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# Lecture 7

## Wind Tunnel Tests

and
Full-scale Measurements
Tokyo Polytechnic University
The 21st Century Center of Excellence Program

Yukio Tamura

## Satisfaction of necessary and possible dynamic,

kinetic and geometric similarity laws
Confirmation of test repeatability
Appropriate calibration of transducers etc.
Wind Tunnel Testing Manuals
e.g. Building Center of Japan (1994)
American Society of Civil Engineers (1999)

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Wind Tunnel Flows

Simulated Flow
- cannot reproduce exact characteristics
Building Model
- cannot have exactly the same geometrical shape
Similarity Laws
- cannot be exactly satisfied

Similarity Laws
Geometrical Similarity

Building Dimensions
H/L, D/L, B/L
Topography, Surrounding Buildings, Obstacles
R/L
Turbulence Scale
Lux/L
Boundary Layer Height, Roughness Length
ZG/L, z0/L

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Similarity Laws
Kinetic Similarity (Approaching Flow)

## Mean Wind Speed Profile

U(z) /U(zref)
Turbulence Intensity
Iu(z) /Iu(zref), Iu(zref)
Power Spectral Density
fSu(f) /u2

Similarity Laws
Dynamic Similarity
Reynolds Number Elastic Parameters
UL/ Eeq / U 2 (Eeq = EI/B4 Bending Stress,
Damping Ratio EA/B2 Normal Stress,
Eh/B Membrane Stress)
Reduced Frequency  Initial Strain
Reduced Velocity N0 /EA (Membrane Structure)
fL/U,
fL/U, U/f0L  Acoustic Stiffness, Acoustic Damping
Mass Ratio L4 Ca2 / N0V0 , a (Membrane Structure)
S /  Internal Pressure Ratio
pi /q (Membrane Structure)
Froude Number
U/gB (Membrane Structure)

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Nomenclature
A : Sectional area, B : Building width, Ca : Sonic velocity,
D : Building depth, E : Elastic modulus, Eeq : Equivalent
elastic parameter, f : Frequency, f0 : Natural frequency,
g : Gravity acceleration, H : Building height,
I : Geometrical moment of inertia, Iu(z) : Turbulence
intensity at height z, L : Representative building length,
Lux : Turbulence scale, N0 : Initial stress, pi : Internal
pressure, q : Reference velocity pressure,
R : Representative length of topography, Su(f) : Power
spectra of wind speed, U : Reference mean wind speed,
U(z) : Mean wind peed at height z, V0 : Volume of internal
space, ZG : Gradient height, z0 : Roughness length,
zref : Reference height, : Dynamic viscosity, : Air
density, S : Building density, u : Standard deviation of
wind speed, : Damping ratio, a : Acoustic damping ratio

Important Points
Reynolds Number Effects
Curved Surfaces
Surface Roughness
Pressurized Wind Tunnel
Blockage Effects AW
AM /AW< 5% (at least 10%)
(AM : Projected area of models Wind Tunnel Section
including surrounding
AW : Sectional area of wind tunnel ) AM
Wall Constraint Effects
Modeling of Surrounding Areas
Reference Pressure etc.

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Length Scale & Temporal Scale

L = UT L = U T example
Lmodel
L = = 1/300
length scale Lfull-scale (generally based on turbulence scale)

Umodel
U = =& instruments
1/3
velocity scale U full-scale (wind tunnel
abilities)
Tmodel L 1/300
T = = = = 1/100
temporal scaleTfull-scale U 1/3

## Wind Tunnel Tests

Wind Pressure
Wind Force
Wind-induced Response
Wind Speed
- Topographic Effects
- Pedestrian Level Winds
Dispersion Around Buildings
Air pollution
Ventilation etc.

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Wind Tunnel Tests for Wind
Resistant Design of Buildings

## High-Frequency Force Balance

- Dynamic/Static Forces
Multi-Channel Pressure Measuring System
- Mean/Fluctuating Pressures
Elastic Model
- Dynamic/Static Responses

## Wind Engineering Institute

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High-Frequency Force Balance

## High-Frequency Force Balance

Rigid Light-weight
Model

Model Base

Strain-Gauge
Rotational Center

## (BCJ Designers guide to wind tunnel tests)

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High-Frequency Force Balance

- Higher f0 is desired.
Measuring
Range - Light weight model
Gain

Elastic Models

## Rocking Model 2D Model Lumped-

Lumped-mass Full- Full-elastic
Model Model
(BCJ Designers guide to wind tunnel tests)

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Elastic Model (Rocking Type)

## Wind Engineering Institute

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Elastic Model (Lumped-Mass)

## (Courtesy of Shimizu Corp.)

Full-Elastic Model

## -Epoxy resin with

iron powder
Coincidence of Mass
Ratio S/

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Multi-channel Pressure Model

## Compensation of Tubing Effects

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Pressure Measurement
Wind Pressure pi = Pi PS

## Total Pressure Pitot Static Tube

Static
Pressure PS Model
Windward
Pressure Pi Leeward
Pressure

Velocity Pressure
Positive
Reference Static Pressure
Negative

Field Measurements
and Validity of
Wind Tunnel Testing

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Gustave Alexandre Eiffel
(1832-1923)

## Eiffel Tower drawn by G.A.Eiffel (Davenport, 1975)

Meteorological Instruments
at Top of Eiffel Tower

(Davenport, 1975)

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Field Measurements

## Essentially random and non-stationary

Rare phenomena
--- have to be continued for a long period
Various constraints on instrumentation for
measurements

## Quality of data is not always satisfactory !

Low-rise Buildings
- Aylesbury comparative experiment
- Texas Tech Building

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Texas Tech Building

## Texas Tech Building

N
Peak & Mean Pressure Coefficients

(symbols) Full-scale
CSU 1:100 model scale
Windtech 1:100 model scale

## Approaching Wind Azimuth

Comparison of TTU
() full-scale data with wind
tunnel data (Rofail, 1995)

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Texas Tech Building N

1: 50 Model
1:100 Model

## Approaching Wind Azimuth

()
Comparison between 1:50 model data and 1:100 model
data by Windtech (Rofail 1995)

High-rise Buildings

## - Nakano Denden Building

External Pressures
Wind-induced Responses
- Nagasaki Huis Ten Bosch Domtoren
Wind-induced Responses
External/Internal Pressures

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Nakano Denden Building

## Plan of 17th Story Fujimoto et al., 1980

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Nakano Denden Building
Wind Wind
Tunnel Tunnel

Full-
Full-scale
Full-
Full-scale

## Comparison between full-scale and wind tunnel

model responses, Fujimoto et al., 1980

## Nagasaki Huis Ten Bosch Domtoren

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Nagasaki Huis Ten Bosch Domtoren

el

l
unne
tunn

t
d

Wind
Win
max max

rms rms

Along-wind Across-wind

## Comparison of full-scale and wind tunnel model

responses during Typhoon 9121

Kato et al., 1996

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## Comparison of full-scale and wind tunnel model-

scale pressure coefficients (Kurita et al., 1996)

## Correlation between full-scale and model-scale

mean pressure coefficients (Kato et al., 1996)

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Ground
7th story
13th

hPa))
Mean Internal Pressure ((hPa
18th
24th

7th Ground

13th

18th
24th

## Temporal variations of mean internal pressures

(Full-scale, Kato et al., 1996)

mmAq))
Difference From Reference Pressure ((mmAq

Internal
Pressure Coefficient
Cpi = pi / qR
pi
24th story
18th
13th
(Office)
13th
7th
(after altitude compensation)

## Mean Velocity Pressure at Top : qR

Variation of mean internal pressures with reference
velocity pressure (Full-scale, Kato et al., 1996)

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Pedestrian Level Winds

## Speed-up around corners, Down-wash

effects, Venturi effects, etc.
z Adverse reaction of the public to new
buildings that have unpleasant wind
conditions
z A municipal bylaw of Tokyo:
Wind tunnel tests and field measurements of
wind speed around the building before and after
construction are required for buildings higher
than 100m.

## Comparison between full-scale and model-scale

mean wind speeds (BCJ, 1984)

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