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Eksplorasi & Produksi

Geophysical Methods for


Hydrocarbon Exploration
Prepared for Teknik Kimia UI
2009

What we have covered so far


Field Cycles
Gaining Access, Exploration, Appraisal,
Development & Production, Abandonment
Petroleum Geology
Sedimentary Basins, Source, Maturation,
Migration, Reservoir, Trap, Seal

Next
Geophysical Methods for Hydrocarbon
Exploration
Methods
Gravity

Magnetic

Seismic

Gravity
In gravity survey, we measure g

g varies with elevation, latitude, topography, tides,


instrument drift and near-surface density

We make a number of corrections to produce a gravity


anomaly that only reflects near-surface density

Salt domes, sedimentary basins, mine shafts = gravity


low

Metalifferous ore bodies, anticlines = gravity high


Gravity
Gravity anomaly: differences in g value between base
station and observation stations

Gravity anomalies are very small compared to the main


field

Unit of measurement: miligals


1 gal = 1 cm/s2

Final product: Bouguer Anomaly Map

Gravity meter
Gravity data from the Indian ocean

The sea floor topography is relatively flat, but gravity imaging highlights the
fracture zones as the sediments infilling these fractures are lower in density
than the oceanic crust.

Bouguer anomaly

Overview

Blue = gravity low Red = gravity high


Magnetic

In Magnetic prospecting we look for


variations in the magnetic field of the
earth. The magnetic field of sedimentary
rocks is usually much smaller than
igneous or metamorphic rocks.
This lets us measure the thickness
of the sedimentary section of the
earths crust.

The instrument to the left is a


magnetometer which lets us measure
the magnetic field of the earth.

Figure courtesy of Scintrex, Ltd.

Magnetic
Magnetic anomaly: differences in magnetic field intensity
value between base station and observation stations

Magnetic anomalies are very small compared to the


Earth magnetic field

Unit of measurement: nT nanoTesla

Final product: Magnetic Anomaly Map


Magnetic Anomaly Map

Seismic Method
Seismic Method
Measuring changes in Acoustic
Impedance ~ rock hardness

Provides structural view of subsurface

Source: Airgun (marine), dynamite or


vibroseis (land)

Receiver: hydrophone (marine), geophone


(land)

Marine Seismic Survey


Airguns Streamer

For offshore surveys


the seismic sensors
are installed in long
streamers behind a
boat. Airguns serve
as the energy source.

Figure courtesy of Veritas


Seismic Acquisition

Geophysics marine acquisition

Seismic Acquisition

PGS acquisition and airgun


Single sensor acquisition
geometry
Sensor Interval, 3.125 meters (10.25 feet)

CMP Interval, 1.565 meters


(5.14 feet)

On-board Processing
Recording
Audits

Drilling Operations
Pre-Loading
Operations

Recording
Operations
Operational Obstacles
1

Operational Obstacles
2
Seismic Interpretation in Salt environment

This salt body is over three miles wide!

Figures courtesy of Phillips Petroleum Co.

Regional Seismic Interpretation

A A

Barber et al, IPA 2005

Focus on package of sedimentation (formation/group)

Thinking on sedimentation and deformation timing relationship


Seismic Interpretation

Pendopo

TAF

Pre-Tertiary

Fault Sticks Interpretation


Fault Surfaces Interpretation

Horizons & Faults Depth interpretation


Seismic Interpretation

Geophysics Video