12 bar and 220c and leaves at
1.2bar. The steam turbine develops 220 kW with a specific steam consumption of 13.5
kg/ kWh. If the diameter of nozzles at throat is 7mm, calculate number of nozzles.
6. In an is isentropic flow through nozzle, air flows at the rate of 600 kg/ hr. At inlet to the
nozzle pressure is 2mpa and temperature is 127degree c. The exit pressure is 0.5 mpa.
Initial air velocity is 300 m/ s. Determine exit velocity of air, inlet and exit area of nozzle.
7. Steam at a pressure of 15 bar and dryness fraction 0.97 is discharged through convergent
divergent nozzle to a bar pressure of 0.2bar. The mass flow rate 9 kg/ kWh. If the power
developed is 220 kW. Determine throat pressure, number of nozzles required if each
nozzle has a throat of rectangular cross section of 4mm X8 mm.
6. STEAM TURBINES
6.1. INTRODUCTION:
A steam turbine is a key unit in a steam power plant from which we get power.
A steam turbine is a turbo-machine and a prime mover in which potential energy of
steam is transformed into kinetic energy and this kinetic energy is then transformed into
mechanical energy of rotation of shaft of turbine.
In reciprocating steam engines, the pressure energy of steam is utilised and
dynamic action of steam is negligible. In steam engines, steam acts on piston as a load
or weight and so, the action of steam is - static. Steam engines may be operated without
any expansion or drop of pressure in the cylinder. The expansive property of steam is
not utilised to fullest extent even in the best types of multi expansion steam engines.
Steam turbines can't be operated as that of steam engines. The turbine depends
wholly upon the dynamic action of steam. The turbine utilises the kinetic or velocity
energy of steam instead of pressure energy only. The expansive property of steam is
almost utilised in the turbine either in admission nozzles or in the turbine blading.
The steam is caused to fall in pressure in a nozzle during admission to the
turbine, due to this fall in pressure; certain amount of heat energy is converted into
kinetic energy. A steam turbine consists of a number of curved blades fixed uniformly
on the rim of a wheel which is fastened to a shaft and we obtain power from this shaft.
The high velocity steam from nozzles impinges on the blades of turbine, suffers
a change in the direction of motion and thus gives rise to change in momentum and so a
force. This constitutes the driving force of the turbine. The blades obtain no motive
force from the static pressure of steam or from any impact of steam jet because blades
are designed and curved in such a ways that steam enters the blades without any shock
and will glide ON and OFF the blades.
According to Newton's second law of motion, the force is proportional to rate of
change of momentum (Mass x velocity). If the rate of change of momentum is caused
by allowing a high velocity steam jet to pass over a curved blade, then, steam will
impart a force to the blade. If the blade is free, then it will move (rotate) in the direction
of force. The Fig.6.1 shows this principle.

## Fig.6.1: PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

1. A nozzle in which heat energy of high pressure steam is converted into kinetic
energy so that steam issues from the nozzle with very high velocity.
2. Blades which change the direction of steam issuing from the nozzle so that a
force acts on blades due to change of momentum and rotates them.

So, the basic principle of operation a steam turbine is generation of high velocity
steam jet by expansion of high pressure steam in a nozzle and motive power in the
turbine is obtained by change in momentum of the high velocity steam jet by allowing it
Steam turbines are steady flow machines, have large exhaust outlets (for
discharging used steam) and the speed of flow is very high. So, they can handle large
volume of steam and produce higher power and the processes are assumed to be
adiabatic. Steam turbines are capable of expanding steam to the lowest exhaust pressure
obtainable in the condenser. The turbine is a constant high speed machine and really
must be operated condensing in order to take full advantage of greater range of steam
expansion.
Steam turbines are mainly used for electric power generation and for large
marine propulsion. These are also used for direct drives of fans, compressors, pumps
etc. When properly designed and constructed, a steam turbine is the most durable
prime-mover.

## 6.2 ADVANTAGES OF STEAM TURBINES OVER STEAM ENGINES:

A steam turbine offers the following advantages over a conventional steam engine.

1. With turbines, higher speeds can be developed and greater speed range is
possible.
2. For same power, turbine units are smaller.
3. As turbine is a rotary unit; perfect balancing is possible and so vibrations are
less.
4. Due to greater range of expansion, steam consumption is less. So, they are more
efficient arid economical.
5. The mechanism is simple and consists of less number of parts. Due to fewer
sliding parts, frictional losses are less.
6. Power is generated at a uniform rate and so no fly wheel is necessary.
7. Steam turbines can be made in very large sizes and hence they are very suitable
for large thermal stations.
8. Steam turbines can carry considerable overloads with a slight reduction in
efficiency.
Steam engines have limited application where frequent starting, stopping,
reversing, change of speed are desired or where engines are required to operate non
condensing. Some of their applications include - mine hoists, locomotives, drilling
engines for wells etc.

## 6.3. TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES:

Steam turbines may be classified in many ways. Considering the action of
steam which is most important factor, steam turbines are mainly classified as :
1. Impulse turbines.
2. Impulse reaction turbines (In practice known as - reaction turbines).

If the flow of steam through the nozzles and moving blades of a turbine takes
place in such a way that steam is expanded and entire pressure drop takes place in
nozzles only and pressure at the outside of blades is equal to inside of blades, then such
a turbine is known as - impulse turbine. In these turbines, the pressure drop takes place
in nozzles only and not in moving blades. This is obtained by making the blade passage
of constant cross sectional area.
In impulse reaction turbines, the pressure drop takes place in nozzles as well as
moving blades. The drop of pressure of steam while flowing through the moving blades
results in the generation of kinetic energy within the moving blades giving rise to
reaction and adds to the driving force which is then transmitted through the rotor to the
turbine shaft. This turbine works on the principles of both impulse and reaction. This is
achieved by making the blade passage of varying cross sectional area.

## The other classifications are:

According to Direction of Steam Flow :
(a) Axial flow turbine.
(c) Tangential flow turbine.
In axial flow turbines, the steam flows in a direction parallel to the axis of the
shaft. Mostly, the steam turbines are of axial flow type in all modern steam power
plants. It is most suitable for large turbo generators.
In radial flow turbines, steam flows in radial direction - perpendicular to axis of
the shaft of turbine. This type of turbine can be warmed up and started quickly and so
very suitable at the time of peak load. It is also known as-Ljungstorm turbine after the
name of its inventor. This turbine is successful in smaller sizes. These turbines are
rarely used.
In tangential flow turbines, steam flows in tangential direction. The nozzles
direct steam tangentially into buckets mounted on the periphery of the wheel. This is
not efficient but sometimes used to drive auxiliaries.
According to Steam Conditions at Inlet to Turbine :
(a) Low pressure turbines.
(b) Medium pressure turbines.
(c) High pressure turbines.
Turbines which use steam at a pressure of about 2ata are called low pressure
turbines. If a continuous supply of low pressure steam is available - for e.g., from steam
engines exhaust, the efficiency of whole plant can be improved by fitting an exhaust or
low pressure turbine. The exhaust or low pressure turbine is chiefly used where a
number of steam engines work intermittently. The exhaust steam from these engines is
expanded in an exhaust turbine and then condensed. Sometimes, a high pressure and
low pressure turbines are combined on a common spindle. This combined unit is known
as - mixed pressure turbine.
Turbines which use steam at a pressure of upto 40 atm. are known as medium
pressure turbines. High pressure turbines use steam at a pressure above 40 atm.
According to Condition of Exhaust Steam:
(a) Condensing turbine.
(b) Non condensing turbine.
In a condensing turbine, the exhaust steam from the turbine is condensed in a
condenser. By this way, the condensing turbine allows steam to lowest possible pressure
before being condensed. All steam power plants use this type of turbine.
The turbine in which the exhaust steam coming from the turbine is not
condensed but left into atmosphere is known as - Non condensing turbine.
According to Number of Stages :
(a) Single stage turbine.
(b) Multi stage turbine.
Single stage turbines develop power in small quantities and these are mostly
used for driving compressors, blowers etc.
Multistage turbines can develop power in a wide range from small to large.
According to Number of Cylinders :
(a) Single cylinder turbine.
(b) Multi cylinder turbine.
When all the stage of a turbine is housed in one casing, then it is known as
single cylinder turbine. It uses one shaft only and all the rotors are mounted on the
same shaft.
Turbines with separate rotor shafts for each cylinder placed parallel to each
other are known as multi-cylinder turbines.
According to Way of Governing :
(a) Turbines with throttle governing.
(b) Turbines with nozzle governing.
(c) Turbine with bypass governing.
The objective of governing is to keep the speed of the turbine fairly constant.
Incase (a). Depending upon the power, steam enters through one or more throttle valves.
Incase (b). Steam enters through two to more nozzles.
Incase (c). Besides being fed to the first stage, through a by-pass line, steam is fed to
required intermediate stages of the turbine.
According to General Direction of Steam Flow :
(a) Single flow turbine.
(b) Double flow turbine.
(c) Reversed flow turbine.
In single flow turbines, steam enters at one end, flows through the blading and
comes out from the other end. High pressure cylinder uses single flow. This is also
common in small turbines.
In double flow turbines, steam enters at center and divides as 2 streams and
flows through separate sets of blading in two directions. Low pressure cylinder
normally uses double flow. This unit is completely balanced against end thrust and
gives larger area of flow through two sets of blading.
In reversed flow turbines, after passing in one direction, reverses its direction.
These three flow arrangements are shown in Fig.6.2.

## Fig.6.2: Flow Arrangements

On the Basis of Number of Shafts :
(a) Tandem compound turbines.
(b) Cross compound turbines.
Most multi cylinder turbines drive a single shaft and a single generator. Such
turbines are called as Tandem compound turbines.
In cross compound turbines, two shafts are used for driving separate generators.
On the Basis of Rotational Speed :
(a) Constant speed turbines.
(b) Variable speed turbines.
If the speed of the turbine remains constant at a particular speed, then it is known as
-constant speed turbine. Such turbines are mostly used for power generation.
Variable speed turbines have geared units and may have different speed ratios
between turbine and driven machine. Such turbines are used to drive ships,
compressors, variable frequency generators etc.
On the Basis of Heat Rejection :
(a) Pass out or extraction turbine.
(b) Back pressure or topping turbine.
(c) Regenerative turbine.
In pass out or extraction turbine, considerable quantity of steam is extract from some
suitable point in the turbine and is used for feed water heating or for process work-paper
making, sugar refining, dying etc. This type of turbine is used where there is dual
demand of steam-one for power generation and the other for process work. A pass out
turbine supplies required power and also low pressure steam for process work.
Fig.6.3 shows a pass out turbine.

## Fig.6.3: Pass out or Extraction turbine

A back pressure turbine is also used in applications where combined power and
steam for process work are required.
In this turbine, steam leaves the turbine at a much higher pressure than in normal
turbine and the exhaust steam from the turbine is generally super heated. The
superheated steam is not suitable for process work because it is very difficult to control
its temperature and rate of heat transfer from superheated steam is lower than that of
saturated steam.
So, the exhaust steam is passed through a de-superheater where the steam
becomes saturated. It is then used for process work.
The Fig.6.4 shows a back pressure turbine.

## Fig.6.4: Back pressure turbine

A topping turbine is also of back pressure type turbine but the exhaust steam
from this turbine is further utilised in low pressure and medium pressure condensing
turbines for power generation.
A regenerative turbine incorporates a number of extraction branches and steam in small
quantities is extracted continuously for feed water heating in a feed heater to increase
the thermal efficiency of the plant.
The Fig.6.5 shows a generative turbine.

## 6.4. IMPULSE TURBINE:

The turbines in which complete process of expansion of steam takes place in
stationary nozzles and the kinetic energy is converted into mechanical work on the
turbine blades are known as - Impulse turbines.
In impulse turbines, the entire pressure drop takes place in nozzles only. The
pressure drops from steam chest pressure to condenser or exhaust pressure. The pressure
in the blade passages remains approximately constant and is equal to condenser
pressure.
An impulse turbine for its operation depends wholly on the impulsive force of
high velocity steam jets, which are obtained by expansion of steam in nozzles. The
action of steam jet impinging on the blades is said to be impulse and the rotation of
rotor is due to impulsive forces of steam jets.
Generally, converging - diverging nozzles are used. Due to relatively large
expansion ratio, steam leaves the nozzles at a very high velocity (Even supersonic). The
steam at high velocity impinges over blades, both pressure and enthalpy remain
constant, work transfer takes place, velocity reduces gradually and steam comes out
with appreciable velocity . The nozzle angle is inclined at a fixed angle to tangent of
rotor wheel.
Mostly, impulse turbines are axial flow turbines and they have zero degree of
reaction (discussed later). The entire pressure drop takes place in nozzles resulting in
enthalpy drop. The energy transfer is derived from a change of absolute velocity.
Impulse turbines are generally employed where relatively small amounts of
power are required and where rotor diameter is fairly small.

## The Fig.6.6 shows arrangement of a simple impulse turbine.

Fig.6.6: Arrangement of a simple impulse turbine.

## 6.4.1. DE-LAVEL TURBINE:

A De-lavel turbine, named after Swedish Engineer De-lavel is the simplest
impulse turbine and is commonly used.
The fig. 6.7 shows the runner and buckets of a De-lavel turbine.

## Fig. 6.7: Runner and bucket of De-lavel turbine

The essential parts of an impulse turbine are - nozzles, blades and casing. In
nozzles, the expansive property of steam is utilised to produce jets of steam with very
high velocity. The nozzle guides the steam to flow in the designed direction. It also
regulates the flow of steam. It is kept very close to turbine blades to minimise windage
losses.
The runner or rotor consists of a circular disc mounted on a shaft. On the
periphery of the runner, a number of buckets or curved blades are fixed uniformly.

The surface of the blades is made very smooth to minimise losses due to friction.
Mostly, the blades are bolted to the disc. Sometimes, the blades and disc are cast as a
single unit. The function of blades is to change the direction of steam jet and hence
momentum of the jet and so to produce a force which will rotate the blades.
The casing is air tight metallic case which houses the rotor and blades. It
controls the flow of steam from blades to condenser and to safeguard the runner against
any accident.
A De-lavel turbine consists of a single impulse wheel on which steam jets
impinge from several nozzles arranged around the circumference. The blades are made
symmetrical with angles of about 30 at inlet and exit. It has spherical bearings. It uses
helical gears to reduce high rotational speed to a practical value.

## 6.4.2. PRESSURE AND VELOCITY VARIATION IN IMPULSE TURBINE:

The fig.6.8 shows the variation of pressure and velocity of steam in a simple
impulse turbine while it flows through nozzles and blades.

## Fig.6.8: Variation of Pressure and Velocity in a simple impulse turbine

The entire pressure drop takes place in nozzles and the pressure remains
constant while passing through the blades.
As enthalpy drop takes place in nozzles the heat energy is converted into kinetic
energy and so velocity of steam increases in the nozzle and is reduced gradually while
For economy and for maximum work; the speed of the blade should be one half
of the velocity of steam. The small rotor employed in simple impulse turbine gives very
high rotational speed about 30,000 RPM as most of the kinetic energy is absorbed by
one set of moving blades only. Such high speeds can be used to drive the machines or
generators with large reduction gearing arrangement.
From the velocity graph; it is clear that the velocity of steam leaving the blades
consists of a large portion of velocity of steam leaving the nozzle. This result in loss of
energy and this loss of energy due to higher exit velocity is called - carry over loss or
leaving energy loss.

## 6.5. VELOCITY DIAGRAM FOR AN IMPULSE TURBINE:

We should be able to estimate the propelling force that would be applied to a
turbine rotor under any given set of conditions. With this, we can estimate the work
done and hence the power. Since force is due to change of momentum mainly caused by
change in the direction of flow of steam, it is essential to draw velocity diagram that
shows how velocity of steam varies during its passage through the blades.
Velocity is a vector quantity as it has both magnitude and direction. So, we can
represent velocity by a straight line and the length of the straight line indicates its
magnitude and its direction is indicated by the direction of the line with reference to
some fixed direction.
The fig.6.9 shows the velocity diagrams of a single stage impulse turbine.

## Fig.6.9: Velocity diagrams for an impulse turbine

The steam jet after leaving the nozzle, impinges on one end the blade, glides
over the inside surface of the blade and finally leaves from the other edge.
The velocity Ci is being relative to the fixed casing of the turbine will be referred
to the absolute velocity.

The velocity Cri is being relative to the moving blades, will be referred to as
relative velocity

## Let Cb = Linear velocity of moving blade.

[Velocity of the blades relative to the casing]

## Ci = Absolute velocity of steam at inlet to moving blade i.e., exit velocity

of nozzle.
[Velocity of the steam relative to the casing at the inlet]

## Cri = Relative velocity of steam with respect to tip of blade at

inlet. It is the vectorial difference between Cb and Ci
[Velocity of the steam relative to the blades at inlet]

Cri = Ci - Cb
Cwi = Tangential component of entering steam.
Cwi is also known as velocity of whirl at entrance. It is horizontal
component of Ci
Cfi =Velocity of flow = Axial velocity at entrance to moving
blades. It is the vertical component of Ci

## = Angle of nozzle = Angle which the entering steam makes

with the moving blade at entrance - with the tangent of the
wheel at entrance.
= Angle which the relative velocity makes with the tangent of
the wheel direction of motion of blade. It is also known as

## The above notations stand for inlet triangle.

Co, Cro , Cfo , Cwo , , =corresponding value at exit of the moving blade

It may be noted that as the steam jet enters and leaves the blades without any shock
(or in the tangentially) therefore the shape of the blades will be such that Cri, Cro will
be along the tangents to the blades at inlet and out let respectively

The relation between inlet and out let velocity triangle (until and unless given) is
Cri=Cro

The tangential component of the steam jet does work on the blade because it is in
the same direction as the motion of the blade. The axial component doesn't work on the
blades because it is perpendicular to the direction of motion of blade. It is responsible
for the flow of steam through the turbine. Change of velocity in this component causes
an axial thrust on the rotor.

## From the above analysis, following points are to be noted.

1. No expansion of steam takes place in the moving blades. The blades only deflect
steam. This causes change in momentum and consequently force.
2. If the steam has to enter and leave the blades without shock, angle , should be
angle of blade at inlet and angle should be angle of blade at outlet. This is an
essential condition.
3. Since there is no pressure drop in the moving blades, the pressure on the two sides
4. In a simple impulse turbine, the loss at exit is the whirl component at outlet - Cwo .
For minimum loss, this quantity should be minimum, i.e., should be equal to 90.
In that case the turbine discharges axially and it is called axial turbine.

## 6.6. COMBINED VELOCITY DIAGRAM:

To solve problems on turbines conveniently, it is common practice to combine
both the inlet and outlet velocity diagrams on a common base which represents the
The fig.6.10 shows the combined velocity diagram for an impulse turbine.

## Construction of combined velocity diagram:

1. First, draw a horizontal line and cut off AB equal to velocity of blade to some
suitable scale.
2. From B, draw a line BC at an angle , with AB. Cut off BC equal to Ci to scale.
3. Join AC. It represents Cri.
4. From A; draw a line AD at an angle with AB. With A as centre and radius equal to
AC, draw an arc that meets the line through A at D such that AC = AD. Or Cri=Cro.
5. Join BD. It represents absolute velocity at exit to scale.
6. From C and D draw perpendiculars to meet the line AB produced at E and F.
7. Now; to scale,
EB = velocity of whirl at entrance.
BF = velocity of whirl at exit.
CE = velocity of flow at inlet.
DF = velocity of flow at outlet.

## Also, when friction is absent,

= and Cfi = Cfo

The work done may be found out from the change of momentum of steam jet during
its flow over the blades. As mentioned earlier, velocity of whirl is responsible for work

## 6.7.1. Force on Rotor:

According to Newton's second law of motion,
Tangential force on rotor = mass tangential acceleration.
= m (Cwi- Cwo)

where
m = Mass rate of steam flow - kg/s.
Actually, Cwo is negative as the steam is discharged in opposite direction to blade
motion. So, Cwi and Cwo are added together. Generally,

Ft = m (Cwi Cwo) - N
Positive sign is to be used when Cwo and Cb are in opposite direction as
shown above and negative sign is to be used when Cwo and Cb are in same
direction.
Work done = Force Distance
= Tangential force distance moved in unit time in the direction of
force.
= Ft Cb N.m/s
= m (Cwi Cwo) . Cb - N.m/s

## 6.7.3. Power Developed by the Turbine:

Power = Rate of doing work
= m (Cwi Cwo) . Cb /1000 - kW

(1 watt= 1 N-m/sec)
This power is known as Rim power or diagram power to distinguish it from
shaft power.

## 6.7.4. Axial Thrust on Rotor:

Axial force Fa= Mass Axial acceleration
= Mass change in velocity of flow.
= m (Cfi Cfo) - N
This axial force must be balanced or must be taken by a thrust bearing.

6.8. EFFICIENCIES:
The following efficiencies are common to both impulse and reaction turbines:

## 1. Blading or diagram efficiency.

2. Gross or stage efficiency.
3. Nozzle efficiency.
6.8.1. Blading or Diagram Efficiency :

## Let Ci= Absolute velocity of steam at inlet m/sec

m= Mass of steam supplied kg/sec.

## Energy of steam supplied to blade = - J/sec

Work done on blade = m (Cwi Cwo). Cb -J/sec

## This is called diagram efficiency because the quantities involved in it are

obtained from velocity diagram

## Kinetic energy at outlet = - J/sec

Work done on blades = Loss of kinetic energy

= - - J/sec

## 6.8.2. Gross or Stage Efficiency:

A stage consists of a set of nozzles and a row of moving blades and so, stage
efficiency includes the performance of nozzles also.
Stage efficiency is defined as the ratio of work done on blades per kg of steam to
total energy supplied per stage per kg of steam.
If h1 and h2 represent before and after expansion of steam through the nozzles,
then the enthalpy drop (h1- h2) is the enthalpy drop through a stage, i.e., the heat energy
(h1 - h2) is the energy supplied per stage per kg of steam.
Stage efficiency= Stage =

Stage =

6.8.3. Nozzle Efficiency:

It is defined as the ratio of energy supplied to blades per kg of steam to total energy
supplied per stage per kg of steam.

## Total energy supplied per stage per kg of steam = (h1-h2)

Nozzle Efficiency:

Nozzle =

## Energy converted to heat by blade friction

= Loss of kinetic energy during flow over the blades.
= - - J/sec

In an impulse turbine, the relative velocity remains same as steam passes over
the blades if friction is neglected. In actual practice, the flow of steam the blades is
resisted by friction. The effect of this friction is to reduce the relative velocity of steam
while passing over the blades- Generally; there is a loss of 10-15% in relative velocity.
Owing to friction in blades is less than and we may write

=K
K=
The ratio of to is called blade velocity coefficient or coefficient of
velocity friction factor K
The effect of blade friction is to reduce relative velocity at outlet and consequently
this in turn will cause reduction in work done and blade efficiency.

Depending upon the shape of the blades, value of K varies from 0.75 to 0.85.
By considering friction, the combined velocity diagram gets modified as shown
in fig.6.11.

## Fig.6.11: Combined velocity diagram considering friction

6.10. CONDITION FOR MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY OF AN IMPULSE TURBINE:

## We know that blade efficiency of an impulse turbine is:

case.(i):
The blade efficiency increases by increasing tangential force. In that case
axial thrust must be zero. So there is no axial Thrust on blades

case.(ii):

## The blading efficiency will be maximum when Ci is minimum. From combined

velocity diagram, we can observe that, value of Ci, will be minimum when =90. So, for
maximum efficiency, the steam should leave the turbine blades at right angles to their
motion.

Cwo =0
Co= Cfo

case.(iii):

## Impulse turbine blade is symmetrical then

The modified combined velocity diagram for maximum efficiency is shown in fig.6.12.
Fig.6.12: Combined velocity diagram for maximum efficiency

Cfi =Cfo CE = DB
Cri =Cro CA = DA
= =

## ... ACE = ABD

then, EA = AB = Cb
Cb =

Cwi = 2Cb

## ... Maximum work done : Wmax = (Cwi Cwo). Cb

= (2Cb). Cb
= 2 . Cb 2
For maximum work developed per kg of steam or for maximum efficiency, the blade
velocity should be approximately half of absolute velocity of steam jet coming out from nozzle.

2

## 6.11. COMBINED VELOCITY DIAGRAM FOR AXIAL DISCHARGE:

When the steam leaves the blade tip at 90 to the d irection of blade motion, the turbine, is said to
have axial discharge. In such a turbine, the efficiency of a stage of an impulse turbine is maximum.
In such turbine, =90. and velocity of whirl at outlet Cwo is equal to zero.

The fig.6.13. shows combined velocity diagram for an impulse turbine having axial
discharge.

## 6.12. COMPOUNDING OF IMPULSE TURBINES:

We already know that, in impulse turbines, the entire pressure drop takes place in
nozzles only. If the entire pressure drop from boiler pressure to condenser pressure (say
125 bar to 1 bar) is carried out "in one stage (one set of nozzles) only, then, the velocity of
the steam will be extremely high. It will make the turbine rotor to run at very high speeds
(upto 30.000 rpm). In practice, such a high speed of a turbine is of no use and will have
number of disadvantages. The leaving loss also becomes high. It is usually necessary to
reduce the speed by gearing which will be of undue proportions.
So, it is essential to make improvement in the impulse turbine to make it more
efficient, practical - to reduce the high speed of the rotor to practical limits. This is
achieved by making use of more than one set of nozzles, blades and rotors in series keyed
to a common shaft so that either pressure of steam or its velocity is absorbed in stages and
in doing so, the speed gets reduced. This also reduces leaving loss. This process of
absorbing pressure or velocity of steam in stages to reduce the speed of the turbine rotor is
called - compounding.
There are three important methods of compounding:

1. Pressure compounding.
2. Velocity compounding.
3. Pressure - velocity compounding.

## 6.12.1. Pressure Compounding:

In this, the whole expansion of steam is carried out in a number of steps by
employing a number of simple impulse turbines in series on same shaft as shown in
fig.6.14.

## Fig.6.14: Pressure compounded impulse turbine

We can arrange a number of simple impulse turbines in series on same shaft
allowing exhaust steam from one turbine to enter the nozzles of next turbine. Then, each of
the simple impulse turbine is termed as - stage of the turbine, each stage containing a set of
nozzles and blades. This is equivalent to splitting the whole pressure drop into a series of
smaller pressure drops and so it is called - pressure compounding. The total pressure drop
of steam doesn't take place in the first set of nozzles but divided equally among all nozzle
sets and the pressure remains constant while flowing over the moving blades.
The nozzles are usually fitted into partitions termed as diaphragms which separate
one wheel chamber from the next.
The steam from boiler pressure is passed through the first set of nozzles (A number
of nozzles are arranged around the circumference of the wheel. All nozzles for one wheel
constitute one set of nozzles); where only a small pressure drop occurs with an increase in
velocity of steam. While flowing over the first set of moving blades, pressure remains
constant but velocity decreases. This constitutes one stage. A stage consists of a set of
fixed nozzles and a set of moving blades. A stage itself is a simple impulse turbine.
The steam from first set of moving blades enters the second stage - into second set
of nozzles where its pressure is further reduced. Consequently, the velocity increase again.
Now, the steam enters the second set of moving blades in which pressure remains constant
but velocity decreases. This process is repeated in the remaining stages also until
condenser pressure is reached.
As pressure drop per stage is reduced, the velocity of steam is reduced which in
turn reduces the blade or rotor velocity. The speed of the turbine can be reduced further by
increasing number of stages. The leaving velocity of the last stage of the turbine is much
less compared to simple impulse or De-lavel turbine.
This is the most efficient type of impulse turbine because the ratio of blade
velocity, to steam velocity remains constant. But to obtain very low speed, numbers of
stages required are more and it becomes more expensive. Now-a-days, pressure
compounded impulse turbines are not being used. Rateau and Zoelly turbines belong to this
group.

## 6.12. 2. Velocity Compounding:

In this, the entire pressure drop takes place in one set of nozzles thereafter; the
pressure remains constant while the steam flows over the blades. Due to the entire pressure
drop, the velocity of steam becomes high, and this velocity is absorbed in steps while
steam flows over different sets of moving blades. The fig. 6.15 shows a velocity
compounded impulse turbine.
Here, the turbine consists of a set of nozzles and a wheel fitted with two or more
and set in reverse manner.
The expansion of steam takes place in the set of nozzles from boiler pressure to
condenser pressure. The resulting high velocity of steam is utilised by as many sets of rotor
Fig.6.15: Velocity compounded impulse turbine
A portion of initial high velocity of steam is absorbed by the first set of moving
blades. The steam from first set of moving blades comes out with a fairly high velocity. It
then enters the fixed or stationary or guide blades which change the direction of steam and
direct the steam into second set of moving blades; without affecting the velocity
appreciably. There is slight drop in velocity in guide blades due to friction. While passing
through the second set of moving blades, steam suffers a change of momentum and gives
up another portion of its velocity -kinetic energy to the rotor.
The process is repeated and the steam finally enters the condenser from the last set
of moving blades. The entire pressure drop takes place in the nozzles only and no pressure
This method of velocity compounding is known as - curtis principle and curtis
turbine is an example of velocity compounded impulse turbine.
Advantages of velocity compounded impulse turbine:
1. Due to relatively large enthalpy drop; comparatively less number of stages are
required to reduce the speed to a certain value.
2. Due to less number of stages, initial cost is less.
3. It is reliable, occupies less space and easy to start.
4. As most of the pressure drop takes place in the nozzles, the turbine and turbine
casing are subjected to low pressure. So, they can be made of low strength
materials resulting in saving of material cost.
1. In this turbine, the steam consumption is high and efficiency is low.
2. In a single row wheel, the temperature of steam is high and so costly
material for the cylinder like cast steel should be used.

## 6.12.3. Pressure - Velocity Compounding:

The fig. 6.16 shows a pressure - velocity compounded impulse turbine.

## Fig.6.16: Pressure-Velocity Compounded Impulse Turbine

In this, both the principles of pressure compounding and velocity
compounding are used. Total pressure drop of steam is divided into stages and
velocity in each stage is also compounded.
This type allows bigger pressure drop in each stage and hence less number of stages
are required. So, for a given pressure drop, this is more compact than a pressure
compounded turbine.
In this turbine, each stage has a set of nozzles, two or more rows of moving blades
and one or more rows of guide blades both placed alternately. Each stage is separated from
adjacent stage by a diaphragm containing a nozzle.
In this turbine, the whole pressure drop takes place in different sets of nozzles, i.e.,
whole pressure drop doesn't take place on set of nozzles but divided into small drops. So, it
is pressure compounded.
While flowing over different sets of moving blades in different stages, the velocity
is reduced. So, it is velocity compounded.
The diameter of this turbine is increased at each stage to allow increasing volume
of steam at lower pressures. This type of compounding is used in curtis turbine.

## 6.13. VELOCITY DIAGRAM FOR VELOCITY COMPOUNDED IMPULSE

TURBINE:
In a single stage turbine, steam after leaving the nozzle impinges on one end of the
blades, glides over the inner surface of the blades and leaves the blades at the other end.
A velocity compounded impulse turbine consists of one set of nozzles, two or more
sets of moving blades and guide blades. If we consider two rows or two sets of moving
blades only, then, steam after expansion in the nozzles, enters the first set of moving blades
and after leaving the first set of moving blades, enters first set or first row of fixed or guide
blades. There is no enthalpy drop in the guide blades. Their function is to change the
direction only. But, there may be slight reduction in velocity due to friction. The guide
blades are also called as fixed blades as they do not rotate but arc attached to the casing.
The moving blade rows are attached to the rotor.
The first set of fixed blades make the steam to flow at designed angle and direct it
to impinge on second row of moving blades After leaving the second row of moving
blades, steam enters the condenser. Such a turbine in which there arc two sets of moving
blades is called - two stage velocity compounded impulse turbine.
The separate velocity diagrams for the first moving, first fixed and second moving
blade rows for a two stage velocity compounded impulse turbine arc shown in fig.6.17.
Fig.6.17: Velocity Diagram for Two Stage Impulse Turbine
The blade velocity is constant for both the stages as there are mounted on same
shaft. The absolute velocity at exit from the first moving blade is the entry velocity to the
fixed blade. Similarly, the exit velocity from the fixed blade is the entry velocity to the
We can draw combined velocity diagrams for the first and second row of moving
blades individually with a similar procedure as given for a single stage impulse turbine.
We can combine these individual velocity diagrams to obtain final combined velocity
diagram for the whole turbine.
The fig.6.18 shows a combined velocity diagram for a two stage impulse turbine.
Fig.6.18: Combined Velocity Diagram For Two Stage Impulse Turbine

Construction :
1. First, draw a horizontal line and mark AB equal to blade velocity to some suitable scale.
2. Draw inlet velocity triangle ABC in similar lines as mentioned for a single stage
impulse turbine, is the angle with absolute velocity Ci and is the angle with relative
velocity at entrance to first moving blade Cri
3. Considering friction cut off CX equal to friction in the first moving blade. AX gives Cro.
4. Now, complete outlet velocity triangle ABD. is the angle with absolute exit
velocity of first moving blade Co and is the angle with relative velocity at exit of
5. Cut off DY equal to effect of friction in the fixed blade. BY is the exit velocity of
steam from fixed blade. It is equal to velocity of steam entering the second
6. Now, draw inlet velocity diagram ABC' for second moving blade on same base AB.
' is the angle with Ci' and ' is the angle with relative velocity at entrance of
7. Cut off C' Z equal to effect of friction in the second moving blade. AZ is the
relative velocity at exit of second making blade Cro'.
8. Now, complete the outlet velocity triangle ABD' for the second moving blade. '
is the angle with Co' and ' is the angle with Cro'

= ,
= '
and ' = '.
The velocity coefficients for first moving, fixed, second moving blades are:
KMB1=

KFB=

KMB2=

## Total work done per kg of steam passing through both stages:

W t = work done in first moving blade set + work done in second moving blade set.

## = m {(Cwi Cwo) + (Cwi' Cwo' )}. Cb

UNIT 6

1. The velocity of steam , leaving the nozzles of an impulse turbine is 1200 m/s and the nozzle
angle is 20c. The blade velocity is 375 m/s and the blade velocity coff is 0.75. Assuming no
loss due to stock at inlet, calculate for a mass flow of 0.5 kg/s and symmetrical blading. A)
blade inlet angle, driving force on the wheel, axial thrust on the wheel and power developed
by the turbine.
2. The blade speed of a single ring impulse blading is 250 m/s and nozzle angle is 20. The heat
drop is 550 kj/ kg and nozzle efficiency is 0.85. The blade discharge angle is 30 and the
machine develops 30 kW, when consuming 360 kg of steam per hour.draw velocity diagram
and calculate 1 axial thrust on the blading and 2 the heat equivalent per kg of steam friction
3. A single row impulse turbine receives 3 kg/s steam with a velocity of 425 m/s. The ratio of
blade speed to jet speed is 0.4 and the stage output is 170 kW. If the internal losses due to
disc friction etc amount to 15 kW, determine the blading efficiency and the blade velocity
coefficient. The nozzle angle is 16 and the blade exit angle is 17.
4. The blade speed of a single ring of an impulse turbine is 300 m/ s and the nozzle angle is 20.
The is entropic heat drop is 473 kj/ kg and the nozzle efficiency is 0.85. Given that the blade
velocity coefficient is 0.7 and the blades symmetrical, draw the velocity diagrams and
calculate for a mass flow of 1 kg/ s. Axial thrust on the blading, steam consumption per BP
hour if the mechanical efficiency is 90 pers, blade efficiency stage efficiency and maximum
5. A simple impulse turbine has a mean blade speed of 200 m/ s. The nozzles are inclined a 20d
to the plan of rotation of the blades. The steam velocity from nozzles 600 m/s. The turbine
uses 3500kg/ h of steam. The absolute velocity at exit is along the axis of the turbine.
Determine the inlet and exit angles of the blades, the power output of the turbine,the diagram
efficiency.
Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering, Eluru.
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Thermal Prime Movers
Class: II/IV B.E/B.Tech.-I semester A.Y:2016-17

BATCH-I
1. Write short notes on the following
a) State the limitations of first law of thermodynamics.
b) List the thermodynamics properties of steam and state their significance.
c) Differentiate between water and fire tube boilers.
d) What is Otto cycle? State its practical application.
e) What do you mean by super saturated flow?
f) Methods of reduction of turbine rotor speed.
g) What are the methods to improve the thermal efficiency of open cycle gas turbine?
2. (a) 0.44kg of air at 1800C expands adiabatically to three times its original volume and during the
process there is a fall in temperature to 150C. The work done during the process is 52.5kJ.
Calculate Cp and Cv.
(b) Explain thermodynamic processes of vapor and entropy of steam.
3. (a) Enumerate the factors which should be considered while selecting a boiler.
(b) Explain the working principle of fire tube boilers with neat sketches
i. Lancashire boiler
ii. Cochran boiler
4.
a) Compare relative advantages and disadvantages of 4 stroke and 2-stroke engines.
b) A large four stroke cycle Diesel engine runs at 2000rpm. The engine has displacement of 25
litters and a brake mean effective pressure of 0.6 MN/m2. It consumes 0.018kg/s of fuel
(calorific value equal to 42000 kJ/kg). Determine the brake power and brake thermal
efficiency.
5.
a) Define critical pressure ratio of the nozzle of the steam turbine obtained analytically its value
in terms of the index of expansion.
b) Steam at a pressure of 15 bar and dryness fraction 0.97 is discharged through convergent
divergent nozzle to a bar pressure of 0.2bar. The mass flow rate 9 kg/kWh. If the power
developed is 220 kW. Determine throat pressure, number of nozzles required if each nozzle
has a throat of rectangular cross section of 4X8 mm.
6.
a) Explain with the help of neat sketch a single stage impulse turbine. Also explain pressure and
velocity variations along the axial direction.
b) A simple impulse turbine has a mean blade speed of 200 m/ s. The nozzles are inclined a 200
to the plane of rotation of the blades. The steam velocity from nozzles is 600 m/s. The turbine
uses 3500kg/ h of steam. The absolute velocity at exit is along the axis of the turbine.
Determine
i. the inlet and exit angles of the blades
ii. the power output of the turbine
iii. the diagram efficiency.
7. In a constant pressure open cycle gas turbine air enters at 1 bar and 200C and leaves the
compressed at 5 bar. Calculate
a) the quantity of air circulation in the plant develops 1065 kW.
b) heat supplied per kg of air circulation
c ) thermal efficiency of the cycle
Using the following data temperature of gases entering the turbine equal to 6800C pressure
loss in the combustion chamber equal to 0.1 bar, efficiency compressor is 85%, efficiency
turbine 80%, efficiency combustion 85 %, = 1.4 and Cp=1.024 kj/ kgk for air and gas.
8. Write short notes on the following
i. Describe thermodynamic processes of perfect gases
ii. What is steam boiler? How they are classified?
iii. What is meant by critical pressure ratio of the nozzle?
iv. Methods of reduction of turbine rotor speed.
v. What are the methods to improve the thermal efficiency of open cycle gas turbine?
Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering, Eluru.
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Thermal Prime Movers
Class: II/IV B.E/B.Tech.-I semester A.Y:2016-17

BATCH-II
1. Write short notes on the following
a) Internal energy is a property h) Define point function.
b) Carnot Cycle. i) What is fire tube boiler?
c) Entropy j) Define work ratio.
d) Throttling k) What is pre-ignition?
e) What is dryness fraction? What is its l) List the functions of injector.
significance? m) Classify the boilers
f) Draw Otto cycle with the help of P-V n) State the necessities for cooling of an
and T-S diagram. engine.
g) Define compression ratio
2. (a) Derive an expression for the work done and heat transferred during the adiabatic expansion of
ideal gas
(b) A mass of 0.05 kg of CO2 (mol weight 44) occupying a volume of 0.03 m3 at 1.025 bar is
compressed reversible until the pressure is 0.15bar. Calculate final temperature; work done on
the CO2, the heat flow to or from the cylinder walls
i. When the process is according to law pv1.4=constant.
ii. When the process is isothermal.
iii. When the process takes place in a perfectly thermally insulated cylinder
Assume CO2 to be a perfect gas and take =1.3.
3. (a) What are the methods of finding dryness fraction and at least one method in detail?
(b) A rigid container is filled with steam at 7 bar and 2000C. At what temperature and pressure
will the steam starts condense when the container is cooled? To what temperature and
pressure must the container be cooled to condense 50% of the steam mass.
4. (a) What is steam boiler? How they are classified?
(b) Explain the construction & working of Babcock and Wilcox water tube boiler with a neat
sketch
5. The blade speed of a single ring impulse blading is 300 m/s and nozzle angle is 200. The isentropic
heat drop is 473kj/ kg and nozzle efficiency is 0.85. give that the blade velocity coefficient is 0.7
and the blades are symmetrical, draw the velocity diagrams and calculate for mass flow rate of
1kg/s
i. Axial thrust on the blading
ii. Steam consumption per B.P hour if mechanical efficiency is 90%

## 6. (a) Differentiate between impulse and reaction turbine

(b)In an isentropic flow through nozzle, air flows at the rate of 600 kg/ hr. At inlet to the nozzle
pressure is 2Mpa and temperature is 1270C. The exit pressure is 0.5Mpa. Initial air velocity is 300
m/ s. Determine exit velocity of air, inlet and exit area of nozzle.
7. (a) Explain with a neat sketch, the sequence of events in the working of a four stroke diesel engine.
(b) In a ideal brayton cycle air from the atmosphere at 1 atm, 300k is compressed to 6 atm and
the maximum cycle temperature is limited to 1100K by using large air fuel ratio. If the heat
supply is 100 MW , find the thermal efficiency of the cycle, work ratio, power output, energy
flow rate of the exhaust gas leaving the turbine.
8. (a) Derive the expression of optimum pressure ratio for maximum net work output in an ideal
brayton cycle.
(b) An air standard Diesel engine has compression ratio of 18, the heat transferred to the working
fluid per cycle is 1800 kJ/kg. at the beginning of the compression stroke the pressure is 1 bar and
the temperature 300K. Calculate thermal efficiency, mean effective pressure.
Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering, Eluru.
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Thermal Prime Movers
Class: II/IV B.E/B.Tech.-I semester A.Y:2016-17

BATCH-III
1.
a) State the Second law of thermodynamics
b) Define latent heat of vaporization
c) Define brake thermal efficiency of I.C engine
d) Mention the function of nozzles used with steam turbine
e) How the gas turbine is different from a steam turbine?
f) Differentiate between impulse and reaction turbine
g) Differentiate between water and fire tube boilers.
2. (a) Derive an expression for the work done and heat transferred during the adiabatic
expansion of ideal gas
(b) A system contains 0.15 m3 of a gas at a pressure of 3.8 bar and 150 0C. It is expanded
adiabatically till the pressure falls to 1 bar. The gas is then heated at a constant
pressure till its enthalpy increases by 70 kJ. Determine the total work done. Take
Cp=1 kj/kgk and Cv =0.714 kj/kgk.
3. (a) List out the advantage of super heated steam.
(b) A boiler is supplied with feed water at a temperature of 450C. The water is converted
into steam at a pressure of 5.5bar and a temperature of 1880C. Determine the
quantity of heat supplied per kg of steam. Assume suitable data.
4. (a) Differentiate between Lancashire and Cornish boilers.
(b) Explain the working principle of Lancashire boiler with a neat sketch
5. (a) Explain briefly Otto cycle with the help of P-V and T-S diagram.
(b) In an otto cycle , the temperature at the beginning and end of the is entropic
compression are 316 K and 596K respectively. Determine the air standard efficiency
and the compression ratio. Take = 1.4.
6. (a) Differentiate between petrol and diesel engines.
(b) A four cylinder two stroke cycle petrol engine develops 23.5 kW brake power at 2500
rpm. The mean effective pressure on each piston is 8.5 bar and the mechanical
efficiency is 85%. Calculate the diameter and stroke of each cylinder, assuming the
length of stroke equal to 1.5 times the diameter of cylinder.
7. (a) Discuss effect of friction during the expansion of steam through a convergent-
divergent nozzle when steam at entry to the nozzle is saturated.
(b) Calculate the throat area of nozzle supplied with steam at 10 bar and 2000C. The rate
of flow of steam is 1.2 kg/s. Neglect friction and assume the velocity at inlet to be
small
8. (a) Explain the term compounding of steam turbine.
(b) A single row impulse turbine receives 3 kg/s steam with a velocity of 425 m/s. The
ratio of blade speed to jet speed is 0.4 and the stage output is 170 kW. If the internal
losses due to disc friction etc amount to 15 kW, determine the blading efficiency and
the blade velocity coefficient. The nozzle angle is 160 and the blade exit angle is 170.
Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering, Eluru.
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Thermal Prime Movers
Class: II/IV B.E/B.Tech.-I semester A.Y:2016-17

BATCH-IV
1.
a) State Zeroth Law of thermodynamics
b) List the thermodynamics properties of steam and state their significance.
c) Differentiate between water and fire tube boilers.
e) Define critical pressure ratio of the nozzle
f) Methods of reduction of turbine rotor speed.
g) What are the advantages of gas turbine over steam turbine?
2. (a) What is an adiabatic index? Why its value is greater than unity?
(b) A cylinder contains 3kg of air at a pressure of 300bar and a temperature of 270C. Find
the volume of air occupied by the gas. Assume R for air is 287 J/kgK.
3. (a) Enumerate the factors which should be considered while selecting boiler.
(b) Explain the working principle of Babcock and Wilcox boiler with a neat sketch
4. Explain the working principle of a 4 stroke diesel engine and 2-stroke diesel engine with
neat sketches.
5. Steam enters a group of nozzles of a steam turbine at 12bar and 2200C and leaves at 1.2
bar. The steam turbine develops 220kW with a specific steam consumption of 13.5
kg/kwh. If the diameter of the nozzles at throat is 7 mm. Calculate number of nozzles.
6. The velocity of steam, leaving the nozzles of an impulse turbine is 1200m/s and the
nozzle angle is 200C. The blade velocity is 375 m/s and the blade velocity coefficient is
0.75. Assuming no loss due to stock at inlet, calculate for a mass flow of 0.5 kg/s and
(b) driving force on the wheel
(c) axial thrust on the wheel
(d) power developed by the turbine.
7. Draw the layout of a gas turbine plant which has two stage compression with complete
intercooling. The high pressure turbine develops power enough only to drive the the high
pressure compressor. The L.P turbine drives both the L.P compressor and the load.
Indicate the ideal process of this plant on T-S diagram.
8. Write short notes
i. thermodynamic processes of perfect gases
ii. Classify turbines
iii. Critical pressure ratio of the nozzle?
iv. Methods of reduction of turbine rotor speed.
v. Methods to improve the thermal efficiency of open cycle gas turbine?
Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering, Eluru.
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Thermal Prime Movers
Class: II/IV B.E/B.Tech.-I semester A.Y:2016-17

BATCH-V
1.
a) What is an adiabatic process?
b) What is dryness fraction? What is its significance?
c) What is steam boiler? How they are classified?
d) What is meant by thermal efficiency of I.C engine
e) Mention the function of nozzles used with steam turbine
f) Differentiate between impulse and reaction turbine
g) Methods to improve the thermal efficiency of open cycle gas turbine?
2. (a) Define thermodynamic processes? Derive an expression for the work done and heat
transferred during the adiabatic expansion of ideal gas
(b) 1 kg of a gas expands reversible and adiabatically. It's temperature during the process
falls from 515k to 390 k while the volume is doubled. The gas does 92 kJ of work in
this process. Find the values of Cp and Cv.
3. (a) Derive an expression for the external work done during evaporation of super heated
steam.
(b) One kg of steam at 18 bar and 2800C under a constant pressure process until the
quality of steam becomes 0.5 dry. Find the work done, the heat transferred and the
change in entropy
4. (a) What is steam boiler? How they are classified?
(b)Explain the construction and working of Lancashire boiler with a neat sketch
5. (a) Differentiate between petrol and diesel engines.
(b) A four cylinder engine running at 1200rpm gave 18.6 kW brake power. The average
torque when one cylinder was cut out was 105 Nm. Determine the indicated thermal
efficiency if the calorific value of the fuel is 42000 kJ/ kg and the engine uses 0.34 kg
of petrol per brake power hour.
6. (a) Discuss the function of the convergent portion, the throat, and divergent portion of a
convergent-divergent nozzle with reference to flow of steam.
(b) Steam enters a group of nozzles of a steam turbine at 12 bar and 220 0C and leaves at
1.2bar. The steam turbine develops 220 kW with a specific steam consumption of
13.5 kg/ kWh. If the diameter of nozzles at throat is 7mm, calculate number of
nozzles.
7. (a) Explain the functions of the blading of a steam reaction turbine.
(b) Discuss the method of velocity compounding of an impulse turbine for achieving
rotor speed reduction.
8. Write short notes for the following
i. Laws of thermodynamics
ii. 2 stroke and 4 stroke engines
iii. Super saturated steam flow in steam nozzles
iv. Methods of reduction of turbine rotor speed.
v. What are the methods to improve the thermal efficiency of gas turbine?
Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering, Eluru.
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Thermal Prime Movers
Class: II/IV B.E/B.Tech.-I semester A.Y:2016-17

BATCH-VI
1.
a) Name the process of dual cycle
b) Define sensible heat of water.
c) What is the effect of super saturation
d) Write different accessories of boilers.
e) Write different classification of turbines.
f) Methods to improve the thermal efficiency of open cycle gas turbine?
g) Define path function and point function

## 2. (a) Prove that R=CP-CV

(b) A closed vessel contains 2 kg of CO2 at temperature 200C and pressure of 0.7bar,
heat is supplied to the vessel till the gas acquires pressure of 1.4 bar. Calculate 1.
Final temperature 2. Work done on or by the gas 3. Heat added and 4. Change in
internal energy. Take specific heat of a gas at constant volume as 0.657 kj/kgk.
3. (a) What is steam boiler? How they are classified?
(b) Differentiate between water and fire tube boilers.

4. A four stroke Diesel engine has a cylinder bore of 150mm and a stroke of 250mm.
The crank shaft speed is 300rpm and fuel consumption is 1.2 kg/h having a calorific
value of 39900 kJ/kg. the indicated mean effective pressure is 5.5 bar. If the
compression ratio is 15 and cut off ratio is 1.8. Calculate the relative efficiency,
taking 1.4.
5. Define critical pressure ratio of the nozzle of the steam turbine obtained analytically
its value in terms of the index of expansion.
6. The blade speed of a single ring of an impulse turbine is 250 m/ s and the nozzle angle
is 200. The is entropic heat drop is 550 kJ/ kg and the nozzle efficiency is 0.85. the
blade discharge angle is 300 and the machine develops 30kWwhen consuming 360kg
of steam per hour. Draw the velocity diagram and calculate
ii. Heat equivalent per kg of steam friction of blading
7. (a) What are the essential components of a simple open cycle gas turbine plant?
(b) Differentiate clearly between a closed cycle gas turbine and an open cycle gas
turbine.
8. Write short notes on following
i. P-V and T-S diagram on dual cycle
ii. Over expanding and under expansion of nozzle
iii. Compounding of steam turbines
iv. Super charging in I.C engines
v. Entropy and its significance
Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering, Eluru.
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Thermal Prime Movers
Class: II/IV B.E/B.Tech.-I semester A.Y:2016-17
SIR C. R. REDDY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ELURU
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
I Internal Test - I Sem. of 2016-17

## Subject: TPM Date: 31-08-16

Class : II/IV (EEE-A&B) Time: 100mins
Max Marks : 30M
PART-A
1.
a) What is an adiabatic process?
b) Define thermodynamic processes?
c) State the limitations of first law of thermodynamics.
d) What is scavenging?
e) What is Super-charging in IC engines
f) What are the methods to improve the thermal efficiency of gas turbine?

PART-B
Answer any three from remaining all questions. 3x8=24m
2. a) Derive an expression for the work done and heat transferred during the adiabatic
expansion of ideal gas. [BL-3]
b) 0.44kg of air at 1800C expands adiabatically to three times its original volume and
during the process there is a fall in temperature to 150C. The work done during the
process is 52.5kJ. Calculate Cp and Cv. [BL-3]
3. a) Explain briefly Otto cycle with the help of P-V and T-S diagram. [BL-2]
b) The compression ratio of an Otto cycle is 8 and the suction temperature and pressure
are 300k and 100 mpa respectively, heat supplied in the constant volume process is 540
kJ/kg. The air flow rate is 100 kg/ h. Assume =1.4 and cv=0.71 kj/ kgk and determine
the power output, the mean effective pressure and the efficiency. [BL-6]
4. a) Describe the working of a 4 stroke diesel engine with a neat sketch. [BL-2]
b)A four stroke Diesel engine has a cylinder bore of 150mm and a stroke of 250mm. The
crank shaft speed is 300rpm and fuel consumption is 1.2 kg/h having a calorific value of
39900 kJ/kg. the indicated mean effective pressure is 5.5 bar. If the compression ratio is
15 and cut off ratio is 1.8. Calculate the relative efficiency, taking 1.4. [BL-3]
5. a) Differentiate clearly between a closed cycle gas turbine and an open cycle gas turbine.
[BL-4]
b) A gas turbine plant with a pressure ratio of 1:5 takes in air at 15 0C. The maximum
temperature is 600 0C and develops 2200 kW. Assume Cp=1 kJ/kgk and Cv=0.714 kJ/kgk,
determine Overall efficiency of the turbine. [BL-6]
6. a) Differentiate between SI and CI engines. [BL-4]
b) Describe the Morse test for determining the indicated power of a multi cylinder
engine, state the assumptions made. [BL-2]
Internal I key
PART-A
1.
a) What is an adiabatic process?
Ans: An adiabatic process is one in which no heat is gained or lost by the system. The first
law of thermodynamics with Q=O shows that all the change in internal energy is in the form
of work done.

## b) Define thermodynamic processes?

Ans: When a system changes its state from one equilibrium state to another equilibrium
state, then the path of successive states through which the system has passed is known as
thermodynamic process.
c) State the limitations of first law of thermodynamics.
Ans:
limitations of first law of thermodynamics
First law does not specify the direction of flow of heat and work.
It also does not give any condition under which the work and heat transfer take place.
It doesn't tell why the whole of heat energy cannot be converted into mechanical work.
It doesnt explain the feasibility and spontaneity of a process
It doesnt tell why natural processes are unidirectional.

d) What is scavenging?
Ans:

It is the process of clearing or sweeping out the exhaust gases from the combustion
chamber of the cylinder.
The scavenging is necessary only in two stroke engines since piston does not help for
clearing the burned gas from the cylinder.

## e) What is Super-charging in IC engines

Ans: The method of increasing the inlet air density is called Supercharging

The most efficient method of increasing the power of an engine is by supercharging, i.e.
increasing the flow of air into the engine to enable more fuel to be burnt.
f) What are the methods to improve the thermal efficiency of gas turbine?
Ans: The efficiency and work ratio of simple gas turbine are very low. These may be
increased by the following methods.
1. Regeneration
2. Increasing the turbine output
3. Reducing the compressor input

Regeneration is done by preheating the air with the exhaust of the turbine thus saving
fuel.

## The turbine output may be increased by:

(a) Reheating: The whole expansion in the turbine is carried out in 2 or more stages and
reheating of gas is done after each stage.
(b) Increasing the value of maximum cycle temperature. This requires better quality
of fuel, materials which can withstand higher temperatures and methods to cool the
The compressor input can be reduced by:
(a) Intercooling: Whole compression is carried out in 2 or more stages and the air or
gas is cooled after compression in each stage.
(b) Water Injection: By injecting water at inlet to compressor, work output and
efficiency can be increased.
By designing the turbine and compressor efficiently, turbine work can be increased and
compressor work can be decreased to some extent.

PART-B
2. (a) Derive an expression for the work done and heat transferred during the adiabatic
expansion of ideal gas.
Ans:
Adiabatic process: An adiabatic process is one in which no heat is gained or lost by the system.
The first law of thermodynamics with Q=O shows that all the change in internal energy is in the
form of work done.

0
b) 0.44kg of air at 180 C expands adiabatically to three times its original volume and during the
process there is a fall in temperature to 150C. The work done during the process is 52.5kJ.
Calculate Cp and Cv.
Ans: given data

## Take logarithms on both sides, then

3. a) Explain briefly Otto cycle with the help of P-V and T-S diagram.
Ans:
Otto cycle with the help of P-V and T-S diagram.
Otto cycle is a gas power cycle that is used in spark-ignition internal combustion
engines (modern petrol engines). This cycle was introduced by Dr. Nikolaus August Otto,
a German Engineer.

## 1-2 adiabatic expansion of the air.

2-3 rejection of heat by air at constant volume
4-1 supply of heat to the air at constant volume
The point 1 represents that cylinder is full of air with volume V1, pressure P1 and absolute
temperature T1.
Line 1-2 represents the adiabatic compression of air due to which P1,V1& T1 change to
P2, V2 and T2, respectively.
Line 2-3 shows the supply of heat to the air at constant volume so that P2 and T2 change
to P3 and T3 (V3 being the same as V2).
Line 3-4 represents the adiabatic expansion of the air. During expansion P3, V3 and T3
change to a final value of P4, V4 or V1 and T4, respectively.
Line 4-1 shows the rejection of heat by air at constant volume till original state (point 1)
reaches.

## Consider 1 kg of air (working substance)

Heat supplied at constant volume = Cv(T3 T2).
Heat rejected at constant volume = Cv (T4 T1).
But, work done = Heat supplied Heat rejected
= Cv (T3 T2) Cv (T4 T1)

Efficiency = =

= 1-

## let compression ratio rc =

expansion ratio re =

These two ratios are same in this cycle as those are working between same volumes
(rc = re = r)
= 1-
This expression is known as the air standard efficiency of the Otto cycle.
It is clear from the above expression that efficiency increases with the increase in the value of
r, which means we can have maximum efficiency by increasing r to a considerable extent, but
due to practical difficulties its value is limited to about 8.

b) The compression ratio of an Otto cycle is 8 and the suction temperature and pressure are 300k
and 100 mpa respectively, heat supplied in the constant volume process is 540 kJ/kg. The air
flow rate is 100 kg/ h. Assume =1.4 and cv=0.71 kj/ kgk and determine the power output, the
mean effective pressure and the efficiency.
Ans: Given data

2.297
=629

=233.64 kJ

= 4.02* Kpa

## 4. a) Describe the working of a 4 stroke diesel engine with a neat sketch.

Ans:
Working of Four Stroke Diesel Engine
Suction Stroke: With the movement of the piston from T.D.C. to B.D.C. during this stroke, the
inlet valve opens and the air at atmospheric pressure is drawn inside the engine cylinder; the
exhaust valve however remains closed. This operation is represented by the line 1-2
Compression Stroke: The air drawn at atmospheric pressure during the suction stroke is
compressed to high pressure and temperature as the piston moves from B.D.C. to T.D.C. Both
the inlet and exhaust valves do not open during any part of this stroke. This operation is
represented by 2-3
Power Stroke Or Expansion Stroke: As the piston starts moving from T.D.C to B.D.C, the
quantity of fuel is injected into the hot compressed air in fine sprays by the fuel injector and it
(fuel) starts burning at constant pressure shown by the line 3-4.
At the point4 fuel supply is cut off. The fuel is injected at the end of compression stroke but in
actual practice the ignition of the fuel starts before the end of the compression stroke. The hot
gases of the cylinder expand adiabatically to point 5. Thus doing work on the piston.
Exhaust Stroke: The piston moves from the B.D.C. to T.D.C. and the exhaust gases escape to
the atmosphere through the exhaust valve. When the piston reaches the T.D.C. the exhaust
valve closes and the cycle is completed. This stroke is represented by the line 5-1

b) A four stroke Diesel engine has a cylinder bore of 150mm and a stroke of 250mm. The crank
shaft speed is 300rpm and fuel consumption is 1.2 kg/h having a calorific value of 39900 kJ/kg.
the indicated mean effective pressure is 5.5 bar. If the compression ratio is 15 and cut off ratio is
1.8. Calculate the relative efficiency, taking 1.4.
Ans: Given data

## We know that area of the =

We know that Indicated power

5. a) Differentiate clearly between a closed cycle gas turbine and an open cycle gas turbine.

Ans:

## CLOSED CYCLE GAS TURBINE VERSUS OPEN CYCLE GAS TURBINE:

S.no Criterion Closed Cycle Gas Turbine Open Cycle Gas Turbine

## It works on open cycle. The fresh

It works on closed cycle. The
charge is supplied to each cycle
Cycle of working fluid is recirculated
1 and after combustion and
operation again and again. It is a clean
expansion. It is discharged to
cycle.
atmosphere.

## The gases other than the air like

Helium or Helium-Carbon
Working Air-fuel mixture is used which
2 dioxide mixture can be used,
fluid leads to lower thermal efficiency.
which has more favourable
properties.

## Since heat is transferred Since combustion is an integral

externally, so any type of part of the system thus it requires
Type of
3 fuel; solid, liquid or gaseous or high quantity liquid or gaseous fuel
fuel used
combination of these can be used for burning in a combustion
for generation of heat. chamber.

## Manner of The heat is transferred indirectly Direct heat supply. It is generated

4
heat input through a heat exchanger. in the combustion chamber itself

## The heat can be supplied from

It requires high grade heat energy
Quality of any source like waste heat from
5 for generation of power in a gas
heat input some process, nuclear heat and
turbine.
solar heat using a concentrator.

## High thermal efficiency for given

Low thermal efficiency for same
6 Efficiency lower and upper temperature
temperature limits.
liquids.

## Part load efficiency is less

7 Part load efficiency is better. compared to Closed cycle gas
efficiency
turbine.
Size of Reduced size per MWh of power Comparatively large size for same
8
plant output. power output.

## Since combustion products do Direct contact with combustion

not come in direct contact of products, the blades are subjected
9 Blade life turbine blade, thus there is no to higher thermal stresses and
life. life.

Control on
Better control on power
10 power Poor control on power production.
production.
production

Closed cycle gas turbine plant is Open cycle gas turbine plant is
11 Cost
complex and costly. simple and less costly.

b) A gas turbine plant with a pressure ratio of 1:5 takes in air at 15 0C. The maximum
temperature is 600 0C and develops 2200 kW. Assume Cp=1 kJ/kgk and Cv=0.714 kJ/kgk,
determine Overall efficiency of the turbine
Ans:
Given data
r= = =5
0
T1 = 15 C = 288K
T3 = 6000C = 873K
P = 2200kW
Cp = 1kJ/kgK
Cv = 0.714kJ/kgK
=1.4
Thermal efficiency = =
Net work = WT - WC
= {Cp (T3 - T4) - Cp (T2 - T1)}
heat supplied = Cp (T3 - T2)
efficiency = 1-

T2 =456K

T4 = 551K

= 1- = 36.86%
7. a) Differentiate between SI and CI engines.
Ans:
SI engine CI engine
It works on Otto cycle It works on Diesel/Dual cycle
Compression ratio is from 5 to 15. Compression ratio is from 12 to 30.
Petrol (Gasoline) is used as fuel. Diesel is used as fuel.
Fuel should have high self ignition Fuel should have low self ignition
temperature. temperature.
A mixture of air and fuel is sucked
inside the cylinder during suction Air alone is sucked during suction
process. process.
Carburettor is required for preparing
air-fuel mixture. Carburetor is not required.
Fuel is injected after compression.
Fuel goes into cylinder alongwith air For injection of fuel a fuel pump
during suction and injector is required
Ignition of fuel takes place on its
Spark plug is required to initiate own due to high temperature of air
combustion. inside cylinder.
Combustion takes place
Combustion takes place isochorically. isobarically.
To withstand high Compression
Due to low compression ratio the ratio the
engine structure is light. engine structure is sturdy.
Engine speed is higher. Engine speed is lower.
Efficiency is low. Efficiency is high.

b) Describe the Morse test for determining the indicated power of a multi cylinder
Ans:

Morse test is experimental method for estimating the friction power of the multi cylinder engine.
Here engine is first run up to certain speed of rotation. Subsequently, one by one each cylinder of
the engine is isolated from contributing to shaft work either by switching off electric supply to
spark plug or by stopping fuel supply. When one cylinder is not producing power i.e. due to its
isolation then also piston reciprocates in this cylinder similar to other cylinders thus the frictional
losses remain constant for the shaft running at same speed. When second cylinder is cut then also
frictional losses remain same but the brake power and indicated power get reduced accordingly.
This process of cutting off each cylinder one by one is carried out till last cylinder and the brake
power is measured by dynamometer attached to crank shaft which is maintained to run at same
speed of rotation when cylinders are cut off one by one.

Friction power depends on the speed and not upon the load on the engine.

## Morse test: Consider a four cylinder engine

Indicated power of each individual cylinder

## Frictional power of each individual cylinder

When the cylinder is cut off, then ,but the frictional losses are same.

I=
UNIT-I
1. Laws of thermodynamics
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics

## 2. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:

When a body A is in thermal equilibrium with a body B, and also separately with a body C.
then B and C will be in thermal equilibrium with each other. This is known as the zeroth law
of thermodynamics. It is the basis of temperature measurement.

## 3. First Law of Thermodynamics

When a system undergoes a thermodynamic cycle then the net heat supplied to the system
from the surroundings is equal to net work done by the system on its surroundings.

where .

## The First Law of Thermodynamics may also be stated as follows :

Heat and work are mutually convertible but since energy can neither be created nor
destroyed, the total energy associated with an energy conversion remains constant.
E = Q W

## 4. Second Law of Thermodynamics

Clausius Statement

It is impossible for a self acting machine working in a cyclic process unaided by any
external agency, to convey heat from a body at a lower temperature to a body at a higher
temperature.

In other words, heat of, itself, cannot flow from a colder to a hotter body.

Kelvin-Planck Statement

## It is impossible to construct an engine, which while operating in a cycle produces no other

effect except to extract heat from a single reservoir and do equivalent amount of work.

## 5. State the limitations of first law of thermodynamics.

First law does not specify the direction of flow of heat and work.
It also does not give any condition under which the work and heat transfer take place.
It doesn't tell why the whole of heat energy cannot be converted into mechanical
work.
It doesnt explain the feasibility and spontaneity of a process
It doesnt tell why natural processes are unidirectional.
6. Define path function and point function.

Path function: Their magnitudes depend on the path followed during a process as well as
the end states.

## Work (W), heat (Q) are path functions.

The cyclic integral of a path function is non-zero.

Point Function: They depend on the state only, and not on how a system reaches that
state.

## All properties are point functions.

The cyclic integral of a point function is zero.

## 7. Internal energy is a property

The internal energy is a state function of a system, because its value depends only on the
current state of the system and not on the path taken or processes undergone to prepare it.
It is an extensive property.

## 8. Define thermodynamic processes?

When a system changes its state from one equilibrium state to another equilibrium state,
then the path of successive states through which the system has passed is known as
thermodynamic process.

## 9. Write laws of perfect gases?

Boyels law

Charles law

Gay-Lussac law

10. Define the specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure?

Specific heat at constant volume: It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of
a unit mass of gas through one degree when it is heated at a constant volume. It is denoted by
cv.
Specific heat at constant pressure: It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of
a unit mass of gas through one degree when it is heated at a constant pressure.. It is denoted
by cp.

## 9. What is an adiabatic process?

An adiabatic process is one in which no heat is gained or lost by the system. The first law
of thermodynamics with Q=0 shows that all the change in internal energy is in the form
of work done. This puts a constraint on the heat engine process leading to the adiabatic
condition shown below. This condition can be used to derive the expression for the work

## 10. What is meant by entropy of a gas?

In a reversible process, over a small range of temperature, the increase or decrease of entropy,
when multiplied by the absolute temperature, gives the heat absorbed or rejected by the gas.

## 11. Entropy and its significance

Physical significance of Entropy
The entropy of a substance is real physical quantity and is a definite function of the state of
the body like pressure, temperature, volume of internal energy.
It is difficult to form a tangible conception of this quantity because it cannot be felt like
temperature or pressure. We can, however, readily infer it from the following aspects:
Entropy and unavailable energy
The second law of thermodynamics tells us that whole amount of internal energy of
any substance is not convertible into useful work. A portion of this energy which is
used for doing useful work is called available energy. The remaining part of the
energy which cannot be converted into useful work is called unavailable energy.
Entropy is a measure of this unavailable energy. In fact, the entropy may be regarded
as the unavailable energy per unit temperature.
Entropy and disorder
Entropy is a measure of the disorder or randomness in the system. When a gas
expands into vacuum, water flows out of a reservoir, spontaneous chain reaction
takes place, an increase in the disorder occurs and therefore entropy increases.
Entropy and probability
Changes in order are expressed quantitatively in terms of entropy change, . How
are entropy and order in the system related? Since a disordered state is more probable
for systems than of order, the entropy and thermodynamic probabilities are closely
related.
12. Features of entropy:
It is an extensive properly and a state function
Its value depends upon mass of substance present in the system

At equilibrium .
For a cyclic process
For natural process i.e Increasing.
13. Throttling
A throttling process is defined as a process in which there is no change in enthalpy from state
one to state two, h1 = h2; no work is done, W = 0; and the process is adiabatic, Q = 0.

14. What is an adiabatic index? Why its value is greater than unity?

Adiabatic index or Ratio of specific heats is the ratio of the specific heat at constant
pressure to specific heat constant volume . It is sometimes also known as
the isentropic expansion factor and is denoted by .

Its value is greater than unity because the heat input for a constant-pressure process must be
greater than that for a constant-volume process because additional energy must be supplied to
account for the work done during the expansion. So Cp is greater than Cv for an ideal gas.
For air, Cp is 40% greater than Cv at temperatures near room temperature.

## 15. What do you mean by reversible work?

The work done in any reversible process is the area under the pv curve. Clearly, more work
is done by the reversible expansion process. The reversible expansion does the maximum
amount of work because the gas is pushing against the maximum possible external pressure.
The work done by any reversible process is known as reversible work.

## 16. Explain reversible and irreversible process?

A process is said to be reversible if both the system and surroundings can be restored to their
respective initial states by reversing the direction of the process. Otherwise the process is said
to be irreversible. All spontaneous processes are irreversible.
UNIT-II
DEFINITION OF THE PURE SUBSTANCE
A pure substance is a system which is (i) homogeneous in composition, (ii) homogeneous in
chemical aggregation, and (iii) invariable in chemical aggregation
Triple point
The triple point is merely the point of intersection of sublimation and vapourisation
curves. It must be understood that only on p-T diagram is the triple point represented by a point.
On p-V diagram it is a line, and on a U-V diagram it is a triangle.
The pressure and temperature at which all three phases of a pure substance coexist may
be measured with the apparatus that is used to measure vapour pressure.

## 1. List the thermodynamics properties of steam and state their significance.

2. Following are the thermodynamic properties of steam which are tabulated in the form of
3. table :
4. p = Absolute pressure (bar or kPa) ;
5. ts = Saturation temperature (C) ;
6. hf = Enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg) ;
7. hfg = Enthalpy or latent heat of vapourisation (kJ/kg) ;
8. hg = Enthalpy of saturated vapour (steam) (kJ/kg) ;
9. sf = Entropy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg K) ;
10. sfg = Entropy of vapourisation (kJ/kg K) ;
11. sg = Entropy of saturated vapour (steam) (kJ/kg K) ;
12. vf = Specific volume of saturated liquid (m3/kg) ;
13. vg = Specific volume of saturated vapour (steam) (m3/kg).
14. Also, hfg = hg hf ...... Change of enthalpy during evaporation
15. sfg = sg sf ...... Change of entropy during evaporation
16. vfg = vg vf ...... Change of volume during evaporation.
17. What is super heated steam?
18. Superheated steam. When steam is heated after it has become dry and saturated, it is
19. called superheated steam and the process of heating is called superheating. Superheating is
20. always carried out at constant pressure. The additional amount of heat supplied to the steam
21. during superheating is called as Heat of superheat and can be calculated by using the specific
22. heat of superheated steam at constant pressure (cps), the value of which varies from 2.0 to 2.1 kJ/
23. kg K depending upon pressure and temperature.
24. If Tsup., Ts are the temperatures of superheated steam in K and wet or dry steam, then
25. (Tsup Ts) is called degree of superheat.
26. The total heat of superheated steam is given by
27. hsup = hf + hfg + cps (Tsup Ts) ...(3.4)
28. Superheated steam behaves like a gas and therefore it follows the gas laws. The value of n
29. for this type of steam is 1.3 and the law for the adiabatic expansion is pv1.3 = constant.
30. The advantages obtained by using superheated steam are as follows :
31. (i) By superheating steam, its heat content and hence its capacity to do work is increased
32. without having to increase its pressure.
33. (ii) Superheating is done in a superheater which obtains its heat from waste furnace gases
34. which would have otherwise passed uselessly up the chimney.
35. (iii) High temperature of superheated steam results in an increase in thermal efficiency.
36. (iv) Since the superheated steam is at a temperature above that corresponding to its pressure,
37. it can be considerably cooled during expansion in an engine before its temperature
38. falls below that at which it will condense and thereby become wet. Hence, heat losses
39. due to condensation of steam on cylinder walls etc. are avoided to a great extent.

## 41. What is dryness fraction? What is its significance?

42. 1. Sensible heat of water (hf ). It is defined as the quantity of heat absorbed by 1 kg of
43. water when it is heated from 0C (freezing point) to boiling point. It is also called total heat (or
44. enthalpy) of water or liquid heat invariably. It is reckoned from 0C where sensible heat is taken
45. as zero. If 1 kg of water is heated from 0C to 100C the sensible heat added to it will be 4.18 100
46. = 418 kJ but if water is at say 20C initially then sensible heat added will be 4.18 (100 20)
47. = 334.4 kJ. This type of heat is denoted by letter hf and its value can be directly read from the
48. steam tables.
49. Note. The value of specific heat of water may be taken as 4.18 kJ/kg K at low pressures but at high
50. pressures it is different from this value.
51. 2. Latent heat or hidden heat (hfg). It is the amount of heat required to convert water
52. at a given temperature and pressure into steam at the same temperature and pressure. It is
53. expressed by the symbol hfg and its value is available from steam tables. The value of latent heat
54. is not constant and varies according to pressure variation.
55. 3. Dryness fraction (x). The term dryness fraction is related with wet steam. It is defined
56. as the ratio of the mass of actual dry steam to the mass of steam containing it. It is usually
57. expressed by the symbol x or q.
58. If ms = Mass of dry steam contained in steam considered, and
59. mw = Weight of water particles in suspension in the steam considered,
60. Then, x m
61. mm
62. s
63. s w

## 67. List thermodynamic properties of steam. State their significance?

Ans: Temperature, sensible heat, latent heat, enthalpy, specific volume, entropy are
the thermodynamic properties of steam. If the pressure changes, temperature of
formation of steam also changes. In sensible heat temperature values are changed
where as temperature is constant during latent heat of vaporization or fusion. Enthalpy
of steam gives total heat content of steam.

## 68. What are the advantages of super-heated steam?

Ans: 1.The super heated steam contains more heat contents, and hence its capacity to
do work is also increased.

2. The super heating is done in a super heater, which obtains heat from waste furnace
gases. These gases would have otherwise passed, uselessly, through the chimney.

3. The high temperature of the super heated steam results in an increase of thermal
efficiency.

UNIT-III
1. What is steam boiler? How they are classified?
2. Enumerate the factors which should be considered while selecting boiler.
3. What is fire tube boiler?
4. Differentiate between water and fire tube boilers.
5. Differentiate between Lancashire and cornish boilers.
6. Write different accessories of boilers.
7. Describe boiler draught.

17. Explain the difference between externally fired and internally fired boiler?
Ans: In internally fired steam boilers, the furnace is located inside the boiler shell.
Most of the fire tube steam boilers are internally fired.

## In externally fired steam boilers, the furnace is arranged underneath in a brick-

work setting. Water tube steam boilers are always externally fired.

13. Explain the difference between the forced and natural circulation boilers?

## Ans: In forced circulation steam boilers, there is a forced circulation of water by a

centrifugal pump driven by some external power .In natural circulation steam boilers; the
circulation of water is by natural convection currents, which are set up during the heating of
water.

14.

## 18. List the advantages of high pressure boilers?

Ans: High-pressure boilers use the forced circulation of water which ensures

## They require less heat of vaporization.

They are compact and thus require less floor space.
Due to high velocity of water, the tendency of scale formation is
minimized.
All parts are uniformly heated and the danger of overheating is minimized.
The steam can be raised quickly to meet the variable load
requirements without use of complicated control devices.
The plant efficiency is increased.
With the use of high-pressure boilers, the steam generation is economical.

## 23. What is the function of fusible plug?

Ans: The objective of a fusible plug is to put off the fire in furnace of the boiler when
the level of water in the boiler falls to an unsafe limit, and thus avoids the explosion which
may take place due to overheating of the furnace plate.

24.

## 25. Does steam obey laws of perfect gases?

Ans: Steam obeys laws of perfect gases when it is super heated. Superheated steam behaves
more or less like a perfect gas.

26. State the relation between the velocity of steam and heat during any part of steam
nozzle?

Ans: V2 = Square Root of V12+ 2( h1-h2) = Square Root of V12+ 2hd where

28.

29.

## 34. What is meant by internal energy of steam?

Ans: It is the actual heat energy stored in steam, above the freezing point of water. The
internal energy may be calculated by subtracting the external work done during evaporation
from the enthalpy or total heat of steam.

## 35. Distinguish between water tube and fire tube boiler?

Ans: In fire tube boilers, the flames and hot gases, produced by the combustion of fuel, pass
through the tubes which are surrounded by water.

In water tube steam boilers, the water is contained inside the tubes which are surrounded by
flames and hot gases from outside.
UNIT-IV
1. Carnot Cycle.
2. Name the process of dual cycle.
3. What is Otto cyle? State its practicle application.
4. Explain briefly Otto cycle with the help of P-V and T-S diagram.
5. P-V and T-S diagram on dual cycle
6. Define compression ratio
8. Compare relative advantages and disadvantages of 4 stroke engine and 2-stroke engines.
9. 2 stroke and 4 stroke engines
10. What is meant by thermal efficiency of I.C engine
11. Differentiate between petrol and diesel engines.
12. Super-charging in IC engines
13. What is pre-ignition?
14. WHAT IS DETONATION?

Detonation (also called "spark knock") is an erratic form of combustion that can cause
head gasket failure as well as other engine damage. Detonation occurs when excessive
heat and pressure in the combustion chamber cause the air/fuel mixture to autoignite. This
produces multiple flame fronts within the combustion chamber instead of a single flame
kernel. When these multiple flames collide, they do so with explosive force that produces
a sudden rise in cylinder pressure accompanied by a sharp metallic pinging or knocking
noise. The hammer-like shock waves created by detonation subject the head gasket,

15. PRE-IGNITION

16. Another condition that is sometimes confused with detonation is "preignition." This
occurs when a point within the combustion chamber becomes so hot that it becomes a
source of ignition and causes the fuel to ignite before the spark plug fires. This, in turn,
may contribute to or cause a detonation problem.
17. Instead of the fuel igniting at the right instant to give the crankshaft a smooth kick in the
right direction, the fuel ignites prematurely (early) causing a momentarily backlash as the
piston tries to turn the crank in the wrong direction. This can be very damaging because
of the stresses it creates. It can also localize heat to such an extent that it can partially
melt or burn a hole through the top of a piston!

## 18. List the functions of injector.

19. State the necessities for cooling of an engine.
NECESSITY OF COOLING SYSTEM The cooling system is provided in the IC engine
for the following reasons: The temperature of the burning gases in the engine cylinder
reaches up to 1500 to 2000C, which is above the melting point of the material of the
cylinder body and head of the engine. (Platinum, a metal which has one of the highest
melting points, melts at 1750 C, iron at 1530C and aluminium at 657C.) Therefore, if
the heat is not dissipated, it would result in the failure of the cylinder material. Due to
very high temperatures, the film of the lubricating oil will get oxidized, thus producing
carbon deposits on the surface. This will result in piston seizure. Due to overheating,
large temperature differences may lead to a distortion of the engine components due to
the thermal stresses set up. This makes it necessary for, the temperature variation to be
kept to a minimum. Higher temperatures also lower the volumetric efficiency of the
engine.
20. Define brake thermal efficiency of I.C engine
21. What is scavenging?
In automotive usage, scavenging is the process of pushing exhausted gas-charge out of
the cylinder and drawing in a fresh draught of air or fuel/air mixture for the next cycle.
This process is essential in having a smooth-running internal combustion engine. If
scavenging is incomplete, the following stroke will begin with a mix of exhaust fumes
rather than clean air. This may be inadequate for proper combustion, leading to poor
running conditions such as four-stroking.

22. Explain with a neat sketch, the sequence of events in the working of a two stroke petrol
engine.

23. Describe the Morse test for determining the indicated power of a multi cylinder engine,

24. The morse test is a test conducted to determine the power developed in each cylinder in a
multicylinder ic engine.

first the the power developed by all the cylinders together is determined experimentally.

Then the power of the individual cylinders are determined by cutting off the power supply
to the spark plug of the cylinder under test.

then the power developed by the engine with the remaining cylinders is determined
experimentally and this value is subtracted from the first value, and this gives you the
power developed in the cylinder, whose spark plug was cut off.

similarly this test is carried out on all the cylinders of the engine individually.
25. he main intention of carrying out the morse test in an IC engine is to provide an easy
method of calculating the frictional losses. It provides a kind of top-down approach in
calculating frictional losses easily and helps calculate mechanical efficiency.

26. The total break power of the engine is first calculated using a dynamometer.

27. The process is repeated with one cylinder off at each step. This the difference between
total break power and break power of the remaining cylinders gives the indicated power
of the first cylinder; and so on.

28. In this way, indicated power of all cylinders are calculated and summed to obtain the
indicated power of the engine.

## 29. Friction power = indicated power - total brake power.

30. Once friction power is obtained, the mechanical efficiency of the engine can be
calculated.
31. Explain the working principle of a 4 stroke diesel engine and 2-stroke diesel engine with
a neat sketches.

## 32. What is a diesel cycle? What are its practical applications?

Ans:Diesel cycle is devised by Dr.Rudolph Diesel with an idea to attain a high
thermal efficiency, with high compression ratio. The ideal diesel cycle consists of two
isentropic, a constant pressure and a constant volume processes. It is used in diesel
engines, Generator sets and automobiles etc.

## 33. What is an Otto cycle? State its practical applications?

Ans: In the Otto cycle there are two constant volume processes and two isentropic
processes. Otto cycles are used in petrol, gas and oil engines.

## 8. State the function of a carburetor in a petrol engine?

Ans: Carburetor thoroughly mixes petrol and air in correct proportion and sends into
cylinder following Bernoullis principle. It maintains correct air fuel ratio depending on the

Write the difference between two stroke and four stroke engines?

Ans: In a two stroke engine, the working cycle is completed in two strokes of the piston or
one revolution of the crankshaft. In a four stroke engine, the working cycle is completed in
four strokes of the piston or two revolutions of the crankshaft.

## Define the terms (i) Stroke and (ii) Compression ratio?

Ans: Stroke length is the distance moved by the Piston from TDC(Top Dead Centre)
to BDC(Bottom Dead Centre) in a cylinder. Compression ratio is the ratio of swept
volume plus clearance volume and clearance volume with reference to cylinder of an
I.C.engine.

## 18. Define work ratio.

And the thermal efficiency of the cycle will be:

= W/Q1 = 1 - T2/T1
Due to mechanical friction and other irreversiblities no cycle can achieve this efficiency.
The gross work output of cycle, i.e. the work done by the system is:

Wg = W41 + W12
work ratio is defined as the ratio of the net work, W, to the gross work output, Wg, i.e.

W / Wg

UNIT-V
1. Mention the function of nozzles used with steam turbine
2. What do you mean by super saturated flow?
3. What is meant by critical pressure ratio of the nozzle?
4. Define critical pressure ratio of the nozzle of the steam turbine obtained analytically its
value in terms of the index of expansion.
5. What steady flow energy equation is as applied to steam nozzles? Explain its use in the
calculation of steam velocity at the exit of a nozzle.
6. Discuss the function of the convergent portion, the throat, and divergent portion of a
convergent-divergent nozzle with reference to flow of steam.
7. Super saturated steam flow in steam nozzles
8. Discuss effect of friction during the expansion of steam through a convergent-divergent
nozzle when steam at entry to the nozzle is saturated.
9. Over-expanding and under expansion of nozzle.
10. 36. What is the condition for maximum discharge through a nozzle?
11. Ans: The condition for maximum discharge through a nozzle is p2/p1 = (2/n+1)n/n-1
12. Where p1 = pressure at the inlet of the nozzle,p2 = pressure at the outlet
13. And n= Poly-tropic index
14. 37. What is meant by critical pressure ratio of a nozzle?
15. Ans: The ratio p2/p1 = (2/n+1)n/n-1 is known as critical pressure ratio, and the pressure at
the throat is known as critical pressure

16.
17. . What are the different functions of nozzle?
18. Ans: (1) Nozzle converts heat energy of steam into Kinetic energy with a
minimum loss
19. (2) Nozzle increases the velocity of flow by decreasing the pressure
20. (3) The variation of steam pressure in the nozzle depends upon the velocity,
21. Specific volume and dryness fraction
22.
23. 21.
24. 22. How do you define the nozzle efficiency?
25. Ans: Nozzle efficiency is defined as the ratio of useful heat drop to the isentropic
26. heat drop

UNIT-VI
1. What is compounding of steam engine?
2. Explain the termcompounding of steam turbine.
3. Write different classification of turbines.
4. Differentiate between impulse and reaction turbine
5. Derive the equation for maximum efficiency of an reaction turbine
6. Explain pressure velocity compounding of an impulse turbine
7. Explain the functions of the blading of a steam reaction turbine.
8. Discuss the method of velocity compounding of an impulse turbine for achiving rotar
speed reduction.
9. Methods of reduction of turbine rotor speed.
10. Explain with the help of neat sketch a single stage impulse turbine. Also explain pressure
and velocity variations along the axial direction.

## 38. Explain the principle of impulse turbine?

Ans: The action of the jet of steam, impinging on the blades, is said to be an impulse and the
rotation of the rotor is due to the impulsive forces of the steam jets.

## 39. What is compounding of steam turbines?

Ans: In order to reduce the rotor speed, various methods are used. All these methods
consist of a multiple system of rotors, in series, keyed to a common shaft and steam
pressure or the jet velocity is absorbed in stages as it flows over the rotor blades. This
process is known as compounding. The three commonly used compounding methods
are 1.Velocity compounding 2.Pressure compounding 3.Pressure-velocity
compounding

## 27. Explain reheat factor?

Ans: It is the ratio of cumulative heat drop to isentropic heat drop in a multistage steam
turbine.

## 9. Explain the methods of reducing the rotor speed of a turbine?

Ans: In order to reduce the rotor speed, various methods are used. All these methods
consist of a multiple system of rotors, in series, keyed to a common shaft and steam
pressure or the jet velocity is absorbed in stages as it flows over the rotor blades. This
process is known as compounding. The three commonly used compounding methods
are 1.Velocity compounding 2.Pressure compounding 3.Pressure-velocity
compounding

## 27. 20. Differntiate between reaction turbine and impulse turbine?

28. Ans: Impulse turbine: The pressure of the steam jet is reduced in the nozzle and
remains constant while passing through the moving blade. The velocity of steam is
increased in the nozzle, and is reduced while passing through the moving blades.

29. Reaction turbine: The pressure in a reaction turbine is reduced in the fixed
blades as well as in moving blades. The velocity of steam is increased in the fixed blades
and is reduced while passing through the moving blades.

UNIT-VII

1. What are the methods to improve the thermal efficiency of gas turbine?
2. What are the methods to improve the thermal efficiency of open cycle gas turbine?
3. How the gas turbine is different from a steam turbine?
4. What are the essential components of a simple open cycle gas turbine plant?
5. Differentiate clearly between a closed cycle gas turbine and an open cycle gas turbine.
6. What are the advantages of gas turbine over steam turbine?
7. Derive the expression of optimum pressure ratio for maximum net work output in an ideal
brayton cycle.
8. Draw the layout of a gas turbine plant which has two stage compression with complete
intercooling. The high pressure turbine develops power enough only to drive the the high
pressure compressor. The L.P turbine drives both the L.P compressor and the load.
Indicate the ideal process of this plant on T-S diagram.
9. What is a gas turbine? How does it differ from a steam turbine?
10. Ans; In a gas turbine, first of all, the air is obtained from the atmosphere and
compressed in an air compressor. The compressed air is then passed into the
combustion chamber, where it is heated considerably. Then hot air is then made to
flow over the moving blades of the gas turbine, which imparts rotational motion to the
runner. During this process, the air gets expanded and finally it is exhausted into the
atmosphere.
11. The important components of the gas turbine are compressor and combustion
chamber whereas the important components of steam turbine are steam boilers and
accessories.
12. Write a short note on fuels used for gas turbines?

13. Ans: Hydrocarbon gases or liquid petroleum fuel used in gas turbines.
14. Gaseous fuels such as natural gases are mainly used in gas turbines that power pumpi
ng stations along main gas pipelines.
10. Classify the gas turbines?
Ans: Gas turbines are classified as follows

## 1. According to path of the working substance

(a) Closed cycle gas turbines (b) Open cycle gas turbines and (c) Semi-closed
cycle gas turbine
2. According to process of heat absorption
(a) Constant pressure gas turbines (b) Constant volume gas turbines

1. Mention the methods employed for improvement of thermal efficiency of open cycle
gas turbine plant?
Ans: Thermal efficiency of a gas turbine can be improved by employing (i) By
increasing the inlet temperature of the turbine (ii) by increasing the compression ratio
(iii)by employing inter-cooling between the stages of air compressor(iv) by reheating
and (v) By regeneration