# Problems

Section 9-2: Differential Equations for Circuits with Two Energy Storage Elements P9.2-1
KCL: i L = v dv +C R2 dt di L +v dt

KVL: Vs = R 1i L + L

v s = R1 vs =

R 1 = 2Ω, R 2 = 100Ω, L = 1mH, C = 10μF dv d2v + 1 × 10 −8 2 dt dt dv d 2 v 1 × 108 v s = 102 × 108 v + 3000 + 2 . dt dt v s = 102 v +.00003 .

LM R + 1OPv + LMR C + L OP dv + [LC] d v dt N R Q N R Q dt
2 1 1 2 2 2

LM v NR

+C

2

d2v dv L dv + + LC 2 + v dt R 2 dt dt

OP Q

P9.2-2

KCL: i s =

v + i L + Csv R1

KVL: v = R 2 i L + Lsi L

Solving Cramer' s rule for i L : is iL = R 2 Ls + + R 2 Cs + LCs2 + 1 R1 R1

R 1 = 100Ω, R 2 = 10Ω, L = 1mH, C = 10μF 1.1i L +.00011si L + 1 × 10 −8 s2 i L = i s . 11 × 108 i L + 11000si L + s2 i L = 1 × 108 i s

LM1 + R OPi + LM L + R COPsi N R Q NR Q
2 L 2 1 1

L

+ LC s2 i L = i s

P9.2-3
t>0

KCL: i L + C

dv c v s + v c + = 0 dt R2

KVL: R 1i s + R 1i L + L

di L − vc − vs = 0 dt

Solving for iL :
− R1 d 2iL ⎡ R1 R di 1 dvs 1 ⎤ diL ⎡ R1 1 ⎤ +⎢ + +⎢ + is − 1 s + ⎥ ⎥ iL = 2 dt LCR2 L dt L dt ⎣ L R2C ⎦ dt ⎣ LR2C LC ⎦

P9.2-4 After the switch opens, apply KCL and KVL to get
d ⎛ ⎞ R1 ⎜ i ( t ) + C v ( t ) ⎟ + v ( t ) = Vs dt ⎝ ⎠

Apply KVL to get
v (t ) = L

Substituting v ( t ) into the first equation gives

d i (t ) + R2 i (t ) dt

⎛ d⎛ d d ⎞⎞ R1 ⎜ i ( t ) + C ⎜ L i ( t ) + R 2 i ( t ) ⎟ ⎟ + L i ( t ) + R 2 i ( t ) = Vs dt ⎝ dt dt ⎠⎠ ⎝ then

R1 C L
Dividing by R1 C L :

d2 dt
2

i ( t ) + R1 C R 2 + L

(

d ) dt i ( t ) + ( R1 + R 2 ) i ( t ) = Vs

⎛ R1 C R 2 + L ⎞ d ⎛ R1 + R 2 ⎞ Vs i (t ) + ⎜ ⎟ i (t ) + ⎜ ⎟ i (t ) = 2 ⎜ R1 C L ⎟ dt ⎜ R1 C L ⎟ R1 C L dt ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ d2

P9.2-5

After the switch closes, use KCL to get

i (t ) =
Use KVL to get

v (t ) d + C v (t ) R2 dt
d i (t ) + v (t ) dt

v s = R1 i ( t ) + L

Substitute to get

d L d d2 vs = v ( t ) + R1C v ( t ) + v ( t ) + CL 2 v ( t ) + v ( t ) R2 dt R 2 dt dt R1 = CL
Finally,

⎛ R1 + R 2 d2 L ⎞d v ( t ) + ⎜ R1C + v (t ) ⎟ v (t ) + 2 ⎜ dt R 2 ⎟ dt R 2CL ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ R1 R1 + R 2 1 ⎞d d2 v (t ) + ⎜ + v t + v t 2 ⎜ L R 2C ⎟ dt ( ) R 2CL ( ) ⎟ dt ⎝ ⎠

vs CL

P9.2-6

After the switch closes use KVL to get
R 2 i (t ) + L d i (t ) = v (t ) dt

Use KCL and KVL to get

d ⎛ ⎞ v s = R1 ⎜ i ( t ) + C v ( t ) ⎟ + v ( t ) dt ⎝ ⎠

Substitute to get

d d2 d v s = R1i ( t ) + R1CR 2 i ( t ) + R1CL 2 i ( t ) + R 2i ( t ) + L i ( t ) dt dt dt 2 d d = R1CL 2 i ( t ) + ( R1 R 2C + L ) i ( t ) + ( R1 + R 2 ) i ( t ) dt dt
Finally

vs R1CL

=

⎛ R2 R1 + R 2 1 ⎞d d2 i t + + i (t ) ⎟ i (t ) + 2 ( ) ⎜ ⎜ L R1C ⎟ dt dt R1CL ⎝ ⎠

P9.2-7

After the switch opens, KVL gives
L1 d d i1 ( t ) = R 2 i 2 ( t ) + L 2 i 2 ( t ) dt dt d i 1 ( t ) + R1 ( i 1 ( t ) + i 2 ( t ) ) = 0 dt

KVL and KCL give
L1

Use the operator method to get

L1s i1 = R 2 i 2 + L 2 s i 2 L1s i1 + R1 ( i1 + i 2 ) = 0

L1s i1 + R1s i1 + R1s i 2 = 0
2

s ( R 2i 2 + L 2 s i 2 ) +

R1 L1

(R i

2 2

+ L 2 s i 2 ) + R1s i 2 = 0

⎛ ⎞ L2 R1 R 2 + R1 ⎟ s i 2 + L 2 s 2 i 2 + ⎜ R 2 + R1 i2 = 0 ⎜ ⎟ L1 L1 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ R 2 R 1 R1 ⎞ R1 R 2 s 2i 2 + ⎜ + + ⎟ s i2 + i2 = 0 ⎜ L 2 L 2 L1 ⎟ L1 L 2 ⎝ ⎠

so

⎛ R 2 R1 R1 ⎞ d R1 R 2 d2 i 2 (t ) + ⎜ + + ⎟ i 2 (t ) + i 2 (t ) = 0 2 ⎜ L 2 L 2 L1 ⎟ dt dt L1 L 2 ⎝ ⎠

P9.2-8

After the switch closes, KVL and KCL give
d ⎛ d ⎞ v1 ( t ) + R 3 ⎜ C 1 v1 ( t ) + C 2 v 2 ( t ) ⎟ = v s dt ⎝ dt ⎠

KVL gives
v 1 ( t ) = R 2C2 d v 2 (t ) + v 2 (t ) dt

Using the operator method

v 1 + R 3 ( C 1sv 1 + C 2 sv 2 ) = v s
v1 = R 2C 2 sv 2 + v 2

so

(1 + R C s ) v
2 2

2

+ R 3C 1s (1 + R 2C 2 s ) v 2 + R 3C 2 sv 2 = v s

v1 = (1 + R 2C2 s ) v 2

Then

R 2 R 3C 1C 2 s 2 v 2 + ( R 2C 2 + R 3C 1 + R 3C 2 ) sv 2 + v 2 = v s

s 2v 2 +

R 2C 2 + R 3C 1 + R 3C 2 R 2 R 3C1C 2

sv 2 +

vs 1 v2 = R 3 R 2C 1C 2 R 2 R 3C 1C 2

⎛ 1 vs 1 1 ⎞ 1 + + s 2v 2 + ⎜ v2 = ⎟ sv 2 + ⎜ R 3C 1 R 2 C 2 R 2 C 1 ⎟ R 2 R 3C 1C 2 R 2 R 3C 1C 2 ⎝ ⎠

so

vs R 2 R 3C 1C 2

=

⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞d 1 d2 v 2 (t ) + ⎜ + + v (t ) ⎟ v (t ) + 2 ⎜ R 3C 1 R 2C 2 R 2C 1 ⎟ dt dt R 2 R 3C 1C 2 ⎝ ⎠

P9.2-9 After the switch closes
i (t ) = C d v (t ) dt

KCL and KVL give
⎛ 1 ⎛ d d ⎞⎞ v s = R2 ⎜ i (t ) + ⎜ L i (t ) + v (t ) ⎟ ⎟ + L i (t ) + v (t ) ⎜ R1 ⎝ dt dt ⎠⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Substituting gives

⎛ R2 ⎞ ⎛ R2 ⎞ d2 d v s = ⎜1 + ⎟ LC 2 v ( t ) + R 2C v ( t ) + ⎜1 + ⎟ v (t ) ⎜ ⎜ R1 ⎟ dt dt R1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ R2 ⎞ ⎛ R2 ⎞ d2 d = ⎜1 + ⎟ LC 2 v ( t ) + R 2C v ( t ) + ⎜1 + ⎟ v (t ) ⎜ ⎜ R1 ⎟ dt dt R1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
Finally

LC ( R1 + R 2 )

R1v s

=

R1 R 2 1 d2 d v (t ) + v (t ) + v (t ) dt LC L ( R1 + R 2 ) dt

P9.2-10 Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the part of the circuit to the left of the inductor.

v s − v oc ⎫ ⎪ R1 ⎪ v s R 2 (1 + b ) ⎬ ⇒ v oc = v oc ⎪ R1 + R 2 (1 + b ) ia + bia = R2 ⎪ ⎭ ia =

i sc = i a (1 + b ) =
v s R 2 (1 + b )

vs R1

(1 + b )

Rt =

v oc i sc

=

R1 + R 2 (1 + b ) R1 R 2 = vs R1 + R 2 (1 + b ) (1 + b ) R1

Rt i (t ) + L

d i (t ) + v ( t ) − v oc = 0 dt d v (t ) dt

i (t ) = C
d v (t ) d 2 v (t ) + LC + v ( t ) = v oc dt d t2

Rt C

d 2 v (t ) R t d v (t ) v (t ) 1 + + v (t ) = 2 dt L dt LC LC

Finally,

R1 R 2 d 2 v (t ) d v (t ) v (t ) 1 + + v (t ) = 2 dt LC LC L ( R1 + R 2 (1 + b ) ) d t

P9.2-11 KCL gives

v s ( t ) − v1 ( t ) R1

= C1

d v1 ( t ) dt d v 2 (t ) dt

v s ( t ) = R1C1

d v1 ( t ) + v1 ( t ) dt d v 2 (t ) + v 2 (t ) dt

and

v1 ( t ) − v 2 ( t ) R2

= C2

v1 ( t ) = R 2 C 2

Substituting gives
v s ( t ) = R1C 1 d ⎡ d d ⎤ ⎢ R 2C 2 dt v 2 ( t ) + v 2 ( t ) ⎥ + R 2C 2 dt v 2 ( t ) + v 2 ( t ) dt ⎣ ⎦

so ⎛ 1 1 d2 1 ⎞ 1 vs (t ) = 2 v 2 (t ) + ⎜ + v 2 (t ) ⎟ v 2 (t ) + ⎜ R1C 1 R 2C 2 ⎟ R1 R 2C 1C 2 dt R1 R 2C 1C 2 ⎝ ⎠

P9.2-12 KVL gives
v s ( t ) = R1C 1 d v1 ( t ) + v1 ( t ) dt

KCL gives C1 KVL gives Using the operator method

v 2 (t ) d d v1 ( t ) + C 2 v 2 ( t ) + =0 dt dt R2

v o (t ) = v 2 (t )
v s = R1C 1sv1 + v1 C 1sv1 + C 2 sv 2 + v2 R2 =0

Solving ⎛ C2 ⎞ 1 v1 = − ⎜ v2 + v2 ⎟ ⎜ C1 R 2C 1s ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ C2 1 ⎞ sv s = ( sR1C 1 + 1) ⎜ s+ ⎟ vo ⎜ C1 R 2C 1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞ 1 sv s = s 2 v o + ⎜ vo + ⎟ sv o + ⎜ R1C 1 R 2C 2 ⎟ R1C 2 R1 R 2C 1C 2 ⎝ ⎠ The corresponding differential equation is ⎛ 1 1 d d2 1 ⎞d 1 vs (t ) = 2 v o (t ) + ⎜ + v t + v t ⎜ R1C 1 R 2C 2 ⎟ dt o ( ) R1 R 2C 1C 2 o ( ) ⎟ R1C 2 dt dt ⎝ ⎠

P9.2-13 After the switch opens, KCL gives

vs (t ) R1

+C

d v (t ) = 0 dt
d i (t ) dt

KVL gives
v (t ) − v o (t ) = L

and Ohm’s law gives so

v o (t ) = R2 i (t )

d 1 v (t ) = − vs (t ) dt R1 C and d d d2 v (t ) − v o (t ) = L 2 i (t ) dt dt dt Then

or

1 d d2 d vs (t ) = v (t ) = L 2 i (t ) + R2 i (t ) R1C dt dt dt − R2 d 1 d2 vs (t ) = 2 i (t ) + i (t ) R1CL dt L dt

P9.2-14 KCL gives

vs (t ) R1

=

v1 ( t ) R2

+ C1

d v1 ( t ) dt

and

v 2 ( t ) + v1 ( t ) R3

+ C2

d v 2 (t ) = 0 dt

so

v1 ( t ) + R 2C 1
and

R2 d v1 ( t ) = vs (t ) dt R1

d ⎛ ⎞ v 1 ( t ) = − ⎜ v 2 ( t ) + R 3C 2 v 2 ( t ) ⎟ dt ⎝ ⎠

Substituting gives R2 ⎡ d d ⎡ d ⎤⎤ ⎢ v 2 ( t ) + R 3C 2 dt v 2 ( t ) + R 2C 1 dt ⎢ v 2 ( t ) + R 3C 2 dt v 2 ( t ) ⎥ ⎥ = − R v s ( t ) ⎣ ⎦⎦ ⎣ 1 or ⎛ 1 d2 1 ⎞d 1 1 v 2 (t ) + ⎜ + v t + v t =− vs (t ) 2 ⎜ R 2C 1 R 3C 2 ⎟ dt 2 ( ) R 2 R 3C 1C 2 2 ( ) ⎟ dt R1 R 3C 1C 2 ⎝ ⎠

P9.2-15

Apply KVL to the left mesh : i1 + s(i1 −i2 ) = vs where s = d dt
⎛1⎞ Apply KVL to the right mesh : 2i2 + 2 ⎜ ⎟ i2 ⎝s⎠ ⎛1⎞ ⇒ i1 = 2⎜ ⎟i2 + ⎝s⎠
Plugging (2) into (1) yields 3s 2i + 4 si + 2i = s 2v 2 2 2 s or

(1)

+ s(i2 − i1 ) = 0 ⎛1⎞ 2⎜ 2 ⎟i2 + i2 ⎝s ⎠ (2)

d 2v d 2i di s 2 + 4 2 + 2i = 3 2 2 2 dt dt dt

Section 9-3: Solution of the Second Order Differential Equation - The Natural Response P9.3-1 From Problem P 9.2-2 the characteristic equation is
−11000± (11000)2 − 4(1.1×108 ) 1.1×108 +11000 s + s 2 = 0 ⇒ s1 , s2 = 2 = −5500± j 8930

P9.3-2
KVL: 40(i s − i L ) = 100m i L = ic = 1 3 m dv c dt

di L dt

+ vc

where m = 10 −3

i

L

=

40 dis 40 di L 100 2 d 2i L m − m − m 3 dt 3 dt 3 dt 2

d 2i L di di + 400 L +30000i L = 400 s 2 dt dt dt s 2 +400s+30000 = 0 ⇒ (s+100)(s+300) = 0 ⇒ s1 = −100, s 2 = −300

P9.3-3
KCL: KVL:

v − vs dv + i L + 10μ = 0 1 dt di L dt

where μ = 10 −6

v = 2i L +1m

where m = 10 −3

di L di d 2i L − v s + i L + 10μ ⋅ 2 L + 10μ ⋅ 1m dt dt dt 2 di d i v s = 3i L +.00102 L + 1 × 10 −8 2L dt dt 0 = 2i L + 1m d 2i L di + 102000 L + 3 × 10 −8 i L = 1 × 108 v s dt dt 2 s + 102000s + 3 × 108 = 0, ∴ s1 = 3031, s2 = − 98969

P9.3-4 Assume zero initial conditions
1 di1 1 di2 − = 10 − 7 2 dt 2 dt 1 di1 1 di2 + + 200 ∫ i2 dt = 7 loop 2 : − 2 dt 2 dt ⎡⎛ ⎤ 1 ⎞ 1 − s ⎢⎜10 + 2 s ⎟ ⎥ 2 ⎠ ⎢⎝ ⎥ determinant : ⎢ 1 1 200 ⎞ ⎥ ⎛ ⎜ s+ ⎟ ⎢ −2s s ⎠⎥ ⎝2 ⎣ ⎦ loop 1 : 10i1 + s 2 + 20 s + 400 = 0, ∴ s = − 10 ± j 17.3

Section 9.4: Natural Response of the Unforced Parallel RLC Circuit

P9.4-1 v 0 = 6,

bg

dv 0 dt

bg

= − 3000
v ( v − vs ) L ⎛ ⎞ + =0 or ⎜ LCs2 + s+ 1⎟ v = vs R sL R ⎝ ⎠

Using operators, the node equation is: Csv+

So the characteristic equation is: s2 +

1 1 s+ = 0 RC LC

⇒ s1,2 = − 250 ± 2502 − 40,000 = − 100, − 400
So v t = Ae −100 t + Be −400 t

bg vb0g = 6 = A + B U A = −2 dvb0g = − 3000 = − 100A − 400BV dt W B=8 t>0 ∴ vb t g = − 2e + 8e
−100 t −400 t

P9.4-2

v 0 = 2, i 0 = 0 Characteristic equation s2 + v t = Ae − t + Be −3t Use eq. 9.5 − 12 ⇒ s1A + s2 B = − 1 1 s+ = 0 ⇒ s2 + 4s + 3 = 0 ⇒ s = − 1, − 3 RC LC v0

bg bg

bg

bg From b1g & b2g get A = −1, B = 3 ∴ vb t g = −1e + 3e V
−t −3t

RC C 2 −1A − 3B = − −0 = − 8 1 4 also have v 0 = 2 = A + B

b g − ib0g

b1g b2g

P9.4-3
di1 di −3 2 = 0 dt dt di 2 di1 +3 + 2i 2 = 0 KVL : − 3 dt dt KVL : i1 + 5
in operator form

b1g b2 g
(1+5s ) ( 3s+2 ) − 9 s 2
2 = 6s + 13s+ 2 = 0 ⇒ s = − 16, − 2

(1+5s )i1+( −3s )i2 = 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ( −3s ) i1 +( 3s+2 ) i2 = 0⎪ ⎭

thus Δ =

Thus i1 t = Ae
2

+ Be bg i b t g = Ce + De Now i b0g = 11 = A + B;i b0g = 11 = C + D from b1g & b2g get di b0g di b0g 33 143 A = − = − − 2B ; = −
− t6 −2 t − t6 −2 t

1

2

1

2

= −

C 6

− 20

2 6 dt 6 dt which yields A = 3, B = 8, C = − 1, 0 = 12 i1 (t) = 3e − t /6 + 8e −2 t A & i 2 ( t) = − e − t /6 +12e −2 t A

P9.4-4 Represent this circuit by a differential equation. (R1 = 50 Ω when the switch is open and R1 = 10 Ω when the switch is closed.) Use KCL to get

i (t ) =
Use KVL to get

v (t ) d + C v (t ) R2 dt

v s = R1 i ( t ) + L

d i (t ) + v (t ) dt

Substitute to get

d L d d2 vs = v ( t ) + R1C v ( t ) + v ( t ) + CL 2 v ( t ) + v ( t ) R2 dt R 2 dt dt R1 = CL
Finally,

⎛ R1 + R 2 d2 L ⎞d v ( t ) + ⎜ R1C + v (t ) ⎟ v (t ) + 2 ⎜ dt R 2 ⎟ dt R2 ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ R1 R1 + R 2 1 ⎞d d2 v (t ) + ⎜ + v t + v t 2 ⎜ L R 2C ⎟ dt ( ) R 2CL ( ) ⎟ dt ⎝ ⎠

vs CL
Compare to

d2 dt
to get

v ( t ) + 2α 2

d v ( t ) + ω 0 2 v ( t ) = f (t ) dt

2α =

R1 L

+

R1 + R 2 1 and ω 0 2 = R 2C R 2CL

(a) When the switch is open α = 14.5 , ω 0 = 14.14 rad/s and ω d = j3.2 (the circuit is overdamped). (b) When the switch is closed α = 4.5 , ω 0 = 10.954 rad/s and ω d = 9.987 (the circuit is underdamped).

P9.4-5

1 1 = 0 s + RC LC s 2 + 40 s + 100 = 0 s = − 2.7 , − 37.3 s2 + The initial conditions are v(0) = 0 , i (0) 1 A .
vn = A1e −2.7 t + A2 e −37.3t , v(0) = 0 = A1 + A2 KCL at t = 0+ yields : ∴ v(0+ ) 1 dv(0+ ) + i (0+ ) + =0 1 40 dt (2) (1)

dv(0+ ) = − 40v(0+ ) − 40i (0+ ) = − 40(1) = − 2.7 A1 − 37.3 A2 dt from (1) and (2) ⇒ A1 = −1.16 , A2 = 1.16

So v(t ) = vn (t ) = − 1.16e −2.7 t + 1.16e −37.3t

Section 9.5: Natural Response of the Critically Damped Unforced Parallel RLC Circuit P9.5-1
t>0

KVL a : 100i c + .025

s2 + 4000s + 4 × 106
t = 0−

di c dv + v c = 0, i c = 10 −5 c dt dt d 2 vc dv c ∴ + 4000 + 4 × 106 v c = 0 dt dt 2 = 0 ⇒ s = − 2000, − 2000 ∴ v c t = A 1e −2000 t + A 2 te −2000 t

bg

e j v e0 j = 3 V = v e0 j
i L = i c 0−
− c + c

e j

= 0 = ic 0+ ⇒

dv c 0 + dt

e j

= 0

so v c 0 +
+ c

e j=3= A dv e0 j = 0 = − 2000A
1

1 + A 2 ⇒ A 2 = 6000 dt ∴ v c t = 3 + 6000t e −2000 t V

bg b

g

P9.5-2
t>0
KCL at v c :

dv v c dt + v c + 1 4 c = 0 dt 2 d vc dv ⇒ d dt + 4 c + 4v c = 0 dt dt
−∞

z

t

s2 + 4s + 4 = 0, s = − 2, − 2 ∴ v c t = A 1e −2 t + A 2 te −2 t

bg

t = 0−

(Steady − State) V e j = 0 = v e0 j & i e0 j = 20 Ω = 2 A = i e0 j 10 Since v e0 j = 0 then i e0 j = − i e0 j = − 2 A dv e0 j i e0 j ∴ = = −8V v c 0−
+ − +
c L L

+

+

+

c

c

L

So v c 0 +
c

dt ∴ v c t = − 8te −2 t V

e j=0=A dv e0 j = −8 = A
1

+

+

c

c

+

dt

1

S

4

2

bg

P9.5-3
Assume steady − state at t = 0 − ∴ vc 0−

e j=

104 V & i L 0 −

e j=

0

t>0

KVL a : − v c +.01 Also : i L = − C

di L + 106 i L = 0 dt d 2i di = − C .01 2L + 106 L dt dt dt

b1g OP b2g PQ

dv c

LM MN

∴ .01C

d 2i L dt
2

+ 106 C

di L + iL = 0 dt −106 C ±

Characteristic eq. ⇒ .01C s2 + 106 s + 1 = 0 ⇒ s = for critically damped: 1012 C 2 −.04C = 0

e10 Cj − 4b.01Cg 2b.01Cg
6 2

⇒ C = 0.04pF ∴ s = − 5 × 107 , − 5 × 107 So i L t = A 1e −5×10 t + A 2 te −5×10 Now from (1) ⇒

bg

7

7

t

di L + 0 = 100 v c 0 + − 106 i L 0 + = 106 A s dt di Lb 0g 7 = 106 = A 2 ∴ i L t = 106 te −5×10 t A So i L 0 = 0 = A 1 and dt

e j

e j

bg Now vb t g = 10 i b t g = 10
6 L

e j bg

12

te −5×10

7

t

V

P9.5-4

s2 +

1 1 1 1 s+ = 0 with = 500 and = 62.5 ×103 yields s = −250, −250 RC LC RC LC
v ( t ) = Ae −250t + Bte −250t v ( 0) = 6 = A dv ( 0 ) = −3000 = − 250 A + B ⇒ B = − 1500 dt ∴ v ( t ) = 6e −250t − 1500te −250t

P9.5-5
KVL : di t + Ri + 2+ 4 ∫0 idt = 6 dt v( t )

(1)
d 2i di + R + 4i = 0 2 dt dt

taking the derivative with respect to t : Characteristic equataion: s 2 + Rs + 4 = 0 Let R = 4 for critical damping ⇒ So i ( t ) = Ate −2t + Be −2t i( 0 ) = 0 ⇒ B = 0

( s + 2 )2

=0

di( 0 ) = 4 − R( i ( 0 ) ) = 4− R( 0 ) = 4 = A dt ∴ i( t ) = 4te−2t A from (1)

Section 9-6: Natural Response of an Underdamped Unforced Parallel RLC Circuit P9.6-1
t>0
KCL at v c : vc 250 + i L + 5 × 10 di L dt
−6

dv c = 0 dt

also : v c = .8

b1g b2g

Solving for i

L

in (1) & plugging into ( 2 )

d 2 vc dv +800 c + 2.5×105 vc = 0 ⇒ s 2 +800 s +250,000 = 0, s = − 400± j 300 2 dt dt ∴ v c

(t)

=e

−400t

⎡ A1cos300t+A 2 sin 300t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦

t = 0−

+

i L 0−
c

−6 e j = 500V = −6 500 A = i e0 j Ω v e0 j = 250e −6 500j + 6 = 3V = v e0 j dv e0 j Now from b1g : = − 2 × 10 i e0 j − 800v e0 j = 0
L − + c + c 5 + +

So v c 0 +
c

1 + 300A 2 ⇒ A 2 = 4 dt ∴ v c t = e −400 t 3 cos 300t + 4sin 300t V

e j=3=A dv e0 j = 0 = − 400A
1 +

dt

L

c

bg

P9.6-2

t = 0−

bg v b0g = 0
t = 0−

i 0 = 2A

KCL at node a:

v dv 1 +C + vdt + i 0 = 0 1 1 dt L
0

z
t

bg

bg

in operator form have v + Csv + with s2 + 4s + 8 = 0

1 1 1 v + i 0 = 0 or s2 + s + v=0 Ls C LC

bg

FG H

IJ K

⇒ s = −2 ± j2

bg vb0g = 0 = B dvb0g 1 From b1g, = −ib0g − vb0g = −4 2 = −8 = 2 B dt C So vb t g = −4e sin 2tV
v t = e −2 t B1cos2t + B2 sin 2t
1

2

or B2 = −4

−2 t

P9.6-3 t > 0

1 dv c v c + + iL = 0 4 dt 2 4di L + 8i L KVL : v c = dt KCL at v c :

b1g b2 g

( 2)

into (1) yields

d 2i L di 2 + 4 L + 5i = 0 ⇒ s + 4s+ 5 = 0 ⇒ s = − 2 ± i L 2 dt dt ⎡ A1cos t+A 2sin t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦

∴i

L

(t)

= e

−2t

t = 0−

v c 0− 2

e j

= 7

F 48 I GH 4 8 + 2 JK
+ c +

∴ from 2 So i L 0 + di L

di 0 b g det j
+ L

=

v c 0+ 4

e j − 2i

L

e j = 8 V = v e0 j −8 V i e0 j = = − 4 A = i e0 j 2Ω e0 j = 84V − 2b−4g = 10 A s
⇒ vc 0−
− L L +

1 + A2 ⇒ A2 = 2 dt ∴ i L t = e −2 t −4 cos t + 2 sin t A

e j = −4 = A e0 j = 10 = − 2A
1 +

bg

P9.6-4 The response is underdamped so ∴ v ( t ) = e− α t ⎡ k cos ωt + k sin ωt ⎤ + k ⎣1 2 ⎦ 3 v ( ∞ ) = 0 ⇒ k = 0, v ( 0 ) = 0 ⇒ k = 0 3 1 ∴ v ( t ) = k e− α t sin ωt 2 From Fig. P 9.6-6 t ≈ 5ms ↔ v ≈ 260mV (max) t ≈ 7.5ms ↔ v ≈ −200 mV (min) ∴ distance between adjacent maxima is ≈ ω = so

2π = 1257 rad s T

−α (.005 ) 0.26 = k e sin 1257 (.005 ) (1) 2 −α (.0075 ) −0.2 = k e sin 1257 (.0075 ) ( 2 ) 2 Dividing (1) by (2) gives α (.0025) sin ( 6.29 rad ) − 1.3 = e ⇒ e⋅0025 α = 1.95 ⇒ α = 267 sin ( 9.43 rad ) From (1) k 2 = 544 so
v ( t ) = 544e −267t sin1257t

P9.6-5

bg i b0g =

v 0 = 2V 1 A 10

1 1 Char. eq.⇒ s2 + s+ = 0 or s2 + 2 s +5 = 0 thus roots are s = −1± j 2 RC LC

So have v(t) = e − t B1 cos2t + B2 sin 2t now v(0 + ) = 2 = B1 dv 0 + Need So dv 0 + dt

e j

e j

dt

=

1 i c 0+ C

e j

KCL yields i c 0 +

e j

= −

v 0+

e j − ie 0 j = 5
+

1 V 2 s

= 10 −

FG 1 IJ H 2K

= − B1 + 2 B2 ⇒ B2 = − 3 2

Finally, have v t = 2e − t cos2t −

bg

3 −t e sin2t V 2

t>0

Section 9-7: Forced Response of an RLC Circuit P9.7-1
v dv + iL + C R dt di L KVL : v = L dt KCL : i s =

is =

d 2i L L di L + i L + LC R dt dt 2

(a)

i s = l u(t) ∴ assume i f = A 1 di L 1 i L = is + RC dt LC dt 1 0+0+A = 1 .01 1 × 10 −3
2

d 2i L

+

b ge

j

A = 1 × 10 −5 = i f

(b)

is

= .5t u(t) ∴ assume i f = At + B

0+A

b gb g b

65 1 + At + B 100 .001 .01 .001

g b gb g

= .5t

650A + 100000B = 0 100000At = .5t

A = 5 × 10 −6 B = 3.25 × 10 −8 i f = 5 × 10 −6 t − 3.25 × 10 −8 A

(c)

i s = 2e −250 t

∴ assume i f = Ae −250 t

This does not work ∴ i f = Bte −250 t

Be −250 t −250Bte −250 t Bte −250 t + + = 2e −250 t RC RC LC 150 B = 2 B = .0133 if = .0133 te −250 t A

P9.7-2
d 2 v R dv 1 + + v = vs dt L dt LC

(a)

v s = 2 ∴ assume v f = A 0 + 0 +12000A = 2 A = 1 6000 = v f v s = .2 t ∴ assume v f = At + B 70A + 12000At +12000B = .2t 70A + 12000 B = 0 12000 At = .2t

(b)

A = ∴ vf

1 70A , B = , B = 350 60000 12000 t = + 350 V 60000
∴ assume Ae −30 t

(c)

v s = e −30 t

900A − 2100Ae −30 t +12000Ae −30 t = e −30 t 10800Ae −30 t = e −30 t 1 A = 10800 e −30 t vf = V 10800

P9.7-3 v " + 5v ' + 6v = 8 (a) Try vf = B & plug into above ⇒ 6 B = 8 ∴ vf = 8 / 6 V (b)
v " + 5v ' + 6v = 3e −4t Try vf = Be −4t & plug into above ⇒ (−4) 2 B + 5(−4) B + 6 B = 3 ⇒ B = 3 / 2 ∴ vf = 3 / 2e −4t

(c)

v " + 5v ' + 6v = 2e −2t Try vf = Bte −2t (since − 2 is a natural frequency) ⇒ (4t − 4) B + 5 B(1 − 2t ) + 6 Bt = 2 ⇒ B = 2 ∴ vf = 2te −2t

Section 9-8: Complete Response of an RLC Circuit P9.8-1

First, find the steady state response for t < 0, when the switch is open. Both inputs are constant so the capacitor will act like an open circuit at steady state, and the inductor will act like a short circuit. After a source transformation at the left of the circuit:

i L ( 0) =

22 − 4 = 6 mA 3000

and

v C ( 0) = 4 V

After the switch closes Apply KCL at node a: vC R +C d vC + iL = 0 dt

Apply KVL to the right mesh:
L d d i L + Vs − vC = 0 ⇒ vC = L i L + Vs dt dt

After some algebra: V d2 1 d 1 i + iL + iL = − s 2 L dt R C dt LC R LC The characteristic equation is

d2 d 16 ⎛ 4 ⎞ i + (103 ) i L + ⎜ × 106 ⎟ i L = − × 103 2 L dt dt 25 ⎝ 25 ⎠

⎛ 4 ⎞ s 2 + (103 ) s + ⎜ × 106 ⎟ = 0 ⇒ s1,2 = −200, − 800 rad/s ⎝ 25 ⎠

After the switch closes the steady-state inductor current is iL(∞) = -4 mA so

i L ( t ) = −0.004 + A1 e−200 t + A2 e−800 t
4 ⎛ 4 ⎞d ⎡( −200 ) A1 e −200 t + ( −800 ) A2 e−800 t ⎤ + 4 vC (t ) = ⎜ ⎟ i L (t ) + 4 = ⎦ 25 ⎠ dt 25 ⎣ ⎝ = ( −32 ) A1 e−200 t + ( −128 ) A2 e −800 t + 4 Let t = 0 and use the initial conditions:
0.006 = −0.004 + A1 + A2 ⇒ 0.01 = A1 + A2

4 = ( −32 ) A1 + ( −128) A2 + 4 ⇒
So A1 = 8.01 and A2 = 2.00 and

A1 = ( −4 ) A2

i L ( t ) = −0.004 + 8.01e−200 t + 2.00 e−800 t A
v C ( t ) = ( −104 ) e −200 t + (104 ) e −800 t + 4 V i (t ) = v C (t ) 1000 = ( −10 ) e −200 t + (10 ) e −800 t + 0.004 A

P9.8-2 First, find the steady state response for t < 0. The input is constant so the capacitor will act like an open circuit at steady state, and the inductor will act like a short circuit.
−1 = 0.2 A 1+ 4

i (0) =

and
v (0) = 4 ( −1) = −0.8 V 1+ 4

For t > 0

Apply KCL at node a:

v − Vs d +C v+i = 0 R1 dt
Apply KVL to the right mesh:
R2 i + L d d i − v = 0 ⇒ v = R2 i + L iL dt dt

After some algebra: L + R1 R 2 C d R1 + R 2 d2 Vs i+ i+ i= 2 dt R1 L C dt R1 L C R1 L C The forced response will be a constant, if = B so 1 =

d2 d i +5 i +5i =1 2 dt dt

d2 d B + 5 B + 5 B ⇒ B = 0.2 A . 2 dt dt

To find the natural response, consider the characteristic equation:

0 = s 2 + 5 s + 5 = ( s + 3.62 )( s + 1.38)
The natural response is
in = A1 e −3.62 t + A2 e −1.38 t

so
i ( t ) = A1 e −3.62 t + A2 e−1.38 t + 0.2

Then
d ⎛ ⎞ v ( t ) = ⎜ 4 i ( t ) + 4 i ( t ) ⎟ = −10.48 A1 e −3.62 t − 1.52 A2 e−1.38 t + 0.8 dt ⎝ ⎠

At t=0+

−0.2 = i ( 0 + ) = A1 + A2 + 0.2 −0.8 = v ( 0 + ) = −10.48 A1 − 1.52 A2 + 0.8

so A1 = 0.246 and A2 = -0.646. Finally
i ( t ) = 0.2 + 0.246 e −3.62 t − 0.646 e −1.38 t A

P9.8-3 First, find the steady state response for t < 0. The input is constant so the capacitors will act like an open circuits at steady state.

v1 ( 0 ) =

1000 (10 ) = 5 V 1000 + 1000

and

v2 ( 0 ) = 0 V

For t > 0, Node equations:

v1 − 10 ⎛ 1 v −v ⎞ d + ⎜ × 10−6 ⎟ v1 + 1 2 = 0 1000 ⎝ 6 1000 ⎠ dt ⎛1 ⎞ d ⇒ 2 v1 + ⎜ ×10−3 ⎟ v1 − 10 = v2 ⎝6 ⎠ dt v1 − v2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ d = ⎜ × 10−6 ⎟ v2 1000 ⎝ 16 ⎠ dt ⎛ 1 ⎞ d ⇒ v1 − v2 = ⎜ × 10−3 ⎟ v2 ⎝ 16 ⎠ dt

After some algebra: d2 d v + ( 2.8 ×104 ) v1 + ( 9.6 × 107 ) v1 = 9.6 × 108 2 1 dt dt The forced response will be a constant, vf = B so d2 d B + ( 2.8 ×104 ) B + ( 9.6 ×107 ) B = 9.6 × 108 ⇒ B = 10 V . 2 dt dt To find the natural response, consider the characteristic equation:
s 2 + ( 2.8 × 104 ) s + ( 9.6 × 107 ) = 0 ⇒ s1,2 = −4 × 103 , −2.4 × 104

The natural response is

vn = A1 e−4×10 t + A2 e−2.4×10
so

3

4t

v1 ( t ) = A1 e−4×10 t + A2 e−2.4×10
At t = 0

3

4t

+ 10

5 = v1 ( 0 ) = A1 e Next

−4×103 ( 0 )

+ A2 e

−2.4×104 ( 0 )

+ 10 = A1 + A2 + 10

(1)

⎛1 ⎞ d 2 v1 + ⎜ × 10−3 ⎟ v1 − 10 = v2 ⎝6 ⎠ dt

d v1 = 12000v1 + 6000 v2 − 6 × 10 4 dt

At t = 0
d v1 ( 0 ) = 12000v1 ( 0 ) + 6000 v2 ( 0 ) − 6 × 104 = 12000 ( 5 ) + 6000 ( 0 ) − 6 × 104 = 0 dt

so
3 4 d v1 ( t ) = A1 −4 × 103 e−4×10 t + A2 −2.4 × 104 e −2.4×10 t dt

(

)

(

)

At t = 0+

0=

d −4×103 ( 0 ) −2.4×104 ( 0 ) v1 ( 0 ) = A1 −4 × 103 e + A2 −2.4 ×104 e = A1 −4 × 103 + A2 −2.4 × 104 dt

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

so A1 = -6 and A2 = 1. Finally

v1 ( t ) = 10 + e−2.4×10

4t

− 6 e−4 ×10

3t

V for t > 0

P9.8-4
t>0

di L − 5cost + i L + 112 dv dt = 0 dt di dv KVL at right loop : .5 L = 112 +v dt dt KCL at top node : .5

FG H

IJ K

b1g b2 g

d 2i di 1 d2v of 1 ⇒ .5 2L + L + = − 5sint dt dt 12 dt 2 dt 2 2 d of 2 ⇒ .5 d i L = 1 d v + dv dt 12 dt 2 dt dt 2 d

bg

(3)

bg

b4 g
bg

Solving for d2v dt 2 +7

d 2i L dt
2

in 4 and

bg

di L in 2 & plugging into 3 dt

bg

dv + 12 v = − 30sint dt

⇒ s2 + 7s + 12 = 0 ⇒ s = − 3, − 4

so v(t) = A 1e −3t + A 2 e −4 t + v f

t = 0+

Try v f = B1cost + B2 sint & plug into D.E., equating like terms yields B1 = 2117 , B2 = − 3317

i c 0+

e j=

5V − 1V = 2A 1Ω + 1Ω

dv(0 + ) = dt

2

= 24 V s 1 12 A 1 = 25 A 2 = − 429 17

So v(0 + ) = 1 = A 1 + A 2 + 2117

dv(0 + ) = 24 = − 3A 1 − 4A 2 − 3317 dt ∴ v(t) = 25e −3t − 117 429e −4 t − 21cost + 33sint V

e

U | V | W

j

P9.8-5 Use superposition − first consider 2u(t) source

KVL at right mesh : v c + si L + 4(i L − 2) = 0 also : i L = (1 / 3) sv c ⇒ v c = (3 / s) i L

(1) (2)

Plugging (2) into (1) yields (s2 + 4s + 3) i L = 0 , roots : s = −1 ,−3 So i L (t) = A 1e − t + A 2 e −3t t = 0 − ⇒ circuit is dead
+

∴ v c (0) = i L (0) = 0

Now from (1)

di L (0 ) = 8 − 4i L (0 + ) − v C (0 + ) = 8 A / s dt

So i L (0) = 0 = A 1 + A 2 di L (0) = 8 = − A 1 − 3A 2 dt ∴ i L (t) = 4e − t − 4e −3t

U |A V | W

1

= 4 , A 2 = −4

∴ v1 (t) = 8 − 4 i L (t) = 8 − 16e − t + 16e −3t V Now for 2u(t − 2) source, just take above expression and replace t → t − 2 and flip signs ∴ v 2 (t) = −8 +16e − ( t − 2 ) − 16 e −3( t − 2 ) V ∴ v(t) = v1 (t) + v 2 (t) v(t) = 8 − 16e − t +16e −3t u(t) + −8 + 16e − ( t − 2 ) − 16 e −3( t − 2 ) u (t − 2) V

P9.8-6

First, find the steady state response for t < 0, when the switch is closed. The input is constant so the capacitor will act like an open circuit at steady state, and the inductor will act like a short circuit.

i (0) = −

5 = −1.25 mA 4

and

v ( 0) = 5 V

After the switch closes Apply KCL at node a:
v d + 0.125 v = i 2 dt

Apply KVL to the right mesh:
−10 cos t + v + 4 d i+4i =0 dt

After some algebra: d2 d v + 5 v + 6 v = 20 cos t 2 dt dt The characteristic equation is

s 2 + 5 s + 6 = 0 ⇒ s1,2 = −2, − 3 rad/s
Try

vf = A cos t + B sin t
d2 d A cos t + B sin t ) + 5 ( A cos t + B sin t ) + 6 ( A cos t + B sin t ) = 20 cos t 2 ( dt dt ( − A cos t − B sin t ) + 5 ( − A sin t + B cos t ) + 6 ( A cos t + B sin t ) = 20 cos t

( − A + 5 B + 6 A) cos t + ( − B − 5 A + 6 B ) sin t = 20 cos t
So A =2 and B =2. Then

vf = 2 cos t + 2 sin t
v ( t ) = 2 cos t + 2 sin t + A1 e−2 t + A2 e−3 t
Next v (t ) d + 0.125 v ( t ) = i ( t ) ⇒ 2 dt d v (t ) = 8 i (t ) − 4 v (t ) dt

d V ⎛ 5⎞ v ( 0 ) = 8 i ( 0 ) − 4 v ( 0 ) = 8 ⎜ − ⎟ − 4 ( 5 ) = −30 dt s ⎝ 4⎠

Let t = 0 and use the initial conditions:

5 = v ( 0 ) = 2 cos 0 + 2 sin 0 + A1 e−0 + A2 e−0 = 2 + A1 + A2
d v ( t ) = −2 sin t + 2 cos t − 2 A1 e −2 t − 3 A2 e −3 t dt −30 = d v ( 0 ) = −2 sin 0 + 2 cos 0 − 2 A1 e −0 − 3 A2 e −0 = 2 − 2 A1 − 3 A2 dt

So A1 = -23 and A2 = 26 and

v ( t ) = 2 cos t + 2 sin t − 23 e−2 t + 26 e−3 t

P9.8-7

First, find the steady state response for t < 0, when the switch is closed. The input is constant so the capacitor will act like an open circuit at steady state, and the inductor will act like a short circuit.

i ( 0) = 0 A
and

v ( 0) = 0 V

After the switch closes Apply KCL at node a:
C d v=i dt

Apply KVL to the right mesh: d 8 i + v + 2 i + 4 (2 + i) = 0 dt d 12 i + v + 2 i = −8 dt

After some algebra:

⎛ 1 ⎞ d2 d 4 v + ( 6) v + ⎜ ⎟v = − 2 dt dt C ⎝2C⎠ The forced response will be a constant, vf = B so ⎛ 1 ⎞ d2 d 4 B + ( 6) B + ⎜ ⎟B = − 2 dt dt C ⎝2C⎠ ⇒ B = −8 V

(a)

d2 d v + ( 6 ) v + ( 9 ) v = −72 2 dt dt 2 The characteristic equation is s + 6 s + 9 = 0 ⇒ s1,2 = −3, −3 When C = 1/18 F the differential equation is Then v ( t ) = ( A1 + A2 t ) e −3t − 8 . Using the initial conditions: 0 = v ( 0 ) = ( A1 + A2 ( 0 ) ) e0 − 8 ⇒ 0= So d v ( 0 ) = −3 ( A1 + A2 ( 0 ) ) e0 + A2 e0 dt

A1 = 8 ⇒ A2 = 24

v ( t ) = ( 8 + 24 t ) e −3t − 8 V for t > 0

(b)

d2 d v + ( 6 ) v + ( 5 ) v = −40 2 dt dt 2 The characteristic equation is s + 6 s + 5 = 0 ⇒ s1,2 = −1, −5 When C = 1/10 F the differential equation is Then v ( t ) = A1 e − t + A2 e−5 t − 8 . Using the initial conditions: 0 = v ( 0 ) = A1 e0 + A2 e0 − 8 ⇒ A1 + A2 = 8 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⇒ A1 = 10 and A2 = −2 d 0 0 0 = v ( 0 ) = − A1 e − 5 A2 e ⇒ − A1 − 5 A2 = 0 ⎪ dt ⎭ So v ( t ) = 10 e− t − 2 e−5 t − 8 V for t > 0

(c)

d2 d v + ( 6 ) v + (10 ) v = −80 2 dt dt 2 The characteristic equation is s + 6 s + 10 = 0 ⇒ s1,2 = −3 ± j When C = 1/20 F the differential equation is Then v ( t ) = e −3 t ( A1 cos t + A2 sin t ) − 8 . Using the initial conditions: 0 = v ( 0 ) = e0 ( A1 cos 0 + A2 sin 0 ) − 8 ⇒ 0= So

A1 = 8 A2 = 24

d v ( 0 ) = −3 e0 ( A1 cos 0 + A2 sin 0 ) + e0 ( − A1 sin 0 + A2 cos 0 ) ⇒ dt

v ( t ) = e−3 t ( 8cos t + 24 sin t ) − 8 V for t > 0

P9.8-8 The circuit will be at steady state for t<0:

so iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 0.5 A and vC(0+) = vC(0-) = 2 V. For t>0:

Apply KCL at node b to get:

1 1d 1 1d = iL ( t ) + vC ( t ) ⇒ iL ( t ) = − vC ( t ) 4 4 dt 4 4 dt
4 iL ( t ) + 2 d ⎛1 d ⎞ iL ( t ) = 8 ⎜ vc ( t ) ⎟ + vc ( t ) dt 4 dt ⎝ ⎠

Apply KVL to the right-most mesh to get: Use the substitution method to get

d ⎛1 1 d ⎛1 1 d ⎞ ⎞ ⎛1 d ⎞ 4⎜ − vC ( t ) ⎟ + 2 ⎜ − vC ( t ) ⎟ = 8 ⎜ vc ( t ) ⎟ + v ( t ) dt ⎝ 4 4 dt ⎝ 4 4 dt ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 4 dt ⎠ c

or

2=

d2 d vC ( t ) + 6 vC ( t ) + 2 vC ( t ) dt dt 2
d2 d B + 6 B + 2 B ⇒ B =1 V . 2 dt dt

The forced response will be a constant, vC= B so 2 =

To find the natural response, consider the characteristic equation:

0 = s 2 + 6 s + 2 = ( s + 5.65 )( s + 0.35 )

The natural response is so Then At t=0+
vn = A1 e−5.65 t + A 2 e−0.35 t vC ( t ) = A1 e −5.65 t + A 2 e−0.35 t +1

1 1 d 1 iL ( t ) = + vC ( t ) = +1.41 A1 e−5.65 t + 0.0875 A 2 e−0.35 t 4 4 dt 4
2 = vC ( 0 + ) = A1 + A 2 +1

1 1 =iL ( 0 + ) = +1.41A1 + 0.0875 A 2 2 4

so A1 = 0.123 and A2 = 0.877. Finally
vC ( t ) = 0.123 e-5.65 t + 0.877 e-0.35 t +1 V

P9.8-9

v = L di dt (1) dv v KCL : C + i+ = i s (2) dt 2

Substituting (1) into (2) yields
(s2 + 4 s + 29 ) i = i s = roots : s = − 2 ± j5 ∴ i n = e −2 t A cos 5t + B sin 5t i f = 145 29 = 5 So i (t) = 5 + e −2 t A cos 5t + B sin 5t Now i (0) = 0 = A +5 from (1) ⇒ A = −5 di (0) = 0 = − 2A + 5B ⇒ B = − 2 dt ∴ i (t) = 5+e −2 t −5 cos 5t − 2sin 5t 5 = 145 1 29

P9.8-10
t = 0−

i(0 − ) =

2 × 9 = 6A = i (0 + ) 2+1 1 × 9 × 1.5 = 4.5V = v(0 + ) & v (0 − ) = 2+1

t>0

KCL at middle node: i + 0.5 KVL :

dv v + = is dt 1.5 dv v 5di v + (0.5 + ) (0.5) = + i dt 1.5 dt

(1) (2)

Solving for i in (1) and plugging into (2) i ld
d2v dt
2

+

d 49 dv 4 2 + v = i s + 2 is 30 dt 5 5 dt

where i s = 9 + 3e −2 t A

So have s2 +

49 4 = 0 yields s = −.817 ± j.365 s+ 30 5 v n (t) = e −.817 t A 1cos (.365t) + A 2 sin (.365t) ⇒ B0 = 4.5, B1 = − 7.04 Try v f (t) =−.817 t+ B1e −2 t and plug into the D.E.,equate like terms B0 So v(t) = e A 1cos(.365t ) + A 2 sin (.365t) + 4.5− 7.04e −2 t

Now v(0) = 4.5 = A 1 + 4.5− 7.04 ⇒ A 1 = 7.04 from (1) dv(0) 4 4 = 2 i s (0) − 2i (0) − v(0) = 2(9+3) − 2(6) − (4.5) = 6 dt 3 3 ∴ 6 = −.817A 1 + . 365 A 2 + 14.08 ⇒ A 2 = − 22.82 so i(t) = i s (t) − i(t) = e −.817 t v(t) dv(t) −.5 1.5 dt 2.37 cos (.365t) + 7.14 sin (.365t)

+ 6 +.65e −2 t A

P9.8-11

First, find the steady state response for t < 0, when the switch is closed. The input is constant so the capacitor will act like an open circuit at steady state, and the inductor will act like a short circuit.

va ( 0 ) = −4 i ( 0 ) i ( 0 ) = 2 ( −4 i ( 0 ) ) ⇒ i ( 0 ) = 0 A
and

v ( 0 ) = 10 V

For t > 0 Apply KCL at node 2:
va d v=0 + K va + C R dt

KCL at node 1 and Ohm’s Law: va = − R i so d 1+ K R v= i dt CR Apply KVL to the outside loop:
L d i + R i + v − Vs = 0 dt

After some algebra: d2 R d 1+ K R 1+ K R v+ v+ v= Vs 2 dt L dt LC LC The forced response will be a constant, vf = B so

d2 d v + 40 v + 144 v = 2304 2 dt dt

d2 d B + ( 40 ) B + (144 ) B = 2304 ⇒ B = 16 V 2 dt dt The characteristic equation is s 2 + 40 s + 144 = 0 ⇒ s1,2 = −4, −36 .

v ( t ) = A1 e− 4 t + A2 e−36 t + 16 . Then Using the initial conditions: ⎫ 10 = v ( 0 ) = A1 e0 + A2 e0 + 16 ⇒ A1 + A2 = −6 ⎪ ⎬ ⇒ d 0 0 0 = v ( 0 ) = −4 A1 e − 36 A2 e ⇒ − 4 A1 − 36 A2 = 0 ⎪ dt ⎭

A1 = 0.75 and A2 = −6.75

So v ( t ) = 0.75 e −4 t − 6.75 e−36 t + 16 V for t > 0

P9.8-12 Two steady state responses are of interest, before and after the switch opens. At steady state, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor acts like a short circuit.

For t > 0, the switch is open. At steady state, inductor 24 current is i ( ∞ ) = . From the given equation, R1 + 20
i ( ∞ ) = lim i ( t ) = 0.24 . Thus,
t →∞

0.24 =

24 ⇒ R1 = 80 Ω . R1 + 20

For t < 0, the switch is closed and the circuit is at steady state. 24 = 0.24 + 0.193 cos ( −102° ) = 0.2 80 || R 3 + 20

(

)

Consequently, R 3 = 80 Ω After the switch opens, apply KCL and KVL to get
d ⎛ ⎞ R1 ⎜ i ( t ) + C v ( t ) ⎟ + v ( t ) = Vs dt ⎝ ⎠

Apply KVL to get
v (t ) = L d i (t ) + R2 i (t ) dt

Substituting v ( t ) into the first equation gives ⎛ d⎛ d d ⎞⎞ R1 ⎜ i ( t ) + C ⎜ L i ( t ) + R 2 i ( t ) ⎟ ⎟ + L i ( t ) + R 2 i ( t ) = Vs dt ⎝ dt dt ⎠⎠ ⎝ then

R1 C L
Dividing by R1 C L :

d2 dt
2

i ( t ) + R1 C R 2 + L

(

d ) dt i ( t ) + ( R1 + R 2 ) i ( t ) = Vs

⎛ R1 C R 2 + L ⎞ d ⎛ R1 + R 2 ⎞ Vs i (t ) + ⎜ ⎟ i (t ) + ⎜ ⎟ i (t ) = ⎜ R1 C L ⎟ dt ⎜ R1 C L ⎟ R1 C L dt 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ d2 Compare to

d2 dt
to get
2

i ( t ) + 2α

d i ( t ) + ω 02 i ( t ) = f (t ) dt R1 + R 2 R1 C L and f (t ) = Vs R1 C L

2α =

R1 C R 2 + L R1 C L

, ω 02 =

From the given equation, we have α = 6.25 and ω d = 9.27 rad/s . Consequently,

ω 0 = ω d 2 + α 2 = 11.18 rad/s . Next
12.5 =
So
12.5 = 20 1 + 1 80 C 100 C ⇒ 0 = 2000 C 2 − 12.5 C + 0.0125 ⇒ C = 1.25, 5 mF

R1 C R 2 + L R1 C L

=

20 1 + L 80 C

and 125 =

R1 + R 2 R1 C L

=

1.25 1 ⇒ 100 = CL CL

The corresponding values of the inductance are L = 8, 2 H .

There are two solutions:

R1 = 80 Ω, R 3 = 80 Ω, C = 1.25 mF and L = 8 H
and

R1 = 80 Ω, R 3 = 80 Ω, C = 5 mF and L = 2 H
We have used the initial condition i ( 0 ) = 0.2 A but we have not yet used the initial condition
v (t ) = L d i (t ) + R2 i (t ) ⇒ dt v (0) R2 i ( 0) 8 4 4 d i ( 0) = − = − = dt L L L L L

from the given equation,

i ( t ) = 0.24 + e −6.25 t ( −0.04 cos ( 9.27 t ) + 0.1888sin ( 9.27 t ) ) A for t ≥ 0

d i ( t ) = ( −6.25 ) e−6.25 t ( −0.04 cos ( 9.27 t ) + 0.1888sin ( 9.27 t ) ) dt

+ ( 9.27 ) e −6.25 t ( 0.04sin ( 9.27 t ) + 0.1888cos ( 9.27 t ) ) for t ≥ 0
d i ( 0 ) = ( −6.25 )( −0.04 ) + ( 9.27 )(1.888 ) = 2 dt

Consequently, and we choose

2=

d 4 i ( 0) = dt L

⇒ L=2H

R1 = 80 Ω, R 3 = 80 Ω, C = 5 mF and L = 2 H

P9.8-13 First, we find the initial conditions;

For t < 0, the switch is closed and the circuit is at steady state. At steady state, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor acts like a short circuit.

v (0 −) =
and

12 ×18 = 12 V ( 8 || 24 ) + 12

i (0 −) =

24 18 × = 0.75 A 8 + 24 ( 8 || 24 ) + 12

Next, represent the circuit by a differential equation. After the switch opens, apply KCL and KVL to get
d ⎛ ⎞ R1 ⎜ i ( t ) + C v ( t ) ⎟ + v ( t ) = Vs dt ⎝ ⎠

Apply KVL to get
v (t ) = L d i (t ) + R2 i (t ) dt

Substituting v ( t ) into the first equation gives ⎛ d⎛ d d ⎞⎞ R1 ⎜ i ( t ) + C ⎜ L i ( t ) + R 2 i ( t ) ⎟ ⎟ + L i ( t ) + R 2 i ( t ) = Vs dt ⎝ dt dt ⎠⎠ ⎝ then

R1 C L
Dividing by R1 C L :

d2 dt
2

i ( t ) + R1 C R 2 + L

(

d ) dt i ( t ) + ( R1 + R 2 ) i ( t ) = Vs

⎛ R1 C R 2 + L ⎞ d ⎛ R1 + R 2 ⎞ Vs i (t ) + ⎜ ⎟ i (t ) + ⎜ ⎟ i (t ) = ⎜ R1 C L ⎟ dt ⎜ R1 C L ⎟ R1 C L dt ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ d2
2

Compare to

d2 dt
to get
2

i ( t ) + 2α

d i ( t ) + ω 02 i ( t ) = f (t ) dt R1 + R 2 R1 C L and f (t ) = Vs R1 C L

2α =

R1 C R 2 + L R1 C L

, ω 02 =

With the given element values, we have α = 17.5 and ω 0 2 = 250 . Consequently, the roots of the characteristic equation are s 1 = −α − α 2 − ω 0 2 = −25 and s 2 = −α + α 2 − ω 02 = −10 . The natural response is

i n ( t ) = A1 e−10 t + A 2 e−25 t

Next, determine the forced response. The steady state response after the switch opens will be used as the forced response. At steady state, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor acts like a short circuit.
if = 18 = 0.9 A 8 + 12

So

i ( t ) = i n ( t ) + i f ( t ) = A1 e−10 t + A 2 e−25 t + 0.9
It remains to evaluate A1 and A2 using the initial conditions. At t = 0 we have 0.75 = i ( 0 ) = A1 + A 2 + 0.9 The other initial condition comes from v (t ) R 2 d i (t ) = − i (t ) ⇒ dt L L then
7.5 = d i ( 0 ) = −10 A1 − 25 A 2 dt

d 12 12 i ( 0) = − × 0.75 = 7.5 dt 0.4 0.4

Solving these equations gives A1 = 0.25 and A2 = −0.4 so

i ( t ) = 0.25 e−10 t − 0.4 e−25 t + 0.9 A for t > 0
(checked using LNAPTR 7/21/04)

P9.8-14 First, we find the initial conditions;

For t < 0, the switch is open and the circuit is at steady state. At steady state, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor acts like a short circuit.

v ( 0 − ) = 0 V and i ( 0 − ) = 0 A

also

i (0) d v ( 0) = =0 dt 0.025

Next, represent the circuit after the switch closes by a differential equation. To do so, we find the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the part of the circuit to the left of the inductor.
v s − v oc ⎫ ⎪ R1 ⎪ v s R 2 (1 + b ) ⎬ ⇒ v oc = v oc ⎪ R1 + R 2 (1 + b ) ia + bia = R2 ⎪ ⎭ ia =

i sc = i a (1 + b ) =
v s R 2 (1 + b )

vs R1

(1 + b )

Rt =

v oc i sc

=

R1 + R 2 (1 + b ) R1 R 2 = vs R1 + R 2 (1 + b ) (1 + b ) R1

With the given values, v oc = 16 V and R t = 2 Ω . After the switch closes, apply KVL to get
R t i (t ) + L d i ( t ) + v ( t ) = voc dt

Apply KCL to get
i (t ) = C d v (t ) dt

Substituting i ( t ) into the first equation gives

⎛ 1 ⎞ voc ⎛R⎞ d v (t ) + ⎜ ⎟ v (t ) + ⎜ ⎟ v (t ) = CL dt ⎝ L ⎠ dt ⎝CL⎠ d2
2

Compare to

d2 dt
to get
2

v ( t ) + 2α

d v ( t ) + ω 0 2 v ( t ) = f (t ) dt

2α =

Rt L

, ω 02 =

1 and CL

f (t ) =

voc CL

With the given element values, we have α = 2.5 and ω 0 2 = 100 . Consequently, the roots of the characteristic equation are s 1,2 = −α ± α 2 − ω 02 = −2.5 ± j 9.682 and the circuit is underdamped. The damped resonant frequency is ω d = ω 0 2 − α 2 = 9.682 rad/s . The natural response is v n ( t ) = e−2.5 t A1 cos 9.682 t + A 2 sin 9.682 t Next, determine the forced response. The steady state response after the switch closes will be used as the forced response. At steady state, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor acts like a short circuit.
v f = v oc = 16 V

(

)

So v ( t ) = 16 + e−2.5 t A1 cos 9.682 t + A 2 sin 9.682 t

(

)

It remains to evaluate A1 and A2 using the initial conditions. At t = 0 we have 0 = v ( 0 ) = 16 + A1 ⇒ and
0= d v ( 0 ) = −2.5 A1 + 9.682 A 2 dt ⇒ A2 = −

A1 = −16
2.5 × 16 = −4.131 9.682

Finally,

v ( t ) = 16 + e−2.5 t ( −16 cos 9.682 t − 4.131sin 9.682 t ) = 16 + 16.525 e−2.5 t cos ( 9.682 t + 165.5° ) V for t ≥ 0
(checked using LNAPTR 7/22/04)

P9.8-15 First, we find the initial conditions;

For t < 0, the switch is open and the circuit is at steady state. At steady state, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor acts like a short circuit.

v ( 0 − ) = 0 V and i ( 0 − ) = 0 A
also i ( 0) v ( 0) d v (0) = − =0 dt 0.005 50 × 0.005

Next, represent the circuit after the switch closes by a differential equation. After the switch closes, use KCL to get

i (t ) =
Use KVL to get

v (t ) d + C v (t ) R2 dt

v s = R1 i ( t ) + L

d i (t ) + v (t ) dt

Substitute to get vs = R1 R2 v ( t ) + R1C d L d d2 v (t ) + v ( t ) + CL 2 v ( t ) + v ( t ) dt R 2 dt dt

= CL Finally, vs CL Compare to

⎛ R1 + R 2 d2 L ⎞d v t + RC+ v (t ) ⎟ v (t ) + 2 ( ) ⎜ 1 ⎜ dt R 2 ⎟ dt R2 ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ R1 R1 + R 2 d2 1 ⎞d v t + + v (t ) ⎟ v (t ) + 2 ( ) ⎜ ⎜ L R 2C ⎟ dt dt R 2CL ⎝ ⎠

d2 dt
to get
2

i ( t ) + 2α

d i ( t ) + ω 02 i ( t ) = f (t ) dt and f (t ) = vs CL

2α =

R1 L

+

R1 + R 2 1 , ω 02 = R 2C R 2CL

With the given element values, we have α = 14.5 and ω 0 2 = 200 . Consequently, the roots of the characteristic equation are s 1 = −11.3 and s 2 = −17.7 so the circuit is overdamped. The natural response is

v n ( t ) = A1 e−11.3t + A 2 e−17.7 t
Next, determine the forced response. The steady state response after the switch opens will be used as the forced response. At steady state, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor acts like a short circuit.
vf = 1 v s = 10 V 2

So

v n ( t ) = 10 + A1 e−11.3t + A 2 e−17.7 t
It remains to evaluate A1 and A2 using the initial conditions. At t = 0 we have 0 = v ( 0 ) = 10 + A1 + A 2 and
0= d v ( 0 ) = −11.3 A1 − 17.7 A 2 dt

Solving these equations gives

A1 = −27.6 and A 2 = 17.6
Finally,
v ( t ) = 10 − 27.6 e −11.3 t + 17.6 e −17.7 t

(checked using LNAPTR 7/26/04)

P9.8-16 First, we find the initial conditions;

For t < 0, the switch is closed and the circuit is at steady state. At steady state, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor acts like a short circuit.

v ( 0 − ) = 0 V and i ( 0 − ) = 0 A
Also
9 i ( 0 ) + 0.4 d i (0) = v (0) ⇒ dt d i (0) = 0 dt

Next, represent the circuit by a differential equation. After the switch closes use KVL to get
R 2 i (t ) + L d i (t ) = v (t ) dt

Use KCL and KVL to get
d ⎛ ⎞ v s = R1 ⎜ i ( t ) + C v ( t ) ⎟ + v ( t ) dt ⎝ ⎠ Substitute to get d d2 d v s = R1i ( t ) + R1CR 2 i ( t ) + R1C L 2 i ( t ) + R 2i ( t ) + L i ( t ) dt dt dt 2 d d = R1CL 2 i ( t ) + R1 R 2C + L i ( t ) + R1 + R 2 i ( t ) dt dt then ⎛ R2 vs R1 + R 2 d2 1 ⎞d = 2 i (t ) + ⎜ + i (t ) ⎟ i (t ) + ⎜ L R1C ⎟ dt R1CL dt R1CL ⎝ ⎠ Compare to d2 d i t + 2α i ( t ) + ω 02 i ( t ) = f (t ) 2 ( ) dt dt to get R2 R1 + R 2 Vs 1 + 2α = , ω 02 = and f (t ) = L R1C R1 C L R1 C L

(

)

(

)

With the given element values, we have α = 12.5 and ω 02 = 156.25 . Consequently, the roots of the characteristic equation are s 1,2 = −α ± α 2 − ω 02 = −12.5, − 12.5 so the circuit is critically damped. The natural response is i n ( t ) = A1 + A 2 t e −12.5 t Next, determine the forced response. The steady state response after the switch opens will be used as the forced response. At steady state, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor acts like a short circuit. 20 if = = 0.8 A 16 + 9 So

(

)

i ( t ) = i n ( t ) + i f ( t ) = A1 + A 2 t e−12.5 t + 0.8 It remains to evaluate A1 and A2 using the initial conditions. At t = 0 we have 0 = i ( 0 ) = A1 + 0.8 ⇒ And Thus
0= d i ( 0 ) = −12.5 A1 − A 2 dt

(

)

A1 = −0.8
⇒ A 2 = 10

i ( t ) = ( −0.8 + 10 t ) e−12.5 t + 0.8 for t > 0
(checked using LNAPTR 7/27/04)
P9.8-17 First, we find the initial conditions;

For t < 0, the switch is closed and the circuit is at steady state. At steady state, the inductors act like short circuits.

i1 ( 0 − ) =
and

20 = 1.333 A 15

i 2 (0 −) = 0 A

Next, represent the circuit by a differential equation. After the switch opens, KVL gives
L1 d d i1 ( t ) = R 2 i 2 ( t ) + L 2 i 2 ( t ) dt dt

KVL and KCL give
L1 d i 1 ( t ) + R1 ( i 1 ( t ) + i 2 ( t ) ) = 0 dt

Use the operator method to get

L1s i1 = R 2 i 2 + L 2 s i 2 L1s i1 + R1 ( i1 + i 2 ) = 0

L1s 2i1 + R1s i1 + R1s i 2 = 0 s ( R 2i 2 + L 2 s i 2 ) + R1 L1

(R i

2 2

+ L 2 s i 2 ) + R1s i 2 = 0

⎛ ⎞ L2 R1 R 2 + R1 ⎟ s i 2 + L 2 s 2 i 2 + ⎜ R 2 + R1 i2 = 0 ⎜ ⎟ L1 L1 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ R 2 R 1 R1 ⎞ R1 R 2 s 2i 2 + ⎜ + + ⎟ s i2 + i2 = 0 ⎜ L 2 L 2 L1 ⎟ L1 L 2 ⎝ ⎠

so ⎛ R 2 R1 R1 ⎞ d R1 R 2 d2 i t + + + ⎟ i 2 (t ) + i 2 (t ) = 0 2 2( ) ⎜ ⎜ L 2 L 2 L1 ⎟ dt dt L1 L 2 ⎝ ⎠ Compare to

d2 dt
to get
2

i ( t ) + 2α R1 L2 R1 L1

d i ( t ) + ω 02 i ( t ) = f (t ) dt R1R 2 L1L 2 and f (t ) = 0

2α =

R2 L2

+

+

, ω 02 =

With the given element values, we have α = 33.9 and ω 02 = 281.25 . Consequently, the roots of the characteristic equation are s 1,2 = −α ± α 2 − ω 02 = −4.4, − 63.4 so the circuit is overdamped. The natural response is

i n ( t ) = A1 e−4.4 t + A 2 e−63.4 t
Next, determine the forced response. The steady state response after the switch opens will be used as the forced response. At steady state the inductors act like short circuits. if = 0 A

So

i 2 ( t ) = i n ( t ) + i f ( t ) = A1 e−4.4 t + A2 e−63.4 t
It remains to evaluate A1 and A2 using the initial conditions. At t = 0 we have

0 = i 2 ( 0 ) = A1 + A 2
L2 d i 2 ( 0 ) + R 2 i 2 ( 0 ) + R1 i 1 ( 0 ) + R 1 i 2 ( 0 ) ⇒ dt −20 = d i ( 0 ) = −4.4 A1 − 63.4 A 2 dt d i 2 ( 0 ) = −20 dt

and

Solving these equations gives A1 = −0.339 and A2 = 0.339 so

i 2 ( t ) = −0.339 e−4.4 t + 0.339 e−63.4 t for t ≥ 0
(checked using LNAPTR 7/27/04)

P9.8-18 First, we find the initial conditions;

For t < 0, the switch is open and the circuit is at steady state. At steady state, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor acts like a short circuit.

v ( 0 − ) = 0 V and i ( 0 − ) = 0 A
also i (0) d v ( 0) = =0 dt 0.005

Next, represent the circuit after the switch closes by a differential equation. After the switch closes
i (t ) = C d v (t ) dt

KCL and KVL give
⎛ 1 ⎛ d d ⎞⎞ v s = R2 ⎜ i (t ) + ⎜ L i (t ) + v (t ) ⎟ ⎟ + L i (t ) + v (t ) ⎜ R1 ⎝ dt dt ⎠⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Substituting gives

⎛ R2 ⎞ ⎛ R2 ⎞ ⎛ R2 ⎞ d2 d d2 d vs = LC 2 v ( t ) + R 2C v ( t ) + ⎜1 + ⎟ v ( t ) = ⎜1 + ⎟ LC 2 v ( t ) + R 2C v ( t ) + ⎜1 + ⎟ v (t ) ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ R1 dt dt R1 ⎟ R1 ⎟ dt dt R1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ R2 So the differential equation is R1 R 2 d2 d 1 = v (t ) + v (t ) + v (t ) LC LC ( R1 + R 2 ) dt L ( R1 + R 2 ) dt R1v s Compare to

d2 dt
to get
2

i ( t ) + 2α

d i ( t ) + ω 02 i ( t ) = f (t ) dt

2α =

L R1 + R 2

(

R1 R 2

)

, ω 02 =

1 CL

and

f (t ) =

LC R1 + R 2

(

R1v s

)

With the given element values, we have α = 6.25 and ω 0 2 = 100 . Consequently, the roots of the characteristic equation are s 1,2 = −α ± α 2 − ω 02 = −6.25 ± j 7.806 and the circuit is underdamped. The damped resonant frequency is ω d = ω 02 − α 2 = 7.806 rad/s . The natural response is v n ( t ) = e−6.25 t A1 cos 7.806 t + A 2 sin 7.806 t Next, determine the forced response. The steady state response after the switch opens will be used as the forced response. At steady state, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor acts like a short circuit.
vf = 50 × 20 = 10 V 50 + 50

(

)

So v ( t ) = 10 + e−6.25 t A1 cos 7.806 t + A 2 sin 7.806 t

(

)

It remains to evaluate A1 and A2 using the initial conditions. At t = 0 we have 0 = v ( 0 ) = 10 + A1 ⇒ and A1 = −10

0=

d v ( 0 ) = −6.25 A1 + 7.806 A 2 dt

A2 = −

6.25 × 10 = −8.006 7.806

Finally,

v ( t ) = 10 + e−6.25 t ( −10 cos 7.806 t − 8.006sin 7.806 t ) = 10 + 12.81 e−6.25 t cos ( 7.806 t + 141.3° ) V for t ≥ 0
(checked using LNAPTR 7/26/04)

P9.8-19

When the circuit reaches steady state after t = 0, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor acts like a short circuit. Under these conditions
vC ( ∞ ) = R2 R1 + R 2 1

Next, represent the circuit by a 2nd order differential equation: KCL at the top node of R2 gives: KVL around the outside loop gives: Use the substitution method to get
vs ( t ) = L ⎞ ⎛ v (t ) ⎞ d ⎛ vC ( t ) d d + C vC ( t ) ⎟ + R1 ⎜ C + C vC ( t ) ⎟ + vC ( t ) ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ R2 ⎟ dt ⎜ R 2 dt dt ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ L ⎞d ⎛ R1 ⎞ d2 + R1 C ⎟ vC ( t ) + ⎜1 + v t + v t 2 C ( ) ⎜ ⎜ R2 ⎟ dt ⎜ R2 ⎟ C ( ) ⎟ dt ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
vC ( t ) R2 vs ( t ) = L +C d vC ( t ) = iL ( t ) dt

d iL ( t ) + R1 iL ( t ) + vC ( t ) dt

= LC

(a) C = 1 F, L = 0.25 H, R1 = R2 = 1.309 Ω Use the steady state response as the forced response:

v f = vC ( ∞ ) =

R2 R1 + R 2

1=

1 2

The characteristic equation is

R1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1+ ⎟ ⎛ 1 R1 ⎞ ⎜ R2 ⎟ 2 2 + = s + 6 s + 8 = ( s + 2 )( s + 4 ) s +⎜ s+ ⎜ R 2 C L ⎟ ⎜ LC ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ so the natural response is vn = A1 e−2 t + A2 e−4 t V The complete response is
vc ( t ) = 1 + A1 e −2 t + A2 e −4 t V 2

iL ( t ) = At t = 0+

vC ( t ) 1.309

+

d vC ( t ) = −1.236 A1 e−2 t − 3.236 A2 e−4 t + 0.3819 dt

0 = vc ( 0 + ) = A1 + A2 + 0.5 0 = iL ( 0 + ) = −1.236 A1 − 3.236 A2 + 0.3819

Solving these equations gives A1 = -1 and A2 = 0.5, so
vc ( t ) = 1 1 − e −2 t + e −4 t V 2 2

(b) C = 1 F, L = 1 H, R1 = 3 Ω, R2 = 1 Ω Use the steady state response as the forced response: R2 1 v f = vC ( ∞ ) = 1= R1 + R 2 4 The characteristic equation is R1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1+ ⎟ ⎛ 1 R1 ⎞ R2 ⎟ 2 2 s2 + ⎜ + ⎟s+⎜ = s + 4s + 4 = ( s + 2 ) ⎜ R 2 C L ⎟ ⎜ LC ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ so the natural response is v f = ( A1 + A2 t ) e −2 t V

The complete response is
vc ( t ) = 1 + ( A1 + A2 t ) e −2 t V 4

iL ( t ) = vC ( t ) +

d 1 vC ( t ) = + dt 4

(( A

2

− A1 ) − A2 t e −2 t

)

At t = 0+
0 = vc ( 0 + ) = A1 + 0 = iL ( 0 + ) = 1 4

1 + A2 − A1 4

Solving these equations gives A1 = -0.25 and A2 = -0.5, so
1 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ −2 t − ⎜ + t ⎟e V 4 ⎝4 2 ⎠ (c) C = 0.125 F, L = 0.5 H, R1 = 1 Ω, R2 = 4 Ω Use the steady state response as the forced response: R2 4 v f = vC ( ∞ ) = 1= R1 + R 2 5 The characteristic equation is R1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1+ ⎟ ⎛ 1 R1 ⎞ ⎜ R2 ⎟ 2 2 s +⎜ + s+ = s + 4s + 20 = ( s + 2 − j 4 )( s + 2 + j 4 ) ⎜ R 2 C L ⎟ ⎜ LC ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ so the natural response is v f = e −2 t ( A1 cos 4 t + A2 sin 4 t ) V vc ( t ) =

The complete response is

vc ( t ) = 0.8 + e −2 t ( A1 cos 4 t + A2 sin 4 t ) V

iL ( t ) = At t = 0+

vC ( t ) 4

+

A2 −2 t A1 1d vC ( t ) = 0.2 + e cos 4 t − e−2 t sin 4 t 8 dt 2 2

0 = vc ( 0 + ) = 0.8 + A1
0 = iL ( 0 + ) = 0.2 + A2 2

Solving these equations gives A1 = -0.8 and A2 = -0.4, so

vc ( t ) = 0.8 − e−2 t ( 0.8cos 4 t + 0.4sin 4 t ) V

P9.8-20

When the circuit reaches steady state after t = 0, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor acts like a short circuit. Under these conditions
vC ( ∞ ) = R2 R1 + R 2 1, iL ( ∞ ) = 1 R1 + R 2 and vo ( ∞ ) = R2 R1 + R 2 1

Next, represent the circuit by a 2nd order differential equation: KVL around the right-hand mesh gives: KCL at the top node of the capacitor gives: Use the substitution method to get
d iL ( t ) + R 2 iL ( t ) dt vs ( t ) − vC ( t ) d − C vC ( t ) = iL ( t ) R1 dt vC ( t ) = L

vs ( t ) = R1 C

d ⎛ d ⎞ ⎛ d ⎞ ⎜ L iL ( t ) + R 2 iL ( t ) ⎟ + ⎜ L iL ( t ) + R 2 iL ( t ) ⎟ + R1 iL ( t ) dt ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠

d2 d = R1 LC 2 iL ( t ) + ( L + R1 R 2 C ) iL ( t ) + ( R1 + R 2 ) iL ( t ) dt dt v (t ) Using iL ( t ) = o gives R2 vs (t ) = R1 R2 LC ⎛ L ⎞d ⎛ R1 + R 2 ⎞ d2 v t + v t + R1 C ⎟ v o ( t ) + ⎜ 2 o( ) ⎜ ⎜ R2 ⎟ dt ⎜ R2 ⎟ o ( ) ⎟ dt ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

(a) C = 1 F, L = 0.25 H, R1 = R2 = 1.309 Ω Use the steady state response as the forced response: R2 1 v f = vo ( ∞ ) = 1= R1 + R 2 2 The characteristic equation is

R2 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1+ ⎟ ⎛ 1 R2 ⎞ ⎜ R1 ⎟ 2 2 s +⎜ + s+ = s + 6 s + 8 = ( s + 2 )( s + 4 ) ⎜ R1 C L ⎟ ⎜ LC ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ so the natural response is vn = A1 e−2 t + A2 e−4 t V
The complete response is
1 + A1 e −2 t + A2 e −4 t V 2 A1 −2 t A 2 −4 t v (t ) 1 = + iL ( t ) = o e + e V 1.309 2.618 1.309 1.309 vo ( t ) = vC ( t ) = 1.309 iL ( t ) + 1 d 1 iL ( t ) = + 0.6167 A1 e −2 t + 0.2361 A2 e −4 t 4 dt 2

At t = 0+ 0 = iL ( 0 + ) =
0 = vC ( 0 + ) =

A1 A2 1 + + 2.618 1.309 1.309

1 + 0.6167 A1 + 0.2361 A2 2

Solving these equations gives A1 = -1 and A2 = 0.5, so
vo ( t ) = 1 1 − e −2 t + e −4 t V 2 2

(b) C = 1 F, L = 1 H, R1 = 1 Ω, R2 = 3 Ω Use the steady state response as the forced response: R2 3 v f = vo ( ∞ ) = 1= R1 + R 2 4 The characteristic equation is R2 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1+ ⎟ ⎛ 1 R2 ⎞ ⎜ R1 ⎟ 2 2 2 s +⎜ + s+ = s + 4s + 4 = ( s + 2 ) ⎜ R1 C L ⎟ ⎜ LC ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ so the natural response is v f = ( A1 + A2 t ) e −2 t V

The complete response is
vo ( t ) = 3 + ( A1 + A2 t ) e −2 t V 4

iL ( t ) =

vo ( t ) 3

=

1 ⎛ A1 A2 ⎞ −2 t t⎟ e V +⎜ + 4 ⎝ 3 3 ⎠

vC ( t ) = 3 iL ( t ) +

3 ⎛ ⎛ A1 A2 ⎞ A2 ⎞ −2 t d iL ( t ) = + ⎜ ⎜ + t ⎟e ⎟+ 4 ⎜⎝ 3 3 ⎠ 3 ⎟ dt ⎝ ⎠

At t = 0+ 3 3 A1 A2 0 = vC ( 0 + ) = + + 4 3 3 Solving these equations gives A1 = -0.75 and A2 = -1.5, so
vo ( t ) = 3 ⎛ 3 3 ⎞ −2 t − ⎜ + t ⎟e V 4 ⎝4 2 ⎠

0 = iL ( 0 + ) =

A1

+

1 4

(c) C = 0.125 F, L = 0.5 H, R1 = 4 Ω, R2 = 1 Ω Use the steady state response as the forced response: R2 1 1= v f = vo ( ∞ ) = 5 R1 + R 2 The characteristic equation is R2 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1+ ⎟ ⎛ 1 R2 ⎞ ⎜ R1 ⎟ 2 2 s +⎜ + s+ = s + 4s + 20 = ( s + 2 − j 4 )( s + 2 + j 4 ) ⎜ R1 C L ⎟ ⎜ LC ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ so the natural response is v f = e −2 t ( A1 cos 4 t + A2 sin 4 t ) V

The complete response is
vo ( t ) = 0.2 + e −2 t ( A1 cos 4 t + A2 sin 4 t ) V

iL ( t ) =

vo ( t )
1

= 0.2 + e −2 t ( A1 cos 4 t + A2 sin 4 t ) V

vC ( t ) = iL ( t ) +

1 d iL ( t ) = 0.2 + 2 A2 e −2 t cos 4 t − 2 A1 e −2 t sin 4 t 2 dt

At t = 0+

0 = iL ( 0 + ) = 0.2 + A1

0 = vC ( 0 + ) = 0.2 + 2 A2
Solving these equations gives A1 = -0.8 and A2 = -0.4, so

vc ( t ) = 0.2 − e−2 t ( 0.2 cos 4 t + 0.1sin 4 t ) V

Section 9-9: State Variable Approach to Circuit Analysis P9.9-1
t = 0 − circuit is source free ∴ i L (0) = 0 & v(0) = 0 t>0

1 dv dt = 4 5 di KVL at right loop : v −1 L dt − 6i L = 0 KCL at top node: i L +

(1)

d2v dv + 6 + 5v = 120 2 dt dt ⇒ s2 + 6s + 5 = 0, s = −1, − 5 ∴ v n (t) = A 1 e − t + A 2 e −5t Try v f = B & plug into D.E. ⇒ B = 24 = v f dv(0) From (1) = 20 − 5 i L (0) = 20 V s dt So v(0) = 0 = A 1 + A 2 + 24 A 1= − 25, A 2 = 1 dv(0) ∴ v (t) = − 25e − t + e −5t + 24 V = 20 = − A 1 − 5A 2 dt Solving for i1 in (1) & plugging into (2) ⇒

U | V | W

P9.9-2
t = 0− t >0 circuit is source free ∴ i L (0) = 0, & v(0) = 0

i L = 4 − 110 dv dt di L KVL at right node : v − dt −6i L = 0 d2v dv (1) into (2) yields +6 + 10v = 240 dt dt 2 KCL at top node :

(1) (2)

⇒ s2 + 6 s + 10 = 0, s = − 3 ± j ∴ v n (t) = e Try v f = B & plug into D.E. ⇒ v f = B = 24 dv (0) From (1) = 40 −10 i L (0) = 40 V s dt
So v(0) = 0 = A 1 + 24 ⇒ A 1 = − 24 & ⇒ ∴ v (t) = e
−3 t

−3 t

A 1cos t + A 2 sint

A2

dv(0) = 40 = − 3A 1 + A 2 dt = − 32

−24 cost − 32 sint + 24 V

P9.9-3

i (0) = − 3, v(0) = 0 t > 0

dv v + + 6=0 dt R di KVL: v = L dt KCL: i + C

d 2i di + 100 + 250i = − 1500 dt dt 2 s = − 2.57, − 97.4 −1500 i f (t) = = −6 250 i(t) = A 1e −2.57 t + A 2 e −97.4 t − 6 i (0) = A 1 + A 2 − 6 = − 3 di (0) = 0 = − 2.57A 1 − 97.4A 2 dt
−2.57 t

U | V | W

A 1 = 3 .081 A 2 =−.081

i (t) = 3. 081 e v (t) = .2

−.081e
−2.57 t

−97.4 t

−6 A

di = −158e . dt

+ 1.58e −97.4 t V

P9.9-4
KCL at 2 - 3: i x − 2i x −.01 KCL at 1: i − 2i x + KVL : v x + v −.1 ix = − 2 vx − v i 2 (0) = 0, v c (0) = 10
reduces to : (−1.5−.01s) v + (.25s) i =0 (− 2.5)v + (1+.45s) i = 0 The characteristic equation is : s2 + 13.33s + 333.33 = 0 ⇒ s1, s 2 , = −6.67 ± j 17
* Note: no forced response v(t) = [ A cos 17t + B sin 17t ] e−6.67t dv(0) = −111 = −6.67A + 17 B ⇒ B = − 2.6 dt v (t) = [10 cos 17t − 2.6sin17t] e−6.67t v(0) = 10 = A and i (t) = [ A cos 17 t + B sin 17 t ] e−6.67t i (0) = 0 =A and di (0) = 55.6 = −6.67A + 17B ⇒ B=3.27 dt i (t) = [3.27 sin 17t] e−6.67t

vx dv + =0 dt 2

vx =0 2

di =0 dt

P9.9-5

t<0

v(0) = 10V, i L (0) =

10 A 3

0 < t < .5s

R 3 = L 2 1 2 ω 0 = LC = 12 α = s = −α± s1 = −.028 s2 = −2.97
v(t) = Ae −.028 t + Be −2.97 t v f =0 v(0) = 10 = A + B A = + 16. 89 dv(0) = 20 = −.028A − 2.97, B B = + − 6.89 dt v(t) = 16. 89 e −.028 t − 6.89e −2.97 t i(t) = −.079e −.028 t + 3.41e −2.97 t t = .5s v(.5) = 15.1 V i (.5) = .7 A

α 2 −ω 2 0

U | V | W

t > 0.55

KCL:

v −30 6

+ iL +

1 dv = 6 dt

di L KVL: v = 3i L + 12 dt Characteristic equation :

0 = s2 − 7s − 18 ⇒ s = −1,9
v f = 10 V v(t) = Ae 9t + Be − t +10

v (.5) =151= 90A + .61B + 10 . dv(.5) = 10.7 = 810A −.61B dt

U | V | W

A = 17.6 × 10 −3 B = 5.77

t 0 → .5 .5 →2

v(t) 16.89e-0.28t - 6.89e-2.97 t V 17.6 × 10-3e9t + 5.77e-t + 10 V

Section 9-10: Roots in the Complex Plane P9.10-1 s 2 + 3.5 ×106 s + 1.5 × 1012 = 0 s = −5 × 105
1

s2 = −3 ×106

P9.10-2

s 2 + 800s + 250000 = 0 s = 400 ± j 300

P9.10-3

KCL: KVL:

i=

1 dv v × 10−6 + 4 dt 4000 di vs = 4 + v dt

Characteristic equation:

s 2 + 1× 103 s + 1×106 = 0 s = −500 ± j 866

P9.10-4
at t = 0 v(0) = v b (0)= 0 dv v − v i (0) = 0 and C b + b a + =0 6 dt

(1)

t=0 Node a: v a (0) − 36 v (0) − v b (0) − i (0) + a = 12 6 then v a (0) + 2v a (0) = 36 so v a (0) =12V

t ≥ 0 Node a : Node b : Using operators

FG H

va − vs v v 1 + (v a − v b ) dt + a − b = 0 12 L 6 dv b v −v 1 C + b a + (v a − v b )dt =0 dt 6 L v 1 1 1 1 1 + + va + − − v b = s 6 s 12 6 s 12 1 1 1 1 1 (− − ) va + ( s + + ) vb = 0 6 s 18 6 s

z

IJ K

FG H

zI
JK

Cramers rule (s2 +5s + 6) v b = (s+ 6)1 v s
Then v b = 36 + A 1 e −2 t + A 2 e −3t v b (0) = 36 + A 1 + A 2 dv b (0) = − 2A 1 − 3A 2 dt

(2)

need

Use 1 above C

v 0 − v b (0) dv b (0) 1 12 ( −2A 1 − 3A 2 ) = a = − i(0) = =2 6 dt 18 6

bg

(3)

Use (2) and (3) to get A 1 = − 72 A 2 = 36 so v b = 36 − 72e
−2 t

+ 36e −3t , t ≥ 0

Section 9-11 How Can We Check…?
P9.11-1 This problem is similar to the verification example in this chapter. First, check the steady-state inductor current v 25 i (t ) = s = = 250 mA 100 100 This agrees with the value of 250.035 mA shown on the plot. Next, the plot shows an underdamped response. That requires

12 ⋅10−3 = L < 4 R 2C = 4(100) 2 (2 ⋅10−6 ) = 8 ⋅10−2
This inequality is satisfied, which also agrees with the plot. The damped resonant frequency is given by 2 2 ⎛ ⎞ 1 1 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ = 5.95 ⋅103 −⎜ − ⎜ ω = ⎟ = d −6 ) ⎟ ⎜ 2(100) (2 ⋅10 LC ⎝ 2RC ⎠ 2 ⋅10−6 12 ⋅10−3 ⎝ ⎠

(

)(

)

The plot indicates a maxima at 550.6μs and a minima at 1078.7μs. The period of the damped oscillation is T = 2 (1078.7 μ s − 550.6μ s) = 1056.2μ s d 2π 2π = = 5.949 ⋅103 Finally, check that 5.95 ⋅103 = ω = d −6 T 1056.2 ⋅10 d The value of ωd determined from the plot agrees with the value obtained from the circuit. The plot is correct

P9.11-2 This problem is similar to the verification example in this chapter. First, check the steady-state inductor current. v 15 i (t ) = s = = 150 mA 100 100 This agrees with the value of 149.952 mA shown on the plot. Next, the plot shows an under damped response. This requires

8 ⋅10−3 = L < 4 R 2C = 4 (100)2 (0.2 ⋅10−6 ) = 8 ⋅10−3
This inequality is not satisfied. The values in the circuit would produce a critically damped, not underdamped, response. This plot is not correct.