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The conditional statement

The converse statement

The inverse statement

The contrapositive statement

Kinds of conditions
Logical fallacies
Ad Baculum Appeal to force
A person without proper ability to convince with reason Will use scare tactics
sometimes violent.

Ad hominem Personal attack

The argues, unable to logically argue, will attack the person or persons circumstances

Ad populum Argument to the people

Instead of directly arguing with their opponent, a person will try to gain support of those
around them by appealing to their beliefs. They may use the bandwagon effect when they
suggest everyone is doing it

Ad Traditionem Appeal to tradition

Why change if it has been going fine for a long time. Usually used by conservatives and to
small groups to keep their traditions.
If it aint broken why fix it? This is the way we have always done it
Why should women vote the system work just fine

Ad Verecundiam Refers to an improper authority

The arguer uses the opinion or ideas of a high authority figure knows very little about the
Obama thinks apples are healthy, so I start to do the same
Ad Misericordiam Appeal to emotion
The arguer appeal to a persons emotions anger or sympathy to get them to agree-
Cant you see he is just a child!? Foreigners are taking your jobs
Petitio Principii

Circular reasoning

God exists because its in the bible, written by god

Protests and Politics
Why do people protest? Often product of grievances (a complaint or resentment, as
against an unjust or unfair act) related to the following reasons: Inequality, deprivation,
Injustice, moral issues, sudden grievances
People are more likely to protest if: Its affordable, want a change, large group, angry
How it can be effective: disruptive, facilitation and persuation, politixal allies, public
opinion, media to assist.
Argentina: Dirty wat between 1974 and 1983. Some 30,000 dissapaered or were killed
Types of governments
One individual has control over all government decisions
Citizens dont vote nor hold office

Only one party
Government controls, industry, information, currency, etc-
Citizens can vote and hold office
Positive: One party allows to carry out goals easily Negative: Less rights

Civilians vote for leaders
Civilians can run for office
Country is run by small amount of elected offiicials
Positive: Less power Negative: Oligarchy
Constitutional monarchy

Has little or lot of power

Civilians vote and run for office, but those in monarchy cannot be removed
Positive: Keeps tradition Negative: Can cost some money to maintain
Monarchy: Royalty runs government
Oligarchy Power of the rich
Anarchy. No government
Democratic republic: Euphemism for totalitarian government

Number of guns manufactured annually: <10 million

Consumer spending annually: 6.45 billion
Exported annually: 400,000
Gun related homicides anually: 9960
Rate per 100,000: 2.5
88 guns per 100 citizens
Second amendment 1791
Compared to Europeans they are 10 times more likely to be killed by a gun, 8 to kill
themselves,7 times more likely to be killed by violence
In 2015 there were 372 mass shooting killing 475 people and 64 in schools
Deaths from 1968 to 2011 supass deaths by wars involved by USA
NRA crated in 1871 has over 5 million members
60% americans own guns for safety
36 die eac dat because of guns

Other countries
Canada: Must be 18, pass background test, pass safety course, 1989 student killed 14
Australia: demonstrate genuine need, pass safety course, regulations, 1996 young man
killed 36 people. Since then no mass shooting has occurred
Israel: Assault weapon ban, must register weapon, speak Hebrew and 21 years old,
genuine cause, all citizenz receive gun training
United Kingdom: 1987 man killed 16 people, in 1996 a man with
Japan: 1 in 10 million murders