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Chapter 2


This chapter presents related literatures that are relevant to the present

investigation and gives valuable insights about the topic of the research.

Research studies related to this thesis were likewise presented.

Foreign Literature

In the book of Eliquen (1974) entitled Play Dreams and Imitation inn

Children speaks of the childs growing ability to face reality. This ability depends

on the satisfactory resolution of early personal-social conflicts in the childs

family, and on the development of a healthy play life which enriches his social

experience. Piaget believes that effective instruction of systematic knowledge in

school depends on the gradual development of scientific concepts in the child.

The aforementioned literature is presently related to the present study

because the researcher believed in direct, specific learning experiences involving

play, construction, and contact with nature; self-expression and physical activity

will give the children the freedom of movement needed for muscle development

and emotional release. The child must be taught to be concerned with the good

of the group. However, this can only be materialized if there were ample

instructional materials in the classroom.

Moreover, Eclavea (2014), in his article entitled How to Teach Pupils,

mentioned that there were some good teachers which were often successful in

different ways. Some teachers are more extroverts on introvert than others, for

example, different teachers have different strengths and weaknesses. It is often

said that good teachers were born not made and it does not seem that some

people have a natural affixing for the job. But there were also others, perhaps,

who do not have what appears to be a natural affinity for the job.

Nevertheless, the present study is related to Harmers article as he

specified different factors affecting teachers abilities to manage their pupils

which can be the basis in thinking suitable instructional materials to address the

childrens weaknesses.

While according to Richard (2006) the main job of the teacher is to make

students learn effectively and efficiently. For doing so, a teacher has to do

several activities such as plan properly, provide effective instruction and evaluate

the learning activities using appropriate methods and techniques. Flores (2015),

explained that internal factors have quality on teachers feeling of success and a

number of external factors can either aid or hinder a teachers success.

The present study is related to Richard (2006) and Smith et al (2010)

because a teacher has to perform a lot of activities inside and outside the

classroom. Performing the teachers functions, teacher may be effective or

ineffective which is closely linked to teachers competence. Competent teachers

create classroom conditions and climate which were conducive for pupils


On the other hand, Telada (2011), using computer is one of the most

efficient ways to make the lesson audio-visual, to supply fluent and effective

education, to keep the pupils from memorization and to obtain speed and

permanence in perception.

The present study is subsequently linked to Telada (2011) due to the

visual, auditory, and dynamics movement experienced by the pupils using

computer will develop clearer and more correct mental images of the information

being learned.

Conversely, conferring to Burge (2000) as cited in Telada (2011),

traditional teaching model is given by the blackboard, chalk, textbooks and other

modes of instruction. Use of multimedia technology in teaching will help improve

teaching efficiency. Multimedia technology can combine text, graphics, pictures,

animation, video and audio for the richer message of the image. Pupils in this

environment through a variety of sensory organs can spend up the

understanding and acceptance of knowledge and information. It helps the pupils

in associating thinking and reasoning activities. At the same time, the use of

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) saves the blackboard times, teachers can

teach in a limited period of time for more content. All of these factors can greatly

enhance the efficiency of the transmission of knowledge and information. It

enables pupils in a relatively short period of time to get more information.

The aforementioned literature is related to the present study for the reason

that Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) can help pupils reach a more detailed

and a more accurate understanding of what they are learning.

Nonetheless, according to Cross (2010), in her article in Early School

Readiness Site, entitled Preparing Children for Kindergarten: Whole Class


Instruction said that the preschool version of whole class instruction is usually

called circle or group time. The social design of whole class instruction involves

the expected behavior among peers, toward the teacher, and regarding

approaches to learning. Instructional design addresses the range of teaching

methods to be used, including direct instruction, practice, exploration, and

problem-based learning. Literacy was the primary curricular focus of whole class


The article of Cross (2010) is related to the present study because whole

class instruction or circle time is one of the blocks of time in kindergarten. During

this time of the kindergarten schedule, the teacher led the entire class through a

series of instructional activities in which each child is expected to participate.

Furthermore, ONeil (2011) stated that when children are first introduced

to literature, it is often in the form of picture books. Children learn to associate the

pictures with meaning because they cannot read the words on the page. The

illustrations or imagery help guide the understanding and foster a comprehension

of the story being told. Borgia and Owles (2010) point out that even for young or

new readers, visual text and the visual arts play an important role in reading and


Foreign Studies

In the study of Iyunade (2014) entitled Availability and Utilization of

Instructional Materials in Selected Anagogical Setting in Ogun State, Nigeria

shown that when instructional materials are effectively utilized, it can help make

learners understand abstract ideas and complex topics. The comparative


efficiency of instructional materials in teaching learning is evident in its potentials

of bridging the gap in communication between the instructors and learners.

Moreover, as Awolaju (2014) revealed that the role of instructional

materials if thoroughly considered cannot be either partially or totally isolated

from teaching-learning process. Instructional materials perform such function as

the extension of the range of experience available to learners, supplement and

complement the teachers verbal explanations thereby making learning

experience richer and providing the teacher with interest into a wide variety of

learning activities.

In connection to the study of Iyunade (2014) and Awolaju (2014) is very

much accommodating to this undertaking which is trying to assess the quality of

the instructional materials of the kindergarten schools. For them instructional

materials are designed to enrich the teaching and learning process. Furthermore

Awolaju stated that instructional materials cannot be partially or totally isolated in

the teaching-learning process of the kindergarteners. Thus, the researcher has

the courage to assess the quality of the instructional materials of each

kindergarten schools in the Fourth Congressional District of Quezon which

serves as the independent variable of this study.

Whereas, Al-Amarat (2011) identified that the level of the classroom

problems of the Education District of Tafila province was medium, from the

teachers point of view; there was no statistically significant difference, in the

academic problems domain, while there was a statistically significant difference,


in the behavioural problems, due to the interaction variables, gender, and school

level and experience.

The result of this study is related to the present study because there are

many behavioural attitude that is being practiced by the pupils in the classroom.

The behavior of the pupils greatly affects their performance in learning.

In a recent study on the public perceptions of Oregons K-12 and higher

education schools, Ryan Henthorne (2010) identified that parents with children in

public K-12 were more likely to report that K-12 quality today was a big problem,

and that the quality over the last 5 years was slightly worse, when compared to

respondents that did not have children in public K-12.

Lee (2006) showed the parents perception of early childhood education

and care centers both American and Korean parents thought that the most

important aspects were children health and safety and teachers educational


Fouziya et al (2009) revealed that the parents irrespective of whether they

sent their children to anganwadi or preschools held similar views about the

meaning of preschool education, skills acquired at Early Childhood Development

(ECD) centers, teaching methodology and the role of international child

Development Services (ICDS) centers in preschool education.

The aforementioned studies are related to the present study because the

curriculum used in kindergarten is the K to 12 Program. It is indeed important to

know the viewpoint of the parents in early childhood education and entering their

children in kindergarten level. Parents have also great role in shaping the talents

and knowledge of the child. They are the partners of the teachers in teaching the

kindergarten pupils with the help of the instructional materials available in the

school. On the other hand, this undertaking is attempting to provide evidences

that instructional materials are similarly significant aspect in the early childhood

education such as in the kindergarten schools.

Heaviside and Farris (1993) emphasized that Americas kindergarten

teachers place a greater importance on the personal and social domains of

learning than on the cognitive domains of learning as they relate to school


Denton et al (2000) stated that teachers perceive children, whose mothers

have a lower education, whose mothers are single, or whose families have

received public assistance, as being less likely to have the social skills of

accepting peer ideas and forming friendships with their peers.

West et al. (1993) specified that kindergarten teachers felt that it was not

important for students entering kindergarten to know their letters and numbers

because they could impart these skills to their students during the kindergarten

year. Kindergarten teachers consistently consider it one of their major

responsibilities to prepare students for personal and social demands of the K-12

school environment.

The study of Heaviside et al (1993), Denton et al (2000) and West et al

(1993) are related to the present study because kindergarten teachers place a

great importance and value on children entering kindergarten with the necessary

social and personal skills.


Lopez (2012) defined instructional materials as any tool used during the

instructional process. Its goal is to enhance knowledge, thinking skills, problem

solving activities of all pupils as well as incorporate recent advances in

disciplinary content regarded on teaching and learning, and instructional

technologies. An instructional package is usually consists of manual of books,

pre and post-test and an instructors manual.

In relation to the present study, it also aims to enhance the instructional

materials in teaching and learning process. With the fast changing demands of

technology, the researcher believes that integrating technology in teaching

kindergarten will have best result in performance of the pupils in the learning


Local Literature

Merculio (2014) in her article Media Text: A New Form of Literary

Instruction cited that the use of media texts in the forms of audio and video clips

inside the classroom can give the new perspective of teaching literature. Printed

materials can find close affinities in media world. With the close affinity of literary

texts with media texts, the following can be sources of lessons: telenovela/

teleserye for novel; songs for poetry; video clips/music video for short stories;

and films for drama through clippings the internet.

In this article, it is related because the pupils are entertained and relaxed

with the motion pictures, sound clips, and variations of other technical elements

such as cinematography, sound effects, and settings/locations that can be a

good lead for literary instruction for immediate positive response among the

pupils. The integration of information and communication technology as

instructional materials shows a clear accessibility to the digital activities in order

to cope with the technological challenges of our time.

Another article of Merculio (2014) entitled Digital Storytelling in English

Class: A Multimedia Learning Experience specified that English competencies

plus the computer skills promote positive learning among the students. Using

classroom content with digitized information, multimedia outputs are

recommended with little continuous involvement of the teachers or other cost that

leave significant changes inn students learning. In digital storytelling, the

students are given vast opportunities to make a story board in the form of video

or images.

It is related to the present study because the use of multimedia learning

experience is just one of those evidences that there is really a great deal for the

pupils and teachers to keep abreast with the technology of our time. By using this

multimedia, pupils find this activity interesting, fun and exciting in the exploration

of skills and resources in technology.

Desamito (2012) in her article in The Modern Teacher entitled Computer

Education in Preschool mentioned that children 3 and 4 years of age are

developmentally ready to explore computers, and most early childhood educators

see the computer center as a valuable activity center for learning. Young children

are comfortable clicking various options to see what is going to happen next.

This article is related to the present study because computer is the new

trend used as instructional materials in teaching the kindergartners. Children

need opportunities to make choices about some of their computer experiences.

Antolin (2013) stated that the opportunities for learning experiences vary

from family to family and from community to community. Many families create a

learning environment at home and have access to quality pre-school services.

But many other families lack the resources or the knowledge to make learning an

everyday part of the childs experiences. Therefore, the preschool

educators/teachers have an important share for the growing impression on the

success and failure for those would attend the preschool program, among which

is the development of childrens use and internalization of private speech or self-


It related to the present study because children who attend and enter

preschool have some quality approaches for them to be more prepared and may

achieve greater success by using different instructional materials as for fun and

learning. By using different instructional materials their first step in the

educational ladder will be more meaningful and enjoyable.

Balocating (2013) mentioned that teachers must be competent enough in

gaining their interest in education in the most productive and efficient way.

Through attending seminars, in-service training and workshop concerning the

management skills to get ready in the changing curriculum, they could easily

adjust themselves to the kind of approaches, methods and strategies using the

different groups of pupils.


This is related to the present study because the author and the researcher

believed in the importance of the instructional competence by attending different

seminars. It is great tool to improve the instructional materials and to develop an

output which is the action plan for the instructional materials.

Local Studies

Oriacel (2010), in his study entitled Development of Instructional Materials

Module for Teaching Philippine Government and the New Constitution in the

Tertiary Level of Sacred Heart College, learning styles of the students give focus

on the pacing of learning ; serve as basis in the selection of instructional

methods, media and materials that could provide the students the help they need

in mastering the objectives based on the design of the self-prepared materials;

provide basis for utilization of media and materials by which prior to its use and

implementation, it is previewed to get sure of its adaptability to the needs of the

students; and give teachers hint on the task requiring learners participation.

The study is related to the present study since they considered the

learning styles and objectives in developing lesson plans or modules which serve

as the basis in developing the instructional materials needed in the teaching and

learning process.

Moreover, quality teachers according to Rasay (2001) as cited in Lopez

(2012), in his thesis entitled Indicators of Quality Teachers in Selected Public and

Private Schools in the Division of Quezon as Perceived by Administrators and

Teachers must have the knowledge of the subject matter to be taught and must

be proficient in executing the lesson and has a good plan. Using audio-visual and

multimedia resources like TV, computer, internet, videos and others is a must for

teachers to ensure teaching and learning.

Thus, the researcher agrees to the idea of Rasay (2011) that the teachers

must be creative and resourceful enough to teach the pupils with ease and

accuracy. Concepts must be well presented by using varied instructional

materials like audio-visual and multimedia in teaching the lesson.

In the study of Jasolin (2012) entitled Developing Instructional Material in

Teaching Physical Fitness and Gymnastics showed strong agreement on the

perceived advantages of using instructional materials as a helping tool in

physical fitness and gymnastics. The respondents reported strong agreement on

the level of acceptability of the proposed instructional material in terms of general

and specific objectives, activities, relevance and content, as well as overall

organization and presentation. The students performed better in the post test

after they used the instructional material in physical fitness and gymnastics.

The aforementioned study is considered related to the present study

because the researcher believes that the instructional materials carried positive

quality in improving the performance of the pupils in the kindergarten level.

Another study related to the present study is that Jasolin (2012) entitled

The Teaching of College English at the Calayan Educational Foundation

Incorporated and Its Implication to the Proposed Instructional Material in English.

According to him, the development of instructional material is corollary to the

needs of the learners and their desire to achieve proficiency is timely and

relevant as well as effective in enhancing teaching learning experience.


In connection to this, the current undertaking is related to the previous

study because of the attempt to prove the efficiency, relevance, and

effectiveness of prepared materials designed for specific purposes in optimizing

learners ability.

In connection to this the findings of Telada (2011), he tested the

effectiveness of dynamic multimedia in teaching Science 6 over static

multimedia. The use of dynamic multimedia as instructional materials in teaching

Science 6 was found to be more effective than using static multimedia.

In relation to the present study, the researcher considers the use of

different instructional materials in teaching kindergarten. By using of different

instructional materials, it gives excitement and captivates the interest of the


Based on the findings of Gonzales (2007), in the preparation and conduct

of learning activities, the respondents were always successful in providing

assignments which were according to the abilities/grade level of the learners. As

recommended by Mendoza (2004), adequate equipment and materials in the

multi-grade schools should be made a priority. Furthermore, the same findings

were found out by Eclavea (2014).

The mentioned studies is related to the present study because the findings

indicate that utilization of instructional materials and teaching aids directly affects

the performance of the pupils in the kindergarten. Materials like manipulative

board games, visual aids made by local materials and other low cost instructional

materials should be made accessible to teachers.


In the study of Merle (2010) with regards to the level of competencies of

elementary school teachers of Pagbilao District on National Competency Based

Teachers Standards (NCBTS) Domains: Basis for a Proposed Inset Program,

significantly voted that the elementary school teachers of Pagbilao District

demonstrated fair level of competence in the use of Information and Computer

Technology (ICT). She recommended for the school heads that the school

acquires additional units of computer for teachers use to motivate them to

integrate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in their teaching or in

doing their school works. She challenged all elementary teachers to allow

themselves to grow particularly in demonstrating skills in the use of Information

and Computer Technology (ICT) in teaching and in learning and in designing,

developing or modifying existing digital and non-digital learning resources.

In relation to the present study, the researcher stimulates the use of

Information and Computer Technology (ICT) in teaching the kindergarten pupils.

Another study that support the use of computer assisted instruction was

conducted by Fernandez (2011), she made use of developmental method of

research for computer assisted phonics activities which were prepared according

to the skills or ability of preschool children ages 4 and 5.

Because computers are in thing today and surveys says that pupils are

addicted in watching television, playing games in the computers, cell phones and

tablets, the researcher believes that using computer in teaching kindergarten will

capture the attention of the pupils.


As Mendonis (2013) in his literatures he mentioned that Problem-based

learning (PBL) by Bransford is a student-centered, contextualized approach to

schooling. In this approach, learning begins with a problem to be solved rather

than content to be mastered. This is consistent with new models of teaching and

learning that suggest the emphasis of instruction needs to shift from teaching as

knowledge transmission to less teacher-dependent learning.

Synthesis and Relevance of the Reviewed Literature and Studies

The review of related literature provided basic information on the method

used in teaching and of securing interest and participation of kindergarten pupils.

Hence, those literatures contribute enormously to establish this study. According

to Richard (2006), the teachers main job is to make students learn effectively

and efficiently. For doing so, a teacher has to do several activities such as plan

properly, provide effective instruction and evaluate the learning activities using

appropriate methods and techniques. Smith et al (2010) as cited in Flores (2015),

explained that internal factors have an quality on teachers feeling of success and

a number of external factors can either aid or hinder a teachers success. On the

other hand, Bozeman (2000) as cited in Telada (2011), using computer is one of

the most efficient ways to make the lesson audio-visual, to supply fluent and

effective education, to keep the pupils from memorization and to obtain speed

and permanence in perception.