Alpine Components
Telephone: 01424 437000 E-mail: Web:Main Street • P.O. Box 1139 • Old Saybrook, CT 06475, USA Fax: 01424 722502 166 Phone: (860) 395-2988 • Fax: (860) 399-3180 • Email: • Web Site:



Alpine Components
Telephone: 01424 437000 ALL-TEST Pro, LLC E-mail: 166 Main St Web: Fax: 01424 722502
Old Saybrook, CT 06475 Phone 860-395-2988 • Fax 860-399-3180

T able of Contents
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................1
MCA ......................................................................................................................1

Use of this Manual................................................................................1 ALL-TEST Pro Instrument Philosophy .................................................2 ALL-TEST Pro Analysis Philosophy.....................................................2 Motor Diagnostic Theory ......................................................................3
Basic Electrical Theory..........................................................................................3

Applying MCA.......................................................................................5
Manual Testing......................................................................................................6 AUTO Testing .......................................................................................................6 Motor Testing Procedure.......................................................................................6 Initial Readings......................................................................................................7

Motor/Winding Analysis........................................................................7
Sample Test Results .............................................................................................8 Condemning Criteria .............................................................................................8 Data Analysis Tips.................................................................................................9 Condemning Priority..............................................................................................9 Condemning Tips ................................................................................................10 Unassembled Motor Analysis..............................................................................10

Data Interpretation Basic Rules and Tolerances ...............................12
Assembled Motor Analysis ..................................................................................12

ANALYZING MEASUREMENTS AND CHANGE ..............................14
Troubleshooting Rules ........................................................................................14
Shorted Windings: ............................................................................................14

Winding Contamination and Rotor Position.........................................................14 Rotor Reposition Test:.........................................................................................14 Insulation Resistance: .........................................................................................15
Insulation Resistance Readings........................................................................15 Loose Connections..............................................................................................15

PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE ..........................................................15
Implementing Predictive Maintenance.................................................................16

...........................................24 Scenario 1: ALL readings are balanced.......................................26 Scenario 6: Fi or I/F balanced...................................................................................................22 DATA COLLECTION.. L & Z in Alarm..................................................17 Bad Results........24 Scenario 2: Fi or I/F in Red all other measurements balanced .................................31 APPENDIX 3: Multiple Technology Approach ........................30 APPENDIX 2: Test Methods for Determining the Impact of Motor Condition on Motor Efficiency and Reliability............................................................................. readings are Truncated............ L & Z in Alarm but non-similar pattern plus a frequency shift of the impedance measurement.........21 Rotor Reposition Test....................69 APPENDIX 7: Electrical Diagnostics for Generators .. L & Z in Alarm but non-similar pattern.....................................50 APPENDIX 5: Synchronous Machine Testing With All-Test Instrumentation..................................................... L & Z in Alarm but similar pattern...........................................................................61 APPENDIX 6: Servo Motor Testing................................................................................................................................22 ANALYSIS.......................Predictive Maintenance Hints.................................................................................................................................17 Waiting ...................................................28 Scenario 8: All measurements are balanced but insulation to ground measurement is low28 Scenario 9: Fi & I/F balanced......................................26 Scenario 5: Fi or I/F balanced................................................17 Data Collection and Test Result Issues..................................................................................24 Winding Alarm Scenarios ................................................................................................................. Using Static Motor Circuit Analysis Techniques............................................................................................................................................................................70 APPENDIX 8: DC Current Motor Electrical Evaluation Using Motor Circuit Analysis ........ L & Z in Alarm........................................................................................................................................................................................................................21 ROTOR TESTING..........21 Rotor Compensated Test ............19 TROUBLESHOOTING MOTORS.................... Evaluating Servo Motors with MCA............................................................18 Incorrect Readings ...............................................40 APPENDIX 4: Single and Three Phase Transformer Testing.....................................27 Scenario 7: Fi & I/F balanced..................................................24 Scenario 3: Fi or I/F in Red.....................................................................................25 Scenario 4: R > 5% Unbalance..................23 APPENDIX 1 Winding Alarm Scenarios .........................................94 .......18 Data Collection Procedure ..............................29 Scenario 10: Other readings...................................29 Scenario 11: Zero Values................................................................................................................................................................

........................................................110 Copyright: ...............................104 APPENDIX 11: Utilizing the ALL-TEST PRO 31™ To Detect Pin-Hole Shorts ... COPYRIGHT & TRADEMARKS........................................107 DISCLAIMER...............................111 ...........................................................................102 APPENDIX 10: Case Study: Dynamometers 012002........................................................................................................APPENDIX 9: Case Study ...............Phase Unbalance at Vermont Yankee Nuclear .........

©2008. This manual is intended primarily for use with the ALL-TEST IV PRO 2000TM (ATIV). The basic premise of MCA: In equipment with three phase windings all phases should be identical (same # turns. some of the information is applicable to the ALL-TEST PRO 31TM (AT31). If the user doesn’t have both an ALL-TEST PRO 31TM and ALL-TEST IV PRO 2000TM an ohm meter and inductance bridge may be used in place of either one of the instruments for certain tests. LLC 1 .MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Understanding Motor Diagnostics using Motor Circuit Analysis (MCA) INTRODUCTION MCA is a very simple and safe method to test electrical windings while the winding is deenergized. coil diameter & etc. the change is never for the better. By analyzing the amount and relationships of the change it is possible to identify the cause of the degradation. Use of this Manual The purpose of this manual is to provide users of MCA technology tips and guidelines to follow when performing Motor Diagnostics using the ALL-TEST ProTM line of MCA instruments.). same wire size. Once the cause and the severity of the degradation is known it is now possible to determine the necessary action. If a change occurs in any one of these characteristics. ALL-TEST Pro. (windings do not fix themselves) as degradation is taking place. Consequently. all characteristics of the windings should also be similar. However.

ALL-TEST Pro. if sufficient and proper measurements are performed. potentially destructive faults can be easily corrected before total winding failure occurs. LLC 2 . In many cases. winding faults or weaknesses are not driven to failure. transformers or any winding is not “black magic art”. but in particular the design and construction. It has been the experience at ALL-TEST ProTM that the most accurate and comprehensive method of determining the true condition of motor windings is by controlling the testing parameters while the motor is de-energized. Examples: A deteriorating Insulation to Ground situation. Using MCA faults appear the same regardless the size or type of the winding. Winding faults are indicated by variances in the response to the injected signal through the windings. non-destructive signal through the motor windings. By injecting a known. and corrected prior to energizing the winding which could lead to total destruction of the motor. faults can be quickly and easily identified. Motors as small as automobile windshield wiper motors as well as 300 Megawatt Generator windings have been successfully tested. our philosophy is to make instruments that: • • • • • are easy and safe to use light weight and portable shows fault(s) immediately shows any change over time makes several different measurements for analysis ALL-TEST Pro Analysis Philosophy Testing and analysis of electrical motors. ©2008. Through additional investigation and measurement of these variances in the winding. This method removes errors and conflicting results from stray or unknown sources used by other methods. These variances cause unbalances in the measured response to the injected signal.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL ALL-TEST Pro Instrument Philosophy Knowing that the response of a motor to any type of measuring or test is dependent on not only the size and voltage of a motor. In reality it is very straightforward. low voltage AC sinusoidal. will normally require immediate attention as this fault can be very dangerous and lead to safety and immediate machine failure.

The motor system can be represented by developing the basic motor circuit. but show “good” when “meggering”. each basic circuit should respond the same to an applied signal. For dates and locations of these courses please visit us on our website www. and measures the response of this signal to identify any unbalances in the windings that indicate either a current or potential fault.Impedance is the Direct Current and Alternating Current Resistance in a coil or winding. Additional information is available in any electrical text book. Any difference indicates a problem. inductive reactance and capacitive reactance. especially in low voltage motors. It may be necessary to clean the contacts or connectors to obtain good or “valid” measurements. bad It is recommended to Remeasure the phases several times to verify these values. Difference can be due to “over-winding”. MCA injects an AC signal through the windings. LLC 3 . Impedance is measured in Ohms.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL On the other hand a developing turn-to-turn or coil-to-coil fault. It can also show a severe Ground Insulation fault but show perfectly OK turn-to-turn. Note: A coil or winding can have a severe turn-to-turn or coil to-coil fault. the operator should use extreme caution to obtain “valid” readings.alltestpro. Z. Each basic circuit represents one phase of the three phase motor system. ALL-TEST Pro. generally degrade over a longer period of time and provide the opportunity to correct the fault before it becomes a catastrophic failure requiring a complete rebuild or costly replacement. a brief review of electrical theory as applied to Motor Diagnostics is presented below. This circuit represents the various components of the motor system. which is nothing more than a basic RCL circuit. Since each phase of the motor system is identical. resistance measured in Ohms. Note: If testing large coils or motors with 100 milli-ohm resistance or less. A quick review of this section will help in understanding the results obtained from the ALL-TEST ProTM instruments. corrosion. Zero impedance of a winding indicates “a shorted” winding. To allow the user to obtain the most benefits from of the ALL-TEST ProTM instruments and this manual. & etc. ALL-TEST ProTM also offers on-site or public training courses to further the user’s knowledge. Motor Diagnostic Theory ALL-TEST ProTM MCA instruments are based on proven electrical theory. *If accurate low resistance measurements are necessary use a low-resistance ohm meter. Impedance includes DC Resistance. ©2008. Basic Electrical Theory R -Resistance is the Direct Current. The resistance should be the same across all phases or fields. See also I/F below.

e. system. In a purely Capacitive circuit current leads voltage by 90 degrees. Note: In a three phase induction motor with the rotor in place.Capacitance is the capability of a body. It is measured in Henrys or milli-Henrys. I. LLC 4 .e. I. In the electrical circuit the phase angle expresses the relationship of the AC current to the applied voltage. if the voltage lags the current the phase angle is negative. ALL-TEST Pro. circuit. Basic Electrical theory states that: In a purely Resistive circuit. Current reaches it maximum & minimum values 90 degrees before voltage. Note: Phase angle should not be confused with the 120 degrees electrical separation between electrical phases in a three phase system.3. ©2008. I. The unit of capacitance is the Farad (F).Inductance is the property of a changing magnetic flux to create (or induce) a voltage in a circuit. inductance unbalances can be the result of unbalanced mutual inductance due to the rotor angular orientation (More commonly referred to as rotor position). Inductance is dependent on the number of turns and of the material in a spool or coil’s core. Voltage reaches it maximum & minimum value 90 degrees before current. Self-Inductance is the property of a circuit where a change of current in the circuit creates (induces) a voltage in the same circuit. Phase Angle is a relative measurement that indicates the angular difference between two waveforms of the same frequency. Mutual Inductance is the concept that current flow through one conductor or circuit can induce a voltage into a nearby circuit or conductor. This test is included in IEEE Std 1415™-2006 sec 4. It is a measure of the amount of electrical charge stored for a given applied potential.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL L. The value is a measurement of the ability of a coil to store a magnetic field. In MCA the phase angle expresses the relationship of the measured current to the AC voltage applied by the ALL-TEST ProTM instruments. they both reach the same point in the waveform at the same time. The capacitance of a circuit opposes any change in voltage in the circuit. current & voltage are in-phase. The results are expressed in degrees angular difference ( 0 – 900).20 as an effective method to identify winding shorts. If the Voltage leads the current the phase angle is positive. In a purely Inductive circuit voltage leads current by 90 degrees.e. or device for storing electric charge. Inductance opposes any change in the current flow through a conductor. C.

It will test most AC motors under 600V and can also be used to test higher voltage motors. and impedance. I/F. generator. INS. The ATIV will not only detect most types of motor electrical faults. This test is included in IEEE Std 1415™-2006 sec 4. The AT31 should be used in conjunction with an ohm meter. ©2008. Applying MCA ALL-TEST ProTM has two instruments designed to perform MCA. Measured in Meg-Ohms. ALL-TEST Pro.33 as an effective method to identify winding shorts. ALL-TEST PRO 31™ (AT31) is a trouble-shooting tool that will test a wide variety of motors and some transformers.e. Any capacitors in the motor circuit should be tested separately from the motor. I.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL The capacitance of a circuit is dependent on the geometry of the system and the material of the dielectric. as it does not measure resistance (it does perform an insulation to ground resistance test). or display limitations of the instrument in Auto Mode. Then the frequency of the applied AC signal is then doubled and the resultant current is again measured. An I/F reading of -50 indicates that the current at the doubled frequency is 50% lower than the current at the original frequency. It is used not only for incoming inspection and trouble-shooting. the I/F reading should be between -50 and -15 for a good coil. This result is displayed as a ratio.3. A motor can have a good insulation to ground but fail other phase-to-phase tests and vice versa. For a single phase winding. transformer. or coil based device. depending upon their resistance. but it can also help the user determine how long it will run. ALL-TEST IV PRO 2000TM (ATIV) is an analytical instrument that will test virtually any motor. Note: Small unbalances (≤ 1) of the average in the three phase windings can be caused by the rotor position. LLC 5 . but also for PdM or CBM testing purposes (data trending and time to failure estimation). The I/F reading is the ratio of the current at the doubled frequency to the current at the original frequency.Insulation (to Ground) Test. at a specific frequency and the resultant current is measured. inductance. These can be verified by conducting a rotor compensated test or take manual measurement.Current/Frequency Response is a test designed primarily to test for coil-to-coil or turnto-turn faults. For an open winding the reading will be 0 (zero). For the I/F test the low voltage AC signal is applied to the connected winding/windings.

it may be necessary to perform additional steps to isolate rotor or stator faults. 3) Stores the data which can then be uploaded to the companion TREND/EMCAT PRO 2005TM software for analysis. trending. Manual Testing requires connecting the ALL-TEST PRO instrument to the winding to be tested. storage and report generation (3-phase AC motors only). In both cases. since the measured values are displayed with decimal places instead of just whole numbers.0TM. with the rotor mounted in the motor. manually selecting the parameters and measurements to be made. report & work order generation. 2) Automatically sets the measurement parameters and allows the measured data to be stored in the non-volatile memory. The motors can be tested either directly from the motor connection box or from the motor line leads located in the motor controller. AUTO Testing In the AUTO mode: 1) The ATIV automatically tests the condition of the motor windings. De-energized testing of new and rebuilt motors identifies faults before they are placed in the storeroom for extended periods. The measurements taken with the AT31 can also be entered into the ALL-TEST PRO Condition Calculator 4. Manually testing motors is done using either the AT31 or the ATIV. LLC 6 . The manual mode of the ATIV provides improved analysis over the AUTO MODE for inductance or impedance measurements below 10. Testing the motor remotely from the motor controller has the additional advantage of testing all of the cabling and connectors in the motor system as well. The results are either simply viewed or viewed & recorded. Testing can also be performed using the ATIV in the manual mode (see ALL-TEST IV PRO 2000TM manual for specific details). for analysis. ©2008. The AT31 provides additional diagnostic capabilities. These measurements can then be analyzed and interpreted based on the guidelines provided in this manual. Motor Testing Procedure It is important to note that a “perfect” 3-phase motor is very difficult to find based upon manufacturing tolerances & etc. In other instances. since it has the ability to perform tests at different test frequencies and provides real time display of the value tested. motors may have a particular difference in design in order to meet special applications. Testing motors has become mandatory as acceptance criteria for inventory control. ALL-TEST Pro.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Manual Testing Testing Motors has become a routine task in plants that recognize the importance maximizing plant reliability.

Condition Calculator 4. however. however. ©2008. However. if MCA indicates a fault then additional testing should be performed before condemning a winding. & TREND/EMCAT PRO 2005TM. 1) The test leads that are supplied with the ATIV instrument are very good leads for most applications.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Initial Readings In a few cases. some motors may exhibit unusual levels of unbalance. techniques. This can occur for a number of reasons. the next few sections are going to provide the analyst the procedures. including: 1) Stator winding to rotor bar ratio and position. The basic rule for MCA is: If the data indicates a good winding then the winding is generally good. there are several ways of isolating the cause. the other method involves a short series of additional tests using the ATIV (Rotor Reposition Test in the Motor Troubleshooting Section). banana jack type instrument test leads can be used. To help maximize the data obtained from the ALL-TEST PROTM tools. even as good as these tools are. 3) Other tolerance-related issues including rotor casting voids.0TM. If a series of unusual readings are detected with the ATIV. 2) Stator winding design (lap versus concentric coil). One method requires the use of an AT31 or an inductance meter in concert with the ATIV (See Rotor Compensated Test in the Motor Troubleshooting Section). Note: The repeatability of the resistance readings can be improved by using a small wire brush to clean surface oxidation from connection points and by lightly squeezing the test jaws together while lightly twisting the clips on the connection point to ensure as solid a connection as possible. additional information and testing may be required before the final condition of the machine can be accurately assessed. they are not good for every application. Any 4mm shielded. ALL-TEST Pro. Performing Motor Diagnostics using MCA Motor/Winding Analysis Performing motor/winding analysis has been greatly simplified with the development of advanced diagnostic tools such as the AT31 and ATIV. suggestions and methods necessary to help the analyst properly and accurately diagnose most winding faults using Motor Circuit Analysis (MCA). LLC 7 . If high accuracy of the winding resistance measurements is required it is recommended that a low resistance ohm meter is used.

Ex-2. 2) The ATIV uses a two-wire method for making the DC resistance measurement and is not be as accurate as a low resistance ohm meter. The manual measurement of the ATIV measures and displays the decimals. The rules and limitations presented below are based on these assumptions. Note: For MCA purposes the DC resistance measurements are used to detect problems related to connections and are not used to detect winding faults (Fi and I/F are a much better indication of winding faults). distribution and transmission transformers. 3) The ATIV in the AUTO mode measures and displays the values of inductance (L) and impedance (Z) as whole numbers. Always verify the L & Z measurements by taking the measurements manually. ALL-TEST Pro. 2. The analysis software algorithm evaluates the phase difference of both inductance and impedance. The accuracy of the ATIV is +-1% from 1 to 999 ohms. When the software evaluates the measurements of Z & L with values less then 10. The following criteria still apply. LLC 8 . MCA has been successfully applied to DC motors. Winding contamination is generally suspected if the impedance does not follow inductance from phase to phase. This may cause misinterpretation in the TREND/EMCAT PRO 2005TM software with impedance (Z) and inductance (L) matching. both permanent magnet and externally excited synchronous motors. when measuring very low resistance. In fact. because the ATIV truncates decimals below 10. However. that does not prevent MCA from being successfully applied to other motor/rotor types.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Note: Extreme care should be taken during the comp. which uses either 3 or 4 wire method. lead test portion of the AUTO measurement mode to improve resistance measurement accuracy and repeatability. therefore. generators. Also. Sample Test Results Reading Resistance Impedance Inductance Phase Angle I/F T1-T2 . when testing below 1 ohm the accuracy of the instrument’s measured value will degrade. in almost all applications the size of the winding is not an issue.1 Ω will also be displayed as 2 Ω. AC Induction Motors with squirrel cage rotors.272 58 11 71 -41 Condemning Criteria The original assumptions of MCA were based on that most industrial motors are 3 phase.9 Ω becomes 2 Ω .272 47 9 73 -43 T1-T3 . ©2008. single phase motors.273 53 10 72 -42 T2T3 . the software may incorrectly diagnose contamination or overheated windings.

The guidelines provided below will help the analyst place priority upon the alarms generated by the TREND/EMCAT PRO 2005TM software. motors with unbalances in I/F & Fi alone should be evaluated first. Bad test lead connection can negatively impact all readings. non-squirrel rotors motors special procedures or tests maybe required. Reviewing these scenarios will provide additional insight into determining how to evaluate the test data. maintenance schedules and other plant operations. Additional considerations include availability of spares. These priorities assume that the test data is valid and good connections are made. Obviously. One of the first considerations regarding winding faults should always be motor criticality. which cause the measured values to be normally outside of these standard limits. Of these cases.40% of the motor systems tested may exhibit some alarm condition when evaluated with the TREND/EMCAT PRO 2005TM software (the software provides color coded alarms for easy interpretation). The software flags any motor exceeding these limits to inform the analyst that they have exceeded normal limits. but that the measured values have exceeded pre-determined limits established for most common motors. The second consideration is the type and location of the fault. It may be necessary to perform a rotor reposition or rotor compensated test to separate rotor from winding faults. therefore. to determine the condition of the winding. many new motors will have an unbalance in inductance and impedance. Some motors may have a special design. this does not necessarily mean that the motor will fail or should not be operated. Many of these are presented in the Appendix of this guideline. Therefore. the most critical motors should be afforded a higher priority than less critical motors. not all faults are the same. Condemning Priority The TREND/EMCAT PRO 2005TM software simply generates the alarms when the measured values exceed pre-determined limits. When a motor is in an alarm state. In fact. 2) Motors with alarms in Fi & I/F as well as inductance and or impedance should be evaluated next. due to rotor bar winding ratio. 1) Winding shorts are generally more severe than contamination or rotor faults. 3 phase. 3) Motors exhibiting small Resistance unbalances alone have the lowest priority. Following the Analysis tips are various Scenarios using actual readings. ©2008. Data Analysis Tips When a motor testing program is first implemented it is expected that between 20. The software alarm limits of the TREND/EMCAT PRO 2005TM are established for standard 3phase squirrel-cage induction motors.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL However. it is virtually impossible to establish limits for all possible design configurations. The following analysis tips provide a method of more closely evaluating these special circumstances. ALL-TEST Pro. it is necessary for the analyst to evaluate these readings on a case by case basis. However. LLC 9 . for some of the non-induction.

©2008. Unassembled Motor Analysis If the rotor is removed from the stator the mutual inductance created by the stator magnetic field inducing a voltage into the rotor will no longer create an inductance unbalance. LLC 10 . Below are the tolerances for motors stators only (motors with the rotor removed). Before condemning a winding always perform a confirming test at the motor with the motor leads disconnected from the supply cabling. EMI or the shaft turning will also give inconsistent readings. never condemn a motor based on an unbalanced inductance or impedance alone (may require additional testing). 4) Winding shorts are first indicated by unbalances in Current/Frequency response (I/F) and Phase Angle (Fi). Therefore. A) To determine whether the fault is in the motor or the cabling retest the motor at the next connection point between the motor and the starter. 5) Loose connections are indicated by unbalances in winding resistance measurements. the fault criteria are much tighter for motors tested when the rotor is removed. Remember. The Rotor Bar/Winding Ratio can cause a large unbalance in mutual inductance as well as small unbalances in the I/F & Fi readings. Therefore. ALL-TEST Pro. 7) Never condemn a motor if the readings are not repeatable. B) A rotor reposition test may be necessary to separate rotor from winding faults. Stored energy in a motor system can corrupt the data set. the only part of the basic motor circuit that is responding to the injected AC signal from the instrument is the stator winding and stator iron.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Condemning Tips 1) Never condemn a motor from the Motor Control Center. it is much easier to take readings again than it is to remove the motor. 3) Always verify the reading before condemning a motor. Faults in the cabling or connections between the test point and the motor itself can cause unbalanced readings. Any unbalances caused by rotor bar/winding ratio error are eliminated. 6) Winding contamination or overheated windings are indicated when Impedance Pattern (Z) does not follow Inductance Pattern (L). (Refer to the Troubleshooting section of this manual for the Rotor Reposition Test) 2) Generally.

MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Note: Experience has proven that these tolerances hold true regardless of the size of the motor. Test Result Resistance (R) Impedance (Z) Inductance (Z) Phase Angle (Fi) Current frequency Response (I/F) Insulation Resistance < 600 Volts Insulation Resistance >600 Volts Tolerance <5% <3% <5% +/. ALL-TEST Pro. LLC 11 .0 +/.0 > 5 Megohms > 100Megohms This table is only applicable to motors with the rotor removed ©2008.

76 OK. ground fault) Resistance (R): Unbalances in resistance are an indicator of loose connections. -46 OK. -42. 73. -45. 75. cold solder joints.e. the rotor reposition test should be performed. -45. ALL-TEST Pro. ground fault) Indicates poor insulation to ground (I.1 digit (degree) from average +/.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Data Interpretation Basic Rules and Tolerances There are specific rules that encompass virtually all test applications of three phase motors in which the motors are assembled and a rotor is installed. 76 suspect. Test Result Resistance (R) Impedance (Z) and Inductance (L) Impedance (Z) and Inductance (L) Phase Angle (Fi) I/F Insulation Resistance Insulation Resistance Tolerance <5% Impedance follows Inductance Impedance does not follows Inductance +/.2 digits (%) from average >5 Megohms Supply voltage < 600V >100 Megohms Supply voltage > 600V Detail Possible Loose connections Any unbalance is most likely due to rotor position or motor design Possible winding contamination or overheated windings Indicates a winding short: 74. ©2008. 73. -44. If the readings were taken at the motor control center taking reading progressively closer to the motor will normally locate the high resistance connection(s). -46. Always retake the resistance measurements if a resistance unbalance exists. To verify that this unbalance is the result of the rotor position. The common method for testing is from an MCC or disconnect with the rotor stationary. In some cases the resistance unbalance has been the result of poor connections at the test leads. Attempt to clean the connection location and then retake the resistance readings. -45 failed Indicates poor insulation to ground (I. inductance unbalances are possible. LLC 12 . and etc. especially on the smaller less expensive motors. Inductance Unbalance (L): When a squirrel cage rotor is installed in the motor. (See section on Rotor reposition test). Changes in the resistance measurements with repetitive readings indicate test lead or test lead connection issues.e. 74. If this does occur these unbalances is usually the result of the unbalanced mutual inductance created by the unequal rotor bar/winding ratios resulting by the rotor’s position. The Rotor Bar/Winding ratio may also cause small unbalances in I/F and Fi. -46 suspect. Assembled Motor Analysis If the rotor is installed in the stator the mutual inductance of the rotor may cause large inductance unbalances which will result in a large impedance unbalance. 74. pitted contactors. 76 failed Indicates a winding short: -44.

if a winding fault is indicated additional testing may be necessary to verify the winding fault. or a pattern of Medium. In this case impedance follows inductance. Current Frequency Response (I/F): Degraded winding insulation systems respond differently at different frequencies. These readings are for non-compensated rotor position at the motor. 115. The insulation system is a large dielectric. However. if the impedance was 133. However. 115. Fi is usually one of the first measurements to change when the insulation system degrades (Winding short). now the impedance pattern is High. High.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Impedance (Z) follows Inductance (L): Since inductive reactance is usually the largest contributor to impedance. A change to the material condition of the insulation system will be reflected as a change in the capacitance of the motor circuit. Phase Angle (Fi): The amount of the lag of the current to the applied voltage in the basic motor circuit is one of the most sensitive of measurements in the basic motor circuit. 8. however. The fact that impedance does not follow inductance (Z) is a good indicator of the insulation system changes. such as winding contamination. 133. Unbalances of >1 degree from the average indicate a winding short. the unbalance in impedance should follow the unbalance in inductance. 14. ©2008. High. Low pattern. if the rotor position creates an unbalanced in the winding measurements then this should create an unbalance in impedance measurements as well. A spread of >4 digits between maximum and minimum I/F measurements. also indicates winding faults. See Impedance (Z) does not follow Inductance (L) below. The I/F readings should be between -15 to -50. which will normally cause the Impedance (Z) to not follow the inductance (L). the impedance should follow with a Medium. burned windings (overheated). ALL-TEST Pro. Low. LLC 13 . 120. The I/F measurement are also one of the first indications of winding system degradation. A change in the capacitance of the system will change the capacitive reactance (Xc). Low. very large phase unbalances or very poor rotor bar condition. Impedance (Z) does not follow Inductance (L) Changes to impedance such that it does not follow inductance is normally caused by changes in the insulation system. For example: a motor inductance unbalance may be 10. such as 120. Medium and a fault would be indicated. Unbalances of >2 per cent from the average indicate winding shorts. All I/F reading should be balanced within 2 digits (per cent).

NOTE: Since the ATIV stores Z & L as whole numbers only when the measured values are < 10. Rotate the shaft approximately 90 degrees (1/4 turn) the values should change relationship. a reading of 77/75/76 would be good because the average reading is 76. A reading of 74/77/77 would be bad. However. If the unbalances are related to the rotor. Troubleshooting Rules Following are the basic rules for troubleshooting with the ATIV: Shorted Windings: Developing windings faults. LLC 14 . A reading of 40/-44/-44 would be bad. they will change relationship by changing the rotor position. such as inductances of 16/19/17 and impedance values of 23/30/25. For example. Winding contamination may also cause phase unbalances. a reading of –44/-45/-46 would be good. For example. For example. manually measure the Impedance and Inductance of all three windings using the Manual Mode of the Instrument. For example: This may be the case if the inductances are 5/5/5 and the impedances are 8/9/8. lower measurement values of L & Z may be confusing. To confirm the analysis.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL ANALYZING MEASUREMENTS AND CHANGE Data interpretation of collected ALL-TEST IV PRO 2000TM data can be performed through TM the TREND 2005/EMCAT PRO 2005 software. ALL-TEST Pro. as well as shorted windings. are evaluated by viewing the Fi and I/F readings of similar coils or between phases: Phase Angle (Fi) – The phase angle should be within 1 digit of the average reading. Winding Contamination and Rotor Position The position of the rotor within the electric motor may cause a normal phase unbalance. a reading such as -42/-44/-44 should be considered suspect. if there are inductances of 17/18/19 and values of impedances 24/26/29 with the rotor at its existing position. This indicates that the unbalances are due to rotor position. Rotor Reposition Test: To verify the Impedance (Z) and/or Inductance (L) unbalance is the result of rotor bar/winding ratio unbalances it is necessary to evaluate the relationship of the Z & L unbalances. Current Frequency Response (I/F) – The current frequency response should be within 2 digits of the average reading or <4 digits between maximum and minimum I/F measurements. The difference between the two can be evaluated quickly by looking at the pattern of impedance and inductance. ©2008.

oil condition. The latest edition of the IEEE Std. with the introduction of micro-processor based data-collectors. One of the main reasons for this was the lack of available easy-to-use predictive maintenance instruments for testing motors or other electrical equipment.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Insulation Resistance: The insulation resistance (Meg-Ohm readings) will show a breakdown of insulation between the winding conductors and ground. transformers. pressure. such as temperature. referred to as Predictive Maintenance (PdM). one of the glaring holes in predictive maintenance has been the inability to easily & accurately identify faults within electrical equipment. However. solenoids and other like equipment. many companies realized that by routinely monitoring the operating condition of rotating equipment it is possible to obtain an advanced warning of operational or other problems that would impact continued efficient operation. such as motors. Predictive maintenance instruments should be : 1) Hand Held 2) Easy to use 3) Provide output in Conventional Units ©2008. The maximum resistance unbalance should be 5%. This maintenance philosophy. Many of the machines’s operating characteristics. vibration and performance can be trended to identify changes. has escalated since the early 1980’s. LLC 15 . This early warning provides time to remove the machine from operation and affect minor repairs and adjustments before catastrophic failures occur. ALL-TEST Pro. PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE As early as the 1960’s. 43-2000 states that the insulation resistance of windings should fall in the following ranges: Insulation Resistance Readings Type of Insulation All insulation systems prior to 1974 Random Wound Motors Form Wound Motors and DC Armatures Insulation Resistance Values 1 Meg-Ohm + 1 Meg-Ohm/kV > 5 Meg-Ohms > 100 Meg-Ohms Loose Connections Loose connections or glazing on contacts will show as resistance unbalances.

Analysis and Correction. Detection: The detection phase involves periodically monitoring the operating characteristics of the selected equipment. additional data may be necessary. Each one of these phases is important in its own aspect. This is done during the analysis phase. with the intent of monitoring as many machines as possible. if the plant site is remote or has other access limitations. tightening connections. Successful predictive maintenance consists of three phases. But at times. LLC 16 . Analysis: The analysis process involves taking additional and perhaps different types of tests than the detection process. This additional testing may require disconnecting the motor from the load. as it slows down the detection process. to determine the cause of the machine’s condition change. ALL-TEST Pro. These values are trended. compared to previously recorded data from that machine or similar machines. or a complete motor rewind. it is usually more time effective to only take the data necessary to identify a change during the detection process. the data collection process should be done quickly and carefully. ©2008. the MCA data taken during the detection phase may be sufficient to identify developing shorts or other winding issues. The exact type of correction and repairs are determined by the analysis. However. Most experienced predictive maintenance departments have recognized the importance of separating these two processes. and then go back for a more detailed look. Problems are created when short cuts are taken and phases are skipped or combined. Predictive maintenance programs when successfully implemented require a complete understanding of the PdM process. Since usually only a few machines during the detection inspection exhibit any significant change. This may require cleaning a motor. It is usually a waste of time to perform these test for a more detailed analysis during the detection process. During the detection phase. turning the shaft or separating the motor leads and requires more time to take the data. these may justify more detailed data be taken during the detection process. Correction: The correction phase involves correcting and eliminating the problem that triggered the analysis. once a change is detected. In most cases. When a change is detected. Details for correcting and eliminating these problem are outside the scope of this manual.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Implementing Predictive Maintenance Implementing a successful predictive maintenance program requires more than purchasing an instrument and taking data. then compared against pre-determined or published standards and/or reviewed for any change.Detection. additional data or testing needs to be performed to more accurately identify the problem.

This usually only occurs when testing from the MCC. I. This also provides consistency in readings. If an increase in resistance in 1-2 and 1-3 occurs. 3) The upper limit of equipment size that can be successfully tested is primarily dependent on the DC resistance of the windings. the winding’s DC resistance needs to be between 0 . front to back. or top to bottom. Data Collection and Test Result Issues There are issues inherent with faulty motors and with data collection process of motors in an industrial environment. The values are normally in the milli-Volt range and not always detectable with a multi-meter or volt meter. (You may also use the AT31 in conjunction with the ATIV to do a rotor compensated test). plus cable length can also impact the range of equipment that can be tested. Establish a pattern when numbering the leads for example left to right.e.e. LLC 17 . It should be remembered that these are recommendations only and are designed as suggestions to provide for the optimum program. EMI can come from heavily loaded cables located directly next to the cables from the motor that is being tested. try to place the rotor in the same position each time (I. Review the rotor position section of this manual for further clarification. These variations may be normal or the unbalance may be due to rotor position. 4) Always mark your motor leads and always collect data from 1-2.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Predictive Maintenance Hints The following recommendations are from over 20 years experience with MCA using the ALL-TEST ProTM line of motor testers. Place the shaft key at the 12 o’clock position) this will minimize changes from data collection to data collection due to rotor position.001 and 999 ohm in each phase. Following are some of those issues when collecting data with the ATIV and their resolution: Bad Results 1) EMI (Electro-Magnetic Induction) can cause problems with resistance readings. This step is recommended for long term trending. This consistency also helps identify in which phase the fault occurred. 1-3. if variations in the inductance measurements of 5 to 15% between phases. This TM is the order in which the TREND 2005/EMCAT PRO 2005 software records and displays the data. perform a rotor reposition test in order to determine if the variation is due to the rotor bar/winding ratio or if there is a rotor fault. and 2-3. ALL-TEST Pro. 2) When the initial test is performed. then you should check the phase 1 connections. For the ATIV. The windings capacitance & inductance. It may not be possible to implement each and every suggestion on all applications: 1) When performing Predictive Maintenance (PdM) on three phase electric motors. ©2008.

LLC 18 . Waiting 1) Test Leads in wrong ports The most common reason for the ATIV screen to display waiting is the test leads were left in the insulation resistance test ports after measuring the insulation resistance to ground. Disconnect the motor leads at the motor connection box and retest. installing a small resistor (approximately 0.001 Ω.25 Ω) in series with the test leads may increase the resistance measurement into the allowable measurement range. carbon buildup or heavy contamination in cabling. If the bar graph moves erratically across the screen check the EMI level using the EMI feature of the AT31. Incorrect Readings 1) Capacitors or Lightening Arrestors in the motor circuit will filter the test results and create incorrect readings which could provide false positives or false negative results. Machine tool Motors Some machine tool and servo-motors have permanent magnet rotors which may affect the I/F & Fi measurements. Always disconnect any capacitors or lightening arrestors connected to the motor circuit. 2) Servo-motors. Test closer to the motor to find the open circuit. Poor connections at the test clips will normally affect the resistance only. If the shaft is rotating the bar graph on the screen will move back and forth across the display screen of the AT31. ALL-TEST Pro.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL The low voltage frequency interferes with the resistance bridge in the ATIV. 2) Motor Rotor Turning If the shaft in the machine being tested is rotating. If resistance phase measurements are repeatable from one test to another the resistance unbalance is most likely in the motor or cabling. 2) Non-Repeatable Resistance Measurements EMI interference will cause non-repeatable resistance values (see Bad Results above). If resistance measurements do change from one test to another the fault is most likely the result of poor connections at the test leads. Also. Note: The manual mode of the ATIV provides a convenient method of testing for faulty capacitors. Check them for continuity. This will affect all of the readings. Testing permanent magnet rotors may require special ©2008. If a resistance unbalance exists always retake readings before condemning motor. Use the EMI feature of the AT31 to measure the EMI level. but it may affect other readings also. 3) Low Resistance If the winding resistance is less than 0. Note: To determine whether the bad result is caused by EMI or rotating shaft. If the EMI cannot be removed the motor must be tested from the motor itself. depending upon severity. Contamination in the motor or cabling can cause nonrepeatable resistance readings. it will induce a voltage into the basic motor circuit. Clean the connections thoroughly until repeatable readings are obtained. The open circuit may be in the test leads. 2) Open Circuit If the test leads are in the correct port then the signal from the ATIV does not have a complete path and an open circuit exists. The I/F & Fi readings will be repeatable but outside standard tolerances. use the Rotor feature of the AT31.

The same tolerances apply to the 3 phase rotor windings as to the stator. (See Appendix 6) Trending the differences in the highest and lowest I/F & Fi readings will provide additional indication of winding degradation. LLC 19 . Data Collection Procedure Using the ALL-TEST IVPRO 2000TM 1. 7. If the Auto test indicates winding shorts. Use T1 . The synchronous motor rotor winding are a single winding. If performing an insulation-to-ground test from a variable frequency drive or if other electronics are in the circuit.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL procedures. b. Rotor faults can also cause the difference between the I/F & Fi readings to increase. ALL-TEST Pro. Failure to do so could result in serious or catastrophic damage to the VFD or electronics from the applied test voltage of 500 or 1000 VDC. A dirty contact point may result in poor readings. 2. 4) Wound Rotor Motor Testing wound rotor induction motors will also identify shorts in the rotor windings. If the fault shifts to another phase the fault is most likely in the rotor. and. De-energize the motor to be tested following the appropriate lock out/tag out (LOTO) procedures and verify the equipment is de-energized. Short leads together to set up the resistance test b. a. two stars provides a battery alert and then will shut the unit off. To determine which winding is shorted rotate the shaft approximately 900 and retake the readings. 3) Synchronous Motor Testing Synchronous motors windings will also test for shorts in the rotor windings. Winding 2 and Winding 3. Turn on the instrument and backlight. 5. If the Auto test indicates winding shorts. Select AUTO MODE and follow the instructions: a. 4. T2 – T3 as Winding 1. evaluating them is done by trending or comparing current reading to a baseline. the shorts could be either in the stator or the rotor windings. If the fault remains in the same phase as the original test the short is most likely in the stator winding. Check connection points to ensure that they are not coated with any foreign substance or that the leads are not burned and oxidized. (Ref to the ALLTEST IV PRO 2000TM manual) 3. Remove one leg of each phase of any power factor correction capacitors that may be present in the circuit.T2. If the rotor tests good the fault is in the stator. Check the charge on the ATIV. it is suggested that a rotor position test be performed to verify a rotor fault. as necessary. Five stars is fully charged. Connect to windings as per message on the screen. the short could be either in the stator or the rotor windings. Select the Insulation Resistance Test Voltage for the motor under test. 6. three stars is near the end of the useful charge. The windings of a wound rotor motor are tested using the slip rings. (Note: It is recommended to ‘REMEASURE’ after the first winding readings to discharge any ©2008. disconnect leads from the device being tested. Between each winding test the options ‘OK’ and ‘REMEASURE’ are shown. T1 – T3.

This measurement should result in a “zero” ground reading and verifies that both test leads are properly grounded. If the ‘REMEASURE’ readings vary significantly. When testing is completed. save phases and horsepower (up to 3-digits). 11. To perform the “INS TEST” (Meg-Ohm test) select ‘Yes’. etc. quick-check readings (Reference the following section or User Manual). If no dangerous condition or motor fault exists. 10. 13. the winding or conductors are directly shorted. Upon completion of data collection.: bolts. If the ATIV flashes “Waiting …” or “BAD RESULT:” i. upload data to software and print report. If the instrument flashes “Waiting …” check to ensure that the test leads are connected to the ATIV test ports and to a good winding at the test point. resistance for loose or broken connections and insulation to ground for grounded windings.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL stored charge that may be present from any previous tests. Horse Power is not needed and does not affect the analysis of the machine. 9. Select ‘REMEASURE’ and test between any of the motor leads and the point of ground. and then move the test leads to insulation test ports. for example a damper on a fan may allow the fan to rotate so the motor rotor is not completely at rest. To verify that both test leads are properly grounded it is recommended to perform one “INS TEST” between 2 known ground points where there is no paint (i. 8. if the readings do not repeat: a.001 Ohm or low level current (EMI) is present in the cables. name the data test set with up to 11 alpha-numeric characters (minimum 3). If EMI is suspected.e.001. b. Continue until all three windings have been successfully tested. ©2008. test a known good winding. return equipment to service using LOTO procedures. impedance and inductance pattern matching for winding contamination or overheated windings.) When saving. To verify an open winding. Before re-energizing equipment. 12. It could also be that the shaft is turning. then the winding is open. NOTE: ALWAYS SAVE YOUR READINGS BEFORE GOING ANY FARTHER! (Refer to ALL-TEST IV PRO 2000TM Operating Manual for detailed steps to save. test as close to the motor as possible. Remove the red test lead and connect it to any of the motor leads. If the instrument states “BAD RESULT” this indicates that either the test winding has a resistance value below 0. 14. (Caution: Do not remove both test leads) b. on motor. some of the test readings will be displayed on the screen. iii. ii. To view other data scroll up/down using the up/down buttons on the keypad. LLC 20 . If the test leads are in the proper ports. check the test lead connections before completing the REMEASURE. ALL-TEST Pro.). If other windings read above 0. To skip the “INS TEST” select ‘No’. the user is asked whether or not to perform an “INS TEST”. a.) If the ‘REMEASURE’ readings repeat then: Select ‘OK’ to move on to the next winding. Normal method: Check Fi and I/F readings for winding shorts. After the completion of all three winding tests.

or if the readings are inconclusive. Measure the first winding using the AUTO MODE of the ATIV reading then stop. a short series of tests may be performed in order to determine whether the unbalanced readings are due to the rotor. retake the measurements at 180 degrees from the original position. perform a rotor test as outlined in the motor troubleshooting guide. Rotor Reposition Test Using the ATIV. Connect the AT31 to the second set of windings (T1-T3) and rotate the shaft until the highest impedance reading is obtained. if they are balanced. If the readings remain unbalanced in the original position. the stator windings are most likely faulted. Connect the AT31 (an Inductance tester may be used in substitute for the AT 31) to the first set of windings (T1-T2) and rotate the shaft until the highest impedance reading is obtained. The steps are straightforward: 1. this is just an example 21 . Measure the second winding using the AUTO MODE of the ATIV reading (second winding) then stop. Reference the previous reading and note if the unbalance has shifted with the rotor movement. if the readings shift with the rotor position. stator or design. If both the stator and rotor test good. 5. 3. If it has. the stator should be suspect. Repeat for your third winding. Shifting Readings Example T1-T2 T1-T3 T2-T3 0 Impedance 0 47 53 58 Inductance 00 9 10 11 0 Impedance 90 53 58 47 0 Inductance 90 10 11 9 Impedance 1800 58 47 53 Inductance 1800 11 9 10 Note: The readings will not be exact. the rotor should be checked using the rotor testing steps for either the AT31 or ATIV.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL TROUBLESHOOTING MOTORS Rotor Compensated Test 1. 3. Rotate the shaft 90 degrees from its original position and remeasure the motor windings in the same order that they were originally taken. Note the position of the rotor after saving the original readings. 4. 2. 2. then the unbalance is due to the motor design and should be noted. If the final results still show an unbalance.

2) Rotate the shaft so the shaft keyway is in the 12 O’clock position. Record these values in the appropriate spaces on the data sheet. on 4 pole motors or greater it is recommended that more positioned be taken. The more rotor positions taken. However.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Maintained Readings Example T1-T2 T1-T3 T2-T3 0 Impedance 0 47 53 58 0 Inductance 0 9 10 11 Impedance 900 47 53 58 0 Inductance 90 9 10 11 0 Impedance 180 47 53 58 Inductance 1800 9 10 11 Note: The readings will not be exact. continue with the other two windings (T1T3) and (T2-T3) by connecting to the other windings selecting “Remeasure” from the menu bar on the manual inductance measurement screen. then 1-23 along the left side. 3) Manually measure the inductance of the first winding (T1-T2). 22 . Set up a sheet of paper labeled T1 through T3 across the top and 24. A minimum of 24 shaft positions should be taken. this is just an example ROTOR TESTING One of the important features of the ATIV is the ability to perform a complex analysis of a three phase motor rotor. record the measurement on a pre-labeled data sheet. 1) Verify the winding integrity by performing an Auto test of the motor. the more detail is available for analysis. Note: Where the MCA method could miss some rotor faults the ATPOL on-line tester is a very useful supplement detecting all types of rotor problems while the motor is running. DATA COLLECTION Three phase squirrel cage rotors can be tested with the ATIV Motor Circuit Analyzer using the manual inductance testing method. See Appendix one for a sample data sheet 4) Rotate the shaft the specified number of degrees as recommended by the table below.

It is recommended to attach a rotating protractor or use a piece of circular graph paper attached to the shaft to provide maximum accuracy. in small inexpensive aluminum rotors. 2) Rotor and casting problems show as a sudden change in one location on the motor while air gap problems change consistently around the rotor. 3) The resulting waveform should be even and 120 degrees out of phase from each other. leaving variations in the resistance of each rotor bar (low quality motor). This is usually found as a flat point at the incline or decline on at least two of three sine-waves.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Number of Poles 2 4 6 8 >10 Minimum # of Readings 24 36 48 72 72 Degrees Shaft Rotation 150 100 7. or directly into a spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel. the rotor laminations may not be set properly. There are a number of cases where these readings will deviate: A) Large deviations at the peak or valley of at least one waveform will identify high resistant points in copper rotor bars. NOTE: The more accurate the positioning of the rotor the more accurate the analysis will be. C) A more common problem in many electric motors (some manufacturers have more challenges than others) is casting voids. or air gap problems. 23 . If the pattern varies. D) Eccentric rotor problems are normally found when the inductance tapers off or the waveform moves higher or lower (arcs from right to left). there are rotor.50 50 50 5) Repeat the measurement procedures in step 4 above until the rotor has made one complete revolution. B) Similar deviations will indicate broken rotor bars or. 6) When a complete set of data have been taken the results should be graphed using either the Rotor Test feature of the EMCAT PROTM 2005 software. ANALYSIS 1) The readings will not be identical but should result in a repeating pattern as the shaft is rotated. casting. possibly where the bar is welded to the shorting ring.

MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL APPENDIX 1 Winding Alarm Scenarios Winding Alarm Scenarios Over 20 years experience conducting motor testing using MCA has identified 11 common scenarios created by the 6 measurements taken during the auto test mode using the ATIV. which is out by a differential of 6. If this test was performed at the Motor Control Center (MCC) retest directly at the motor. The section below provides a sample display and brief write up of each scenario. Scenario 1: ALL readings are balanced This is a good winding and additional testing should be performed at the normal test interval. Scenario 2: Fi or I/F in Red all other measurements balanced All measurements are within acceptable limits except I/F. This generally indicates a phase to phase fault. 24 .

Perform a rotor reposition test to verify this condition. 25 .MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL All measurements are within acceptable limits except Fi which is out by a differential of 3 and >1 from average. but Impedance is following Inductance. This is most likely the result of rotor bar/winding ratio differences. Scenario 3: Fi or I/F in Red. Impedance & Inductance are also both in alarm. If this test was performed at the Motor Control Center (MCC) retest directly at the motor before condemning the motor. L & Z in Alarm Fi is in alarm indicating a probable coil to coil winding fault. This generally indicates a coil to coil fault.

It often happens that the resistance unbalance clears during the troubleshooting process. If these readings were taken at the MCC disconnect at the next closest connection point and retest motor. especially if the loose connections are tightened during the process. L & Z in Alarm but similar pattern 26 . If unbalance persists continue towards motor until resistance unbalance either clears or further isolation is not possible.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Scenario 4: R > 5% Unbalance All measurements are within acceptable limits except R which is in alarm (> 5%). This indicates high resistance connections. Scenario 5: Fi or I/F balanced.

Since the impedance unbalance does not follow the inductance the capacitance of the system has changed. both the L & the Z measurements are in alarm. This is most likely the result over the insulation becoming brittle due to overheating or the windings are contaminated. impedance follows inductance in a Low-High–Medium (L. To verify if this unbalance is the result of Rb/W perform rotor reposition test. however. In this scenario.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Rotor Position 1 Rotor Repositioned Fi & I/F measurements are in balance.M) pattern.H. 27 . L & Z in Alarm but non-similar pattern Fi & I/F measurements are in balance. Scenario 6: Fi or I/F balanced. both the L & the Z measurements are in alarm. This could be the result of rotor bar/winding ratio (Rb/W). This is a common reading especially on smaller motors. however. This unbalance is most likely the result of Rb/W differences.

When this occurs it is normally caused by a frequency shift of the instrument when making the impedance measurement for that winding. Scenario 8: All measurements are balanced but insulation to ground measurement is low All winding measurements are balanced. 28 . Recommend clearing ground before operation. the insulation to ground readings are below recommended levels. however. Experience has shown that this is a very early indication of winding or rotor issues. L & Z in Alarm but non-similar pattern plus a frequency shift of the impedance measurement Fi & I/F measurements are in balance. both the L & the Z measurements are in alarm.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Scenario 7: Fi & I/F balanced. The impedance measurement of T2-T3 is almost double the measurements of the other two windings. however.

the L & Z readings may be 0 due to the values being < 1. since the Fi & I/F of 2 of the windings are also 0 this indicates a short circuit in the winding. The ATIV will truncate readings of Z & L that are <1 to 0. 29 . readings are truncated Fi & I/F are balanced.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Scenario 9: Fi & I/F balanced. Scenario 10: Other readings Most readings are zero. L & Z in Alarm. however. it is difficult to determine the L & Z pattern since the ATIV truncates any decimals in the auto mode and displays 0’s in place of the decimal. Verify whether these values are actually 0 or if they are < 1 by taking manual measurements. To determine if these patterns match manual readings of L & Z should be taken.0. L & Z are in alarm. However.

MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Scenario 11: Zero Values Readings in T2-T3 are all zeros. this occurs when the winding is completely shorted. 30 .

However.’ until production is down due to a burn-out or catastrophic bearing failure. Ph. CT 06475 Abstract This article discusses the financial impact of motor condition on electric motor efficiency and reliability by reviewing a combination of Motor Circuit Analysis (MCA) and vibration techniques. The primary areas of concern are phase balance. Penrose. rotor bars. Introduction Electric motors are the prime mover of industry and our general comfort in commercial buildings. Although some equipment faults are instantaneous.D. TPM. of all types. Within each sector: q q q 78% of electrical energy in industrial systems (>90% in process industries) 43% of the electrical energy in commercial buildings 37% of the electrical energy in the home There are well over 1. equipment and people.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL APPENDIX 2: Test Methods for Determining the Impact of Motor Condition on Motor Efficiency and Reliability Dr Howard W. This failure is primarily due to management not fully understanding that maintenance is an investment in the business and not an ‘expense of doing business. used throughout the United States. you do not have product to sell or less of it at a higher overall production cost. It is important to understand that equipment usually fails over time. production and maintenance will be outlined. reliability decreases and losses increase (efficiency decreases) over time prior to most catastrophic failures. Old Saybrook.2 billion electric motors. Average downtime costs are shown as follow: 31 . the larger majority of catastrophic faults that impact production are the result of a failure in the implementation of a maintenance program.1. you do not have product to sell: If you do not invest in predictive maintenance practices (PM.1 while also reducing unplanned production downtime. RCM. Cost impacts on energy. The topic will surround a utility study and US Department of Energy market transformation success during 2000 and 2001. electric motors are often ‘out-of-sight.’ If you do not invest in materials. cleanliness and bearing issues. Proper implementation of a maintenance program has been shown to reduce energy consumption in plants by as much as 10-14%. The motor systems consume 20% of all energy used in the United States and 59% of all electricity generated. out-of-mind. or any other program).

MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Table 1: Estimations for Downtime Costs1 Industry Average Downtime Costs.000 In a recent utility energy and reliability project. Forest Products. “Findings of the advanced portion of the Motor PAT Tool demonstration project indicate that measuring for … phase unbalance of resistance. The purpose of this paper is to first provide information for determining cost avoidance through the application of a maintenance program on electric motors. including: Petroleum and Chemical. inductance. from 5 to 250 horsepower. per hour Forest Products Food Processing Petroleum and Chemical Metal Casting Automotive $7.”1 The combined incremental production cost avoidance of 20 of the defective motors. This will be followed with a discussion of the implementation of motor circuit analysis (MCA) and vibration analysis.000 $200. Several had a combination of electrical and mechanical problems: Type of Test Table 2: Utility Energy Project Findings Percentage of Faults 45% of motors tested 70% of motors tested 5% of motors tested Vibration Analysis Motor Circuit Analysis Insulation Resistance (Meg-Ohms) Several motors had combined vibration and electrical faults. Eight percent of the motors were evaluated to determine the types of faults and the potential cost avoidance with corrective action (repair or replace) by using vibration analysis and motor circuit analysis (MCA). the plants with existing maintenance and energy programs had the least number of defective motors. 80% were found to have at least one deficiency with 60% of those (48% of the original) found to be cost effective to replace. randomly evaluated.000 $87. The plants without programs had the greatest number of defective motors. was $297. including an existing energy program.000 $30. phase angle and I/F (current/frequency response) provided more useful results.000 $100. but were written off as ‘nuisance’ trips (detected in the study by using MCA). 32 .100. Mining (Quarry). Of these motors. Food Processing. A few had winding faults combined with insulation resistance faults. The plants varied from having no existing planned maintenance program to full implementation. a group of electric motors from 5 to 200 horsepower were reviewed in several industries. Several had shorted windings that were continuing to cause production problems. impedance. and Pulp & Paper. rendering implementation costs insignificant.

The facility operated 8.”1 This statement has been found to hold true through research projects including: Dreisilker’s Total Motor System Maintenance and Management Program (DTM2 ™). In this discussion.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Cost Avoidance Through Maintenance There are a number of ways to determine cost avoidance through the implementation of maintenance programs.000 hours per year with the catastrophic failures normally causing one line to fail at a time. contamination or the motors became coated in material). will be used to provide cost information for motor repair costs. For the purpose of this discussion. No maintenance program in place. we will consider a paperboard plant with 485 motors. not covered by this discussion. An average of 3 motors were repaired per month. the numbers of rewinds were reduced to about 20% of the total. of which a majority (70%) required rewind replacement (normally caused by immersion. such as MotorMaster Plus1. 33 . included cleaning of the system prior to re-starting the operation. There are two operating production lines that have a potential downtime cost of $6. some of the tools. which provide a very basic and conservative method. the PAT Tool Project. which is outside the scope of this article. Additional costs. “Utility representatives have indicated that in a survey of facilities with no preventive maintenance programs. and others. After preventive maintenance programs were established. the focus will be on the methods introduced through the US Department of Energy’s Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC’s). However.575 each. motor rewinds represented 85% of the total number of motor repairs (on average). The PAT Tool Demonstration Project used a much more complex method1.

820 $3.735 $220 $255 $295 $340 $430 $500 $540 $610 $1. 34 .295 $1. For this example.575/hr) = $946. MF is the number of motor failures. RWCn is the rewind cost for each horsepower The average cost for reconditioning the motors is calculated the same way.650 Where Ravg is the average rewind cost. Nn is the number of motors for each horsepower.610 $1.400 $7. P represents production Step 2 is to calculate the average cost of rewinding equipment. we will concentrate on just 20 horsepower and larger.020 $1. Equation 2: Average Cost of Rewinding Motors Ravg = ((Nn1 x RWCn1) + … + (Nnn x RWCnn))/NT = ((1520 x $66020) + (1025 x $76025) + … + (4750 x $7735750)) / 138 motors = $1. In this case. except the reconditioning cost is used instead of rewind costs.800/year Where PC is the annual cost of unplanned downtime. not repaired) 15 10 2 3 27 18 21 32 6 4 $660 $760 $880 $1.600 The first step is to calculate the unplanned production downtime costs: Equation 1: Unplanned Production Downtime Cost PCDowntime = (MF/Yr) x (PLost/failure) x (PCost) = (36 motors/yr) x (4 hrs/failure) x ($6.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Table 3: Breakdown of Motor Horsepower and Repair Costs Motor Size Number of Motors Rewind Cost Recondition Cost < 20 horsepower 20 25 30 40 50 75 100 125 400 750 347 (Replacement. the average reconditioning cost would be $555.200 $2.500 $1.

Equation 4: Repair Cost Reduction Estimate (RRCest) RRCest = (motors repaired/year x initial repair costs) – (motors repaired/year x new repair costs) = (36 motors/yr x $1. vibration) Reduced efficiency losses caused by rewinds (US Department of Energy estimates one percentage point efficiency reduction per rewind) Improved drive system performance Equation 5: Energy Cost Savings Energy Savings = (total hp of motors considered) x (load factor) x (operating hours) x (% savings) x (. for this paper.930 horsepower x 75% load x 8.768 per year Step 5 is to determine potential energy savings.746 kW/hp) x (Electrical usage costs) = 14. the number of rewound motors would be 30%. vibration and MCA only.322/motor) – (36 motors/yr x $884/motor) = $15. used to evaluate): q q q q q q Improved lubrication (vibration) Proper alignment and balancing (vibration) Correction of circuit unbalances (MCA) Reduced motor temperatures (MCA. Once the program is implemented. rewound in order to come up with a conservative estimate of savings. the number of motors to be repaired. Maintenance components include (and the type of test system. and the average cost of repair would be $884 per motor. will be reduced. For the purposes of conservative estimation. a 2% improvement in efficiency will be assumed.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Step 3 is to calculate the average repair cost per motor before and after maintenance implementation. Step 4 uses the number of motors repaired per year and the difference between the reconditioned motors vs.06/kWh = $80.192 per year 35 .650) = $1. Equation 3: Average Repair Cost per Motor Ravg = (% Recondition x $/Recondition) + (% Rewind x $/Rewind) = (30% x $555) + (70% x $1.000 hrs x 2% savings x 0.746 kW/hp x $0.322 / motor Assuming that the number of motors rewound versus reconditioned would be inverse with the application of the program. overall.

36 . Application of Vibration Analysis Vibration analysis is used by maintenance professionals as a means to detect mechanical and some limited electrical faults in rotating equipment. the cost should be approximately $10.13 years or 1.000 per person. the same equipment selected for the utility PAT Project will be used.400 Labor Costs $15.400 Reduced Downtime $41.000.6 months The smaller size of this particular plant would allow for complete implementation of a maintenance program. assume a 50% reduction in unplanned downtime for the first year: Table 4: Costs and Savings for Maintenance Implementation Maintenance Savings Maintenance Costs $473. By performing regularly scheduled testing. the operating reliability of an electric motor can be determined through trending.360 = 0.900 Total Costs per Year Equation 7: Simple Maintenance Payback Payback = (Total Costs per Year)/(Total Savings per Year) = $73.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Step 6 is to determine the in-house labor costs to implement the program.500 per person.000 Equipment Costs $80. Estimated costs for this example will be based upon $25 per hour. In the case of this example.500 per person and maintenance training costs of $6.500 Training Costs $569. Assume 1 manhour per motor per year. The estimated combined costs for the ALL-TEST IV PRO™ 2000 MCA instrument and the Pruftechnik vibration analysis equipment is $22. Larger manufacturing plants will often have thousands of electric motors and may require a breakdown of departments or areas for successful implementation. Assuming equipment training costs of $4.400 per year Step 7 is the purchase price for the MCA and vibration analysis equipment. The final step is to determine the simple payback for the implementation of the program. For the purposes of this article.768 Reduced Motor Repair Costs $22.900 / $569.360 Total Savings per Year $73. Step 8 are the training costs for implementing the system. Equation 6: In-House Labor Costs Labor = (1 hr/month/motor) x (# of motors) x (12 months/yr) x ($/man-hour) = 1hr/month/motor x 138 motors x 12 months/yr x ($25/man-hour) = $41.192 Energy Cost Reduction $10.

and are directly load related.06/kWh = $2.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Based upon bearing failure. A resistive fault gives of heat. loose connections.5)/1000 = 4. misalignment. increases in energy losses can occur.”1 Motor circuit analysis allows the analyst to detect winding faults and rotor faults in the electric motor. ground faults and rotor faults. These losses show as vibration. greasing. primarily. while faults include shorted windings. It will also detect rotor faults (10% of failures) and some electrical faults (37% of failures). a 0.5 kW x 8000 hrs/yr x $0. as a loss. Of these. belt tension. Improper belt tension and greasing will increase the friction and windage losses of the motor. or other unbalances.005 is typical Vibration analysis for troubleshooting will detect bearing (41% of failures) faults.5 Ohm loose connection on a 100 horsepower electric motor operating at 95 amps: Equation 9: Resistive Losses Kilo-Watts Loss = (I2R)/1000 = (952 x 0.f is dependant upon oil used and temperature. electrical and rotor faults tend to fall in frequency ranges that can be related to other equipment. 0.5 kW (demand loss) Equation 10: Energy Usage Loss $/yr = kW x hrs/yr x $/kWh = 4. For instance. motor circuit analysis (MCA) systems hold great promise for identifying motor problems before expensive failure and for improving the general efficiency of motor systems in general. This can be calculated as: Equation 8: Bearing Losses Watts Loss = (load. Primary energy losses that can be detected include phase unbalance and I2R losses.lbs x JournalDiameter. balance and alignment (12% of failures) faults. noise and heat. However. One power of this type of test method is that it requires the equipment to be de-energized.inches x rpm x f) / 169 . which allows for initial incoming testing of the electric motors and troubleshooting when equipment fails.160 / year 37 . Application of Motor Circuit Analysis “There are many tools available to perform quality preventive maintenance of individual motors. to some extent. Vibration analysis requires the electric motor to be operating at a load that is constant during each test that would be trended.

The percentage unbalance of impedance can be evaluated to determine efficiency reduction and additional heating of the electric motor. the paperboard company has a 100 horsepower electric motor. cause motors to run hotter and reduce the motor’s ability to produce torque.5 4 4.06/kWh x 8000 hrs ((100/91) – (100/95)) = $1. for every 10oC increase in operating temperature.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Electric motor phase unbalances (inductance and impedance) effect the current unbalances. that has a 3.756 x .5 5 % Unbalance 38 . the life of the equipment is reduced by half. or to 91%.240 / year Figure 2: Increase in Temperature Rise Due to Phase Unbalance 50 % Increase 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5% impedance unbalance.75 load x $0.746 x %load x $/kWh x hrs of operation ((100/Le) – (100/He)) = 100 hp x 0.5 3 3. The efficiency would be reduced by 4 points of efficiency.5 2 2. Figure 1: Efficiency Reduction Due to Impedance Unbalance % Efficiency Reduction 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 % Impedance Unbalance For instance. that would normally be 95% efficient. Equation 10: Energy Cost Due to Phase Unbalance Losses $/yr savings = hp x 0. A general rule is that.5 1 1.

during repair or when the motor is identified as having torque problems. as part of an acceptance program. Vibration analysis evaluates the mechanical condition of equipment while MCA evaluates the electrical condition of equipment. The MCA rotor test requires inductance and impedance readings through 360 degrees of rotation of the rotor. the simple payback from the investment into vibration and MCA is usually termed in months. Industrial Productivity Training Manual. Bibliography US Department of Energy. Motor Circuit Analysis is also used to evaluate the windings for contamination. reduced equipment repair costs and improved energy costs.”1 The same phenomenon occurs if the windings become coated in contaminants. 1993. all with a minimum investment in manpower. or a reduction in motor insulation life to 13% of its original. Rutger’s University. DrivePower. February. 1996. Pacific Gas & Electric. Whether the company has a few hundred motors or many thousands. 2001. Conclusion The implementation of an electric motor maintenance program will have a significant impact on a company’s bottom line. The application of these two technologies compliment each other while also evaluating the progress of the maintenance program and improving upon equipment availability. Their insulation life can then fall to 13 – 25% of normal. the analyst has the ability to view the complete condition of the electric motor. training and equipment. 1996 Annual IAC Directors Meeting. and oversized motors can quickly fail in such conditions if they become thickly coated or if lightly coated and with their airflow reduced by half. 39 . this means a temperature rise of about 30oC. generously rated. Payback is impacted from savings from production availability.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL The impedance unbalance will also cause an increase in operating temperature based upon an increase in I2R losses. The readings are graphed and viewed for symmetry. “Frequent cleaning of a motor’s intake (if any) and cooling fins is especially important in dirty environments… Tests confirm that even severe duty. In the case of the 100 horsepower electric motor. Combined. Electric Motors Performance Analysis Testing Tool Demonstration Project. Rotor test results provide a definitive condition of the rotor and is often performed following identification of a possible rotor fault by vibration.

all with their different failure modes. This misconception is often brought about by the commercial presentations of the manufacturers or sales forces of these CBM instruments. ü The mechanical coupling. ü The motor control.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL APPENDIX 3: Multiple Technology Approach The Multi-Technology Approach to Motor Diagnostics Howard W. soft starts. Discuss the modes of failure of each major component. Penrose. However. and the capabilities of CBM technologies. its health and have confidence in estimating time to failure in order to make a good recommendation to management.’ in the form of a Condition Based Monitoring (CBM) instrument. belts or some other coupling method. Discuss how each of the major technologies address each component. that will provide all of the information that you need to evaluate the health of your electric motor system. ü The electric motor – A three phase induction motor for the purpose of this paper. Ph. which may include starters.’ In reality. you can have a complete view of your system.D. there is no one instrument that will provide you with every piece of information that you need. 40 . The Electric Motor System The electric motor system involves far more than just the electric motor. it is made up of six distinct sections. Discuss how the technologies can be integrated for a complete view of the system. No ‘Holy Grail’ of CBM and reliability. The purpose of this paper is simple: Outline the components of an electric motor system. Discuss the bottom-line impact of the Multi-Technology approach. The sections are (Figure 1): ü The facility power distribution system which includes wiring and transformers. gearbox. It is the very job of the salesperson to focus on the area of strength for their particular instrument(s) and present it as ‘the only solution you will ever need to solve your every problem. through an understanding of the electric motor system. For: ALL-TEST Pro Old Saybrook. For the purpose of this paper. variable frequency drives and other starting systems. The types of CBM equipment to be reviewed are standard off-the-shelf technologies that are used for periodic testing. In fact. CT Introduction There has been a persistent misconception that there is a ‘magic bullet. and. which may be direct. we will focus on direct coupling and belts.

the winding faults had to do with control and cable problems. 41 . Figure 1: The Motor System Most will view individual components of the system when troubleshooting. mixing. The answers were fans.” The end result is that the perceived failure has to do with the pump or fan component of the motor system. process or a combination of issues. while discussing the selection of CBM equipment.” The immediate perception is that the pump has a consistent problem and. trending. This especially becomes more of an issue when relying upon memory to provide the answers to the most serious problems to be addressed in a plant. based upon history. When discussed further. ü Training. etc. you will most often see a strong vibration program when the maintenance staff is primarily mechanical or an infrared program when the staff is primarily electrical. and. as a pump is a mechanical system.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL ü The load refers to the driven equipment such as a fan. “fan failure. repaired. seals and motor windings for compressors. such as waste-water pumping. If a root-cause had been recorded on each failure. the only summary might state something like. controls. In a recent meeting. bearings. For instance. when looking to determine what part of a plant has been causing the most problems. But since when is training ever not an issue? The perceived areas of failure provides an especially serious problem when viewing the history of your motor system. For instance. “Waste water pump 1. compressor or other driven equipment. When viewed even closer. aeration. commissioning or performing some other reliability-based function related to the system. the answer might be. pump seals and motor bearings for pumps. pump. a mechanical monitoring solution might be selected for trending the pump’s health. cable. the fans were found to have bearing and motor winding faults being most common. when records are produced. ü Understanding of the various CBM technologies. ü Perceived areas of failure. which include: ü What is the experience and background of the personnel and managers involved. repaired. improper repairs and power quality. it might have been determined to be the motor winding. compressors and pumps. This can be a serious issue depending upon how the motor system is perceived and will deserve more attention to follow.” or “pump failure. Often. Bearing issues had to do with improper lubrication practices. the attendees were asked for modes of failure from their locations. ü The process. What components are focused on depends upon several factors.

Low current leakage is measured and converted to a measurement of meg. stator. the 10 minute to 1 minute values are viewed and a ratio produced. current: frequency response. These measurements are normally taken to detect loose connections. cable. view. Energized Testing: ü Vibration Analysis: Mechanical vibration is measured through a transducer providing overall vibration values and FFT analysis. inductance. rotor. gig or tera-Ohms. ü Motor Circuit Analysis (MCA) testing: Instruments using values of resistance. The test is used to detect severe winding contamination or overheated insulation systems. Non-destructive and trendable readings often months in advance of electrical failure. Using a low voltage output. and. insulation values over 5. The test is widely considered potentially destructive. the impedance of each phase of a motor are compared graphically.000 volts for AC and an additional 1. more detail on the technologies can be found in “Motor Circuit Analysis”1 Details as to the components of the system tested and capabilities can be found in Tables 1-4 at the end of this paper: De-Energized Testing: ü DC High Potential Testing – By applying a voltage of twice the motor rated voltage plus 1. ü Ohm. broken connections and very late stage winding faults. and insulation testing can be used to troubleshoot. readings are read through a series of bridges and evaluated.7 times that value for DC high potential (usually with a multiplier to reduce the stress on the insulation system). Condition Based Monitoring Test Instruments Following are some of the more common CBM technologies in use. An improved bottom line. you need to take a system. and is primarily used as a go/no-go test with no true ability to trend. Fewer headaches. can be trended and will provide information on some electrical and rotor problems that vary based upon the loading of the motor. impedance.1 ü Surge comparison testing: Using pulses of voltage at values calculated the same as high potential testing. the insulation system between the motor windings and ground (ground-wall insulation) is evaluated.000 MegOhms need not be evaluated using PI. values are measured and compared between windings of an electric motor. These values provide indicators of mechanical faults and degree of faults. commission and evaluate control.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL In effect. Minimum 42 . phase angle. when determining the best way to implement CBM on your electric motor system. not a component. ü Polarization Index testing: Using an insulation tester. ü Insulation tester: This test places a DC voltage between the windings and ground. The result is simple: Improved reliability. air gap and insulation to ground health. The purpose of the test is to detect shorted turns within the first few turns of each phase. This test is widely considered potentially destructive. The test is normally performed in manufacturing and rewinding applications as it is best performed without a rotor in the stator. Milli-Ohm testing: Using an Ohm or Milli-Ohm meter. connection. According to the IEEE 43-2000.

Sensitive to load variations and readings will vary based upon the load. Infrared analysis provides information on the temperature difference between objects. Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) uses the electric motor as a transducer to detect electrical and mechanical faults through a significant portion of the motor system. the more current the system must use to perform work. Detected with current measurements. Signs of poor power factor also include dimming of lights when heavy equipment starts. Requires a working knowledge of the system being tested. Will detect a variety of electrical and mechanical issues towards the late stages of fault. Requires a working knowledge of the system being tested. ü Voltage unbalance: Is the difference between phases. Incoming Power Starting from the incoming power to the load. Requires nameplate information and many systems require the number of rotor bars. Requires a working knowledge of the system being tested. Power quality issues associated with electric motor systems include: ü Voltage and current harmonics: With voltage limited to 5% THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) and current limited to 3% THD. The first area of issue is power quality then transformers. ü Over and under voltage conditions: Electric motors are designed to operate no more than +/. the first area that would have to be addressed is the incoming power and distribution system. Faults are detected and trended based upon degree of fault. as well as heat. cabling and motor. Ultrasonic instruments measure low and high frequency noise. Voltage and current measurements will provide limited information on the condition of the motor system. The relationship between voltage and current unbalance varies from a few time to many times current unbalance as related to voltage unbalance based upon motor design (Can be as high as 20 times). Readings will vary with load.10% of the nameplate voltage. ü Overloaded system: Based upon the capabilities of the transformer. stator slots and manual input of operating speed. ü Power factor: The lower the power factor from unity. Current harmonics carry the greatest potential for harm to the electric motor system. Readings will vary with load. this may not encompass all of the modes of failure that you may experience. Major Components and Failure Modes Some of the major issues from the various components of the motor system shall be reviewed in order to provide an understanding of the types of faults found and the technologies used to detect them. As an overview. Readings will vary with load. normally. 43 . Excellent for detecting loose connections and other electrical faults with some ability to detect mechanical faults.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL ü ü ü ü load requirements for electric motors to detect faults in the rotor.

MCA. ohm meters and visual inspections. MCSA and infrared provide the most accurate systems for fault detection and trending. The test methods for evaluating the controls include infrared. volt/amp meters. Cables – Before and After the Controls Cabling problems are rarely considered and. each transformer usually takes care of multiple systems both in the electric motor as well as other systems. Transformers are one of the first critical components of the motor system.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL The primary tools used to detect problems with incoming power are power quality meters. Controls and Disconnects The motor control or disconnect provides some of the primary issues with electric motor systems. burned or worn Bad starter coils on the contactor Bad power factor correction capacitors which normally results in a significant current unbalance. Knowing the condition of your power quality can help identify a great many ‘phantom’ problems. MCC’s. ultrasonicss. The most common for both low and medium voltage systems are: ü ü ü ü Loose connections Bad contacts including pitted. In general. Electrical vibration/mechanical looseness Test equipment used for monitoring the health of transformers (within the selection of instruments within this paper) include: ü ü ü ü ü MCA for grounds. transformers have fewer issues than other components in the system. Loose connections. However. and. Common transformer problems include (oil filled or dry-type transformers): ü ü ü ü Insulation to ground faults. loose/broken connections and shorts MCSA for power quality and late stage faults Infrared analysis for loose connections Ultrasonics for looseness and severe faults Insulation testers for insulation to ground faults. MCSA and voltage and current meters. Common cable problems include: 44 . as a result. Shorted windings. damaged. provide some of the biggest headaches.

infrared and MCSA. Test and trending is performed with MCA. the problems can be broken down as follows: ü ü ü ü ü Poor power factor – 39% Poor connections – 36% Undersized conductors – 10% Voltage unbalance – 7% Under or over voltage conditions – 8% The most common equipment that covers these areas include MCA. insulation to ground will 45 . insulation testing and MCSA. Motor Supply Side Summary On the supply side to the motor. an electric motor is a converter of electrical energy to mechanical torque. In fact. Electric Motors Electric motors include mechanical and electrical components. ü Opens due to physical damage or other causes. Primary electrical problems: ü ü ü ü ü Winding shorts between conductors or coils Winding contamination Insulation to ground faults Air gap faults. infrared.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL ü Thermal breakdown due to overloads or age ü Contamination which can be even more serious in cables that pass underground through conduit ü Phase shorts can occur as well as grounds. Vibration will detect late stage faults. misapplication. MCSA will detect late stage stator faults and early rotor faults. Primary mechanical problems: ü Bearings – general wear. ü Bad or worn shaft or bearing housings ü General mechanical unbalance and resonance Vibration analysis is the primary method for detection of mechanical problems in electric motors. including eccentric rotors Rotor faults including casting voids and broken rotor bars. These can be caused by ‘treeing’ or physical damage. ü Physical damage is often a problem in combination with other cable problems. MCSA will detect late stage mechanical problems as will infrared and ultrasonics. loading or contamination. MCA will detect all of the faults early in development.

they miss a few common problems or will only detect them in the late stages of failure. The best use a combination of energized and de-energized testing. Load (Fans.) The load can have numerous types of faults depending on the type of load. impedance. etc. One of the most common approaches has been the use of insulation resistance and/or polarization index. infrared analysis and ultrasonics. MCSA and infrared analysis will normally detect severe or late stage faults. compressors. Coupling (Direct and Belted) The coupling between the motor and load provides opportunities for problems due to wear and the application. The most common are worn parts. phase angle. Surge testing and high potential testing will only detect some winding faults and insulation to ground faults. Test instruments capable of detecting load problems include MCSA. MCA and MCSA support each other and detect virtually all of the problems in the motor system. which represents under 1% of the overall motor system faults (~5% of motor faults). broken components and bearings. gearboxes. It is important to note that energized testing is usually best under constant load conditions and trended in the same operating conditions each time.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL only detect ground faults which make up less than 1% of motor system faults. ü Belt or direct drive misalignment ü Belt or insert wear ü Belt tension issues are more common than most think and usually result in bearing failure ü Sheave wear The most accurate system for coupling fault detection is vibration analysis. surge testing will only detect shallow winding shorts and all other testing will only detect late stage faults. Common Approaches to Multi-Technology There are several common approaches within industry as well as several new ones (See Table 3). 46 . with the potential to take the motor out of action should any insulation contamination or weakness exist. vibration. This accuracy requires MCA systems that use resistance. pumps. Infrared and vibration are normally used in conjunction with each other with great success. However. These will only identify insulation to ground faults in both the motor and cable.

As found in the Motor Diagnostic and Motor Health received his Ph. The strength of this approach is that there is a combination of electrical and mechanical disciplines involved in evaluation and troubleshooting. In one case.alltestpro. The newest. again using the proper application of multiple technologies. This can provide a very immediate payback for the technologies involved and will help you avoid infant mortality disasters. When the company added MCA to their tool box. detecting many faults months in advance. For more 47 . Ph. He has 15 years experience in the electric motor and service industry leading PdM and Root-Cause-Analysis initiatives in a large variety of commercial & industrial locations.1 38% of motor system testing involving only vibration and/or infrared see a significant return on investment. ALL-TEST Pro. you will realize fantastic returns on your maintenance program. Using tests such as MCA. These include: ü Commissioning components or the complete system as it is newly installed or repaired. ten times the original by using a combination of instruments. the ROI increased to $307. infrared and MCA and/or MCSA. approach has been vibration. ü Trending of test results for system reliability. potential faults can be trended over the long term. Howard W. This number jumped to 100% in systems that used a combination of MCA/MCSA along with vibration and/or infrared. waste stream and energy analysis and equipment reliability. Conclusion This paper provided a brief overview of how multiple technologies work together to provide a good view of the electric motor system. About the Author Dr. and most effective.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL I/F and insulation to ground and MCSA systems that include voltage and current demodulation. LLC is a manufacturer of motor diagnostic equipment. information go to www. ü Troubleshooting the system through the application of multiple technologies will assist you in identifying problems much more rapidly and with greater confidence. Application Opportunities There are three common opportunities for electric motor system testing. Penrose.000.D. vibration and infrared. Through an understanding and application of this approach.D. a combined application of infrared and vibration saw an ROI of $30k. in General Engineering focusing on industrial system process improvements.

000 + NonDestructive Potentially Destructive Potentially Destructive (NDT) NonDestructive (NDT) (NDT) (NDT) Requires Experience Off-Line Test High High Some Some Medium Some On-Line Test High High High Some High Dedicated Personnel Recommend Recommend No No No No Included Software No Some No No Some Yes Other Applications No No Yes Yes No Yes High Potential Surge Test Insulation Tester Ohm Meter PI Tester MCA Vibration Infrared Ultrasonics Volt/Amp MCSA (NDT) (NDT) (NDT) (NDT) (NDT) Recommend Recommend Recommend No Recommend Yes Yes Some No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 48 .000 + $1.000 + $10.000/ $9.000 + $25.000 + $10.000 + $10.500 + $1.000 + $500 + $16.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Table 1: Motor System Diagnostic Technology Comparison PQ Cntrl Conn Cable Stator Air Brgs Gap Off-Line Testing X X X L X L Rotor Ins Vibe Align Load VFD High Potential Testing Surge Test Insulation Tester Ohm Meter PI Testing MCA Test Vibration Analysis Infrared Ultrasonics Volt/Amp MCSA X L X X X L L X L X X L L X L - X X X X - X X X L X X L L X L X L X On-Line Testing L L L L L L L L X X Table 2: Management Considerations Test Method Estimated Pricing $10.000 + $500 + $2.

MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Table 3: Common Approaches PQ Cntrl Conn Cable Insulation Resistance and PI Infrared and Vibration Surge and Hi-Pot MCA and MCSA MCA and Infrared / Vibe L X L X X X X X X L L X X Stator L X X X Rotor L X X Air Brgs Gap L X X X X X Ins X X X X Vibe X X X Align X X X Load X X X VFD X L Table 4: Additional Considerations Test Method High Potential Testing Surge Test Insulation Tester Ohm Meter PI Testing MCA Test Vibration Analysis Infrared Ultrasonics Volt/Amp MCSA Where Can You Test At Motor – Requires disconnect At Motor – Requires disconnect From MCC At Motor – Requires disconnect At Motor – Disconnect Recommended From MCC At each location tested At each location tested At each location tested From MCC From MCC 49 .

procedures were developed to allow for general testing of any type of pole and pad mount transformer with a simple resistance greater than 0. 50 . for the purposes of this paper.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL APPENDIX 4: Single and Three Phase Transformer Testing. phase angle and a special test called current/frequency response (I/F) has been applied to transformers. originally designed for motor winding testing. For conceptual reasons. both the end user and generating facility will complain. is handheld.001 Ohms.8kV. A simple test method for quickly and accurately testing the condition of T&D equipment is a necessity as. The results included the capability of testing the primary and secondary of any type of transformer in about 5 to 10 minutes with a greater than 99% success rate on either wet or dry-type transformers. impedance. consider that an AC induction electric motor is a transformer with a rotating secondary. In this way. D Introduction Field and shop testing of pole and pad mount transmission and distribution (T&D) transformers can be costly and time consuming. Using Static Motor Circuit Analysis Techniques H O W A R D Old Saybrook. the MCA device generates its own voltage and frequency output. if a transformer fails. Specific information on the transformer is not required for most applications of MCA because the test equipment is used as a winding comparator. Because the test method is off-line. an initial transformer evaluation can be performed. inductance. Therefore. and has a proven track record with AC/DC motors and generators from fractional to over 10 MW. Following initial testing and analysis. the capabilities that static Motor Circuit Analysis (MCA) provides an electric motor can be extended to a transformer. P E N R O S E . With the onset of utility generation deregulation across the country. high resistance connections. The first set of transformers tested included pole and pad mount transmission and distribution transformers from a few kVA to over 2500 kVA with primary voltage ratings of 480 Volts to 28. Through the use of an existing technology. This unit weighs under 2 lbs. CT W . An MCA device which provides readings of resistance. P H . These include detecting winding shorts. the ALL-TEST IV PRO 2000TM motor circuit analyzer was selected. T&D becomes a greater issue due to varying power demands and power quality. open windings and insulation to ground fault detection as well as preliminary internal circuit impedance balance.

the magnetizing current. a 480 V1. including core losses (hysterisis and eddy-currents).MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Basic Transformer Concepts To understand the basic concepts of a transformer. and leakage. When a sine-wave voltage is applied to the primary windings a magnetic field is established that expands and contracts based upon the applied frequency. an ideal transformer with 100 turns in the primary and 50 turns in the secondary. This field interacts with the secondary winding producing a voltage within the secondary that is directly proportional to the turns ratio. This is achieved by having a primary winding located close to secondary winding and allowing for mutual induction to occur between the windings. Equation 5: Internal Impedance ZS = a2ZL = Z1L In a “real transformer” there are certain losses. while current is inversely proportional to the turns ratio. supply voltage and load currents may have 51 . 100 A2 load on the secondary. Internal impedance can be matched to load impedance as found in Equation 5. Equation 1: Voltage Turns Ratio N1 / N2 = a Where N1 is the number of turns in the primary and N2 is the number of turns in the secondary Equation 2: Current Turns Ratio N2 / N1 = 1/a For example. a current turn ratio of ½. The purpose of the transformer is to convert one level of voltage and current to another level of voltage and current for distribution and application purposes. In addition. 50 A1 load reflected on the primary and a 240 V2.” or a theoretical transformer that has no losses. This can also be used inversely. with 480 Volts applied to the primary and a 100 amp load on the secondary would have: a voltage turn ratio of 2. Equation 3: Load Impedance ZL = V2 / I2 Equation 4: Equivalent Primary Impedance Z1L = a2ZL Equations 3 and 4 can be used to reference the impedance from the secondary to primary. we shall start with an “ideal transformer.


harmonic loads and other issues that would impact the effectiveness of a transformer. The purpose of static MCA is to reduce or eliminate these issues to isolate transformer testing. Transformer Types and Connections Transformers of both single and three phase have a variety of connection types for a variety of loads. In a three-phase circuit, these connections are: Wye-Delta; Delta-Wye; Delta-Delta; and Wye-Wye. Single-phase, pole mounted transformers normally have a single-winding primary with a two-winding or center-tapped secondary. Three phase transformer connections are developed for a variety of applications: 1. Delta-Delta: Lighting and power applications, normally used when power loads are greater than lighting loads. 2. Open-Delta: Lighting and power applications, used when lighting loads are greater than power loads. 3. Wye-Delta: Power applications, used when stepping power up in voltage (ie: 2400 to 4160 Volts). 4. Wye-Delta: Lighting and power applications. 5. Open Wye-Delta: Will allow 57% capacity if one phase is disabled. 6. Delta-Wye: Normally provides a 4-wire on the secondary which allows for balanced single-phase loads between neutral and each phase. Figure 1: Delta-Delta Transformer

H1 V



X1 V/a


H2 H3

X2 X3



Three phase transformer connections are labeled H1, H2, and H3 on the primary and X1, X2, X3, with X0 as the neutral, on the secondary. Figure 2: Delta-Wye Transformer

H1 V



X1 X2 X0 V/a √3V/a X3

H2 H3

Figure 3: Wye-Delta Transformer

H1 H2 H0 V H3 V/√3



X1 V/√3a

X2 X3

Figure 4: Wye-Wye Transformer

H1 H2 H0 V H3 V/√3



X1 X2 X0 V/√3a V/a X3



Figure 5: Delta-Wye Transformer Connection








Figure 6: Delta-Delta Transformer Connection








Single-phase pole mounted transformers are often connected and labeled H1 and H2 on the primary and X1, X2 (center tap), and X3. Figure 7: Single-Phase Transformer Connection


these readings can be taken in less than 5 minutes per transformer. impedance. 2. if a fault exists. insulation resistance and I/F. Figure 8: Motor Circuit Analysis Instrument 55 . as a true sine-wave which it then evaluates the response using a series of bridges. these readings can assist the analyst in determining. Capacitance (Farads): Measurement of leakage. 5. inductance. Insulation Resistance (Meg-Ohms): Measurement of leakage to ground. then the type of fault. Current/Frequency Response (I/F): Percentage change in current when the frequency is doubled by the instrument. Impedance (Z): The complex resistance of an AC circuit. XL = 2πfL Capacitive Reactance (XC): XC = 1/(2πfC) Phase Angle (Fi. Z = R 2 + ( X L − X C ) 2 8. 7. Inductive Reactance (XL): The AC resistance of a coil. 3. The ALL-TEST™ static MCA instrument puts out a low voltage.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Motor Circuit Analysis Basics Motor Circuit Analysis is the art of troubleshooting and pinpointing faults within an inductive or capacitive circuit by using readings of resistance. ground-wall insulation strength. degrees): The angle of the lag of current to voltage. as I = V / Z. Resistance (Ohms): The simple DC resistance of the circuit. 6. Inductance (Henries): The magnetic strength of a coil. When taken as a group. These readings relate as follow: 1. 9. 4. phase angle. The key to MCA testing is to compare readings between similar windings or transformers and to look at the variations and patterns between phases. Using the ATIV. first. 100 to 800 Hz signal.

two theories were developed: 1.5 15633 24878 -50 9 H1-H3 48. first for the primary windings.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Transformer Field Test The initial set of tests were performed using the same type of procedure that would be used on an electric motor.132 420 669 -44 90 An issue that became immediately apparent was the unusual and extremely unbalanced readings.3 11035 17562 -18 90 X1-X2 0.125 411 655 -46 85 >99 X2-X3 0. This scenario would explain varying resistances from test to test. would cause stray currents because the transformer windings and core would act as an excellent EMI antennae.45 11028 17552 -23 90 >99 H2-H3 153. The sinusoidal voltage output of the ALL-TEST was inducing into the opposite set of windings resulting in reflected impedance and inductances that would increase during each test because of a resulting static charge. 56 . Upon evaluation of these phenomena. the connections on the side opposite of the side being tested should be grounded to a proper earth ground. lighting.198 566 902 -44 90 Secondary X1-X3 0. This would also allow for tighter testing tolerances. Table 1: Initial Transformer Test Data: 2500 kVA Transformer Primary H1-H2 Resistance Impedance Inductance I/F Phase Angle Meg-Ohm 258. Table 1 represents a sample of one of 30 transformers that were tested over a period of 90 minutes. transformers. etc. To resolve both issues. Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) from surrounding operating equipment. then for the secondary windings. 2. All of the tests identified similar results and it was also noticed that resistance varied from test to test and that the impedance and inductance changed from test to test. The result was predicted to shunt all induced currents direct to ground resulting in the ability to fully test just the winding being tested. The results are found in Table 2 and test time remained under 5 minutes per transformer.

703 220 87 -49 88 H1-H3 3. 57 . Transformers that tested bad tended to have drastic variations in readings.005 1 0 -20 5 It was found that the 500 kVA transformer had a shorted primary with damage between the primary and secondary windings.2 1427 2267 -29 21 9.132 H2-H3 48.648 218 86 -49 88 X1-X2 0.623 217 86 -49 88 >99 H2-H3 3.096 14 2 -49 75 These results were found to be repeatable in all cases.005 1 0 -20 5 0 X2-X3 0.5 2237 2237 -29 20 X1-X2 0 0 0 0 0 Secondary X1-X3 0. Table 3: Shorted Transformer Primary H1-H2 Resistance Impedance Inductance I/F Phase Angle Meg-Ohm 116.103 15 2 -48 75 Secondary X1-X3 0.1 4972 7911 -33 23 H1-H3 98.100 14 2 -48 75 >99 X2-X3 0.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Table 2: Final Transformer Test Data: 2500 kVA Transformer Primary H1-H2 Resistance Impedance Inductance I/F Phase Angle Meg-Ohm 3.


Transformer Testing Procedure Figure 9: Transformer Test

The results of the study produced simple test procedures for both three phase pad and single phase pole mounted transformers. The key to testing any type of transformer is to ground all of the leads on all of the connections of the winding opposite of the winding being tested.

A good transformer should have unbalances less than: 1. Resistance: No more than 5% unbalance above 0.250 Ohms and 7.5% below 0.250 Ohms. 2. Impedance: < 2% unbalance 3. Inductance: < 5% unbalance 4. Phase Angle: No more than 1 degree between phases 5. I/F: No more than 2 digits difference and the readings should fall between –15 and –50. 6. A “shift” in readings should be flagged for further testing or trending. For instance, a winding that tests as I/F: -48; -48; -46 and Phase Angle: 70o; 70o; 69o, should be checked further. Normally, a winding is beginning to experience inter-turn shorts when the Phase Angle and I/F begin to shift. A corresponding unbalance in inductance and impedance indicates a severe fault. A change in Phase Angle with a fairly balanced I/F normally indicate a phase short.



The basic steps for three phase transformer testing are as follow: 1. All of the leads on the side opposite of the side being tested must be grounded to an earth ground. 2. Test the primary from H1 to H2, then “retest” to verify that the readings are repeatable. If they are not repeatable, check the ground and continue. 3. Test from H1 to H3, then H2 to H3, and, finally a ground insulation test. 4. Save the readings and check condition. 5. Test the secondary winding by first checking X1 to X2, then “retest” to verify that the readings are repeatable. If they are not repeatable, check the ground and continue. 6. Test from X1 to X3, then X2 to X3, and, finally, a ground insulation test. 7. Save the readings and check condition. Single-phase transformers are tested slightly differently and require a known reading for the primary to be compared to, such as with a similar transformer or a past test on the same transformer. The basic steps for single phase transformer testing are as follow: 1. All of the leads on the side opposite of the side being tested must be grounded to an earth ground. 2. Test the primary from H1 to H2, then “retest” to verify that the readings are repeatable. If they are not repeatable, check the ground and “retest.” 3. Ground the primary then test X1 to X2, then “retest” to verify that the readings are repeatable. If they are not, then check the ground and “retest.” 4. Test from X2 to X3, then save readings. Compare the second and third reading to each other and the first reading to a standard. These procedures can be used on three phase pad mount and single phase pole mount transformers regardless of connection type. Conclusion: Static Motor Circuit Analysis techniques provide an excellent method for analyzing the primary and secondary windings of either three-phase pad and single-phase pole mounted transformers. A simple procedure incorporating grounding the side opposite of the side being tested allow for very accurate test results. Measurements of resistance, impedance, inductance, phase angle, current response and insulation resistance can be compared for troubleshooting purposes and measurement patterns for pinpointing faults. Test equipment required for MCA testing transformers must have the following capabilities: 1. Resistance, impedance, inductance, phase angle, I/F and insulation resistance in engineering units. 2. Sine-wave voltage output in a variety of frequencies. 3. Onboard memory with software to upload and download readings. 4. Cost effective and accurate. The procedures described require about five minutes per transformer with a greater than 99% test result accuracy.



Bibliography Sarma, Mulukutla S., Electric Machines: Steady-State Theory and DynamicPerformance, PWS Publishing Company, 1994. Nasar, Syed A., Theory and Problems of Electric Machines and Electromechanics, Schaum’s Outline Series, 1981. Edminster, Joseph,, Electric Circuits Third Edition, Schaums Electronic Tutor, 1997. Hammond,, Engineering Electromagnetism, Physical Processes and Computation, Oxford Science Publications, 1994. US Department of Energy,, Keeping the Spark in Your Electrical System, US DOE, October, 1995. Penrose, Howard W. Ph.D, “Static Motor Circuit Analysis: An Introduction to Theory and Application” IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, July/August 2000, p. 6.


In this paper. we will discuss these various aspects. expected test results. referencing other materials for additional details. a stator. which is similar to an induction motor rotor squirrel cage. The basic construction of a synchronous motor is straight forward. A set of field coils. There are three sets of windings. Howard W. such as reciprocating compressors. the motor may come out of synch with the rotating fields. or can be used to cause current to lead voltage to correct power factor problems. it has coils which ‘lock’ in step with the electric motor’s rotating magnetic fields from the stator. A synchronous motor can be used in such a way as to cause little to no impact on power factor. bearings. and. About Synchronous Machines Large synchronous motors have two basic functions: Ø The first is to improve the electrical power factor in a plant. a rotor. When this occurs. CT 06475 Introduction In order to further understand the application of motor circuit testing and analysis on synchronous electric motors (synchronous machines). a special winding on the rotor called an amortisseur winding (see synchronous construction below) absorbs the energy from the torque pulse. common test methods. such as motors and transformers.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL APPENDIX 5: Synchronous Machine Testing With All-Test Instrumentation SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE TESTING WITH ALL-TEST INSTRUMENTATION Dr. keeping the rotor in synch. If a torque pulse occurs (such as at the top of a reciprocating compressor stroke). Once a synchronous motor has achieved synchronous speed. basic steps for analysis of synchronous stators and rotors. The windings consist of: A standard three phase winding. which are DC coils made of round wire for small machines and rectangular or ribbon wire on larger machines. very similar to a standard induction electric motor. Ø The second method of operation is to absorb pulsating loads. current begins to lag behind voltage (poor power factor). And an amortisseur winding. the plant requires significantly larger amounts of current to perform the same amount of work. how the ALL-TEST IV PRO™ 2000 works with large synchronous motors. it is important to have a brief overview of the operation of a synchronous motor. Penrose. most common faults. and either a generator (brushless) or a ‘static exciter’ (brush-type). 61 . When this becomes severe enough. Ph. This can cause voltage sag and overheating of electrical components.D. Old Saybrook. In any plant with large inductive loads.

They are often overbuilt with material to withstand the severe loads that are applied. the generator is wired directly to the rotor fields. the DC voltage also increases. it acts much the same as a standard induction motor. Following is a description of the basic mode of operation. The drive may also be set up to short out the field coils of the machine to avoid rotor saturation and the resulting extremely high currents on the stator. In this type of machine.’ 62 . creating north and south magnetic pairs (rotor coils are always found in pairs). In a brush machine. DC current is injected into the rotor field coils. these will often burn up from the inside out Ø Amortisseur windings – mostly in reciprocating loads. Because of the amount of energy absorbed. just as the brush machine. The most common failures for industrial synchronous machines. The starting circuit will be different for both. Once the rotor begins to turn. a DC generator is installed directly on the shaft of the synchronous motor. This field generates a current in the amortisseur winding. As the rotor starts to catch up to the stator fields. In most cases. This is used to first short the windings and then control the amount of DC fed to the rotor. which converts a supplied AC power to DC. the DC source for the rotor fields usually comes from a ‘static’ (electronic) starter. These lock in step with the stator magnetic fields and follow at the same speed as the stator fields. the output DC is varied through the starting cycle. There are also machines that have a generator mounted on the shaft of the rotor that feeds a separate control.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL The starting methods for both the brush-type and brushless synchronous motors are similar. whereas a standard induction motor always lags behind. The stator receives an electrical current and a rotating magnetic field is developed (the speed = (120 * applied frequency) / # of poles). the winding bars will often crack. DC is supplied to assist the motor in developing torque. making it easier for the rotor to fall out of ‘synch. The DC voltage is supplied through a pair of slip rings and brushes. the generator provides very little DC through its commutator. As the speed increases. In particular if the rotor fields are beginning to fail and short. helping the motor generate torque then lock in step at synchronous speed. are: Ø Bearings due to general wear and contamination Ø Rotor fields – due to high temperatures. in order. Most Common Synchronous Motor Faults Large synchronous motors tend to be well built and sturdy. which is used to develop starting torque by generating its own magnetic field which interacts with the stator magnetic field in the air gap and causes the rotor to follow the stator magnetic fields. followed by a brief description of the differences: During the starting phase of a synchronous motor. In a brushless machine. As the synchronous motor starts.

Almost all of the winding faults that occur in a synchronous motor start between conductors in the rotor or stator coils. A 115 AC voltage is applied to the rotor windings and the voltage drop is measured with a volt meter across each coil. Ø Partial Discharge testing: Is a non-destructive test method that measures radio frequencies from discharges in voids within the insulation system of the motor windings. Ø Voltage Drop Test: Requires that the motor is disassembled. Stator windings in synchronous machines tend to be ‘form wound’ and heavily insulated. such as contaminated windings. As stated in IEEE 432000. This is effective for trending on machines that are over 6. Ø Motor Current Signature Analysis: Was designed for rotor testing of induction motors. the voltage drop will vary more than 3%. Strengths and Weaknesses Following are the traditional test methods for evaluating the condition of a synchronous motor: Ø Insulation resistance testing: Using applied DC voltages as specified by IEEE 432000. If there are correctable issues. This test highly stresses the insulation system and is potentially damaging (per IEEE Std’s 388 and 389). Ø High Potential testing: Most common on large machines is DC high potential testing which is performed at a value of twice the motor nameplate voltage plus 1000 volts. this can also be performed through the slip rings on a brush type machine. If there is a short. this test method is only truly valid on pre-1970 insulation systems. 63 . This has been traditionally used as a method to gage the condition of the insulation between the stator windings and frame. Ø Surge Comparison testing: Evaluates the turn to turn condition of the stator only by comparing the waveforms of two windings when a fast rise time pulse of twice the voltage plus 1000 volts. times the square root of 3. It does not detect any rotor faults.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Ø Stator windings – general wear and contamination. As with insulation resistance testing. a potential is placed between the stator windings and ground. On an existing insulation system. This measures only direct faults between the stator windings and the stator frame. this test may damage the motor windings. This type of test should NEVER be applied to the rotor windings of a synchronous motor. Ø Polarization Index: Is a 10 minute to 1 minute ratio of insulation resistance. Is also performed through the slip rings on a brush type machine. The above list does not include equipment for mechanical testing of synchronous motors. this value is often reduced to 75% of the potential voltage. Common Test Methods.6 kV and only provide a brief warning from 4 kV.

” 64 . or if the insulation system is contaminated and it is effecting the integrity of the insulation. changes to the electrical integrity of the rotor circuit and insulation system are directly reflected through the stator windings. the electrical circuit of the motor changes. such as cracks and damage. Ø Internal power source for the instrument. Ø Non-destructive – no harmful voltage is applied. As an insulation system ages. Ø Hand held vs equipment that may weigh from 40 to well over 100 lbs. Unique test information allows the ALL-TEST™ to view enough parameters of the insulation system to detect and isolate: Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Shorted stator windings Shorted rotor fields Broken amortisseur winding bars Air gap eccentricity Winding contamination (rotor and stator) Ground insulation faults For further details on how these tests are performed and detected. The test is limited only to the simple resistance range of the instrument (0. high frequency AC signal for AC readings. It is a data collector and tester that sends a low voltage DC signal for simple resistance testing. in the same manner as a milli-Ohm meter. impedance. Ø One instrument for a large range of equipment size. The instrument then uses a series of balanced electrical bridges to provide test results in engineering units of resistance. current/frequency response and an insulation resistance test to ground. The primary differences between electronic testing of power equipment versus traditional power methods are: Ø A more complete view of the motor circuit. including influences from changes in the condition of rotor field coil insulation. except that it provides a series of readings that cover the AC parameters of the motor circuit.001 Ohm to 999 Ohms). as well. The ALL-TEST IV PRO™ is literally looking for changes to the electro-chemical makeup of the materials of the insulation system as well as direct break-downs of the insulation. Ø Easier data interpretation – A few simple rules for data interpretation (See data interpretation below). inductance. This allows both immediate troubleshooting and long-term trending of the motor. and a low voltage. Because the rotor is an integral part of the circuit.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL About the ALL-TEST™ The ALL-TEST IV PRO™ 2000 is a simple electronic instrument that performs in much the same manner as a multi-meter. see “Guideline for Electronic Static Winding Circuit Analysis of Rotating Machinery and Transformers. phase angle.

o Perform the Auto test across each field coil instead of a voltage drop test. these results can be trended and compared between like machines. Ø Evaluate the test results (See Expected Test Results) Ø If a fault is indicated. When testing a disassembled synchronous machine. If a fault is still indicated. Because of the style of testing.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Basic Steps for the Analysis of Synchronous Machines with ALL-TEST™ The steps for testing synchronous machines are similar to those for evaluating the condition of standard induction motors. and predictive maintenance. it is most likely in the cable. other than troubleshooting. a few additional steps are involved when troubleshooting a fault. Ensure that secondary sources of power are also deenergized. as much as possible. o If the fault remains stationary (does not change with rotor position). o All parameters for all three should meet the evaluation limits. because there are field coils on the motor rotor. then disconnect the leads at the motor terminal box and retest. This will provide an immediate indication of any faults. begin troubleshooting: o Adjust the position of the rotor. o Perform the Auto test and compare to an ‘identical’ rotor. is approximately 3-5 minutes. or. Other applications for motor circuit testing include evaluation and acceptance. if not. If the fault has shifted. Ø Perform the standard ALL-TEST IV PRO™ 2000 tests on the stator following the menu prompts on the instrument. then the fault most likely is located in the rotor. up to 45 degrees (any movement will do if the rotor is difficult to turn. Ø For the rotor test: o Perform the Auto test and compare to a past reading. However. 65 . but no less than 5 degrees) o Re-perform the tests and review the readings. or. it is important to remember that the readings will be very different without the rotor in place: Ø Perform the ALL-TEST IV PRO™ Auto test on the stator and evaluate the test results. The average test time. it is most likely in the stator. or changed by more than a digit. When testing a synchronous machine from the motor control center or starter: Ø De-energize the equipment.

the test results are similar to those found in three phase induction machines. for checking the amortisseur winding and rotor condition. much like inductance. It can be used. Ø Phase angle and I/F (Current/Frequency): Are both indicators of insulation faults between turns in the stator or rotor. If they are not parallel. This is about the same energy used to turn 6 horsepower worth of electric motor. Fault patterns are very straight-forward and apply regardless of equipment size.5 Ohm resistance across a point in a circuit that is seeing 100 Amps would give off: (100Amps2)(0. when used along with inductance. Ø Inductance measurement: Is an indicator of magnetic strength of a coil and the influence of other coils on one coil.000 Watts (5kW) worth of energy.” are as follow: 66 . a resistive spot will put out a great deal of heat energy (in Watts). This test is important. Ø Insulation Resistance: Evaluates the insulation to ground and will only indicated when the insulation has failed. it can be used to detect overheated windings and winding contamination quickly. By viewing the relationship of inductance and impedance between each phase: If the inductance and impedance are relatively parallel. especially if the resistance problem is in one spot as. as outlined in the “Guideline for Electronic Static Winding Circuit Analysis of Rotating Machinery and Transformers. Following is a brief overview of the test measurements and their results for basic troubleshooting: Ø Simple resistance measurements: Are an indicator of high resistance connections. However. Ø Impedance measurement: Is the measurement of the complex resistance in the circuit. by itself. This measurement. then any inductive and impedance unbalance is in the relationship between the rotor and stator (rotor position). based upon I2R. For instance.5 Ohms) = 5. this is an indication of an insulation problem such as insulation breakdown or winding contamination. Ø The test limit recommendations. loose connections or broken conductors in the circuit. the dimensions of the coils and the inductance of other coils. It is impacted by the number of turns in a circuit. within the test range of the ALL-TEST™. a 0. is only a good indicator of the condition of the amortisseur winding and rotor eccentricity.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Expected Test Results As mentioned in the last section of this paper. Inductance will only show a shorted winding if it is severe.

A reading of -40/-44/-44 would be bad. For instance. This may also be the case if the inductances are 5/5/5 and the impedances are 8/9/8. a reading such as -42/-44/-44 should be considered suspect. For instance. For instance. The difference between the two can be evaluated quickly by looking at the pattern of impedance and inductance. o Rotor Position – Rotor position unbalances can be evaluated by looking to see if the inductance and impedance values are fairly balanced. Winding contamination will also cause phase unbalances.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Table 1: Test Limits (peak to peak values) Measurement Resistance Impedance Inductance Phase Angle I/F Insulation Resistance Limits 5% ~ 5%* ~15%* +/. Ø Winding Contamination and Rotor Position o The position of the rotor within the electric motor may cause a natural phase unbalance. 67 . then the unbalance is due to rotor position. if there are inductances of 17/18/19 and impedances of values 24/26/29. Following is an overview of the troubleshooting rules: Ø Shorted Windings: o Shorted windings can be evaluated by viewing the phase angle and I/F readings from the instrument on similar coils or between phases: o Phase Angle (Fi) – The phase angle should be within 1 digit of the average reading. a reading of –44/-45/-46 would be good.1 +/. a reading of 77/75/76 would be good because the average reading is 76. A reading of 74/77/77 would be bad. However.2 > 100 M-Ohms *Can exceed this value if measurements are parallel. o Current Frequency Response (I/F) – The current frequency response should be within 2 digits of the average reading.

2001.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Conclusion o Winding Contamination – Can also be found as overheated (burned) windings. the ALL-TEST IV PRO™ 2000 provides an excellent tool for troubleshooting and trending the condition of synchronous machines. SUCCESS by DESIGN. Test evaluation is simple and direct. Motor Circuit Analysis: Theory. For instance. then they are not parallel and the most likely fault is in the windings as contamination or overheated insulation. Through a set of simple rules and instructions. These conditions are the result of changes to the insulation due to breakdown of the insulation system. Application and Energy Analysis. 68 . ALL-TEST Division. Bibliography Ø Guideline for Electronic Static Winding Circuit Analysis of Rotating Machinery and Transformers. regardless of equipment size or type. Howard W. Ø Penrose. The test is performed using simple. if there are inductances of 10/11/12 and the impedance has values of 16/14/13. The faults show as a change of impedance and the relationship between impedance and inductance result in un-parallel readings. non-destructive test measurements that allow for a more complete view of the motor stator and rotor circuit than any other test. 2001. BJM Corp.

which provides real-time test results. Repeat for the third phase. If the Fi or I/F pattern remains similar. The result can then be treated as a regular three phase motor (Fi +/-1. The result is shown as a percentage reduction in current. Compare: Compare two of the same type and model servo motors. Using either the ALL-TEST IV PRO 2000 or ALL-TEST PRO 31. but significantly different I/F and/or Fi result between phases. resulting in a repeatable. Evaluating Servo Motors with MCA In the case of both the ALL-TEST IV PRO 2000™ and the ALL-TEST PRO 31™. I/F +/-2). Trend: Trend the difference between the highest and lowest of each test result. then doubling just the frequency and taking a second current measurement. The values should not deviate by more than a digit between trended tests. is +/. There should not be more than a one digit deviation in either test result. then turn the shaft until you obtain the highest impedance reading. The permanent magnet interferes with the balanced three phase winding. 2. the windings are burning up (overheated) or the rotor magnets are weakening. Evaluating Servo Motors with MCA Servo Motor Testing. Rotor Compensation: Using the ALL-TEST PRO 31. turn the shaft of the servo until you obtain the highest impedance reading. 69 . a sudden drop in impedance will indicate that there is an increase in contamination. The tolerance for a standard electric motor.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL APPENDIX 6: Servo Motor Testing. The I/F involves taking a measurement of the AC current at the supplied voltage and frequency of the instrument. Move to the next phase. The Fi performs a timed measurement between the peak of the AC voltage sine wave provided by the instrument and the peak current sine wave that results.2 digits from the average of the three readings. then the problem is in the winding). with the rotor in place. there are three ways to determine if the servo is good or bad: 1.1 degree from the average of the three readings. the key test results used to determine the condition of the windings are the phase angle (Fi) and current/frequency (I/F) tests. Take your tests. The difference between many servo motors (including brushless DC) and a standard AC motor is that most have a permanent magnet rotor. Monitor the impedance result. When this occurs. is +/. you can confirm whether a problem is related to the rotor or the stator by moving the rotor position and retesting. This is displayed in degrees. then the problem is in the stator (for example: if the lowest Fi result remains in phase A. which normally falls within a range of 15% to -50%. with the rotor in place. The tolerance for a standard electric motor. 3. Take your tests.

These faults include bearings. These technologies. Resistance is used for detecting loose connections and broken conductors. a deenergized test method. to the electric motor and driven load. pass fail criteria for individual readings can be developed for both assembled and disassembled machines (Reference Tables 1 and 2). Motor Circuit Analysis MCA is a low voltage method for testing electric machinery cables. or are developing. winding shorts in the rotor and stator. Phase Angle (Fi). Impedance (Z). windings and rotor for developing faults. This allows for 70 . exciter faults. through the transmission and distribution system. connections. we will discuss the concepts behind the testing and analysis of both salient and turbine generators to detect some common generator faults. As a vast majority of the rotating machinery. These values indicate a guideline and values outside of these guides normally identify component failures that have occurred. The technique involves individual readings of DC Resistance (R).MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL APPENDIX 7: Electrical Diagnostics for Generators ALL-TEST Pro. and. Z and L are matched to evaluate the insulation condition for winding contamination. for the purpose of this paper. Fi and I/F are used to detect winding shorts. Current/Frequency Response (I/F) and insulation to ground (MegOhm) testing. the values are trend able without the requirement of temperature adjustments for a majority of faults. a more advanced method of Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA). insulation to ground faults in the rotor and stator. CT 06475 Introduction Electrical Motor Diagnostics (EMD) is a term for test methods and instruments designed for rotating and coil-wound machinery electrical and mechanical analysis. requires balanced phases. LLC Old Saybrook. These instruments are used for all motor system related analysis from the generator and prime mover. and Electrical Signature Analysis (ESA). In addition to the power of detecting a motor system defect. misalignment and rotating field eccentricity. that MCA is used to evaluate. These developing issues can be compared against Attachment 1 of this paper. One of the key aspects of MCA is the ability to detect early winding defects that can be trended over time and a time to failure can be estimated. will include Motor Circuit Analysis (MCA). insulation to ground is used for detecting ground faults. Inductance (L). In this paper.

76 failed I/F +/. very large phase unbalances or very poor rotor bar condition.: 4 (MegOhm) >100 MegOhm ground fault) Test Result Resistance (R) When a motor does not have a rotor in place. 73.e. direct shorts and diff wire sizes Impedance (Z) and Similar Patterns2 Changes to impedance that cause its phase to Inductance (L) phase pattern to appear different from inductance are normally the result in the change to the material condition of the insulation system. medium and high). -46 OK. -45. on the same motor. average 44. Otherwise look for significant differences such as 0. 1 A motor with an inductance of 10. broken wires.0 I/F +/.2 digits from Indicates a winding short: -44. a fault has been detected. 25 (Low. 23. 11. for instance if impedance showed as 20. -46 suspect. Used for detecting winding contamination. low.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL the ability to evaluate condition and provide estimates for time to failure by monitoring changes to the phase to phase unbalances over time.250 Ohms.1 digit from Indicates a winding short: 74.400 Ohms would indicate a problem. high reading) should have a similar pattern of impedance. 0. medium). -46. burned windings (overheated).082 Ohms and 0. 75. If they are not similar. -45 failed Insulation Resistance >5 MegOhm3 Indicates poor insulation to ground (i. -42. 73.0 Insulation Resistance (MegOhm) > 5 MegOhms3 / > 100 MegOhms4 Above 0. 19 (high. Table 1: Pass/Fail Considerations for Assembled Machines Tolerance Detail 1 <5% Used for detecting loose connections. the tolerances change: Table 2: Pass/Fail Criteria for Disassembled Machines Test Result Tolerance Resistance (R) <5% Impedance (Z) <3% Inductance (Z) <5% Phase Angle (Fi) +/.080 Ohms. 15. 76 OK. such as 20. medium reading. 12 (Low reading. 74. -45. Phase Angle (Fi) +/. such as in a motor repair shop with a stator only. 2 3 For motors with a voltage rating less than 600 Volts For motors with a voltage rating greater than 600 Volts 4 71 . 76 suspect. average 74.

the relative difference between phases is not. ESA uses the machine being tested as a transducer. Z. the unbalance method is the most convenient way of detecting faults over time. the difference between like coils (i. Z. L >3% and <5% R. ESA systems rely upon FFT analysis. Severity Green Yellow Red Green Yellow Rd 72 . Impedance and inductance are not significantly impacted by temperature. This provides an increased advantage to diagnostics as power-related. While resistance values are impacted by temperature. for instance. By using the percent unbalance method. impedance and inductance. Electrical Signature Analysis (ESA) is the term used for the evaluation of the voltage and current waveforms. A key consideration when using ESA is that voltage signatures relate to the upstream of the circuit being tested (towards power generation) and current signatures relate to the downstream of the circuit being tested (towards the motor and load). motorrelated and load-related signals can be quickly compared. including the demodulation of the current waveform and FFT analysis. In the percent unbalance method. L < 3% R. Therefore. For accurate analysis. The difference between tests method is used for phase angle and I/F in which the lowest value for each is subtracted from the highest value for each. MCA is a comparative tool using percent unbalance and difference between tests methods. Table 3: Reading Change Table for AC Rotating Equipment Reading Change From Baseline R. allowing the user to evaluate the electrical and mechanical condition from the control or switchgear. the user or software do not have to rely upon performing temperature correction calculations. Z.: between phases in a three phase motor) is trended over time.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL For trending and analysis purposes.e. much the same as vibration analysis. This method is best for resistance. L > 5% Fi and I/F <1pt Fi and I/F >1pt and <3pt Fi and I/F >3pt Electrical Signature Analysis Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) refers to the evaluation of current waveforms only.

stator CF = RS x Stator Slots core movement. etc. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of both current and voltage signatures are normally calculated in dB instead of linear scale. In the case of motor (downstream) analysis. these values relate to voltage. Space of four times Line Frequency then two Line Frequency peaks Where RS = Running Speed The pass/fail values of the signatures identified in Table 5 are presently based upon the experience of the user. 73 .: loose coils.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Condition 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 dB Value >60 54-60 48-54 42-48 36-42 30-36 <30 Table 4: Rotor Analysis Rotor Condition Excellent Good Moderate Rotor Fracture or High Resistance Joint Two or more bars cracked or broken Multiple cracked or broken bars and end ring problems Multiple broken rotor bars and other severe rotor problems Action None None Trend Increase Test Intervals and Trend Confirm with motor circuit analysis Overhaul Overhaul or Replace Table 5: Signature Multipliers Type of Fault Pattern (CF = Center Frequency) Stator Mechanical (i. Dynamic Eccentricity CF = RS x Rotor Bars Line Frequency and twice Line Frequency with Running Speed sidebands Mechanical Unbalance (and Misalignment) CF = RS x Rotor Bars Line Frequency Sidebands. these values relate to current and for generator (upstream) analysis.) Line Frequency Sidebands Stator Shorts (shorted windings) CF = RS x Stator Slots Line Frequency sidebands with Running Speed sidebands Rotor Indicator CF = RS x Rotor Bars Line Frequency sidebands Static Eccentricity CF = RS x Rotor Bars Line Frequency and twice Line Frequency sidebands. Analysis of the differences in peaks is determined by comparing the dB value measured down from either the peak current or peak voltage value.e.

These differences offer the user specific analysis strengths for each technology that support each other. it has specific strengths in the areas of: Control and other connections Cable insulation system health to ground and between phases Stator winding health to ground and between phases and conductors Air gap issues between the stator and rotating assembly Rotor winding health: wound. so we will cover the basic assembly of both in this paper. ESA has specific strengths in the areas of: Power quality Severe insulation breakdown Loose or open coils or stator Loose or open rotor or rotor coils Loose connections Air gap problems. 74 . The turbo-synchronous machine is most commonly used in high-speed generators (two and four pole) used for high voltage power generation. Basic Generators There are two basic types of generator systems. but specifically they provide a complete overview of the system being evaluated. The DC fields of the turbine rotor cut through the conductors and generate power which is supplied to the distribution system from this component. There are a large variety and variation of each type. The general assembly resembles a three phase induction motor with the following specifics: The stator (armature) resembles a three phase motor winding. These include turbo-synchronous machines and salient-pole synchronous machines. This component carries the DC power from the exciter and is driven by a prime mover such as a jet engine or steam turbine. induction or synchronous This includes the ability to provide early failure detection of insulation degradation. In the case of MCA. including alignment Attached mechanical systems When used in combination. with a high degree of accuracy. including static and dynamic eccentricity Bearings and mechanical condition. The turbine rotor (fields) resembles the squirrel-cage rotor of an induction machine. It tends to be long and narrow for horizontal machines.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL The Combined Use of MCA and ESA MCA requires that the equipment is de-energized while ESA requires that the equipment is energized. the technologies provide some overlapping capabilities.

75 . The purpose of this first paper has been to provide a review of MCA and ESA.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL The exciter can be separate from the machine. The exciter provides DC power to the turbine rotor. The distinction is that the rotor contains a series of individual wound-coils which also contain an amortissieur winding. The stator (armature) resembles a three phase motor winding. as well as a discussion of the construction of turbine and salient generators. in which a small DC generator is mounted directly to the turbine rotor shaft. 4-pole) generation systems. The exciter provides DC power to the rotor. The salient-pole machine is one of the more common smaller. In the case of ESA. These poles carry the DC current that generates the rotating DC fields. The exciter can be separate from the machine. low-speed (1800 RPM or less. in which brushes supply power to the rotor. in which brushes supply power to the rotor. not just Motor Current Signature Analysis. Both machines can be evaluated in the same way that you would evaluate electric motors of similar design. The DC fields of the salientpole rotor cut through the conductors and generate power which is supplied to the distribution system from this component. in most cases. low voltage. in which a small DC generator is mounted directly to the rotor shaft. Conclusion Energized testing of generators requires the ability to view the voltage signature of the generator and this requires equipment that can perform Electrical Signature Analysis. The salient rotor (fields) incorporate an even number of pole pieces that radiate out from the rotor shaft. or brushless. The general analysis of generators is performed in a similar manner of any other AC machine. or brushless. you would evaluate the signatures using voltage spectra versus current spectra.

MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Bibliography Penrose. Motor Circuit Analysis: Theory. Mulukutla S. “Electric Motor Diagnostics. Electric Machines: Steady-State Theory and Dynamic Performance. 2003 Penrose. May. Ph. December..D. 76 . “Estimating Electric Motor Life Using Motor Circuit Analysis. 2004 Penrose.” MARTS 2004 Proceedings.D. “Practical Motor Current Signature Analysis: Taking the Mystery Out of MCSA... 1996.D. Howard W. PWS Publishing Company. SUCCESS by DESIGN Publishing..” ReliabilityWeb.” 2003 IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference Proceedings.. 2003 Penrose. Application and Energy Analysis. Ph. Howard W. Howard W. Howard W. Ph.D. 2001 Sarma.

we shall discuss case studies related to marine generators and wind turbine generators.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Electrical Motor Diagnostics for Generators Part 2 – Case Studies ALL-TEST Pro. Part 3 shall discuss the details of how these analysis were performed. In Part 2. including how condemning criteria was formulated. Following Part 2. Case #1: Marine Salient-Pole Generator. It was determined that Electrical Motor Diagnostics (EMD) would be used to evaluate the condition of the system. and how they relate to turbine and salient-pole generators was discussed. These cases shall discuss both generators in poor condition and in good condition. These occurred within 24 hours of operation and gradually worked towards occurring every 6 hours of operation during the course of eight months. the basic principles of Motor Circuit Analysis (MCA) and Electrical Signature Analysis (ESA). Figure 1: Generator The generator had been installed on the vessel following eighteen years of storage in an uncontrolled environment. Insulation Failure A marine generator on board a military vessel was experiencing increasing over-airtemperature faults during operation. The engine and cooling temperatures were evaluated and found to be operating satisfactorily. Figure 2: Switchgear Test Points 77 . CT 06475 Introduction In Part 1 of this 3 Part series. A Division of BJM Corp Old Saybrook.

MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Testing was performed at the switchgear using MCA.60 1.0373 Impedance 1 1 1 Inductance 0 0 0 Fi 22 21 20 I/F -28 -30 -35 Insulation 750 MegOhm Table 2: MCA at Generator T1-T2 T1-T3 T2-T3 Resistance 0.64 1.0348 0. A second set of tests were performed in the connection box at the generator (Table 2) which identified both a winding short and poor insulation condition (unmatched Z and L). Table 1: MCA Test at Switchgear T1-T2 T1-T3 T2-T3 Resistance 0. 78 .0445 0.323 Fi 20 20 20 I/F -33 -35 -36 Insulation 750 MegOhm As it requires removal of the generator through a hole in the hull of the ship.63 Inductance 0.317 0.320 0.0542 Impedance 1.0189 0. additional testing was performed using ESA over a period of 30 minutes.0208 0. The first set of data identified a problem in the circuit (Table 1).

MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Figure 3: ESA at ‘0’ Minutes Figure 4: ESA at ‘10’ Minutes Figure 5: ESA at ‘20’ Minutes Figure 6: ESA at ‘30’ Minutes 79 .

Watch standers were given instructions to observe for variations in current unbalance as an indicator of advanced winding failure. in which the time included a cruise overseas. the generator was removed for repair (Figure 7) and shipped to the contracted repair shop.1514 0.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL At the end of the ESA test period. Recommendations were provided to the vessel’s shore engineering support group for the storage of rotating machines and generators. another set of MCA data was performed while the generator was warm (Table 3). The vessel was scheduled for work in three months following these tests.116 0.0828 Impedance 1 1 1 Inductance 0 0 0 Fi 20 20 20 I/F -31 -33 -35 Insulation 55 MegOhm The reduction in insulation resistance from 750 MegOhm to 55 MegOhm indicates a temperature rise somewhere in the insulation system of approximately 140 C. it was determined that the generator could be operated in parallel with a second generator at 50% load. The question was whether the generator would be serviceable during this time. the vessel would be unable to perform its mission. or less. After its mission. Based upon historical references and estimated time to failure research. Table 3: MCA after ESA Test T1T3 T1-T2 T2-T3 Resistance 0. Figure 7: Generator Removal 80 . A review of loads and temperatures were performed along with the data from the EMD analysis. If not.

Acceptance inspections were performed at the repair center’s site under load.8 MegOhm 81 . Case #2: Marine Salient-Pole Generator. Table 4: Case 2 Generator MCA T1-T2 T1-T3 T2-T3 Resistance 0.63 2.322 Fi 19 22 24 I/F -27 -21 -27 Insulation 41. This results in a reduced reliability in the life of the generator. 2.317 0. 3. The lead wire was reduced in size.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Repair requirements included complete rewind of the stator and rotor with approved overtime in order to meet the vessel’s shipyard schedule. The winding conductors were increased in size.10 1.2588 0. Poor Condition In this generator. it affects the circuit enough that significant tuning was required to be able to synchronize the generator. both MCA and ESA were performed as part of a routine maintenance. The rotating fields were not rewound as was determined by the ESA analysis.8436 0.60 Inductance 0.1070 Impedance 1. Figure 8: Acceptance ESA Test Several details on the repair were determined during the inspection: 1. This increases the heat related losses at the leads and restrict the maximum current capability of the generator. While this allows the generator to operate slightly cooler.321 0.

as will be discussed in Part 3. It is expected that the winding conditions (L and Z) will balance out and the insulation resistance will improve. the Fi and I/F primarily are used as trendable values unless specific procedures are followed.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL The MCA analysis involved positioning the rotor to a set location and performing an analysis. Based upon these findings. 360 Hz +/60Hz) with a gradually dampening set of harmonics. low insulation to ground. impedance and inductance matching and questionable winding conditions were determined. 82 . However. A loose connection. Figure 9: Case 2 Generator Voltage Signature The signature found in Figure 9 indicates a relatively good rotor with the line frequency sidebands of the number of rotor fields times the line frequency (in this case. coupled with a visual inspection. the generator should be scheduled for a cleaning.

a signature was determined as 60Hz sidebands around the running speed times the number of stator slots of the generator. 83 . The voltage signatures identify a relatively low level of rotor frequency. Good A common issue with wind turbine generators is the passage of grit or dust through the generator windings causing winding shorts. This identifies a good online analysis of this system. etc.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Case #3: Wind Turbine Generators. In this case. As identified in Part 1 of this series. bearing problems. loose coils. Loose Coils Figure 11: Loose Coils During a routine analysis. most likely. Figure 10: Good Readings In figure 10. this indicates ‘Stator Mechanical’ which is defined as loose coils or a loose stator. Case #4: Wind Turbine Generators. the peaks are dominant in current (upper spectra) which is related to the load. it was determined to be.

MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Conclusion The electrical motor diagnostics techniques of motor circuit analysis and electrical signature analysis are uniquely adapted for troubleshooting and trending of developing generator electrical and mechanical problems. 84 . they can also be used to detect potential warranty issues in new and repaired machines prior to bringing the generators online. Used together.

we will discuss the full application and analysis of both MCA and ESA on generator systems. Overheats or Trips Offline. Fails to Meet Load Requirements. The information can be used for motor diagnostics with the technologies used individually or combined. Part 2 discussed several case studies related to the application of electrical motor diagnostics with generators. we can now look into failure causes. CT 06475 Introduction The purpose of this series of white papers has been to discuss the application of Motor Circuit Analysis (MCA) and Electrical Signature Analysis (ESA) on turbine and salient pole generators. what causes each of these conditions to exist. and at what stage. Fails to Operate Smoothly As the failures have been identified. We will have to consider the generator by itself from the coupling to the driver to the cable connections. in order to understand what Electrical Motor Diagnostics (EMD) technologies will detect. We will explore these in Table 1. in this case a generic generator. Fails to Produce Power. and. This leaves the following components for our review: • • • • • Armature (Stator) Air Gap Rotor and Rotor Windings Shaft and Bearings Exciter System With this. A Division of BJM Corp Old Saybrook.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Electrical Motor Diagnostics for Generators Part 3 – Analysis ALL-TEST Pro. In Part 1. or. 3. 2. The three basic failures of the system can be identified as: 1. In Part 3. Generator Issues and Potential Failures One of the more important parts of any type of analysis is an overview of the potential types of failures for a system. 85 . the discussion related to the use and application of MCA and ESA and the basic components of both types of generators. we can perform a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) that will provide us with the basis for testing.

ESA ESA MCA. ESA Bearing defects ESA ESA Misalignment ESA MCA. ESA MCA. ESA ESA ESA MCA. ESA Rotor unbalance ESA ESA *Condition testing means the technology is capable of significant trending on most machines. Open or Shorted Windings Grounded. ESA MCA.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Failure Fails to produce power. ESA Exciter failure ESA Grounded rotating fields MCA MCA. Open or Shorted Rotor Fields Shorted or Open Windings Shorted or Open Rotor Fields Bearing Defects Failed Exciter Misalignment Rotor Eccentricity Rotor Unbalance 86 . Failure Finding indicates that the technology will normally find the fault following failure. ESA MCA. ESA Shorted rotating fields MCA MCA. Technology MCA ESA Table 2: Detection Capability Capability Grounded. ESA Rotor eccentricity ESA MCA. overheats or trips offline Table 1: Failure Causes and CBM Technology Causes *Condition Testing Grounded winding MCA Shorted winding Open winding Bearing defects Failed exciter Grounded rotating fields Shorted rotating fields Open rotating fields Grounded winding Shorted winding Exciter failure Grounded rotating fields Shorted rotating fields Bearing defects Grounded winding MCA ESA MCA MCA MCA MCA MCA MCA ESA MCA *Failure Finding MCA MCA. ESA MCA MCA. ESA ESA MCA Fails to meet load requirements Fails to operate smoothly Shorted winding MCA MCA. ESA MCA.

Position 2 may impact the test results. The remainder of this paper will focus on the analysis of each type of fault and associated procedures.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL By understanding the failure modes and effects. The rotor compensation test allows for immediate troubleshooting of winding condition and can also be used for trending. 1. the relationship of the rotor coils and each of the phases. Rotor compensation testing. Once the EMD is selected. 2. the correct selection of EMD technology can be selected to evaluate the condition of the generator. data is collected and analyzed. can cause a relative unbalance in readings. the relative position of the rotor fields in Position 1 vs. When the rotor is in one position. Set up the MCA device per instructions. 87 . By trending over time. The position may be selected as simply as a shaft key located in the 12 O’clock position. The Challenge with MCA on Generators One of the challenges faced when analyzing assembled generators relates to the position of the rotating fields with the stator windings and the lead location from which the signal is generated from the instrument. including phase angle and current frequency testing. Its advantage is that the rotor only has to be moved once. with the rotor in the same position. or. Some machines are able to be turned relatively simply. In Figure 1. There are two solutions to this situation: Trending over time using a specific procedure. allowing for detection of changes to condition. Figure 1: Rotor and Stator Relationship Position 2 Position 2 Position 1 Position 1 A B C A B C Winding: Coil Direction of Fields The rotor windings are spaced across the rotor. other machines may have a jacking screw for turning the shaft. the values can be tracked over time. Trending Procedure Following is the procedure for trending condition over time. and relationship of those phases to each other. Select a position for the shaft and mark it for future reference.

4. Perform the insulation to ground test. Set up the MCA device per instructions. such as the ALL-TEST PRO 31™. 2. Place the black lead on Phase A and the red lead on Phase B and take and save data as you would for any three phase motor. 6. 3. Record the data. Move the red lead to Phase C and take and save data. 1. 88 . Record the data.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL 3. Place the black lead on Phase A and the red lead on Phase B and rotate the shaft until you obtain the lowest possible inductance or impedance reading. 5. Perform the insulation to ground test. Move the black lead to Phase B then rotate the shaft until you obtain the lowest possible inductance or impedance reading. 4. Record the data. Move the red lead to Phase C then rotate the shaft until you obtain the lowest possible inductance or impedance reading. 5. Move the black lead to Phase B and take and save data. the rotor may be compensated for troubleshooting purposes. Rotor Compensation Procedure Using a real-time inductance or impedance meter.

Otherwise.250 Ohms. from the average I/F +/. 6 A motor with a low. direct shorts and different wire sizes.080 Ohms. look for significant differences such as 0. burned and Inductance Patterns6 windings (overheated). very large phase unbalances or (L) very poor rotor condition. then the fault resides in the rotating fields. Phase Angle (Fi) +/-1 digit Indicates a winding short in the stator or rotor.082 Ohms and 0. if the results change phases. and. then the problem can be further located by moving the shaft (within one quarter turn) and re-performing the tests. if the readings improve. the generator windings. or both. then the problem is in the cables. from average Insulation >5 MegOhm7 Indicates poor insulation to ground condition or Resistance >100 ground fault. then the problem exists in the generator. Once a problem is identified. then the problem is in the stator coils. Therefore. If the readings show a normal winding. in order to identify the exact condition.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL MCA Analysis of Generators When testing a generator that is balanced or the Rotor Compensation Procedure is being used. broken wires. including testing at the generator leads directly and moving the shaft position: • By testing at the generator leads directly. medium and high value of inductance on each phase should have a corresponding pattern of impedance.400 Ohms would indicate a problem. then the problem exists in both the generator and cables. several additional steps are necessary in order to pinpoint the location of the fault(s). Impedance (Z) Similar Used for detecting winding contamination. you can determine if a fault exists in cabling.2 digits Indicates a winding short in the stator or rotor. Table 3: MCA Tolerances – Compensated Rotor Test for Generators Test Result Tolerance Detail Resistance (R) <5%5 Used for detecting loose connections. 7 For generators with a voltage rating less than 600 Volts 8 For generators with a voltage rating greater than 600 Volts 5 89 . if the readings stay the same. 0. • Above 0. If the poor test results remain in the same phase. Once the generator has been identified. MegOhm8 MCA devices have the ability to detect cable faults. the tolerances found in Table 3 can be used to identify that a problem exists. then the condition will have to be evaluated further. as well as faults within the generator stator and rotor fields.

L R. in voltage. any similar peaks that show in the voltage and current spectra. perform an insulation to ground test on the rotor ensuring that any rotating diodes are disconnected. In this case. then the fault is generator related. Troubleshoot if critical machine > 3 pts Troubleshoot Rotor problems. The key is to remember that voltage is for supply equipment and current for load equipment. 90 .MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL If you are using the trending method. otherwise it is supply related. I/F Fi. Z. I/F Table 4: Test Tolerances for Generator Trending Change from Baseline Severity < 3% Good >3 . Troubleshoot if critical machine > 5% Troubleshoot <1 pt Good > 1 .< 3 pts Monitor. To confirm condition. can be the result of either a grounded or shorted coil or set of coils. Reading R. if identified. as well. The above tests will identify the following faults in the generator: • • • Grounded stator or rotor windings Shorted stator or rotor windings Open stator or rotor windings The Challenge of ESA on Generators The primary difference between testing rotating machines and generators is that voltage signature analysis is used to evaluate the condition of generators. If the insulation to ground is good. if the voltage peak is dominant (greater than the current dB). All of the signatures that would normally be used for detecting faults in current are used. while current signature analysis is used for rotating machines. L Fi. I/F Fi. instead. then the fault is a shorted rotating field. then Table 4 applies for detecting faults over time. L R. Z.< 5 % Monitor. Z.

MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Fault Analysis with ESA ESA evaluation of the generator will produce similar results as synchronous motors. etc. Sidebands and patterns around the rotating field frequencies. normally indicate driver issues. Space of four times Line Frequency then two Line Frequency peaks Grounded and shorted rotating fields and exciter faults will show as rotor indicators.) Line Frequency Sidebands Stator Shorts (shorted windings) CF = RS x Stator Slots Line Frequency sidebands with Running Speed sidebands Rotor Indicator CF = RS x Rotor Slots Line Frequency sidebands Static Eccentricity CF = RS x Rotor Slots Line Frequency and twice Line Frequency sidebands. except that the results will be in voltage (reference Table 5). research continues as to specific fault analysis of variations of the rotating field frequencies. Dynamic Eccentricity CF = RS x Rotor Slots Line Frequency and twice Line Frequency with Running Speed sidebands Mechanical Unbalance (and Misalignment) CF = RS x Rotor Slots Line Frequency Sidebands.line frequency sidebands as the fundamental plus harmonics with a descending pattern (Figure 2) in voltage high frequency. Variations of this pattern indicate field faults. stator CF = RS x Stator Slots core movement. At the time of the drafting of this paper. Salient Pole Rotors One of the differences that exist in both synchronous motors and generators with Salient Poles is the rotating field signature. Table 5: Generator Signature Analysis Type of Fault Pattern (CF = Center Frequency) Stator Mechanical (i.: loose coils. in the high frequency spectrum. 91 . An additional fault indicator includes sidebands of the number of poles squared around the line frequency (Figure 3).e. The rotating field is observed as the number of rotor field coils times the frequency +/.

High Frequency (Good) 6-pole machine Figure 3: Rotating Field Signature. Low Frequency (Poor Condition) 6-pole machine Figure 4: Rotating Field Signature. High Frequency (Poor Condition) 92 .MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Figure 2: Rotating Field Signature.

Ph.D.D. 2005 93 . Motor Circuit Analysis: Theory. 2004. Combined. condition of the exciter. winding shorts in the rotor and stator. 2005 “Electrical Motor Diagnostics for Generators Part 2: Case Studies.. Howard W.. they are able to detect and analyze insulation to ground condition of the rotor and stator. Ph. bearings and air-gap eccentricity. 2001.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Conclusion The most powerful combination of tools for condition based maintenance of generators are motor circuit analysis tools that include phase angle and current/frequency analysis and electrical signature analysis. Penrose. Howard W. Most of the data can be trended as well as providing the ability to troubleshoot the equipment. “Electrical Motor Diagnostics for Generators Part 1: The Basics. SUCCESS by DESIGN Publishing. Bibliography Penrose. ALL-TEST Pro. Motor Diagnostics 2-Day Training Manual. Applications and Energy Analysis.” ALL-TEST Pro.” ALL-TEST Pro.

a low voltage DC signal for resistance.D Old Saybrook. In addition. 94 . inductance. measured in Meg-Ohms. Some of the basic tests described can be performed on permanent magnet. shunt. insulation resistance. the issue of simple tests to increase the confidence of testing and analysis conclusions using Motor Circuit Analysis (MCA) shall be discussed. manufacturing and repair centers alike. DC machine tools. and 500 or 1. and others (although brushless DC motors are evaluated in a similar fashion to AC motors). In this article. This test is introduced to identify early winding shorts that may exist in the winding. should exact information not be provided.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL APPENDIX 8: DC Current Motor Electrical Evaluation Using Motor Circuit Analysis Howard W. signal at frequencies from 100 to 800 hertz. Using the applied data. Penrose. CT Introduction Electrical testing of Direct Current (DC) electric motors is a challenge within industry. the condition of a DC motor winding can be evaluated through coil comparisons. measured in Ohms. comparisons to known readings. phase angle). Ph. DC servo. or by trending changes to the windings over a period of time. measured in Henries. These basic components include: resistance. The key issue has to do with the ability to compare one coil to the next. measured in degrees. The types of DC electric motors can be described by their windings and connections. the induction winding phase angle. alternating current (impedance. and compound DC motors. impedance. The term MCA is derived from a test method that provides information on the basic components of an AC or DC electric motor. The DC electric motors that will be included in this article are: series. a special test called I/F is performed in which the applied frequency is doubled and a ratio results from the change in the winding impedance. true sine-wave. and.000 volts DC for the insulation resistance test. inductance. measured in Ohms. The instrument that will be referred to in this article provides these readings by generating a low voltage.

power is provided to a stator field and an armature creating magnetic fields that are. It is used to mount most of the other components of the motor. DC motors require separate power to be provided to both the fields and the armature. In most DC motor connections. Ø Fields – Are coils mounted on field pole pieces that generate a stationary magnetic field. based upon brush position. This actually makes the armature an Alternating Current component as the current will travel in one direction. The brushes ride on the commutator. and to house the shaft bearings. holding the armature centered in the frame. Ø Commutator – Consists of many copper bars that are separated by mica. Each bar is connected to coils in the armature. As the armature generates a torque and moves towards the appropriate North or South pole. the motor may take off and the speed increase until the armature self-destructs. Ø Armature – Is the rotating portion of the motor that contains coils. brush rigging. Ø End shields – Also called bearing housings. the operating speed may be changed. electrically. 95 . energizing another set of coils 90 electrical degrees from the stationary field. The basic components of a DC electric motor include: Ø Frame – Makes up the outer structure of the machine. by varying the armature voltage. One general danger that is inherent in DC motors is that if field current is lost while armature current is maintained. In the case of a DC electric motor. about 90 degrees from each other.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL DC Motor Theory Direct Current electric motors operate under a basic principle of electricity: interaction between two magnetic fields positioned at an angle from each other will attract/repel resulting in movement. Usually. The resulting attraction/repulsion of the armature from the field generates a torque and the armature turns. then in another direction as the motor operates. Ø Interpoles – Are coils that are placed between the field coils that generate a field that is used to prevent excessive sparking of the brushes. the brushes change position on the commutator. Ø Brushes – Are used to provide DC to the armature. The DC provided to the stator fields generate a constant North and South set of fields. Ø Brush rigging – Holds and positions the brushes above the armature commutator. are used to house the brushes. The brushes are set in such a position that they are electrically “neutral” (no induced current from the stator fields) in order to reduce sparking. DC provided to the armature generates North and South fields that are 90 electrical degrees from the stationary field. a tension device is used to maintain a constant pressure on the brushes. Unlike most AC motors.

Figure 2: Shunt Wound Motor F1 A1 A2 F2 96 . that are connected in series to the interpoles and armature. They consist of a set of field windings of large wire and relatively few turns. Shunt connected motors are normally used as crane and machine tool motors and have a relatively high basic resistance. Figure 1: Series Motor A1 A2 S1 S2 Ø Shunt: Normally found in applications that require constant speed. and A1 and A2 for the interpoles and armature (See Figures 2). Series connected motors are normally used as traction motors and have a very low basic resistance.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL The three basic winding types that can be used to identify the type of DC motor include: Ø Series: Normally found in applications that need a high starting torque. marked A1 and A2 (See Figure 1). marked F1 and F2 for single voltage and F1. F2. marked S1 and S2. F3 and F4 for dual voltage. They consist of a set of field windings of smaller wire with many turns.

brushes also degrade faster. These result from issues specific to DC motor design as a result of temperature. procedures can be developed for winding testing that provide a high level of test result confidence. Temperature is the greatest enemy of electrical equipment. They provide a relatively high torque with a basic resistance to a change in operating speed. Common DC Motor Electrical Faults There are a number of common DC motor electrical faults of which the most common will be described here. Another common fault. In addition to the insulation system degrading. causing increased wear on the commutator and additional carbon contamination of the windings. Carbon is often trapped and problems aggravated further through cleaning and maintenance practices when the carbon is blown with compressed air or the armature is cleaned and baked. particularly the insulation system. friction and internal contaminants such as carbon or graphite. As the insulation weakens. that is often not considered. This will end as a ground fault or shorted turns right at the commutator connection. The fine powder permeates all of the stationary and rotating windings and will create a path between conductors or between conductors to ground. Compound motors are the most common and are commonly found in industrial manufacturing. of which the life will be reduced by half for every 10 degrees centigrade increase in temperature (accepted rule of thumb). Figure 3: Compound Wound Motor F1 A1 A2 S1 S2 F2 As it can be seen. is cooling of the DC machine. In either case. One of the most common causes of winding faults in a DC motor is from winding contamination from carbon or graphite (carbon) dust from the brushes. The connections combine both the series and shunt connections (See Figure 3). However. its reliability decreases until winding faults between turns occur. the armature is turned too slow with no additional cooling. there are few coils to compare to each other in an assembled DC machine. 97 . This may occur because cooling passages are blocked.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Ø Compound: Combine the benefits of both the series and shunt wound motors. usually just behind the commutator. the carbon may become tightly packed in corners. or from dirty filters (the most common cooling-related fault).

before testing. using an approved method. mark down the reading. A properly operating DC motor will have a fine glaze of carbon on the commutator with the bars looking uniform. This is a common mode of operation that requires a separate blower to provide cooling to the motor that normally has filters that must be kept clean. however. In the case of a DC motor that has two brushes. which takes them out of the testing circuit. or overheated commutator conditions indicate potential problems that should be addressed. Impedance is viewed because the armature is an AC component and simple resistance measurements may miss some faults including shorts and grounds. mark the position of one bar on the commutator. Take the next impedance reading and continue until each bar has been tested. If the commutator is badly worn. This type of fault normally results in shorted shunt coils. In the assembled test. polish the armature gently.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Another fault that is related to heat is generated from practices that have the fields energized with the armature at rest (de-energized). The spacing between each impedance reading should be constant and about 90 to 180 degrees from each other. A good result will show a consistent pattern. heavy carbon. Once set. in the case of assembled and disassembled testing a bar to bar impedance measurement will be used. it will need to be disassembled and the commutator “turned and undercut. you will probably be covering at least one and a half bars with the brush. Trending will be reviewed in an overall trending procedure for DC motors later in this article. assembled. reducing the motor’s ability to produce torque and may end with the dangerous condition of armature overspeed if not maintained properly. Burned commutator bars. and move the armature so that the leading edge of the brush is over the next commutator bar. In this case. Armature Testing DC armatures are the most time consuming but easiest component to test. none of the brushes needs to be raised. Make sure that good contact is maintained on the commutator by ensuring that 90%+ of the brush is in contact with the commutator bars and that the commutator bars are clean. disassembled. streaked glazing. the best method is to perform what’s commonly known as a bar-to-bar test using the motor brushes. If they are not clean. and. When testing an assembled DC motor armature. the tester will use an armature fixture or test leads to connect from bar to bar. all measurements are used. as well as an indicator of motor operation and condition. There are three basic methods that will be introduced: trending. In the case of trending. The commutator also provides opportunities for faults. other than the armature is out of the frame and the tester has full access to the commutator. The first bar should be marked and testing continue until one leg of the testing fixture or test lead 98 . then bring the bar to a position where it is just under the leading edge of one of the brushes. in the case of a DC motor that has four or more sets of brushes.” in which case a disassembled bar to bar test would be appropriate. all but two sets 90 degrees from each other need to be raised. Perform an impedance test. Disassembled bar-to-bar testing is similar to assembled testing. while an inconsistent pattern will identify a poor armature.

simple resistance readings must be corrected for temperature. Impedance and Inductance normally has limited change due to temperature while the phase angle and I/F readings will remain constant.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL has made it 360 degrees around the commutator. while changes in Impedance and Inductance will normally indicate dirty windings. the I/F and phase angle readings can be directly compared. When performing comparative readings. When testing and troubleshooting the readings over time. when trending readings. at the same temperature as the 99 . using F1 to F2 as opposed to S1 to S2. Variations in the I/F and phase angle will indicate shorted turns. the shunt windings are labeled F1 to F2 and F3 to F4 allowing the analyst to test and compare these two sets of windings. as well as speed. These readings should not change more than +/. however. usually relative to 25oC. The operator will have to ensure that the motor is of the same manufacturer and design. Mark the impedance for each bar-to-bar test then look to ensure that there was a consistent pattern. Readings may be taken from S1 to S2 and A1 to A2 then trended over time or compared to other similar machines. etc. Variations in the I/F and phase angle will indicate shorted turns. regardless of temperature. although less common that shunt coils. regardless of temperature. the motors should be tested. within 1 to 2 points. Impedance and Inductance will change more than a series wound motor because of the higher simple resistance of the circuit. Shunt Motor Testing Dual voltage shunt motors provide the ability to compare two sets of windings while single voltage motors will have the same test procedure as testing series motor windings. simple resistance readings must be corrected for temperature. The “model” motor must be new or rebuilt to original manufacturer’s specifications. which will impact the ability of the motor to generate torque. The phase angle and I/F will remain constant. When possible. Series Motor Testing Series electric motors are very challenging to troubleshoot as they do not provide sets of fields to compare to. Comparing like motors will require additional information. A common error when series field windings are rebuilt. With dual voltage. When trending the readings over time. power. Comparisons between F1 to F2 and F3 to F4 should be less than 3% in resistance.2 points for I/F and +/. is an incorrect replacement of wire size.1 degree for phase angle. Like motors can be tested and compared the same as series wound motors. inductance and impedance and no more than 1 point different in I/F or phase angle. the testing temperature should be similar from motor to motor. usually relative to 25oC. while changes in Impedance and Inductance will normally indicate dirty windings.

Troubleshooting compound motors should be performed at the motor. Disconnect all motor leads and separate them. insulation resistance readings should remain above 100 Meg-Ohms. 3. dual voltage compound motors are normally labeled A1 to A2. indicates a loose connection. For instance. may indicate a short. within minutes of shutting down operating equipment or before starting equipment. Standard MCA tests using the ALL-TEST involve low voltage. As mentioned in series and shunt motor testing techniques. when corrected for temperature. the I/F and phase angle readings should not change more than 1 point between tests. the leads must be disconnected from the drive. reducing the need to disconnect the leads from the drive while testing. The ALL-TEST unit allows the analyzer to immediately compare the past to present readings as a quick check allowing the analyzer to make a quick decision to test the windings further. higher frequency signals that will not harm the output electronics of the equipment. Test the series and field windings as outlined in the series and shunt winding instructions. over time. A reduced simple resistance. An increase in simple resistance between tests. the tests are normally taken from the DC drive terminals. phase angle and I/F. however. inductance. If the test shows an infinite resistance between leads of the same circuit indicates an open winding. 4. itself. this allows for the tests to be performed at like temperatures. Single voltage compound motors are normally labeled A1 to A2. S1 to S2 and F1 to F2. any difference greater than this should prompt a full analysis. if the analyst wishes to check insulation resistance between the series and shunt windings. General DC MCA Testing Notes Several key points can be made using MCA testing on any type of DC motor: 1. Any I/F reading outside the range of –15 to –50. -56. trending and troubleshooting is much simpler with a compound motor. F1 to F2 and F3 to F4. A key additional point to a compound wound motor is that the series winding is normally wound on top of the shunt winding. the insulation resistance should be greater than 100 Meg-Ohms. when corrected for temperature. S1 to S2.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL previous tests. When trending from the DC drive. then perform an insulation resistance test between the series and shunt windings. for instance. 100 . 2. test A1 to S2 and the two field leads then perform a 500 Volt insulation resistance test between the S2 and F1 leads and compare to previous tests or similar motors. usually accompanied by changes in impedance. However. Trending a compound motor. Compound Motor Testing In place testing. in either case. When testing like motors. indicates a winding fault. allowing for possible faults between these two windings. the I/F and phase angle should not change more than 2 points. in particular when impedance and inductance readings change. the series and field windings will vary dramatically from each other.

MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL 5. the tests are relatively quick. early turn faults can be detected in series. the interval should be at least those shown in Table 1. If performing tests as part of a predictive maintenance program. A complete armature test should be performed either in conjunction with a general or predictive maintenance test due to the high stresses at the commutator and carbon contamination. shunt and armature windings before they take equipment out of operation. requiring less than five minutes per motor for predictive maintenance testing. Overall. commutator inspection and brush inspection. Usually accompanied with vibration. Conclusion General electrical testing of direct current electric motors is made much easier with new techniques available with static motor circuit analysis. 101 . For the first time. By following these simple instructions. In general. Test Type General Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Armature Test Table 1: DC Motor Test Frequency Non-Critical General 1 year 6-9 months 6 months 3 months 1 year 6 months Critical 3-6 months 1 month 3 months General maintenance tests are those that are not trended over time. will allow you to capture early faults long before the equipment fails during operation. Predictive maintenance testing normally involves trending readings over time looking to detect potential faults then to determine the best time to remove the motor for corrective maintenance. MCA testing dramatically improves DC motor testing over the traditional methods of continuity tests. using an MCA device. Predictive maintenance tests can be performed from the drive with troubleshooting tests being performed at the motor. bearing greasing. the testing frequency should increase until it is determined that the motor needs to be removed. Once a potential fault is detected. with additional time required for troubleshooting. Changes when testing through the armature circuit should prompt a bar to bar test.

The resulting phase unbalances and rotor tests were evaluated (Figure 1 and Table 1 are examples of the common results): Figure 1: Rotor Test (Inductance) Table 1: Winding Analysis T1-T2 Resistance 0.Phase Unbalance at Vermont Yankee Nuclear Description Location: Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant Equipment: 50 HP.000. delta connected electric motor was installed and rotation checked on the Vermont Yankee generator bearing cooling pump. -016 and -016 (% unbalance) phase to phase when the rotor was shifted to the peak unbalance on each phase. It was one of two motors and would only be brought into operation if the primary motor failed. LLC™ Case Study: Phase Unbalance 012002 Theme: Case Study .175 49 9 77 -44 >99M T2-T3 0.168 44 8 77 -45 102 . 3600 RPM.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL APPENDIX 9: Case Study . 3600 RPM. Two additional motors of the same model and similar serial numbers were selected for review and tested using both the ALL-TEST IV PRO™ 2000 and ALL-TEST III™. The motor was also exhibiting a 120Hz vibration (electrical) and had an excessive operating temperature.163 Impedance 30 Inductance 6 Phase 77 Angle I/F -44 Insulation T1-T3 0. Initial Readings An ALL-TEST III™ was used to determine the phase unbalance. Cooling pump motor Effected Systems: 500 MW Generator Bearing Cooling Failure Cost: $1. 480 Volt. Open Drip Proof.000 A 50 HP.000. although the peak current identified the motor as operating at 90% load. When the primary failed.Phase Unbalance at Vermont Yankee Nuclear ALL-TEST Pro.000 Savings: >$1. It was noticed that there was an 11% (p-p) current unbalance with a less than 0. with results of 000.5% voltage unbalance. the motor was brought online.

the manufacturer made a decision to significantly increase the size of the first set of coils in their automated process (first phase) that also happens to be the furthest from the rotor. The emergency generator shutdown may have caused damage to the generator bearings and an unplanned electrical outage. The motor manufacturing process improvement caused the unbalance. A program of incoming inspection using both the ALL-TEST III™ and ALL-TEST IV PRO™ 2000 will identify these potentially costly failures prior to installation of the equipment.000. No dynamometer testing. These defects may be the result of production/repair mistakes or design errors. or otherwise was performed on the motor design other than an applied voltage impedance test that ‘met design requirements. Subsequent detection of similar motor conditions through new and repaired motors has continued to justify the incoming test and inspection program. reducing the equipment‘s winding appearance and mechanical strength. Possibilities were explored ranging from power quality to test equipment calibration. Cost Avoidance The generator would have had to shut down within two minutes of the second motor failure. vibration and heating of the motor.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL The unbalance was found to be striking. Next Step The motor manufacturer was contacted and noted that process changes were made at a particular location for larger concentric wound machines. Vermont Yankee Nuclear has now implemented a program to test all incoming critical electric motors prior to acceptance using a combination of the ALL-TEST III™ and ALLTEST IV PRO™ 2000. Lessons Learned New and repaired electric motors are not immune to defects. In a motor of this size and speed. several new motors were found to have rotor casting voids that would impact the motor‘s ability to produce torque. and related to the unbalanced current. inductance is directly impacted by distance from the rotor. Motors from other manufacturers were evaluated and found to have balanced windings.’ Electrically. All were satisfactory.000 through the detection of the fault. Cost avoidance was estimated at well over $1. However. 103 . the first set of concentric coils (one phase) curls under the following phases. In order to combat that issue. number of conductors and dimension of the coil. full load testing. This allows the coil ends to appear without having to make post-winding modifications to the coils.

delivery and manpower Savings: >$500. LLC™ Case Study: Dynamometers 012002 Theme: Case Study .Dynamometer at Automotive Plant Description Location: Mid-Western Truck Transmission Manufacturing Facility Dynamometer Motor: 200 Horsepower.MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL APPENDIX 10: Case Study: Dynamometers 012002 ALL-TEST Pro.000 in sensitive drive equipment during production. causing an unplanned outage of 8% of the final test production area. not including production. The first test was performed at the Motor Control Center (MCC) and indicated a severe short (I/F and Phase Angle) and loose connections (Resistance): Table 1: Test at MCC T1-T2 T1-T3 T2-T3 Resistance 0. delivery and manpower A special dynamometer system failed at a mid-Western truck transmission plant in the final test stage of their process line.255 8.000 in equipment.253 Impedance 7 10 10 Inductance 1 2 2 Phase 62 20 21 Angle I/F -43 -16 -18 Insulation >99M 104 . Special Motor and Dynamometer Drive. Initial Readings The ALL-TEST IV PRO™ 2000 was applied to determine the cause of the fault. The fault damaged over $125.000 in equipment. 480 Volts Effected Systems: Final In-Process Inspections.013 8. 8% of capacity effected Failure Cost: >$125. not including production.

The fault was a direct short that caused catastrophic damage to the drive.034 8 1 64 -43 T1-T3 0. Note that the cable did not ground. The system was added to the plant‘s reliability program and several other dynamometer cables were found to be in the same condition. the motor was tested at the motor connection box with the following good results: Table 2: Test at Motor Connection Box T1-T2 0. One dynamometer motor (150 Horsepower) was found to have a coil short: Table 3: 150 Horsepower Dynamometer at MCC T1-T2 0. When inspected.006 7 1 63 -43 MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Resistance Impedance Inductance Phase Angle I/F Insulation This indicated that the fault was in the cabling.022 7 1 60 -43 T1-T3 0.As per standard practice. it was found that the connections had been incorrectly crimped causing a loose connection that caused the cable insulation to break down and fail.022 9 1 64 -42 Resistance Impedance Inductance Phase Angle I/F Insulation 105 . Next Step Motor Circuit Analysis (MCA) had not been performed on the dynamometer system prior to the cable fault.022 7 1 62 -43 >99M T2-T3 0.024 9 1 64 -43 >99M T2-T3 0.

011 7 1 63 -43 >99M T2-T3 0. cable faults and winding faults will often provide a very quick simple payback for the program. of at least $500. can be used to provide incoming inspection.The final test stage is very critical.000 should the failures occur the same way as the first 200 horsepower dynamometer. Each dynamometer failure reduces the production capability of the plant by 8% during the final test stage. trending analysis and troubleshooting capabilities rare in predictive maintenance equipment. in equipment only. Lessons Learned A review of critical motors in the plant would identify critical equipment that must be included in the reliability program. 106 . using the ALL-TEST IV PRO™ 2000. so the Reliability Department added an acceptance test stage to all new and repaired dynamometer motors. Motor Circuit Analysis. An example of a good new 200 Horsepower dynamometer motor test is as follows: Table 4: 200 Horsepower Dynamometer Acceptance Test T1-T2 0.010 8 1 64 -43 MCA ANALYSIS MANUAL Resistance Impedance Inductance Phase Angle I/F Insulation Cost Avoidance Early detection and correction of the other faults generated cost avoidance. Identification of loose connections.012 8 1 64 -43 T1-T3 0.

One of the advances of the AT31 is the ability to adjust the test frequency to 100 Hz and below.APPENDIX 11: Utilizing the ALL-TEST PRO 31™ To Detect Pin-Hole Shorts Utilizing the ALL-TEST PRO 31™ To Detect Pin-Hole Shorts The ALL-TEST PRO 31™ (AT31) is the most advanced hand-held go/no-go motor tester available. all for under $1. What is a pin-hole short? A Pin-Hole short is a very small short that generally occurs in the end-turns of a motor winding. Case in point: In an effort to show that high voltage surge testing could outperform low voltage motor circuit analysis (ALL-TEST Pro technology). The purpose of this ‘short’ article is to describe how to use the AT31’s hypersensitivity effectively at these lower frequencies. the results are sometimes borderline. As a result. We have found that the AT31 is very sensitive when we get to 100 Hz and below. the replacement for the ALLTEST III has been designed to be more sensitive. (Reference “Motor Circuit Analysis Concept and Principle” article – available upon request. a pin-hole short was induced into a 2 horsepower motor winding (using a surge-tester. For this reason. These were uncommon prior to the 1990’s. perform rotor tests visually.500. the AT31 should default to 200 Hz when started. The shorts occur in a very small area between individual turns in a coil. for the technical description). check insulation to ground and perform an EMI (Electro. The AT31 has the ability to detect winding shorts. as lower frequencies will ‘amplify’ winding shorts for improved sensitivity. The ALL-TEST IV PRO™ 2000 and ALL-TEST III™ are both able to detect these type of shorts. but is limited to only smaller 480 Volt motors and still weighs over 36 lbs. requiring some experience to detect them. hence the term pin-hole short. I might add) by a potential customer.Magnetic Induction) test on the circuit. This is very important.000 USD plus Note: Baker has just released a ‘baby surge tester’ that costs $12. They can cause the motor to trip on a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) but often operate OK across the line (standard 50 or 60 Hz power). These shorts are often the diameter of a pin. 107 . in particular with the ALL-TEST III. but became common following the increased application of Pulse-Width Modulated (PWM) drives. However. We have created an instrument that outperforms surge comparison testers and other competitor equipment that sell for an average of $26.000 USD.

The result was a separation of over 5 digits between phases. Test 3 T1-T2 T1-T3 T2-T3 Fi 70 71 75 I/F -45 -45 -47 108 . This may have been seen as a ‘gray area’ finding (a gray area is when the test result looks unbalanced or is just out of the test spec). When testing. then the winding is in poor shape. For instance. to reduce the chances of false-positives. Test 2 T1-T2 T1-T3 T2-T3 Fi 70 71 73 I/F -44 -44 -45 If the results separate more. 60. The Test technicians selected a lower test frequency of 60 Hz on the AT31. The AT31. In the meantime. 30 or 25 Hz) and re-test. then the winding is good. based upon experiment. but the difference between readings remains the same). you now have the opportunity to confirm the condition of a motor by taking a more sensitive look at ‘gray area’ test results. as did the ALLTEST IV PRO 2000.The short was designed so that it would take 1750 volts before the latest surge test technology could detect the fault. saw a test result just out of range. if you have test results that appear (at 200 Hz): Test 1 T1-T2 T1-T3 T2-T3 Fi 66 67 69 I/F -44 -44 -45 You can adjust the frequency down (100. as shown in Test 3. If the test results remain similar (the actual readings will change by a few digits. several of the surge-test manufacturer personnel tested the motor and only one of their engineers caught the fault using their most advanced analyzer! How to use this new power? The default frequency of 200 Hz was selected. at the 200 Hz test frequency. 50.

Conclusion The ALL-TEST PRO 31 is the most powerful go/no-go winding tester on the market. Howard Penrose 109 . and simple test results. The AT31 quickly. Contributed by Dr. hand-held instruments. The advancement of our technology allows us to readily outperform our competitors and their technologies with simple. and accurately. removes all doubt as to the condition of questionable motor windings and commission new or repaired motors in minutes. We will be continuing to provide information on the capabilities of the ALL-TEST PRO 31 as we move forward.

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