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# Problems

P6.3-1

## (checked using LNAP 8/16/02)

P6.3-2
Apply KVL to loop 1:

− 12 + 3000 i1 + 0 + 2000 i1 = 0
12
⇒ i1 = = 2.4 mA
5000
The currents into the inputs of an ideal op
amp are zero so
io = i1 = 2.4 mA
i2 = − i1 = − 2.4 mA
va = i2 (1000 ) + 0 = −2.4 V

## Apply Ohm’s law to the 4 kΩ resistor

vo = va − io ( 4000 )
= −2.4 − ( 2.4 × 10−3 ) ( 4000 ) = −12 V

## (checked using LNAP 8/16/02)

P6.3-3
The voltages at the input nodes of an ideal op amp
are equal so va = −2 V .

## Apply KCL at node a:

vo − ( −2 ) 12 − ( −2 )
+ = 0 ⇒ vo = −30 V
8000 4000

−2 − vo
io = = 3.5 mA
8000

## (checked using LNAP 8/16/02)

P6.3-4
The voltages at the input nodes of an ideal
op amp are equal so v = 5 V .

## Apply KCL at the inverting input node of the

op amp:
⎛ v −5 ⎞ −3
−⎜ a ⎟ − 0.1×10 − 0 = 0 ⇒ va = 4 V
⎝ 10000 ⎠

va 1
i = = mA
20000 5

## (checked using LNAP 8/16/02)

P6.3-5
The voltages at the input nodes of
an ideal op amp are equal, so
va = 0 V . Apply KCL at node a:

⎛ v − 0 ⎞ ⎛ 12 − 0 ⎞ −3
−⎜ o ⎟−⎜ ⎟ − 2 ⋅10 = 0
⎝ 3000 ⎠ ⎝ 4000 ⎠
⇒ vo = − 15 V
Apply KCL at the output node of
the op amp:
v v
io + o + o = 0 ⇒ io = 7.5 mA
6000 3000
(checked using LNAP 8/16/02)
P6.3-6
The currents into the inputs of an ideal op amp
are zero and the voltages at the input nodes of
an ideal op amp are equal so va = 2.5 V .
Apply Ohm’s law to the 4 kΩ resistor:
v 2.5
ia = a = = 0.625 mA
4000 4000

## Apply KCL at node a:

ib = ia = 0.625 mA
Apply KVL:
vo = 8000 ib + 4000 ia
= (12 ×103 )( 0.625 × 10−3 ) = 7.5 V

## (checked using LNAP 8/16/02)

P6.3-7

⎛ v − 0 ⎞ ⎛ va − 0 ⎞ R2
−⎜ s ⎟ − ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + 0 = 0 ⇒ va = − vs
⎝ R1 ⎠ ⎝ R 2 ⎠ R1

0 − va 0 − va R 2 + R3 ⎛ R 2 + R3 ⎞
io = + =− va = ⎜
⎜ R1 R 3 ⎟⎟ s
v
R2 R3 R 2 R3 ⎝ ⎠
⎛ v − 0 ⎞ ⎛ va − 0 ⎞ R4 R2 R4
−⎜ o ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ + 0 = 0 ⇒ vo = − va = vs
⎜ R 4 ⎟ ⎜ R3 ⎟ R3 R1 R 3
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
P6.3-8

labeled using:

## 1. The currents into the

inputs of an ideal op amp are
zero and the voltages at the
input nodes of an ideal op
amp are equal.

2. KCL

3. Ohm’s law

Then

v0 = 11.8 − 1.8 = 10 V
and
10
io = = 2.5 mA
4000

## (checked using LNAP 8/16/02)

P6.3-9
KCL at node a:

va − ( −18 ) v
+ a + 0 = 0 ⇒ va = −12 V
4000 8000

## The node voltages at the input nodes of

ideal op amps are equal, so vb = va .

Voltage division:

8000
vo = vb = −8 V
4000 + 8000
(check using LNAP 8/16/02)
P6.3-10
Label the circuit as shown. The current in resistor R 3 is
i s . Consequently:
v a = i s R3

## Apply KCL at the top node of R 2 to get

va ⎛ R3 ⎞
i= + i s = ⎜1 +
⎜ R 2 ⎟⎟ s
i
R2 ⎝ ⎠
Using Ohm’s law gives

vo − va ⎛ R3 ⎞ ⎛ R1 R 3 ⎞
= i = ⎜1 + ⇒ v o = ⎜ R1 + R 3 +
⎜ R 2 ⎟⎟ s ⎟⎟ i s
i
R1 ⎜ R
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

We require
R1 R 3
R1 + R 3 + = 20
R2
e.g. R1 = 5 kΩ and R 2 = R3 = 10 kΩ .
(checked: LNAP 6/2/04)

P6.3-11
Label the circuit as shown. Apply KCL at the top
node of R 2 to get

vs − va va ⎛ R2 ⎞
= + 0 ⇒ va = ⎜
⎜ R1 + R 2 ⎟⎟ s
v
R1 R2 ⎝ ⎠

## Apply KCL at the inverting node of the op amp to

get
vo − va va ⎛ R3 + R 4 ⎞ ⎛ R3 + R 4 ⎞ ⎛ R 2 ⎞ R 2 ( R3 + R 4 )
= + 0 ⇒ vo = ⎜ ⎟ va = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ vs = vs
R3 R4 ⎜ R4 ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎜ R 4 ⎟ ⎜ R1 + R 2 ⎟
⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ( R1 + R 2 ) R 4

We require
R 2 ( R3 + R 4 )
=5
(R 1 + R2 ) R4

e.g. R1 = R 2 = 10 kΩ , R3 = 90 kΩ and R 4 = 10 kΩ .
(checked: LNAP 6/2/04)
Section 6-4: Nodal Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal Operational Amplifiers

P6.4-1

vb − 2 v v +5 1
KCL at node b: + b + b = 0 ⇒ vb = − V
20000 40000 40000 4
1
The node voltages at the input nodes of an ideal op amp are equal so ve = vb = − V.
4
ve v −v 10
KCL at node e: + e d = 0 ⇒ vd = 10 ve = − V
1000 9000 4

## (checked using LNAP 8/16/02)

P6.4-2
Apply KCL at node a:

va − 12 v v −0
0= + a + a ⇒ va = 4 V
6000 6000 6000

## Apply KCL at the inverting input of the op

amp:

⎛v −0⎞ ⎛ 0 − vo ⎞
−⎜ a ⎟+0+⎜ ⎟ = 0
⎝ 6000 ⎠ ⎝ 6000 ⎠
⇒ vo = − va = −4 V

## Apply KCL at the output of the op amp:

⎛ 0 − vo ⎞ vo
io − ⎜ ⎟+ = 0 (checked using LNAP 8/16/02)
⎝ 6000 ⎠ 6000
v
⇒ io = − o = 1.33 mA
3000
P6.4-3

## Apply KCL at the inverting input of

the op amp:

⎛ v − 0 ⎞ ⎛ vs − 0 ⎞
−⎜ a ⎟−⎜ ⎟ = 0
⎝ R2 ⎠ ⎝ R1 ⎠
R
⇒ va = − 2 vs
R1

## Apply KCL at node a:

va −v0 va va −0 ⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞ R R +R R +R R
+ + = 0 ⇒ v0 = R4 ⎜ + + ⎟ va = 2 3 2 4 3 4 va
R4 R3 R2 ⎝ R4 R3 R2 ⎠ R2 R3
R2 R3 + R2 R4 + R3 R4
=− vs
R1 R3
vo 30+900+30
Plug in values ⇒ yields =− = −200 V/V
vs 4.8

P6.4-4

Ohm’s law:
v1 −v2
i=
R2

KVL:

R1 + R2 + R3
v0 = ( R1 + R2 + R3 ) i = ( v1 −v2 )
R2
P6.4-5

v1 −va v1 −v2 ⎛ R ⎞ R
+ + 0 = 0 ⇒ va = ⎜1+ 1 ⎟ v1 − 1 v2
R1 R7 ⎝ R7 ⎠ R7
v2 −vb v −v ⎛ R ⎞ R
− 1 2 + 0 = 0 ⇒vb = ⎜1+ 2 ⎟ v2 − 2 v1
R2 R7 ⎝ R7 ⎠ R7
⎛ v −v ⎞ v −0 R6
− ⎜ b c ⎟ + c + 0 = 0 ⇒ vc = vb
⎝ R4 ⎠ R6 R4 + R6
⎛ v −v ⎞ ⎛ v −v ⎞ R5 R
−⎜ a c ⎟ + ⎜ c 0 ⎟ + 0 = 0 ⇒ v0 = − va + (1+ 5 )vc
⎝ R3 ⎠ ⎝ R5 ⎠ R3 R3

⎡ R R R (R +R ) R ⎤ ⎡R R R (R +R ) R ⎤
v0 = ⎢ 5 1 + 6 3 5 (1+ 2 ) ⎥ v2 − ⎢ 5 (1+ 1 ) + 6 3 5 2 ⎥ v1
⎣ R3 R7 R3 ( R4 + R6 ) R7 ⎦ ⎣ R3 R7 R3 ( R4 + R6 ) R7 ⎦
v −v
i0 = c 0 = "
R5
P6.4-6

va vc 5
KCL at node b: + = 0 ⇒ vc = − va
20 ×10 25 ×10
3 3
4
⎛ 5 ⎞
va − ⎜ − va ⎟
va − ( −12 ) va v +0 ⎝ 4 ⎠ = 0 ⇒ v = − 12 V
KCL at node a: + + a +
40 × 10 40 × 10 20 × 10 10 × 103
3 3 3 a
13

5 15
So vc = − va = − .
4 13

## (checked using LNAP 6/21/05)

P6.4-7
Apply KCL at the inverting input node of
the op amp

⎛ v −0 ⎞ ⎛ ( va + 6 ) − 0 ⎞
−⎜ a ⎟+0−⎜ ⎟ = 0
⎝ 10000 ⎠ ⎝ 30000 ⎠
⇒ va = −1.5 V

## Apply KCL to the super node

corresponding the voltage source:

va − 0 va + 6 − 0
+
10000 30000
v −v
+ a b + a
( v + 6 )−vb = 0
30000 10000

⇒ 3va + va + 6 + va − vb
+ 3 ⎡⎣( va + 6 ) − vb ⎤⎦ = 0
⇒ vb = 2va + 6 = 3 V

## Apply KCL at node b:

vb v − v ⎛ v − v ⎞ ⎛ ( v + 6 ) − vb ⎞
+ b 0 −⎜ a b ⎟−⎜ a ⎟ = 0
10000 30000 ⎝ 30000 ⎠ ⎝ 10000 ⎠
⇒ 3vb +( vb − v0 )−( va − vb )−3⎡⎣( va + 6 ) − vb ⎤⎦ = 0
⇒ v0 = 8vb − 4va −18 = 12 V

## Apply KCL at the output node of the op amp:

v0 v −v
i0 + + 0 b = 0 ⇒ i0 = − 0.7 mA
30000 30000
P6.4-8
Apply KVL to the bottom mesh:

1
⇒ i0 = mA
6

## The node voltages at the input nodes of an

ideal op amp are equal. Consequently

10
va = 10000 i0 = V
6
Apply KCL at node a:

va v −v
+ a 0 = 0 ⇒ v0 = 3va = 5 V
10000 20000

P6.4-9

vb + 12 v
KCL at node b: + b = 0 ⇒ vb = −4 V
40000 20000
The node voltages at the input nodes of an ideal op amp are equal, so vc = vb = −4 V .

The node voltages at the input nodes of an ideal op amp are equal, so vd = vc + 0 × 104 = −4 V .

⎛ v f − vg ⎞ vg 2
KCL at node g: −⎜ 3 ⎟
+ = 0 ⇒ vg = v f
⎝ 20 × 10 ⎠ 40 × 10
3
3
2
The node voltages at the input nodes of an ideal op amp are equal, so ve = vg = v f .
3
2
vd − v f vd − ve vd − v f vd − 3 v f 6 24
KCL at node d: 0 = + = + ⇒ v f = vd = − V
20 ×10 20 × 10
3 3
20 × 10 3
20 × 10 3
5 5

2 16
Finally, ve = vg = vf = − V.
3 5

P6.4-10
By voltage division (or by applying KCL at
node a)
R0
va = vs
R1 + R0

## Applying KCL at node b:

vb − vs vb − v0
+ = 0
R1 R0 +ΔR
R0 +ΔR
⇒ ( vb −vs )+ vb = v0
R1

## The node voltages at the input nodes of an

ideal op amp are equal so vb = va .

⎡⎛ R +ΔR ⎞ R0 R +ΔR ⎤ ΔR ⎛ R0 ⎞ ΔR
v0 = ⎢⎜ 0 +1⎟ − 0 ⎥ vs = − vs = ⎜ −vs ⎟
⎣⎝ R1 ⎠ R1 + R0 R1 ⎦ R1 + R0 ⎝ R1 + R0 ⎠ R0

P6.4-11
Node equations:
vs vs − va ⎛ R2 ⎞
+ = 0 ⇒ va = ⎜1 +
⎜ R1 ⎟⎟ s
v
R1 R2 ⎝ ⎠
and
vs − va va va − vo
= +
R2 R3 R4
so
⎛ R4 R4 ⎞ R4
vo = ⎜ 1 + + ⎟ va − vs
⎜ R 2 R3 ⎟ R
⎝ ⎠ 2
⎛ R4 R4 ⎞ ⎛ R2 ⎞ R4 ⎛ R4 R4 R2 R2 R4 ⎞
vo = ⎜ 1 + + 1+ vs − vs = ⎜ 1 + + + +
⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ R 3 R1 R1 R1 R 3 ⎟⎟ s
v
⎜ R 2 R3 ⎟ ⎜ R ⎟ R
⎝ ⎠⎝ 1 ⎠ 2 ⎝ ⎠
⎛ ( R1 + R 2 )( R 3 + R 4 ) + R 3 R 4 ⎞
=⎜ ⎟ vs
⎜ R1 R 3 ⎟
⎝ ⎠

## with the given values:

⎛ ( 20 + 20 )(10 + 8 ) + 10 × 8 ⎞ ⎛ 40 × 18 + 80 ⎞
vo = ⎜ ⎟ vs = ⎜ ⎟ vs = ( 4 ) vs
⎝ 20 × 10 ⎠ ⎝ 200 ⎠

## (checked: LNAP 5/24/04)

P6.4-12
Notice that the currents in resistance R1 and R2 are
both zero, as shown. Consequently, the voltages at
the noninverting inputs of the op amps are v1 and v2,
as shown. The voltages at the inverting inputs of the
ideal op amps are also v1 and v2, as shown.

## Apply KCL at the top node of R6 to get

va − v2 v2 ⎛ R5 + R 6 ⎞
= ⇒ va = ⎜
⎜ R 6 ⎟⎟ 2
v
R5 R6 ⎝ ⎠

## Apply KCL at the top node of R4 to get

vo − v1 v1 − va ⎛ R3 ⎞ ⎛ R3 ⎞
= ⇒ vo = ⎜ 1 + ⎟ v1 − ⎜ ⎟ va
R3 R4 ⎜ R4 ⎟ ⎜ R4 ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

⎛ R3 ⎞ ⎛ R3 ⎞ ⎛ R5 + R 6 ⎞
vo = ⎜1 + ⎟ v1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜
⎜ R 4 ⎟ ⎜ R 6 ⎟⎟ 2
v
⎜ R4 ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠
R3 R6
When =
R4 R5
⎛ R3 ⎞ ⎛ R3 ⎞ ⎛ R5 ⎞ ⎛ R3 ⎞ ⎛ R3 ⎞ ⎛ R 4 ⎞
vo = ⎜ 1 + ⎟ v1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ v2 = ⎜ 1 + ⎟ v1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1 +
⎜ R 4 ⎟ ⎜ R 3 ⎟⎟ 2
v
⎜ R4 ⎟ ⎜ R4 ⎟ ⎜ R6 ⎟ ⎜ R4 ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠
⎛ R3 ⎞
⎜ R 4 ⎟⎟ ( 1 2 )
= ⎜1 + v −v
⎝ ⎠
so vo is proportional to the difference of the inputs, v1 − v2, as required.
R
Next, choose R3 and R4 so that 5 = 1 + 3 , e.g.
R4
R1 = 50 kΩ, R2 = 50 kΩ, R3 = 40 kΩ, R4 = 10 kΩ, R5 = 10 kΩ and R6 = 40 kΩ.

## (checked: LNAP 5/24/04)

P6.4-13
Write a node equation at the inverting input of the
bottom op amp:

vo va R4
+ = 0 ⇒ va = − vo
R3 R4 R3

## Write a node equation at the inverting input of the top op

amp:
R4
− vo
vi va vi R3 R 2 R3
0= + = + ⇒ vo = vi
R1 R 2 R1 R2 R1 R 4

R 2 R3
The output is proportional to the input and the constant of proportionality is . We require
R1 R 4
R 2 R3
vo = 20 vi so = 20 . For example, R1 = R 4 = 10 kΩ, R 2 = 40 kΩ and R 3 = 50 kΩ .
R1 R 4

P6.4-14

## Represent this circuit by node equations.

vo − va vo − vs
+ =0 ⇒ R 2 v s = ( R 1 + R 2 ) v o − R 1v a
R2 R1
vo − va vo ⎛ R4 ⎞
+ =0 ⇒ v a = ⎜1 +
⎜ R 5 ⎟⎟ o
v
R4 R5 ⎝ ⎠
So
⎛ R1 ⎞
v s = ⎜1 +
⎛ R1 ⎞⎛ R 4 ⎞
vo − ⎜ 1+ vo =
( R 1 + R 2 ) R 5 − R 1 ( R 4R 5 ) v o = R 2R 5 v

⎜ R2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ R 2 ⎟⎜ R 5 ⎟ R 2 R 5 − R 1R 4
s
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ R 2R 5
then
R 2R 5 19 R 1R 4
20 = ⇒ =
R 2 R 5 - R 1R 4 20 R 2 R 5
For example
R 1 = 19 kΩ, R 4 = 10 kΩ, R 2 = 20 kΩ, R 5 = 10 kΩ, R 3 = 10 kΩ.

P6.4-15

## Writing node equations:

vs v1
+ =0 ⇒ v 1 = −v s
R R
v1 v1 v1 − v 2
+ + =0 ⇒ v 2 = 3v1 = −3v s
R R R
v 2 − v1 v2 v2 − vo
+ + =0 ⇒ v o = 3v 2 − v1 = −8v s
R R R
vo
The gain of this circuit, = −8 , does not depend on R.
vs
(checked: LNAP 6/21/04)
P6.4-16

## Represent this circuit by node equations.

vs − va vo − va va
+ =
R1 R3 R2
and
va vo R4
+ = 0 ⇒ vo = − va
R2 R4 R2

So
vs ⎛ 1vo 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ R1 R 2 + R1 R 3 + R 2 R 3 ⎞ ⎛ R 2 ⎞
+
=⎜ + + ⎟ va = ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ − vo ⎟
R1 R 3 ⎜⎝ R1 R 2 R 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜
⎝ R 1 R 2 R 3 ⎠⎝ R 4

vs ⎛ 1 R1 R 2 + R1 R 3 + R 2 R 3 ⎞ ⎛ R1 R 4 + R1 R 2 + R1 R 3 + R 2 R 3 ⎞
= −⎜ + ⎟ vo = − ⎜ ⎟⎟ v o
R1 ⎜ R3 R1 R 3 R 4 ⎟ ⎜ R1 R 3 R 4
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
⎛ R3 R 4 ⎞
vo = − ⎜
⎜ R1 R 4 + R1 R 2 + R1 R 3 + R 2 R 3 ⎟⎟ s
v
⎝ ⎠
We require
R3 R 4
20 =
R1 R 4 + R 1 R 2 + R1 R 3 + R 2 R 3
Try
R1 = R 2 = R and R3 = R 4 = aR
Then
a2
20 =
3a + 1
So
a 2 − 60a − 20 = 0
+60 ± 3600 + 4 ( 80 )
a= = 60.332, − 0.332
2
e.g.
R1 = R 2 = 10 kΩ and R3 = R 4 = 603.32 kΩ
(checked: LNAP 6/9/04)
P6.4-17

## Represent this circuit by node equations.

vs va vo
+ + =0
R1 R2 R3
and

va va − vo ⎛ R4 ⎞
+ = 0 ⇒ va = ⎜
⎜ R 4 + R 5 ⎟⎟ o
v
R4 R5 ⎝ ⎠

So
vs vo va R4
+ =− =− vo
R1 R3 R2 R 2 ( R 4 + R5 )
vs ⎛ 1 R4 ⎞ R 2 ( R 4 + R5 ) + R 4 R3
= −⎜ + ⎟ vo = − vo
R1 ⎜ R3 R 2 ( R 4 R5 ) ⎟ R R ( R + R )
⎝ ⎠ 2 3 4 5

vo = −
R 2 R3 R 4 + R5 ( vs
)
(
R1 R 2 R 4 + R 2 R 5 + R 3 R 4 )
We require
R 2 R3 ( R 4 + R5 )
20 =
R1 ( R 2 R 4 + R 2 R 5 + R 3 R 4 )
Try
R1 = R 4 = R5 = R and R 2 = R3 = aR
then
2a 2 R 3 2
20 = = a ⇒ a = 30
3aR 3 3
e.g.
R1 = R 4 = R5 = 10 kΩ and R 2 = R3 = 300 kΩ

## (checked: LNAP 6/10/04)

P6.4-18
Label the node voltages as shown. Represent this
circuit by node equations.

vb − va va R1
= ⇒ va = vb
R2 R1 R1 + R 2
vo − vb
io + =0 ⇒ v b = R 3i o + v o
R3
vo − va vs − va vs ⎛ R1 + R2 ⎞ vo
+ =0 ⇒ =⎜ ⎟ va −
R2 R1 R1 ⎜⎝ R1 R 2 ⎟⎠ R2
So
⎛ R1 + R 2 ⎞ ⎛ R1 ⎞
( R 3i o + v o ) −
vs v o R3
=⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = io
R1 ⎜⎝ R1 R 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ R1 + R 2 ⎟⎠ R2 R2
io R2
=
v s R1 R 3

R2
We require = 0.02, e.g. R 2 = 8 kΩ, R1 = R 3 = 20 kΩ .
R1 R 3
(checked: LNAP 6/21/04)

P6.4-19

(a) Use units of volts, mA, and kΩ. Apply KCL at the inverting input of the left op amp to get

vs va vo ⎛ 50 ⎞
+ + = 0 ⇒ v a = − ⎜ 5v s + v o ⎟
10 50 R ⎝ R ⎠

4 40 ⎛ 40 ⎞
v o = v a = −4v s − v o ⇒ ⎜1 + ⎟ v o = −4v s
5 R ⎝ R⎠
4vo 4R
=−=−
vs 1+
40 R + 40
R
vo
(b) 0≤R≤∞ ⇒ −4≤ ≤0
vs
4R
(c) We require −3 = − ⇒ R = 120 kΩ
R + 40
(checked: LNAP 6/21/04)

P6.4-20

(a) Use units of V, mA and kΩ. Apply KCL at the inverting input of the left op amp to get

v1 va vo ⎛ 30 ⎞
+ + = 0 ⇒ v a = − ⎜ 3v s + v o ⎟
10 30 R ⎝ R ⎠

90 ⎛ 90 ⎞
v o = 3v a = −9v s − vo ⇒ ⎜1 + ⎟ v o = −9v s
R ⎝ R⎠

9vo 9R
=−=−
vs 1+
90 R + 90
R
vo
(b) 0≤R≤∞ ⇒ −9 ≤ ≤0
vs
−9 R
(c) We require −5 = ⇒ R = 112.5 kΩ
R + 90
(checked: LNAP 7/8/04)
P6.4-21
Use units of V, mA and kΩ.

## ⎡⎛ 120 ⎞ ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ 120 ⎞ ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ 120 ⎞ ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎤

v o = − ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎜ − ⎟ v1 + ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ v2 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ v 3 ⎥ = 3 v1 − 0.5 v 2 − 8 v 3
⎣⎝ 40 ⎠ ⎝ 20 ⎠ ⎝ 120 ⎠ ⎝ 20 + 20 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 20 ⎠ ⎦
so
a = 3, b = −0.5 and c = −8

P6.4-22

## Label the node voltages as shown. Use units of V, mA and kΩ.

v 3 = v1 and v 4 = −v 2
v5 − v3 v5 − v 4
40
+
20
=0 ⇒ v5 =
1
3
( v 3 + 2v 2 ) = v 1 − v 2
1
3
2
3
so
1 2
a=− and b = −
3 3
(checked: LNAP 6/21/04)
Section 6-5: Design Using Operational Amplifier

P6.5-1
Use the current-to-voltage converter, entry (g) in Figure 6.6-1.

P6.5-2
Use the voltage –controlled current source, entry (i) in Figure 6.6-1.

P6.5-3
Use the noninverting summing amplifier, entry (e) in Figure 6.6-1.
P6.5-4
Use the difference amplifier, entry (f) in Figure 6.6-1.

P6.5-5
Use the inverting amplifier and the summing amplifier, entries (a) and (d) in Figure 6.6-1.

P6.5-6
Use the negative resistance converter, entry (h) in Figure 6.6-1.
P6.5-7
Use the noninverting amplifier, entry (b) in Figure 6.6-1. Notice that the ideal op amp forces the
current iin to be zero.

P6.5-8

Summing Amplifier: va = − ( 6 v1 + 2 v2 ) ⎫
⎬ ⇒ vo = 6 v1 + 2 v2
Inverting Amplifier: vo = −va ⎭

P6.5-9
Using superposition, vo = v1 + v2 + v3 = −9 − 16 + 32 = 7 V

P6.5-10

R1 6 12 24 6||12 6||24
R2 12||12||24 6||12||24 6||12||12 12||24 12||12
-vo/vs 0.8 0.286 0.125 2 1.25

## R1 12||12 12||24 6||12||12 6||12||24 12||12||24

R2 6||24 6||12 24 12 6
-vo/vs 0.8 0.5 8 3.5 1.25
P6.5-11
Label the node voltages as shown. Apply KCL at the
inverting input of the op amp to get

va va − vb ⎛ R3 + R 4 ⎞
+ = 0 ⇒ vb = ⎜
⎜ R 3 ⎟⎟ a
v
R3 R3 ⎝ ⎠

## Apply KCL at the noninverting input of the op amp to get

v a − v in va − vb
+ + i out = 0
R1 R2

Solving gives

⎛ R1 + R 2 ⎞ v in v b ⎛ R1 + R 2 R 3 + R 4 ⎞ v in
va ⎜ ⎟ − − + i out = 0 ⇒ v a ⎜ − ⎟⎟ − + i out = 0
⎜ R1 R 2 ⎟ R1 R 2 ⎜ R1 R 2 R R R
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 3 ⎠ 1

1
i out = v in
R1
P6.5-12

## Label the node voltages as shown. Apply KCL at the

inverting input of the op amp to get

vt vt − vb ⎛ R3 + R 4 ⎞
+ = 0 ⇒ vb = ⎜
⎜ R 3 ⎟⎟ t
v
R3 R4 ⎝ ⎠

## Apply KCL at the noninverting input of the op amp to get

⎛ R3 + R 4 ⎞
⎜ ⎟vt
v t v t − v b v t ⎜⎝ R 3 ⎟⎠ ⎛ 1 R4 ⎞ R 2 R 3 − R1 R 4
it = + = + =⎜ − ⎟ vt = vt
R1 R2 R1 R2 ⎜ R1 R 2 R 3 ⎟ R1 R 2 R 3
⎝ ⎠

vt R1 R 2 R 3 R2
Ro = = =
it R 2 R 3 − R1 R 4 R2 R4

R1 R3
P6.5-13
(a) Label the node voltages as shown. The
node equations are

vs − va vb − va va
+ =
R1 R2 R3
and
va vo − va ⎛ R5 ⎞
= ⇒ va = ⎜
⎜ R 4 + R 5 ⎟⎟ o
v
R5 R4 ⎝ ⎠

## Solving these equations gives

vs ⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞ v b ⎛ R1 R 2 + R 2 R 3 + R1 R 3 R5 ⎞ vb
=⎜ + + ⎟ va − =⎜ × ⎟ vo −
R1 ⎜⎝ R1 R 2 R 3 ⎟⎠ R 2 ⎜⎝ R1 R 2 R 3 R 4 + R 5 ⎟⎠ R2
So
⎛ R 2 R3 R 4 + R5 ⎞ R1 R 3 R 4 + R5
vo = ⎜ × ⎟ vs + × × vb
⎜ R1 R 2 + R 2 R 3 + R1 R 3 R ⎟ R R + R R + R R R
⎝ 5 ⎠ 1 2 2 3 1 3 5

So
⎛ R 2 R3 R 4 + R5 ⎞ R1 R 3 R 4 + R5
a=⎜ × ⎟ v s and b = × × vb
⎜ R1 R 2 + R 2 R 3 + R1 R 3 R ⎟ R R + R R + R R R
⎝ 5 ⎠ 1 2 2 3 1 3 5

## (b) The equation of the straight line is

5
vo = vs + 5
4
We require
R 2 R3 R 4 + R5 5
× =
R1 R 2 + R 2 R 3 + R1 R 3 R5 4

## For example, let R1 = R 2 = R 3 = 10 kΩ, R 4 = 55 kΩ and R 5 = 20 kΩ . Next we require

R1 R 3 R 4 + R5 5
5= × × vb = vb
R1 R 2 + R 2 R 3 + R1 R 3 R5 4
i.e.
vb = 4 V
(checked: LNAP 6/20/04)
P6.5-14
(a) Apply KCL at the inverting input of the op
amp to get:
vs vb vo ⎛ R3 ⎞ R3
+ + = 0 ⇒ vo = ⎜ − ⎟ vs − vb
R1 R 2 R 3 ⎜ ⎟
⎝ R1 ⎠ R2

So
R3 R3
a=− and b = − vb
R1 R2

## (b) The equation of the straight line is

5
vo = − vs + 5
2
We require
5 R3
− =−
2 R1
e.g. R1 = 20 kΩ and R 3 = 50 kΩ . Next, we require
R 3v b
5=−
R2
e.g. R 2 = R 3 = 50 kΩ and v b = −5 V .
(checked: LNAP 6/20/04)

P6.5-15

## Here’s the circuit used to determine the equivalent

resistance , given by
vt
R eq =
it
First, use KVL to get
0 = i t ( R + (1 + a ) R p ) + i ( R + aR p )
⎛ R + (1 − a ) R p ⎞
⇒ i = −⎜
⎜ R + aR p ⎟⎟ t
i
⎝ ⎠

## Use KVL to get

⎛ R + (1 − a ) R p ⎞ ⎛ ( 2a − 1) R p ⎞
v t = Ri t + Ri = R ⎜1 − ⎟⎟ i t = R ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ i t
⎜ R + aR p
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ R + aR p ⎠
so
vt R ( 2a − 1) R p ( 2a − 1) R p
R eq = = =
it R + aR p Rp
1+ a
R

## (checked: LNAPDC 7/24/04)

P6.5-16

(a)
⎡⎛ R 4 ⎞⎛ R1 + R 2 ⎞ R 2 ⎤ ⎛ R 6 ⎞ R1 R 4 − R 2 R 3 ⎛ R 6 ⎞
v o = ⎢⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ − ⎥⎜ + 1⎟ v 1 = ⎜ + 1⎟ v 1
⎢⎣⎜⎝ R 3 + R 4 ⎟⎜ ⎟
⎠⎝ R1 ⎠ R1 ⎥⎦ ⎝ R 5 ⎠
⎜ ⎟ R1 ( R 3 + R 4 ) ⎜⎝ R 5 ⎟⎠
So the gain is
v o R1 R 4 − aR p R 3 ⎛ R 6 ⎞
= ⎜ + 1⎟
v1 R1 ( R 3 + R 4 ) ⎜⎝ R 5 ⎟⎠
1
(b) When R1 = R 3 = R 4 = R p the gain becomes
2
vo ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎛ R6 ⎞
= ⎢ − a⎥ ⎜ + 1⎟
vi ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎜⎝ R 5 ⎟⎠
so
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ R6 ⎞ v o ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ R6 ⎞
⎜ − ⎟ ⎜⎜ + 1⎟ ≤ ≤ ⎜ ⎟⎜ + 1⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ R 5 ⎟⎠ v i ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎜⎝ R 5 ⎟⎠
We require
1 ⎛ R6 ⎞
10 = ⎜ + 1⎟ ⇒ R 6 = 19 R 5
2 ⎜⎝ R 5 ⎟⎠

e.g. R 5 = 10 kΩ and R 6 = 190 kΩ. Any convenient value of Rp will do, e.g. R p = 100 kΩ
Section 6-6: Operational Amplifier Circuits and Linear Algebraic Equations

P6.6-1
P6.6-2
Section 6-7: Characteristics of the Practical Operational Amplifier

P6.7-1

## vout −vos vos

The node equation at node a is: = + ib1
100×10 3
10×103
Solving for vout:
⎛ 100×103 ⎞
vout = ⎜ 1+ v + (100 × 103 ) ib1 = 11vos + (100 × 103 ) ib1
3 ⎟ os
⎝ 10×10 ⎠

( )
= 11 ( 0.03×10−3 )+ (100×103 ) 1.2×10−9 = 0.45 mV

P6.7-2

vos v −v
The node equation at node a is: + ib1 = 0 os
10000 90000
Solving for vo:

⎛ 90×103 ⎞
vo = ⎜1+ v + ( 90 × 103 ) ib1 = 10 vos + ( 90 × 103 ) i b1
3 ⎟ os
⎝ 10×10 ⎠
= 10(5 × 10−3 )+ ( 90 × 103 ) (.05 × 10−9 ) = 50.0045 × 10−3 − 50 mV
P6.7-3

v1 −vin v1 v1 −v0 ⎫
+ + = 0⎪
R1 Rin R2 ⎪ v0 Rin ( R0 − AR2 )
⎬ ⇒ =
v0 + Av1 v0 − v1 vin ( R1 + Rin )( R0 + R2 ) + R1 Rin (1+ A)
+ =0 ⎪
R0 R2 ⎪⎭

P6.7-4
a) v0 R2 49×103
= − = − = −9.6078
vin R1 5.1×103

b)
v0
=
( (
2×106 ) 75−( 200,000 )( 50×103 ) ) = −9.9957
vin (5×103 + 2×106 )(75+ 50×103 ) + (5×103 )(2×106 )(1+ 200,000)

c) v0 2×106 (75−(200,000)(49×103 ))
= = −9.6037
vin (5.1×103 +2×106 )(75+49×103 )+(5.1×103 )(2×106 )(1+200,000)
P6.7-5
Apply KCL at node b:
R3
vb = (vcm − v p )
R2 + R3
Apply KCL at node a:
va −v0 va −(vcm + vn )
+ = 0
R4 R1
The voltages at the input nodes of
an ideal op amp are equal so
va = vb .
R R +R
v0 = − 4 (vcm + vn ) + 4 1 va
R1 R1
R
v0 = − 4 (vcm + vn ) +
R1
( R4 + R1 ) R3
(vcm − v p )
R1 ( R2 + R3 )
R4
+1
R4 R3 ( R4 + R1 ) R3 R1 R R
when = then = × 3 = 4
R1 R2 R1 ( R2 + R3 ) R3
+1 R2 R1
R2
so
R4 R R
v0 = − (vcm + vn ) + 4 (vcm − v p ) = − 4 (vn + v p )
R1 R1 R1
Section 6-9 How Can We Check…?

P6.9-1
Apply KCL at the output node of the op
amp

vo v − ( −5 )
io = + o =0
10000 4000

## Try the given values: io =−1 mA and

vo = 7 V

7 7 − ( −5 )
−1× 10−3 ≠ 3.7 × 10−3 = +
10000 4000

## KCL is not satisfied. These cannot be the

correct values of io and vo.

P6.9-2

va = ( 4 ×103 )( 2 ×10−3 ) = 8 V
12 ×103
vo = − va = −1.2 ( 8 ) = −9.6 V
10 ×103
So vo = −9.6 V instead of 9.6 V.
P6.9-3
First, redraw the circuit as:

Then using superposition, and recognizing of the inverting and noninverting amplifiers:

⎛ 6 ⎞⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎛ 4⎞
vo = ⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ − ⎟ ( −3) + ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ( 2 ) = −18 + 6 = −12 V
⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠

## The given answer is correct.

P6.9-4
First notice that ve = v f = vc is required by the ideal op amp. (There is zero current into the input
lead of an ideal op amp so there is zero current in the 10 kΩ connected between nodes e and f,
hence zero volts across this resistor. Also, the node voltages at the input nodes of an ideal op
amp are equal.)

The given voltages satisfy all the node equations at nodes b, c and d:

0 − (−5) 0 0− 2
node b: + + =0
10000 40000 4000

0− 2 2 −5
node c: = +0
4000 6000

2 −5 5 5−11
node d: = +
6000 5000 4000

## Therefore, the analysis is correct.

P6.9-5
The given voltages satisfy the node equations at nodes b and e:

## −.25− 2 −.25 −.25−( −5 )

node b: + + =0
20000 40000 40000

node e: ≠ +0
9000 1000

Notice that = +0
9000 1000

## Also, the circuit is an noninverting summer with Ra = 10 kΩ and Rb = 1 kΩ, K1 =1/ 2, K2

= 1/ 4 and K4 = 9. The given node voltages satisfy the equation

−2.5 = vd = K
4
( K v + K v ) = 10 ⎛⎜⎝ 12 ( 2 )+ 14 ( −5) ⎞⎟⎠
1 a 2 c