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Eksplorasi & Produksi

Petroleum Geology
Prepared for Teknik Kimia UI
2009

Overview

Sedimentary
Basin
Conditions for Hydrocarbon
Accumulations
Source Rock Reservoir
with High Organic Content preferably high porosity and
high permeability

Maturation
Need enough temperature for Trap
hydrocarbon window Structural Trap & Stratigraphic
Trap

Migration
Need pores network Seal
To prevent HCs leaking to
surface

Geological Time Scale


Plate Tectonics

Plate Tectonics
(see South East Asia Plate Tectonics)
Sedimentary Basins

World Map of Sedimentary Basins

Fore-arc and Back-arc Basin


Sedimentary Basins

Source Rock
Shales / Coals that contain rich organic
matter  algae, wood or mixed

Organic matters are preserved in low-


oxygen environment  to prevent
decomposition of remaining organic
Maturation
Geothermal Gradient: 3deg/100meter
(typically)
Fore-arc Basin typically cooler than Back-
arc Basin
Oil Window:
<60 deg: Immature
80-130deg: Oil
130-180: Gas
>180 deg: overmature

Oil Window
Migration
Can be vertical or
horizontal through
micro-fracture
network

1. Primary Migration
2. Secondary Migration
3. Re-migration

Reservoir
Clastic
Channel / Deltaic / Turbidites
Blanket Sandstone / Near-shore Marine
Others (Aeolian / Granite Wash)
Carbonate
Limestone
Dolomite  CaMg(CO3)2
Unconventional
Gas Shale
Coal Bed Methane
Sandstone - Porosity

Sandstone - Porosity
More porosity =
more room for oil

Blue
Pore Space
Sandstone - Porosity
Pore filling
cement
reduces quality

Pink
Cement

Sedimentary Environments
Carbonate - Porosity

Unconventional vs Conventional
Traps
Structural Trap
Anticlinal: Rock layers folded into dome

Stratigraphic Trap
Rock layers changing from a good reservoir to non-
reservoir due to change in rock type (pinch-out),
reservoir quality (diagenesis), or removal (erosional
unconformity)

Others
Fault: Offset of rocks such that oil and gas
accumulates in reservoir rock

Traps
Traps

Traps
Traps around
Salt Dome
Petroleum System Elements

Challenges