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at the University of Ottawa
A Handbook for Professors and Teaching Assistants
Fifth Edition, Revised
Eric Kristensen, Editor Renate Sander-Regier Bassel Abou Merhy Tracy McColl
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING University of Ottawa
120 University Private, Room 106 Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Voice: 613-562-5333 Fax: 613-562-5616 email: email@example.com http://www.saea-tlss.uottawa.ca/
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING
Information in this Handbook was accurate as of May 2007. Readers are advised to check for current information through web sites, telephone, and email addresses. Please forward any corrections, comments, etc. to the Centre for University Teaching. Your comments, corrections, and suggestions are most welcome. All signed comments will be acknowledged. Your feedback should be sent to the Centre by email: firstname.lastname@example.org or by fax: (613) 562-5616
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The success of the previous four editions of Teaching at the University of Ottawa went far beyond the expectations of the Centre for University Teaching. Not only was the Handbook well received by our professors, but Canadian and foreign universities requested copies, which quickly resulted in the manual being out of print. It is therefore with enthusiasm that I present to users this fifth edition. The quality of teaching and learning is at the heart of our academic strategic plan, Vision 2010. Once more the University of Ottawa wants to assert its leadership in the area of university pedagogy. Whether it is through the activities of its Teaching and Learning Support Service (TLSS) which heads the Centre for University Teaching (CUT), or its Students Academic Success service (SASS), the University offers to its students and its professors the state of the art tools necessary for training and transmission of knowledge in this 21st century. I am confident that this Teaching Guide will be welcomed by all. Robert Major, Ph.D. Vice-President Academic and Provost
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They are. author of the fourth edition of the Handbook and the contributions of Dr. who greatly expanded the theoretical and practical content of several key chapters. Just as was the case in the previous editions. This edition has benefited from the many comments and suggestions received from professors who read and made use of earlier editions. the originator of the Handbook. in many ways. Enjoy. they have worked as a team to reorganize its structure. We added three new chapters. In this revised version. we decided to combine the former TA and professor publications into one volume. of the Faculty of Engineering. Centre for University Teaching iii . Senior Instructional Consultant at the Centre for University Teaching. I would like especially to thank our two TA Associates. Under the supervision of Eric Kristensen. A list of major publications and documents consulted can be found in the references at the end of this volume. Eric Kristensen Senior Instructional Consultant. Some sections of the current text draw on material from various University of Ottawa documents published on the University web site. some information in this edition was adapted from similar documents produced at other Canadian and American universities. and to edit the entire text. “Dealing with Difficulty Teaching Situations. “Teaching in Canada for the First Time” and “Diversity and Ethics in the Classroom” and expanded the chapters on teaching and learning. rewrite large sections of text and add others. many office contacts and other information in the appendices have been checked and updated. For the fifth edition.”.. Renate Sander-Regier of the Faculty of Arts and Bassel Abou Merhy. Acknowledgement must also be made of the contributions made by Tracy McColl. Gratitude is also expressed to Tina Schneeberger for her assistance in the revision of information. We have tried to integrate as many of your suggestions as possible.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am pleased to present you with the revised fifth edition of Teaching at the University of Ottawa. the major force behind this fifth edition of the Handbook. Sergio Piccinen.
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......8 THE FELDER-SILVERMAN MODEL ............................................................................5 KOLB’S EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING STYLE MODEL ....7 2........................21 YOUR PHILOSOPHY OF TEACHING..........................................6 2.......XV UNIVERSITY STATEMENT ON TEACHING ........................................1 CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING ..23 MOTIVATING LEARNING......................................................................................................................26 CREATING A POSITIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT ......................................3 3.....................1 1....................2 HOW WE LEARN ...............................................................................................................3 UNIVERSITY TEACHING.............46 TEACHING LARGE CLASSES.......13 MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES ................. EXACTLY...................2 3......................21 CHAPTER 3 3................................................................................................. IX THE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA.........................................................................................................................................................VISUAL...45 TEACHING METHODS .........................................................................................2 2..... III TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................................................28 LEARNER-CENTRED AND TEACHER-CENTRED APPROACHES ....................................3 CHAPTER 2 2.................................2 4.....................................5 INTRODUCTION .........................................................1 IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING ............................................................................. AUDITORY...... IS A LARGE GROUP? ................................................................1 WELCOME TO THE UNIVERSITY .........................................................................................................1 5.......49 WHAT..............................................................................................30 TEACHING ROLES .......................................33 THE TEACHING PERSPECTIVES INVENTORY ..............................................................................................................................................5 2............ I ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................9 INTRODUCTION ....................................1 4.........................................................................................................................................................................2 5.............................................................................................................40 TEACHING SMALL GROUPS.............................................................................................................10 THE GRASHA-RIECHMANN MODEL .....................................................CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD..3 5.....................................37 ACTIVE LEARNING .............................................................................. XI MISSION STATEMENT..........................3 4.........................................................1 2.........................................6 3.............49 CHAPTER 5 5...........................45 WHAT DEFINES A SMALL GROUP?............................................................... XXIII CHAPTER 1 1.........................7 3.............4 2...........3 2.....................45 CHAPTER 4 4............................................................................................. XIII VISION 2010.......................................................................4 VAK .......................8 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................2 1..........................4 4..................................................45 IMPORTANCE OF SMALL GROUP TEACHING ...................................................................................................................................................................................50 ADDING A PERSONAL TOUCH................................................21 PRINCIPLES OF GOOD TEACHING PRACTICE ................................................................................................................................................V INTRODUCTION TO THE REVISED FIFTH EDITION.............................................................................................................................45 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES ................................................. KINAESTHETIC/TACTILE LEARNING PREFERENCES ...............4 INTRODUCTION ..................51 LECTURES AND LEARNING .................................................................................15 A NOTE CONCERNING ACCESSIBILITY FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 3..............................................52 v .......5 3..............3 DEEP AND SURFACE APPROACHES TO LEARNING ........................................8 3...19 APPROACHES TO TEACHING ............4 3...................
....................................................................................... 131 CHAPTER 11 11................................... 75 GETTING HELP .......................7 8........................................5 9................................... 112 TYPICAL PROBLEMS WITH ASSESSMENT ................................................................................3 6.........................................................................4 10................ 96 ASSESSING YOUR STUDENTS ....... 115 FORMAL COURSE EVALUATIONS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA ...............2 8.... 75 TYPES OF MATERIALS ..6 11.................................................................................. 79 THE PLANNING AND DESIGN PROCESS..........1 9........................................... 89 GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING ............................................... 69 PURPOSES OF PRACTICALS AND LABS ............................. 71 USING TECHNOLOGY AND LEARNING MATERIALS .............................................................................................................. 86 DELIVERING YOUR COURSE ............................................................................. 55 WHEN THINGS GO WRONG .................................................................................................................3 9............. 126 DOCUMENTING YOUR TEACHING SKILLS AND DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................3 10................................................................................ 79 COURSE OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................2 6... 100 GRADING ............................................ 135 DEALING WITH CERTAIN DIFFICULT TEACHING SITUATIONS ................... 108 ACADEMIC FRAUD ....1 7.................................................................7 9...................................... 75 CHAPTER 7 7.....................2 7............ 69 YOUR FIRST LABORATORY SESSION ............. 115 ASSESSING YOUR TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS .......................................3 11.................................... 139 DEALING WITH OTHER DIFFICULT SITUATIONS ................7 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF LECTURING ........................................................................................................................................................................................................4 IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY ................................................... 144 ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES ....................... 69 CHAPTER 6 6..............2 10.......................................................4 8............................................................................. 79 CHAPTER 8 8.................................................................... 100 DIFFERENT TYPES OF ASSESSMENT ................................ 94 MANAGING COURSES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA .... 131 TROUBLESOME BEHAVIOUR .1 6...................................................................... 131 FACULTY BEHAVIOUR .................5 11.......................................................CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 5...........................5 8........................3 7..............................................................................................................................................................................3 8...............................................................................1 8......................9 8..................................................................................................................................................................... 113 ASSESSING AND DEVELOPING YOUR TEACHING SKILLS ......................4 9..................................................... LABS AND TUTORIALS...............................................................................5 5.......8 ROLES OF ASSESSMENT ............... 99 CHAPTER 9 9........................................................5 6.... 94 WHAT TO DO IF .................................. 115 CHAPTER 10 10................................................. 99 IMPORTANCE OF CRITERIA AND STANDARDS ..................................................5 INTRODUCTION .......1 10......................................................................................................................................... 91 MOTIVATING STUDENTS ......................... 89 ADVICE ON COURSE DELIVERY FROM AWARD-WINNING PROFESSORS .....................................................2 11........ 69 PREPARING TO TEACH ..................................................... 124 DEVELOPING TEACHING SKILLS .......... 145 .......................................................................................2 9.......... 100 EXAMS AND TESTS .........................................1 11................................................................. 70 CONDUCTING TUTORIALS .... 77 PLANNING AND DELIVERING YOUR COURSE....................................................................................................................6 CONDUCTING PRACTICALS AND LABORATORIES..................7 vi INTRODUCTION ................................................... 80 COURSE OUTLINE / SYLLABUS ......................6 8........................................................ 128 DEALING WITH DIFFICULT TEACHING SITUATIONS ..............................6 9............................................4 6............................ 99 DESIGNING YOUR ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES .................... 75 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING TECHNOLOGY................ 64 CONDUCTING PRACTICALS...... 70 SEEING THAT EXPERIMENTS ARE CONDUCTED PROPERLY ....................................................10 INTRODUCTION ..........4 11.................................................. 63 ACTIVE LEARNING IN LARGE CLASSES ....................................... 132 MEASURES TO HELP PREVENT DIFFICULT TEACHING SITUATIONS .........................................................................................6 5..............................................8 8.....
............................................................................................................................................................................................................148 ASSESSING AND DEVELOPING YOUR TEACHING SKILLS .......4 .....................................................................3 BECOMING A TEACHING ASSISTANT ........................................177 UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA ORGANIZATION CHART .....171 DIVERSITY AND ETHICS.................CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 12 12................................................................................................................217 vii ...................................................3 14........................................1 15.................................................175 APPENDIX A.........................2 13............................3 15......................................147 THE SEVEN HABITS OF HIGHLY EFFECTIVE PART-TIME PROFESSORS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................211 POLICY 67: POLICY ON SEXUAL HARASSMENT .......................................147 RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO PART-TIME PROFESSORS ......................................170 A FEW DETAILS ABOUT THE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA ....................................170 SECOND LANGUAGE COURSES (FRENCH OR ENGLISH)...........................................205 PERSONS RESPONSIBLE FOR SCHEDULING IN FACULTIES..................................................155 THE TEACHING ENVIRONMENT ...147 INTRODUCTION ..178 APPENDIX A...........................................................2 14.....1 12......................................................5 PRACTICAL ADVICE ......................................................................................................................................................................................................164 TEACHING IN CANADA FOR THE FIRST TIME ......................................................................174 HUMAN RIGHTS AND DISCRIMINATION ............................. FIELD OF STUDIES AND LANGUAGE IN USE ..................................160 SURVIVAL SKILLS FOR TAS .......................................................................................................................211 APPENDIX F.............195 APPENDIX D: ..................169 THE LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION (ENGLISH OR FRENCH) IS YOUR SECOND LANGUAGE ........................................................................................................................................................................................... COLLECTIONS AND RESOURCE CENTRES .............................................................................................................................................................................................5 TEACHING PART-TIME ...............................................217 POLICY 77: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY ...........................................................................205 APPENDIX E..................................189 LIBRARIES........................177 APPENDIX A.....................155 CHAPTER 13 13............173 SEXUAL HARASSMENT ..........1 14.....4 14....................1 13.......................................................................................1 ..............................................................173 ETHICS IN TEACHING ........................................................................195 CAMPUS SERVICES AND RESOURCES ....................169 CHAPTER 14 14............................................................................................................................3 .........183 APPENDIX B: ...............................................................179 APPENDIX A.......2 ...............................................................179 FACULTIES AND DEPARTMENTS ........ SCHOOLS AND DEPARTMENTS ........175 HELPING STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES ............................2 15...178 ACADEMIC STAFF BY FACULTY.........173 CHAPTER 15 15..........................183 NUMBER OF STUDENTS BY FACULTY.................189 APPENDIX C: ..........................................................................................................171 INTERNATIONAL OFFICE ..................................................................................................................................................153 THE TEACHING ASSISTANTSHIP .............................2 12....................................................3 12.................................4 12......................................................................................................5 CREATING A POSITIVE ENVIRONMENT ...........4 15.. RANK AND GENDER ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................147 KEEPING IN TOUCH WITH STUDENTS .........................
................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 245 WEB SITES ............................................. 249 viii ............ 223 POLICY 110: POLICY ON TREATMENT OF GRADUATE STUDENTS ON NON-ACADEMIC AND NONEMPLOYMENT ISSUES ...........................................................CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX G ....................................... 241 PART-TIME PROFESSOR OF THE YEAR AWARD ......................... 235 UNIVERSITY REGULATIONS ON COURSE EVALUATION ........................................................................................................................................................... 231 UNIVERSITY REGULATIONS ON ACADEMIC FRAUD ................................................................................ 223 APPENDIX H ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 231 APPENDIX I ............................................................................................................................................................... 235 APPENDIX J ................... 241 APPENDIX L................................................................................................ 239 UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA AWARD FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 243 BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................. 243 TEACHING AND LEARNING GRANTS PROGRAM .......................... 239 APPENDIX K ......
Nothing in this manual should be interpreted as substituting for or modifying any clause of these collective agreements. assessing and developing teaching skills. assessing student work. It is important to note that the information in this manual is of a general nature concerning teaching and university policies and procedures. It is recommended that you communicate with your faculty. Each academic unit normally posts an on-line calendar with academic regulations pertinent to a particular faculty or program. It was originally developed in response to many requests for such a teaching aid and to the high priority assigned to teaching at the University of Ottawa.. dealing with difficult classroom situations. teaching practicals and laboratories. teaching parttime. using technology and instructional materials. The appendices outline many of the resources. proctors and demonstrators. Please note that three collective agreements govern the relationship between the University of Ottawa and its teaching staff: the Association of Professors of the University of Ottawa (APUO) represents full-time professors. ix .and part-time professors and teaching assistants at the University of Ottawa. correctors. All teaching staff should familiarize themselves with the appropriate collective agreement. tutors. teaching in Canada for the first time.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING INTRODUCTION TO THE REVISED FIFTH EDITION This manual is designed for all full. It is written to provide information regarding teaching and learning in higher education. This manual is organized into chapters dealing with general and specific information related to university teaching followed by a large set of appendices which provide access to teaching and professional resources. planning and delivering your courses. policies and basic facts which can help you achieve success teaching at the University of Ottawa. while the Association of Part-Time Professors of the University of Ottawa (APTPUO) represents part-time professors. serving as a teaching assistant. school. The chapters dealing with university teaching include information on how students learn. local 2626 of the Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE) represents all students at the University of Ottawa employed as teaching assistants. See Appendix C for contact information. or department to obtain information concerning specific policies and procedures. research assistants. teaching small and large groups. Those seeking more information on teaching may consult the suggested readings on university teaching provided in this Handbook or contact the Centre for University Teaching. which can vary among different academic units. and diversity and ethical considerations in the classroom. considerations for an appropriate style of teaching. For teaching assistants.
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to medicine and engineering. Consult the map of the campus for the location of all services mentioned in this Handbook (see inside back cover). It is in fact the largest bilingual university in North America. The University of Ottawa offers programs in a wide variety of disciplines from the arts and social sciences. Please see Appendix A for demographic information on the student body and teaching staff at the University of Ottawa. Canada’s University Located in the heart of Canada's capital and offering a broad range of outstanding research and teaching programs in both of our country's official languages. and the Health Sciences campus on Smyth Road. and support staff. The University is located in the nation’s capital. and holds the title of Canada’s oldest and largest bilingual university. Canada’s capital city Students and faculty from more than 150 countries xi . our unique institution has grown with Canada. Since 1848. The University of Ottawa has a lot to offer from its proximity to major libraries. Our University reflects our country. The University plays host to approximately 30. its history and its diversity. teachers. Please note that the University of Ottawa has two campuses. What sets us apart from other Canadian universities: • • • • • North America’s premier bilingual university Students study in their choice of English or French One of Canada’s most cosmopolitan universities Located in Ottawa.000 students. the University of Ottawa is Canada's university.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING THE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA A few facts The University of Ottawa was established in 1848 as the College of Bytown. the University is also a part of Ottawa’s multicultural environment. government agencies and research institutions to its involvement in community affairs such as medical research and technological initiatives. The University of Ottawa. the main one in downtown Ottawa. Being situated in the capital region.
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and Social Sciences. and support staff. and professional programs designed specifically for the French-speaking population in Ontario. This pledge leads it to declare the following intentions: • • • • • to maintain and develop the widest range of teaching and research programs of national and international standing in both French and English.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING MISSION STATEMENT I. Situated in the capital of Canada at the juncture of English and French Canada. to attract first-class scholars. tradition. Law. in an academic setting. Graduate Studies. Engineering. research. to maintain and enhance the bilingual and bicultural milieu of the University. the University has been linked since the middle of the nineteenth century to both linguistic groups of Canada and notably to the Franco-Ontarian community. To preserve and enhance its stature. Education. By virtue of its commitment to excellence in a bilingual and bicultural milieu. 1987 – Amended by the Executive Committee of the Senate. July 1991 and adopted by the Senate. The location. of the Canadian experience. to exercise leadership in the development of teaching. the two main cultural traditions of Canada. Arts. to further international co-operation. it offers a unique setting for cultural interaction and understanding. June 1. its proximity to government agencies and research centres places it in an optimal position to link Canadian scholarship with the external world. Health Sciences. to give priority consideration to those programs of excellent academic standing that reflect. As a result it has developed as a major bilingual institution of higher learning serving Ontario and the whole of Canada. Medicine. September 1991 xiii . character and special mission of the University of Ottawa make it a reflection. the University of Ottawa is pledged to quality of the highest standing in all the teaching programs and research undertakings of its academic and professional sectors: Administration. the University of Ottawa is Canada’s premier bilingual university. • • Adopted by the Senate. or train professionals to contribute to. II. Science. moreover. It provides students and staff with an exceptional meeting ground for two of the prominent intellectual and scientific traditions of the western world. students. to continue to be a leader in the promotion of women in all aspects of university life.
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uottawa. its location both in the heart of the national capital and at the juncture of French and English Canada. the University of Ottawa has been Canada’s university: a reflection. our work is far from over! Now that the main strategic institutional directions have been drawn. Gilles Patry. As a result and through the groundbreaking work of our community members. We ask for your creative and thoughtful insight. its commitment to bilingualism. 2005. in line with the University’s directions. Our university is characterized by its unique history.ca/vision2010/ I have the great pleasure of presenting Vision 2010. an observatory and a catalyst of the Canadian experience in all its complexity and diversity. With your knowledge of the University. This is an opportunity for each and every one of you to help shape the University of Ottawa of tomorrow. the one that we will pass on to the younger generation and that will fill us with pride. and becomes an ambitious but realistic action plan. you can significantly contribute to this process. This fundamental statement of the future of our institution was officially adopted by the Senate on January 10. to enrich the intellectual and cultural life of Canada and to help the country achieve greater international prominence. Faculties and services are busy drafting their own strategic plan. and voicing your opinion at the numerous public consultations. we are uniquely positioned among Canada's research-intensive institutions to give students a remarkable education. I invite you to take part in this last phase. An integrated strategic plan will be developed from these individual plans. its special commitment to the promotion of French culture in Ontario and to multiculturalism. Our vision takes shape at the Faculty and services level. the University of Ottawa’s new strategic academic plan. However. from the University as well as from outside. participating in the roundtable discussions. is reflected in specific projects. Vision 2010 is the result of in-depth consultations and a long planning process that involved all sectors of our community and several hundred participants. I would like to thank you for your commitment and enthusiasm. As you know. sharing comments and suggestions to the White Papers or the successive versions of Vision 2010.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING VISION 2010 www. President and Vice-Chancellor Our mission Our raison d’être Since 1848. Many of you have contributed by completing surveys. xv .
graduate and professional programs known for their quality and for their focus on interdisciplinarity. A university committed to promoting Francophone communities We design outstanding programs and services for Ontario's French-speaking population. work to bring Canada’s challenges as a country into sharper focus. its leadership on language issues. its passion for knowledge and innovation. this in turn enriches what and how we teach. A university whose programs are research driven We conduct first-class research. its high-quality learning environment. and its openness to diversity. enrich their culture. open to the world. A university that builds strong partnerships to fulfill its social responsibilities We strengthen our programs and perform our social. the private sector. We are also committed to women playing a leading role in the life of the university community. and we provide leadership for Francophone communities across Canada and around the world. boost their creativity. A university that offers equal opportunities to its staff We adhere to the principles of diversity and equitable representation. political and community-outreach roles thanks to productive ties with other institutions of higher learning. embassies. and distinguished by its search for excellence in research. and take full advantage of university life to become well-rounded. xvi .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Our vision What we aspire to We aspire to be. among universities. responsible citizens and leaders of our society. most notably in each of our strategic areas of development. and national and international organizations. Our values What defines us and drives us A university that places its students at the core of its educational mission We do our utmost to help our students expand their knowledge. recognize the contributions of the many communities that have helped build our country and. We deliver a wide range of nationally and internationally recognized undergraduate. government agencies. through our programs and research. the essential reference on what Canada represents: a university that is an integral part of its community. A bilingual university that values cultural diversity We promote bilingualism. enhance their ability to question and analyze. social and community associations. research councils. Every member of the institution will take part in our educational mission.
3. 2. From an international perspective. Draw up a plan for recruiting top-calibre professors who are bilingual or are determined to be part of reaching this specific goal of the University. we will promote respect for differences. 6. Our major directions What will guide our actions over the next five years Strengthening our competitive edge We want to offer our students an excellent education. Develop a policy for promoting bilingualism among all staff members. Encourage and recognize bilingualism among students. To this end. Collegiality. 8. evaluation and promotion of the official languages. 4. we will have improved our linguistic balance and have become the standard among Canadian universities in the areas of acquisition. development. • To ensure that the University supports its staff members in developing these skills. and offering a truly unique experience. xvii . By 2010. Goal 1: To play a leadership role in promoting Canada's official languages • To ensure that students can learn in a setting where cultures coexist and enrich each other. Since language is the vector of culture. and we will build on this significant advantage. supported by intellectual integrity and ethical judgment. Create immersion programs and set up an intake structure that will enhance access by immersion students from all parts of Canada. transparency and accountability are the principles that guide our university governance. 7. Create a College of the Humanities for a select group of motivated bilingual students. creating a strong feeling of belonging.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING A university that values its community We encourage freedom of expression in an atmosphere of open dialogue. Create an Institute of Official Languages and Bilingualism. Set linguistic balance enrolment targets for faculties and for the University. we are a major bilingual university that has inherited two of the world's greatest cultural traditions. enabling critical thought. Proposed actions by the University 1. openness to others. Enrich programs that are offered partially in French or in English. and where students wishing to do so can achieve their full language potential. and intercultural dialogue. we must build on our strengths and assiduously cultivate innovative fields. thus attracting the best students. 5.
for example by inviting people from the community to contribute to learning and research. In addition to being part of the globalization of knowledge. Open a one-stop service point providing better services for adult learners. we want to earn international recognition as the focal point of knowledge on the Canadian perspective. in order to develop shared strategies. businesses. • To ensure that the student body has the benefit of an education that goes well beyond academe. builds productive partnerships with various communities of interest in Canada's capital. Goal 3: To move onto the international stage • To ensure that the University's main concern is to train global citizens. 4. By 2010. Recognize the social and community work by our students and staff members. organizing staff exchanges and joint appointments. By 2010. and creating professor-inresidence positions for government officials and leading public figures. Proposed actions by the University 1. thus bringing together the forces of knowledge. • To ensure that the institutions and organizations with which we work benefit from our areas of specialization and learn about Canadian values. professional associations. Increase the number of external research placements for members of our academic staff. Create a joint committee with school boards in the region. thus training competent graduates who are open to the world.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Goal 2: To be an integral part of Canada's Capital • To ensure that the University. xviii . Open the University to the wealth of skills in Canada's capital. 3. 5. particularly on learning and access to postsecondary education. Develop specific lifelong learning programs to meet the needs of government agencies. as well as Francophone target groups. 2. innovation and development in the service of society and our students' learning. • To ensure that the University becomes the partner of first choice for the federal government in areas of common interest. • To ensure that students and all staff members are enriched by international contacts. as a powerful agent for social change that both enriches and is enriched by its surroundings. 6. we will have taken the lead in building partnerships with the public and private sectors. both scientific and cultural. our programs and activities will have exposed a high percentage of our students to the international dimension.
2. 4. Increase the number of postdoctoral fellows. inventing and discovering We want to offer our student body an exceptional learning environment that prepares them for life and fulfilling work. Creating knowledge. molecular sciences) and integrated emerging fields that will figure prominently in our future development. By 2010. 3. Set up undergraduate-level pilot projects that integrate research and learning. health. Formally evaluate the strategic areas of development in terms of impacts and benefits. Increase the number of registrations for graduate studies to 20% of the student population. information technology. and that our students can develop their learning at interdisciplinary horizons that are as broad as possible. Make study programs international in scope. in order to boost the number of study and research practicums completed abroad. • To ensure that we can both build on our strengths. 6. 4. specifically in our strategic areas of development. 5. thus placing the University among Canada's top five in research. 3. Build high-quality international partnerships with universities. Invite each Faculty to strategically position itself in relation to the revised strategic areas of development. Facilitate joint appointments for members of the regular academic staff. Ensure that international students make up a significant portion of our student body. in a context of ever-expanding knowledge. Our commitment to creativity and our passion for research and knowledge must be central to every aspect of university life. Offer more student mobility scholarships and make them more generous. Provide young researchers.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Proposed actions by the University 1. while maintaining linguistic balance. we will have reviewed and renewed our present strategic areas of development (Canada. We will have increased research activities. Goal 4: To create knowledge through research • To ensure that we can preserve. create and transmit knowledge. xix . Take steps to reduce graduate-level dropout. 2. so that our students and members of our academic staff can take the lead both nationally and internationally. and invest in fields of future excellence. Proposed actions by the University 1. academies and non-governmental organizations. graduate students and postdoctoral fellows with access to high-quality research space. 7. • To ensure that knowledge—often constructed at the borders of disciplines—can emerge. 8.
Pay greater attention to the evaluation of teaching. 5. Goal 5: To focus on learning that is driven by innovation and excellence • To ensure that students develop a desire for knowledge as well as intellectual autonomy. studying and discussion. our students will have acquired new skills related to social involvement in university and community life. 3. 5. Quality standards for all student services will have been introduced. • To ensure that the university setting is welcoming and pleasant. Make the library a 21st-century research laboratory. Offer a broader education that promotes ethical principles and makes use of features such as elective courses. we will have increased the number of multifunctional spaces that allow for reading. By 2010. Review the program of scholarships and bursaries in order to strike a balance between academic excellence and financial need. which are the best guarantees of their future success. By 2010. in order to enhance the learning experience. our programs will have focused on clearly defined learning objectives. Create specialized master teacher positions. co-operative programs. 4. encourages interaction and co-operative effort. Build new research partnerships with the private and public sectors in order to promote knowledge transfer. 2.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 9. Goal 6: To offer students an unparalleled university experience • To ensure that students' experience at the University profoundly marks their future as responsible citizens who are aware of social and community issues. Implement all necessary measures to promote service excellence. 3. Proposed actions by the University 1. 4. Design and offer specialized training for members of our teaching staff. and volunteer work. and promotes diversified means of learning. Proposed actions by the University 1. Define learning objectives for each of our programs. Support and recognize initiatives designed to implement a range of new and diversified strategies for learning and evaluation. create other multifunctional spaces on campus. While respecting and developing our natural and architectural heritage. and our students will have acquired skills in self-learning. Renovate the University Centre so that it becomes a more effective service center and a meeting point. Members of our academic staff will have developed their full potential in the service of learning. 2. xx .
will be given opportunities to become partners in reaching our goals. thus giving us the benefit of their experience and contributing to the University's ongoing development. particularly for women. • To ensure that our alumni. scholarly activities. To this end. implement a mentoring system. • To ensure that members of our support staff feel that they are part of the University's education and research mission. Create conditions and spaces that allow for encounters and exchanges of ideas between students and professors. every member of the institution will take part in our educational and research mission. will take an active part in departmental. Implement a team approach that will guarantee seamless service and decentralized decision-making in exceptional cases regarding students. 2. xxi . and persons with disabilities. By 2010. Introduce a program of continued training for members of the support staff. as well as retired members of our academic and support staff. stimulating. and will have given them opportunities to participate in departmental. Goal 7: To highlight our human potential • To ensure that members of our regular and part-time teaching staff achieve their full academic leadership potential. and are given responsibility for providing high-quality services. and give them a role in all aspects of the University's development. members of First Nations. Draw up an action plan that will ensure better representation by women. Establish an Academic Leadership Centre with programs tailored to specific career paths for members of the regular academic staff. cordial and effective relations with the student body. Our alumni. Caring for our community We want to offer our student body the experience of a learning community that is attentive. 7. as well as retired members of our academic and support staff. 4. as well as retired members of our support and academic staff. Members of our support staff will have the tools and authority to ensure clear. Introduce an evaluation process for senior executives. 3. Proposed actions by the University 1. 6. members of visible minorities. We will have consulted our alumni. and academic service. members of our academic staff will have had access to resources allowing them to develop their talents in all three areas of a university career: teaching. Ask the Deans to assume leadership for the development of academic staff. our support and academic staff will be more representative of Canada in its diversity. as well as retired members of our support and academic staff. faculty and university life.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 6. dynamic and effective. As well. 5. faculty and university life. Consult alumni.
and make referrals to the proper authorities for follow-up. Review the purpose and structure of departments and faculties in order to open disciplinary boundaries. 8. students and members of the regular and part-time teaching staff) on each committee. this governance model will have included new communication tools for ensuring greater transparency. 2. Proposed actions by the University 1.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 8. 7. a change that should cultivate the team spirit we need to carry out our mission. Analyse the representation of each group (for example. Develop more gathering places on campus for social encounters. explain procedures. 5. Make public the minutes of faculty and University committee meetings. Develop a comprehensive scorecard measuring the extent to which our goals have been reached. Open a one-stop service point to take all complaints. By 2010. 4. 3. • To take action so that women play a leading role in university governance. Periodically review the structure of all academic and research units in order to assess their continued relevance. Post the strategic plans of all faculties and services on the Internet. Annually report on progress made toward Vision 2010. The University will also have moved to an administrative model that facilitates interdisciplinarity and fosters the development of inter-faculty projects. • To ensure that our structures and resource allocations at all levels allow us to reach our goals. 6. Goal 8: To embrace a modern governance model • To ensure that community members take a more active part in the decisionmaking process and are promptly informed of decisions affecting our future. xxii .
and in all other aspects of advancement through a professor’s career. and pledges that it will recognize and support high quality instruction. In recognition of the importance of teaching and learning in academic life. and student thesis and project supervision. and publicity. and in its policies. and in particular the regular evaluation of teaching and courses by students. the provision of high quality instructional aids and equipment. the development of appropriate methods of evaluation of all forms of teaching at undergraduate and graduate levels. such as audio-visual. the evaluation of the quality of education received by students. and laboratory equipment. The University’s commitment to instructional excellence will be consistently demonstrated in its assignment of material. It will ensure that the provision of resources and facilities for teaching and learning remains a high priority for administration and teaching staff alike. the reduction of the size of very large classes to a level which is optimal for learning. The University believes that teaching must be an essential component of every professorial career. of programs to improve the teaching skills of its instructors. It will maintain high standards for teaching in all its forms.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING UNIVERSITY STATEMENT ON TEACHING Teaching is central to the mission of the University of Ottawa. laboratories. promotion and tenure decisions. including among others: • • • • • • • the maintenance of curricula and course syllabi with coherent pedagogical objectives. Since teaching and research are equally significant and complementary facets of academic life. computer. financial and intellectual resources. the provision. The University encourages faculty members to excel in teaching. and libraries. laboratory and clinical instruction. through the Centre for University Teaching. the University commits itself to the active support and promotion of measures which ensure that its undergraduate and graduate students receive an educational experience of consistently high quality. including classroom. the periodic review and upgrading of instructional facilities such as classrooms. the University affirms that teaching is a vital factor in hiring. The University pledges to provide students at the undergraduate and graduate levels with an education of the highest possible quality. clinical centres. xxiii . statements.
1992 (Please see Appendix J for information related to the University of Ottawa Award for Excellence in Teaching and Appendix K for the Part-time Professor of the Year Award) xxiv . Approved by the Senate March 2. the support of co-operative education programs.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • • • the support of innovation and research in university teaching and learning. the consideration of pedagogical implications of policy decisions. the encouragement of discussion on matters related to teaching within the University. combining work and study. the publicizing of teaching achievements.
Patry President and Vice-Chancellor 1. promoting higher education by offering a large spectrum of high quality programs in both French and English.1 UNIVERSITY TEACHING Welcome to the University The University of Ottawa is committed to the pursuit of knowledge and excellence in all aspects of its teaching and research activities. We are fortunate that you have joined our academic community and we are counting on your contribution to help us achieve our common goals.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 1 1. As President. Gilles G. The University of Ottawa. and pursuing scholarly activities of national and international calibre. My best wishes for success in your career. The University strives to promote excellence in teaching and to recognize professors' exceptional contributions to teaching. In its privileged location in Canada’s Capital. I am positive that you will find your experience at the University of Ottawa to be challenging and enriching. The university’s commitment to teaching is described in the Statement on Teaching on page XV.2 Importance of teaching Teaching is an essential component of every professorial career at University of Ottawa. I am pleased to welcome you to the University of Ottawa. proud of its long history and its rich tradition. our university is a microcosm of Canadian culture and provides a unique meeting place for two great intellectual and scientific traditions. is committed to furthering bilingualism. 1 .
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 1. To encourage the use of media and instructional technology as an adjunct to effective teaching. To provide confidential consultation. video and audiotapes and making them available to the University community. assessment and counselling to individual professors (full time or part time) and teaching assistants on means they may take to improve their teaching. The CUT has the following objectives: • • • To disseminate knowledge about effective teaching and learning. To disseminate information on instructional development by developing and maintaining a collection of books. • • • • 2 . to enhance student learning.3 Centre for University Teaching The Centre for University Teaching (CUT) was established in 1979-1980 to provide pedagogical programs and services for members of the academic community. To organize workshops. To encourage innovation in teaching and pedagogical methods. seminars and other activities for the University community on topics related to university teaching and learning. To encourage professors to profit from results of research on teaching and learning to improve their pedagogical abilities and their teaching programs. The goal of the Centre is to promote excellence in university teaching. periodicals. and to improve the environment for teaching and learning at the University of Ottawa.
in fact. acting or reflecting. We often. Many of these learning preferences are referred to as learning styles. They were chosen for their diversity. Some of us focus on transferring knowledge. and helps students learn faster. others on promoting understanding. 70% of what they say. Teaching is most effective when it combines different teaching approaches and methods. the opportunity to become involved. and 97% when they do all four – seeing. 90% of what they say and do. . no matter what their preferred style. but it may change in relation to the content or learning task. and when it appeals to different learning preferences and styles. hearing.1 HOW WE LEARN Introduction We all – students and professors – perceive. 1 Nilson 1998. for example. It reduces the chances of alienating students with strong preferences for a particular learning style. and gives all students.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 2 2. 67 3 . prefer to take in information by either reading or listening. Most people have a dominant learning style. in fact. analyse. We may prefer to learn dependently or independently. others a learnercentred approach.John Cotton Dana Teaching approaches also vary. while others like to guide students in self-discovery. In other words … Who dares to teach must never cease to learn. reasoning logically or interpreting intuitively. The following learning style representations and models are a selection of various ways people have thought about and classified learning. We may. Studies have. through a deep approach or a surface approach. competitively or collaboratively. saying and doing. It also helps reinforce the material being learned. combine learning styles when we take in information. internalise and transform information in a variety of ways. reflect on.1 That said. it is important to bear in mind that learning approaches or styles should not be used to characterise and categorise individuals. revealed that learners remember 50% of what they hear and see. visualise. Some of us take a teacher-centred approach. Some of us like to lecture.
The surface approach may be appropriate for particular learning tasks. and one which teachers are increasingly encouraged to promote. Students with a deep approach usually: • aim for understanding • interact positively with content • relate new ideas to previous knowledge • relate concepts to everyday experience • relate evidence to conclusions • examine the logic of an argument.2 Deep and surface approaches to learning One way to think about learning is from the perspective of 'deep' and 'surface' approaches.2 Students with a surface approach typically: • memorise only the information needed • treat a task as an external imposition • do not reflect on purpose or strategies • focus on discrete elements without integration • fail to distinguish principles from examples. and for the philosophical and practical content they offer for reflection and application in the classroom.3 To promote deeper approaches to learning: • • • • • • • • encourage independent learning support personal development present problems – problem-based learning techniques encourage reflection implement independent group work encourage learning by doing – experiential learning strategies foster the development of learning skills set individual/group projects 2 3 Pan et al. 1988 Cross 1996. 127-128 4 . 2.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING for the insight they provide into the many ways people learn. Yet the deep approach is usually associated with more successful learning.
kinaesthetic/tactile learning preferences This basic model is popular and widely applied because of its simplicity. consider the following: • • • • providing handouts – for reading and taking notes – with plenty of content for students to review after class leaving space on the handouts for students to take notes using blackboards. Visual-spatial learners. and background for understanding certain of the other models in this section. graphs. usually have difficulty with written language and prefer charts. They tend to remember what they have read. Although no research directly supports the VAK model. maps. illustrations. it is useful to take a closer look at visual.visual. Auditory learning Auditory learners learn best by listening. whiteboards. 2. and have a good sense of orientation.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • fine-tune your teaching methods and strategies. they use colour to highlight important points in text.3 VAK . hand-outs. visual learners often take detailed notes to absorb the information. even if they have seen it only once. Visual learning Visual learners typically learn through seeing. Visual learning can be further divided into linguistic and spatial sub-categories. auditory. Visuallinguistic learners grasp content best through reading and writing. overhead transparencies. They respond well to verbal lectures. charts. PowerPoint presentations. Visual learners often think in pictures and learn best with visual materials such as maps. discussions. demonstrations. and illustrated procedures in textbooks. They learn best from lectures if they watch them. auditory and kinaesthetic/tactile learning preferences because they offer valuable information on how people learn. a context for considering what teachers can do to appeal to different learning preferences. overheads and/or online technology to write key points – cues for note taking enhancing written and auditory content with visual aids such as graphs. and other visual materials. To study. During a class. videos. To help visual learners grasp content. debates and other situations which provide the opportunity to talk things 5 . They easily picture faces and places. on the other hand. they prefer quiet places away from verbal disturbances. They like to observe the teacher's body language and facial expressions for a more thorough understanding of content. When reading. videos. charts. and they like to write down instructions.
like brainstorming and small group work. pitch. Consider • • 6 if appropriate. they like to listen to music. for example. They benefit from text read out loud. keep them active. and use tape recorders. making sure to provide plenty of verbal instruction develop an internal dialogue between yourself and the learners. consider the following: • start each class with a verbal overview of the content. To learn languages. To help tactile / kinaesthetic learners grasp content. • • • Kinaesthetic / tactile learning Tactile / kinaesthetic learners learn by moving. and to take frequent breaks. tactile / kinaesthetic learners find it best to get together with others for conversation. which they like to highlight in bright colours. In a lecture. which they embellish with pictures. and talking speed. or doodling. doing and touching. practical learning situations. and from making speeches and presentations in class. playing music during activities offering frequent breaks . When they are studying. think up verbal analogies. Auditory learners are sensitive to the underlying meanings that come through in a speaker’s tone of voice. While tactile/kinaesthetic learners are reading. create musical jingles and mnemonics to aid memorisation. They like to skim written material first to get the big picture. They respond best to hands-on. diagrams. tell stories to demonstrate points. and supplement with your own knowledge and experience incorporate activities with auditory elements. or if they are sitting still for long periods. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. so they tend to become distracted easily if there is no external stimulation. and tell them what they have learned" take a Socratic approach – ask students questions to draw information from them. teach them. They use their hands a lot when they speak. move their lips when processing information. and finish with a verbal review of what has been covered – in other words. "tell them what they are going to learn. tactile / kinaesthetic learners often like to take notes. they may simultaneously pedal an exercise bike. To help auditory learners grasp content. They like to move around when they are learning new things. Auditory learners often talk to themselves.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING through and listen to what others have to say. before settling in to focus on the details.
From grade 9 through college and university into the business learning environment. can you apply to your current teaching situations? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 7 . information has tended to be presented in auditory form. what are the implications for the teaching situations you find yourself in now? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3) What. etc. new information is presented to us kinaesthetically. Ask yourself … Read through the following statement. for example. for example. or to help record information on the blackboard emphasising key points with colour. Questions: 1) Do you agree with the statement? ____________________ 2) If you agree. then answer the questions below: We are sometimes forced to adopt certain learning styles. From kindergarten through grade three. From grades 4 to 8 we are taught more visually. from your previous learning experiences. underlining.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • guiding them through complex tasks or problems by helping them visualise the process getting them up and moving – asking them to help distribute handouts.
Abstract / active (Type 3) A characteristic question used by people preferring this learning style is “How?” Abstract / reflective learners respond to having opportunities to work actively on well-defined tasks and to learn by trial-and-error in an environment that allows them to fail safely. Abstract / reflective (Type 2) A characteristic question used by people preferring this learning style is “What?” Abstract / reflective learners respond to information presented in an organized. Smith and Roberts. Failure. 1994). the instructor should function as a motivator. a different set of behaviours that is more adaptable to the situations encountered. Edwards Deming (Ross. the more often we can modify and adjust our behaviours. the task). To be effective with Type 1 students. the instructor should function as an expert. Kolb 1976 8 . logical fashion and benefit if they have time for reflection. including John Dewey and W. this model argues that the more we take the time to reflect on a task. rests in the inability to learn from experience or the repetition of mistakes. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development4 provides a paradigm for understanding the process used by individuals. Here is a brief summary of Kolb’s four types: Concrete / reflective (Type 1) A characteristic question used by people preferring this learning style is “Why?” Concrete / reflective learners respond well to explanations of how course material relates to their experiences. Essentially. To be effective with Type 3 students. and active experimentation or planning (what will happen next? what do I need to change next time?) Associated with these four stages in the learning cycle are learning styles. the instructor should function as a coach. Essentially. This sequence has been described by many authors and researchers over the years.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 2. Concrete / active (Type 4) A characteristic question used by people preferring this learning style is “What if?” Concrete / active learners like applying course material in 4 5 Kolb 1984. abstract conceptualization (what does it mean?). reflective observation (what happened? what did I notice?). he breaks down the learning process into four stages: concrete experience (immersing yourself in the problem. The outcome is a different way of doing things. in comparison.5 These styles describe preferences that individuals bring to the learning process.4 Kolb’s Experiential Learning Style model David Kolb’s 1984 book. interests and future careers. groups and organizations to make sense of their experiences. providing guided practice and feedback. To be effective with Type 2 students.
the instructor should stay out of the way. maximizing opportunities for the students to discover things for themselves.ca/services/tlss/cut/resources/teachingtips_specific_p1.htm# 9 .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING new situations to solve real problems. To be effective with Type 4 students.uottawa. two. three or four learner? See where your preferences lie by clicking on “Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire” on the Centre for University Teaching’s website: http://www. The following diagram may help illustrate the relationship between the Learning Cycle and the Learning Styles: Four learning styles in relationship to the four stages in Kolb’s Learning Cycle Check it out Are you a type one.
or mild.htm 10 . Ideas for helping active learners: • • put the class into small groups and give them topics to discuss or problems to solve encourage students to form study groups where members explain topics to each other. Sensing and intuitive learners Sensing learners tend to like learning facts. If we always act before reflecting. With its focus on a balance of instructional methods (“teaching around the cycle”). Our preference for one category or the other may be strong. it has subsequently been applied in a broad range of disciplines.ncsu. who prefer to work alone. Active learners tend to like group work more than reflective learners. Intuitors like innovation 6 descriptions adapted from http://www. Sensors often like solving problems by wellestablished methods and dislike complications and surprises. sensing / intuitive. Sitting through lectures without getting to do anything physical but take notes is hard for both learning types. This model describes different types of learners along four axes: active / reflective. sequential / global. "Let's try it out and see how it works" is an active learner's phrase. Ideas for helping reflective learners: • have students write short summaries of readings or class notes in their own words • have students discuss or write up possible questions or applications of content. developed by chemical engineering professor Richard Felder and educational psychologist Linda K.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 2. visual / verbal. Reflective learners prefer to think about information quietly first.5 The Felder-Silverman model The Felder-Silverman model. "Let's think it through first" is the reflective learner's response. we may never get anything done. or draft sample exam questions and responses. was originally formulated in an engineering and science context and builds on Kolb’s models. A balance of the two is desirable. but particularly difficult for active learners.edu/felder-public/ILSdir/styles. while intuitive learners often prefer to discover possibilities and relationships. moderate.6 Active and reflective learners Active learners tend to retain and understand information best by doing something active with it – discussing or applying it or explaining it to others. we may jump into things prematurely and get into trouble. If we spend too much time reflecting. We are all active at times and reflective at times. Silverman.
time lines. Sensors are more likely than intuitors to resent being tested on material that has not been explicitly covered in class. 11 . Unfortunately. Visual and verbal learners Visual learners remember best what they see – pictures. Although visual information is increasingly being used in university classes. visual learning is dominant with most people. sketches. photographs. Sensors don't like courses that have no apparent connection to the real world. flow charts • make videotapes or CD-ROM displays of the course material available to students • add visual material to the course website • use concept maps by listing key points. and demonstrations. students are still expected to mainly listen to lectures and read material written on blackboards and in textbooks and handouts. and explain how the concepts apply in practice. intuitors tend to work faster and to be more innovative than sensors. Everyone learns more when information is presented both visually and verbally. Ideas for helping intuitive learners: • include interpretations of theories in your lectures • encourage students to read exam questions thoroughly before they start to write their answers. Good learners are capable of processing information presented either visually or verbally. schematics. diagrams. enclosing them in boxes or circles. intuitors may be better at grasping new concepts and are often more comfortable than sensors with abstractions and mathematical formulations. intuitors don't like "plug-and-chug" courses that involve a lot of memorisation and routine calculations. flow charts. which means that most students do not get nearly as much out of classes as they could if more visual material were used. Sensors tend to be more practical and careful than intuitors.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING and dislike repetition. and to be sure to check their results. and drawing lines with arrows between concepts to show connections. Ideas for helping sensing learners: • make connections between class content and its applications in the real world • provide specific examples of concepts and procedures. films. Ideas for helping visual learners: • include visual aids in lectures: diagrams. Sensors tend to be patient with details and good at memorising facts and doing hands-on (laboratory) work. Verbal learners get more out of words – written and spoken explanations.
Sequential and global learners Sequential learners tend to gain understanding in linear steps." Sequential learners tend to follow logical stepwise paths in finding solutions. they may be fuzzy about the details of the subject. then suddenly "getting it. after all. Sequential learners. but they can still do something with it (such as solving homework problems or passing a test) since the pieces they have absorbed are logically connected. to make connections between content and things they already know. absorbing material almost randomly without seeing connections. Ideas for helping sequential learners: • make sure to organise your course in a sequential manner • check with students to make sure they are following the flow of content • encourage students to outline class content in a way that makes sense for them when they are studying. 12 . has experienced bewilderment followed by a sudden flash of understanding. may know a lot about specific aspects of a subject. and to apply subject matter to other topics. Strongly global learners who lack good sequential thinking abilities. on the other hand. while global learners may be able to solve complex problems quickly or put things together in novel ways once they have grasped the big picture. conversely. What makes a learner global or not is what happens before the light bulb goes on. Many people may conclude that they are global learners. Even after they have it. Global learners tend to learn in large jumps.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Ideas for helping verbal learners: • encourage students to write summaries or outlines of course material in their own words • help students form study groups where they can listen to other students explain course content. may have serious difficulties until they have grasped the big picture. with each step following logically from the previous one. though they may have difficulty explaining how they did it. Ideas for helping global learners: • provide an overview of the material to be covered at the beginning of each class • encourage students. Everyone. yet they may experience trouble relating the pieces to different parts of the same subject or to different subjects. and to relate new topics to things they already know for deep understanding. when studying. Sequential learners may not fully understand the material. and do some explaining themselves.
sequential or global learner? See where your preferences lie by taking the online Index of Learning Styles self-scoring questionnaire: http://www. developed by psychologists Anthony Grasha and Sheryl Hruska-Riechmann. Collaborative Typical of students who feel they can learn by sharing ideas and talents. sensing or intuitive.ncsu. They co-operate with teachers and like to work with others. Collaborative.edu/felder-public/Learning_Styles.html 2. Disadvantages: Students tend to depend too much on others and are not always able to work well alone.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Check it out Are you an active or reflective.6 The Grasha-Riechmann model The Grasha-Riechmann model. 7 adapted from Grasha 1996. Less competitive learners may be turned off by them. 169 13 . Advantages: Students develop skills for working in groups and teams. They are also not as well prepared for handling competitive people. Disadvantages: This style makes it difficult for students to appreciate and to learn collaborative skills.7 Competitive This group includes students who learn material in order to perform better than others in class. Advantages: Students are motivated to keep up with class material and to set goals for learning. Avoidant. classifies learners into six categories: Competitive. and Independent. Dependent. They believe they must compete with other students for the rewards that are being offered. Participant. The descriptions below include the advantages and disadvantages of each learning style. Competitive learners like to be the centre of attention and to receive recognition for their accomplishments in class. visual or verbal.
and take part in as much of the course activities as possible. They enjoy going to class. They are typically eager to do as much of the required and optional course requirements as they can. failing to consult with others or to ask for help when they need it. and negative feedback acts as another reminder of their failings. They do not participate with students and teachers in the classroom. Advantages: Students are able to avoid the tension and anxiety of taking serious steps to change their lives. 14 . they learn only what is required. They do not learn how to deal with uncertainty. They are uninterested and overwhelmed by what goes on in class. Disadvantages: They may do too much or put others' needs ahead of their own. Participant These students are good citizens in class. Advantages: These students are able to manage their own anxiety and obtain clear directions. Advantages: Students develop skills as self-initiated. Advantages: Students get the most out of every classroom experience. Their performance drops. They view teachers and peers as sources of structure and support. Disadvantages: Students tend to be kept from setting productive goals. self-directed learners. Disadvantages: They may become somewhat deficient in collaborative skills. Independent These students like to think for themselves and are confident in their learning abilities. They prefer to learn the content they feel is important. Disadvantages: Students have difficulty developing skills for autonomy and selfdirection as a learner. They have time to do enjoyable but less productive tasks. Dependent These students show little intellectual curiosity. and look to authority figures for specific guidelines on what to do.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Avoidant These students are not enthusiastic about learning content and attending class. and to work alone on course projects rather than with other students.
intelligence is contained in each individual’s general intellect – in our individual way of comprehending. Logical-mathematical intelligence Logical / mathematical intelligence responds best to activities that involve abstract symbols and formulas. code deciphering. environmental sounds. music recitals. spelling. reinforces and rewards two main kinds of intelligence – verbal/linguistic and logical/mathematical – suggests that each person possesses a number of distinct forms of intelligence in varying proportions. rhythmic patterns. outlining.edwebproject. http://www. numeric sequences. singing on key. The multiple intelligences theory puts forward the following eight equally important multiple intelligences.org/gardner. calculations.ldpride. Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.org/edref. Individuals also differ from one another in the forms of these intelligences. percussion vibrations.htm 15 8 . and poetry.mi. and ease with which.8 Linguistic / verbal intelligence Linguistic/verbal intelligence responds best to activities that involve hearing. based on the fact that our culture teaches. http://www. oral or silent reading.MI. impromptu or formal speaking. creative writing. they can be changed. tonal patterns. According to recent advances in cognitive science. whistling. music composition. and problem solving. developmental psychology and neuroscience.html. documentation.html. tests. Musical / rhythmic intelligence Musical / rhythmic intelligence responds best to activities that involve audio recordings. examining. their relative strengths. tongue twisters. journal work.intro. The theory. This makes each person’s intelligence a unique collection of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties to act and react in an ever-changing world. graphic organisation. not ruling out the possibility that additional intelligences may also exist. and responding to outside stimuli. adapted from a combination of sources: http://tip.7 Multiple Intelligences This compelling and controversial new education approach was developed by Howard Gardner.net/learningstyles.psychology. humour. listening.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 2. and the ways in which. humming.
Naturalist intelligence Naturalist intelligence responds best to activities that involve charting. active imagination work. physical gestures. concentration. division of labour. dancing. relating to the natural world. mapping changes.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Visual / spatial intelligence Visual / spatial intelligence responds best to activities that involve art. inventing. In other words … It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge. patterns/designs. doodling. pictures. drawings. sculpture. imagery. bringing the outdoors into the classroom. . ball passing. mind mapping. silent reflection. Bodily / kinaesthetic intelligence Bodily / kinaesthetic intelligence responds best to activities that involve role playing. sports games. block building. collaboration. "centring". observing wildlife. receiving/giving feedback. and keeping journals or logs. drama. 16 . body language.Albert Einstein Interpersonal intelligence Interpersonal intelligence responds best to activities that involve group projects. higher order reasoning. thinking strategies. and meta-cognitive techniques. Intrapersonal intelligence Intrapersonal intelligence responds best to activities that involve emotional processing. physical exercise. sensing others' motives. colour schemes.
html#2 and work through the multiple intelligences checklist OR complete the online questionnaire at http://www. dancers. then answer the questions below: Our schools and culture focus most of their attention on linguistic and logicalmathematical intelligence. We should. and others who enrich the world in which we live. entrepreneurs. place equal attention on individuals who show gifts in the other intelligences: the artists. therapists. however.php Ask yourself … Read through the following statement. what are the implications for the teaching situations you find yourself in now? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 17 .ldrc.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Check it out To what extent do you possess these various intelligences? Take a look at http://pss. (adapted from http://www.htm) Questions: 1) Do you agree with the statement? ____________________ 2) If you agree. designers. naturalists. musicians. We esteem the highly articulate and logical people of our culture. architects.edu/pss162/learning_styles.com/multiple_intelligences.uvm.ca/projects/miinventory/miinventory.thomasarmstrong.
They may become overly critical of their students (making things even worse) or begin to wonder if they are in the right profession. do poorly on tests. and in some cases change to other curricula or drop out of school. the curriculum. society loses potentially excellent professionals.html) 18 .edu/felder-public/Learning_Styles. Most seriously. know something is not working. Professors.Richard Felder (http://www.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 3) What can you do to focus more attention on other intelligences in your classes? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Food for thought When mismatches exist between learning styles of most students in a class and the teaching style of the professor. unresponsive or hostile classes. and themselves. . get discouraged about the courses. poor attendance and dropouts. confronted by low test grades.ncsu. the students may become bored and inattentive in class.
uottawa. drop by the Centre for University Teaching (CUT) and consult the many teaching resources available to you.ca/services/tlss/cut/resources/teachingtips_specific_p1. OCD. or hearing impaired • Students with learning disabilities • Students with a physical disability or mobility impairment • Students with psychological or psychiatric disabilities (such as depression. 2.) • Students with attention-deficit disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 19 . it has offered a variety of services and resources with expertise. etc. professionalism and confidentiality.8 A note concerning accessibility for students with disabilities The University of Ottawa has a proud tradition of helping students with disabilities reach their full academic potential.ca/en/access/professors/ • Students with acquired brain injury • Students who are blind or visually impaired • Students with medical conditions • Students who are deaf. Through the expertise of its Access Service. the University strives to integrate students with disabilities into the greater university community.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Tip For more information about matching teaching approaches to different learning styles. Since 1985.uottawa. The CUT also offers a wide variety of workshops on diverse aspects of teaching and learning. the Access Service acts as intermediary between students. their faculty and other University offices to ensure that the special needs of these students are addressed and that the best possible learning conditions are being offered. Recommendations for accommodations of the following disabilities are available on the Office’s webpage: http://www.sass.uottawa.htm# Feel free to make an appointment (562-5333) to meet with one of the CUT’s instructional consultants. deafened. The Learning Styles section of our online resources might be of interest to you: http://www.ca/services/tlss/cut/ for an updated workshop schedule. This underscores the University's commitment to creating and maintaining a learning environment that's open to all. Specifically. consult the website at: http://www.
ca 20 . room 339 Phone :(613) 562-5976 TTY Phone : (613) 562-5214 Fax : (613) 562-5159 Email : adapt@uottawa.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Further resources are available to instructors through the Access Service office. Please consult the web page or call the office for assistance with any questions or concerns you may have: Access Service Jock Turcot University Centre.
goals and actions is an excellent opportunity to consider your personal growth as a teacher. You will discover a certain amount of overlap between various sub-sections as you read – a clear sign that certain ideas about teaching are universally important. or spontaneously anyplace anytime – with a view to adjusting their teaching strategies and methods. There are. periodically. the process of reflecting on teaching and learning can be extremely rewarding. More and more institutions are asking candidates to submit a "statement of teaching philosophy" or "teaching statement" as part of their application for new jobs or tenure. a new professor. the learners. and to concrete applications. at the end of a course. Statements of teaching philosophy are becoming common components of teaching portfolios. Effective teachers. as well as hands-on ideas you can try out with your classes. most effective when it appeals to diverse learning preferences and styles through a combination of different teaching approaches and methods. Sitting down and taking the time to seriously reflect on your teaching vision. depending on the learning situation. It can be an extremely rewarding exercise. Professional requirements aside. or a veteran professor – to take the time. advising students to adjust their 21 . the content being taught. Teaching is. to reflect on your philosophy of teaching.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 3 3. This chapter provides a window on different ways of viewing teaching – from ideas and values to goals and roles. but it offers both philosophical and practical insight into teaching. and other subtle factors. as they prepare for a new course. in fact. 3. and to renew your commitment to your goals and values. as stressed in the previous chapter. the person teaching.1 TEACHING APPROACHES TO TEACHING Introduction There is no particular “right” way to teach.2 Your philosophy of teaching What do you believe is important in teaching? What do you want to accomplish with your teaching? How do you view your role as a teacher? It is a good idea – whether you are an aspiring professor. It is by no means a complete overview. Statements of teaching philosophy are often requested for teaching award nominations or applications for funds to carry out innovative educational projects. more accurately. with teachings skills becoming increasingly important criteria in academic job searches and in consideration for promotion and tenure. engage in teaching self-analysis and self-reflection on an ongoing and continual basis – after teaching a class. both personally and professionally. which a growing number of institutions are using to evaluate faculty. diverse and appropriate ways of teaching. Post-secondary education institutions are becoming more committed to their teaching missions.
ca/content/eng/TeachingDossier/index.html http://www. see the “Assessing and developing teaching skills” chapter.ca Teaching Dossier tool http://www. you can drop by the Centre for University Teaching and pick up a copy of our Teaching Dossier kit. and plenty of food for thought as you reflect on your philosophy of teaching and your development as a teacher.html • • writing a statement of teaching philosophy: • FacultyDevelopment. and modifying teaching materials and media to better meet learning needs. please take a look at the following websites for further resources: philosophy of teaching – general • FacultyDevelopment.asp http://www. including guidelines on how to draft your own philosophy.html • • 22 . and samples. describing as much of the following as possible: • your vision of what education is and should be • why you teach • your understanding of how students learn • how you feel you can facilitate the learning process • your teaching goals • your learning goals for students • the actions you take to put your learning and teaching beliefs and goals into effect • areas in which you would like to develop your teaching skills.facdev.edu/sltcc/tipps/philosophy.asp http://www.iastate.edu/teaching/resources/developphilosophy.html http://www.cofc. For more information on teaching portfolios.edu/~cetl/Essays/DevelopingaPhilosophyofTeaching.edu/teaching/philosophy. The following sections provide various perspectives on teaching. In addition. exactly. a brief reflective essay. Tip For more information regarding statements of teaching philosophy.ca Teaching Dossier tool http://www.celt. is a philosophy of teaching? It is a statement.lll.ca/content/eng/TeachingDossier/index. What.hawaii.cmu.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING learning behaviours.facdev. A teaching philosophy statement is a key element of every dossier.
adapted from Royse 2001. and strike up a conversation with a different student each time. Arthur Chickering and Zelda Gamson wrote an article for the AAHE Bulletin. and/or stick around after class finishes. Ideas for applying this principle: • learn students’ names • keep “open” or “drop-in” office hours • attend student events • be a mentor/advisor to students • invite students to professional meetings • arrive early for class.utep.osu.htm http://ftad.edu/~cetal/portfoli/samples.html • 3. In other words … Theories and goals of education don't matter a whit if you don't consider your students to be human beings.3 Principles of good teaching practice In 1987.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING sample statements of teaching philosophy • http://www. 9-13 23 .Lou Ann Walker 9 10 Chickering & Gamson 1987.edu/portfolio/philosophy/Philosophy. The following seven points have been identified and validated by various sources as principles of good teaching practice10: Good practice encourages student-faculty contact Approachability and concern about students and their progress are the main elements of this principle. . involvement and retention grow through opportunities for informal contact and conversation with faculty outside the classroom and office.”9 This brief article managed to capture the gist of best practices in higher education in such a compelling way that a flurry of publications based on the principles quickly ensued (see Bibliography for further references). Student motivation. “Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education.
the quicker the feedback. and ideas for assignments • have the students play roles. when they have the opportunity to talk about what they are learning. ideas for readings). For more information. a correlation between prompt feedback and student satisfaction and achievement. Good practice encourages active learning Studies demonstrate that students learn better when they are active participants in the classroom rather than spectators. Ideas for applying this principle: • invite students to share their interests and backgrounds in class • encourage students to voice their ideas and opinions • use small group and peer instructional approaches in the classroom (see the “Teaching small groups” chapter in this guide) • create small groups to work on projects together • encourage students to study together. and conduct experiments in class. Good practice provides prompt feedback According to learning theory research. 24 . Ideas for applying this principle: • encourage students to challenge ideas and ask questions in class • have students analyse real situations and solve problems in the classroom • encourage students to share ideas. participate in simulations. related information (media content. Ideas for applying this principle: • hand quizzes and exams back the next time the class meets • return assignments within a week • provide students with substantial written feedback on their work. see the “active learning” segment which follows later in this chapter. when they can share it.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Good practice encourages cooperation among students Studies have shown that learning is enhanced and understanding deepened when students have the opportunity to share and respond to each others’ ideas and feedback. in fact. There is. the better the learning. relate it to past experiences and apply it to their lives.
but make it challenging enough that they have to work hard and stretch beyond knowledge and skills they already have. Good practice communicates high expectations The line between expectations that are realistic and unrealistic. and the amount of actual involvement with the material being studied. can be fine. Yet if you don’t expect much from students.epsteineducation. Ideas for applying this principle: • start and finish class on time • insist that students who miss class make up lost work • provide a ball-park estimate of time needed to prepare assignments • don’t let breaks stretch too long. as outlined in the previous section. and reinforce them as necessary • explain the penalties for late work clearly • provide examples of exemplary work • help students set and reach high goals • suggest supplementary reading. skills and abilities. By understanding your students as unique individuals.com ) Good practice emphasizes time on task This principle involves the way a teacher uses classroom time. you can facilitate student growth and development both academically and professionally as well as personally and socially. Ideas for applying this principle: • appeal to various learning preferences • use diverse teaching techniques • make an effort to discover students’ interests and backgrounds 25 . and showing respect for their diverse and sometimes idiosyncratic and/or surprising talents. too high or too low. Ideas for applying this principle: • make sure to communicate your expectations orally and in writing at the beginning of the course.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • Use an immediate feedback assessment tool (see Epstein Education website http://www. Don’t make the course so difficult that learners can’t succeed. Good practice respects diverse talents and ways of learning Be sensitive to the various ways students acquire and process information. you generally won’t get much.
it ultimately balances the cognitive dimension of learning with the equally important affective dimension. Attract learner attention Students are motivated to learn when their curiosity and attention are attracted and held.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • allow a certain amount of choice in readings and assignments provide extra material (readings and exercises) for students with gaps or deficiencies in knowledge and skills. Ralph puts forward the following five factors. Develop positive relationships This factor involves projecting genuine feelings of mutual respect. and using a range of gestures. We cannot. 11 adapted from Ralph 1998. 1-6 26 . see the “active learning” segment which follows later in this chapter. involving learners in active learning activities. attitudes and inherited traits. and values placed on learning something specific – and it is different with every individual. all proven consistently successful in motivating learning. varying teaching methods to appeal to different learning preferences. the motivation to learn is a highly complex combination of individual needs and emotions. Ways of doing this include starting the class with a puzzling question. as well as personal expectations of success.11 1). incorporating diverse activities. motivate students to do anything in particular. movement and humour in the classroom. We can only stimulate the motivation to learn among them. body language. support. Skilled teachers succeed in capturing student interest at the beginning of a class and stimulating it throughout the session – not an easy task. Ralph. in fact. 3.4 Motivating learning According to curriculum scholar Edwin G. and warmth with students. For more information on attracting and holding learner attention. 2). Learners approach learning and associated tasks with acceptance rather than avoidance when they believe they are accepted as worthwhile individuals and contributing members of a group – when their needs for belonging and affiliation are essentially met. See the first three principles of the previous section for ideas on developing positive relationships with and among students in your classes. media and materials in a class. competencies and experiences.
or mastery of particular skills. is consistent with the learning objectives of the class and the learning tasks experienced by students. give clear and concise directions. Enhance subject matter relevance Learners are motivated by subject matter that is meaningful to their lives – their past. 27 . Promote learner satisfaction When learning reinforcement. To build learner competence. and the teacher eventually provides less direction and more support in helping learners set and meet goals for higher achievement. teachers must provide specific guidelines. . and future lives. immediate (as close to the associated task as possible). and orient and tasks carefully. modelling of desired behaviour.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING In other words … The whole art of teaching is only the art of awakening the natural curiosity of young minds for the purpose of satisfying it afterwards. As learner competence improves. they also provide opportunities for students to apply the knowledge and skills they are learning to real life situations.Anatole France 3). The ultimate objective is for the learner to become competent to the point where the teacher is no longer needed. then they are motivated to strive toward learning goals. it must be genuine (not given indiscriminately or be perceived as artificial). 5). and specific (reinforcing acquisition of particular knowledge. Build learner confidence Learners are motivated by learning situations and activities that are demanding enough to be challenging. The teacher’s role involves both building learner competence and boosting learner confidence. instead of vague or general praise). or evaluation. Teaching strategies include adjustment of learning activities to meet the developmental needs of students. confidence grows. Successful teachers are able to convince students of the value and usefulness of the subject matter. yet not so difficult that they are unachievable – not an easy balance to strike. and preferably all three. present. and integration of appropriate guest speakers into the program. For evaluation to be effective. These teachers not only show interest and enthusiasm for class content. and if students feel evaluation feedback is fair and authentic. 4).
They are closely interrelated.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 3. about possible hidden agendas – with a teacher who has a reputation for being honest and trustworthy. belonging and reassurance that encourages learning and participation. Be honest Students are less cynical and suspicious – about how they might be treated. the process is not as effective. strategies and techniques reviewed so far will contribute to creating a positive. Honest and trustworthy teachers typically • maintain congruence between words and actions • reveal some of their own personality. who show empathy. and interest both inside and outside the classroom – teachers who “care” – create a more positive learning environment. understanding. Teachers who demonstrate sensitivity to the non-academic interests and needs of students. share some of their personal life • accept student feedback with grace. 29-37 28 . Teachers who care typically • show respect for students (even the difficult ones) • incorporate student ideas and feedback into the course • communicate with students before and after class • keep regular office hours • share personal anecdotes • are honest with students. but they have been separated to emphasise the importance of each in creating a positive learning climate. If the emotional aspect is neglected. inviting and productive learning environment – one in which students feel the sense of acceptance. Portray a humane attitude The teaching-learning enterprise involves both the intellect and the emotions. and make an effort to incorporate it into the learning situation • disclose the course’s full agenda and expectations early in the teachinglearning process 12 adapted from Ralph 1998. as you will see by the degree of overlap between them. The following are some additional considerations for creating a positive learning environment12.5 Creating a positive learning environment All the principles.
or disability – and stop students who do • use objective rather than subjective criteria for marking and calculating final grades • regularly ask themselves. but refrain from becoming “one among equals.” Show respect Students repeatedly report that they are interested in and motivated by subjects taught by teachers who acknowledge students as worthwhile individuals with unique ideas 29 . background. and opportunity for expression without being offensive • are considerate and generous. gender. by both sides. is nevertheless critical to establishing a teacher’s credibility and creating an environment of trust in the classroom. It must be earned. but of an accumulation of events over time. “Would I want an instructor to treat me or my 19year-old this way?” Build trust An essential ingredient of the bond holding a group together is a relationship of mutual trust – a product not of a single technique. Be fair This factor. direction without rigidity. but maintain a deliberate professional distance • may attend student events outside the classroom. Teachers who are fair typically • provide individual attention equitably • ask questions of students throughout the classroom • manage class “monopolisers” so that others can also contribute • avoid stereotyping or discrimination on the basis of age. race. allowing them a certain freedom of expression and choice within the course structure • provide learner choice without license. Fairness essentially entails consistency and impartiality in all teaching and learning activities.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • • • admit when they make mistakes present subject matter accurately and avoid dogmatism examine alternative viewpoints systematically withhold judgement until all available evidence has been investigated maintain honesty in research and reporting activities. Teachers who succeed in building a relationship of trust typically • balance support with challenge • involve students in the learning and teaching process. a bit of a cliché.
and other considerations like class and classroom size. Teachers who show respect develop teacher-student relationships based on consideration. in the following class. including increased student motivation. arbitrariness. develop more connections among concepts. hostility and resentment toward certain students who may not conform to their standards • avoid displaying arrogance. If they don’t. 3. civility and courtesy. Yet learner-centred approaches offer numerous potential benefits. students tend to become frustrated. Studies show that students in a learner-centred situation may be able to apply content better than their counterparts in teacher-centred courses. the characteristics of the learners. And both teacher-centred and learner-centred methods have their strengths and weaknesses. and better learning. more active participation in the learning process. although real-life learning situations tend not to be so clearly polarised. Many teaching methods contain both teacher-centred and learner-centred elements. Keep promises Essential to a positive teaching-learning relationship is integrity and reliability. or indifference in the classroom. depending on the course content. or provide specific information. They typically • deal with teacher-student conflicts in private • do not let problems that can arise with one or two students get in the way of the positive relationship with the rest of the group • refrain from exhibiting anger. They may also have a deeper understanding of the subject.6 Learner-centred and teacher-centred approaches Another way of looking at teaching approaches is to consider whether they are teacher-centred or learner-centred. Effective teachers keep their word. Teachers who keep promises typically • are consistent between what they say they will do and what they do • follow the course syllabus • are consistent with the evaluation procedures they outline • keep office hours • follow through on commitments to answer particular questions. It bolsters the relationship of mutual trust.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING and talents to contribute to the learning situation. 30 . disappointed and cynical. and their respect for the teacher declines. selfishness. and acquire greater critical thinking skills.
from instructor to student underlying assumption = learners are "empty vessels" waiting to be filled with the teacher’s knowledge - - . interpersonal communication. and they incorporate new learning into their existing framework 31 Knowledge acquisition - - one way transmission of knowledge. Teaching consideration Teacher’s role Teacher-centred Learner-centred primary dispenser of information expert performance assessor - - facilitator helps learners draw on and think through their own knowledge and experiences provides information to help them develop their understanding experience based base = the individual experiences and knowledge of the learners co-operative.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING The following table outlines some of the differences education scholars have identified between teacher-centred and learner-centred approaches. collaborative and supportive attempts to develop group cohesiveness negotiated between teacher and learners Orientation - knowledge based base = the expert knowledge of the teacher competitive and individualistic no attempts to develop group cohesiveness - Learning climate - - Curriculum - designed by the teacher teacher defines the learners' needs and plans teaching content accordingly determined by teacher intellectual change every learner acquires the same body of knowledge production of a standard outcome - Teachinglearning objective(s) - - - established by learners affective and attitudinal change for learners to 1) develop abilities and skills to diagnose and solve their own problems and 2) build a knowledge base and a confidence base the outcome varies among learners. and its integration with skills such as inquiry. and critical and creative thinking assumption = learners already have a stock of knowledge and experience. depends on needs two way interaction knowledge is constructed by the students through the gathering and synthesising of information.
With a red pen. enabling them to learn from each other as well as from the teacher (e. lectures) high instructor involvement instructor-student interaction discussion focussed on course content instructor avoids interpretation of feelings - emphasis on effectively using and communicating knowledge to address “real life” problems Teaching methods - - - variety of methods which involve learners. Tally up the number of ticks in each column. or student-centred? Or is it balanced between the two? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 32 .g. or other colour.g.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Knowledge use - emphasis on acquisition frequently involves the memorisation of information occurs outside the context in which it will be used didactic (e. check off the side you tend most towards for each teaching consideration. as well as to evaluate learning outcomes de-emphasis of tests and grades Teaching focus Assessment - emphasis on individual teacher evaluates objective = to evaluate learning outcomes traditional use of tests and grades - - Ask yourself … Read through the items in the above chart carefully. active learning techniques) high learner involvement student-student interaction discussion of students’ personal experiences encouraged instructor interprets feelings and ideas of class member when necessary for class progress emphasis on collective education students share responsibility for evaluation objectives = to diagnose learning problems and promote further learning. 1) Is your teaching approach more teacher-centred.
Various education scholars have worked at describing the diverse teaching roles instructors may adopt. the characteristics of the students. depending on the learning situation.7 Teaching roles One way to think about the many different approaches to teaching is to cast them in the light of teaching roles. 33 .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 2) How do you feel about the result? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3) What would you like to do about it? Would you like to develop one side or the other for one or more teaching considerations? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4) How do you plan to go about it? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ The Centre for University Teaching can provide resources and thoughtful assistance as you plan your course. 3. As with learning styles. the content being covered. or be adopted in varying combinations. teaching roles may change. and other factors.
His or her objective is to transmit the information. knowledge. 34 . the display of knowledge can be intimidating to less experienced students. analytic perspectives. Underlying thought processes that produce answers may not always be revealed. Teacher as expert In this role. and with providing a structure students need for effective learning. Teacher-experts are concerned with transmitting information and making sure students are well prepared. Teacher as personal model The teacher-as-personal-model believes in "teaching by personal example" and establishes a prototype for how to think and behave. or critical viewpoints he or she wishes the students to acquire in the course. He or she oversees. control and evaluation. a possessor of the knowledge and expertise the students need to succeed. 13 adapted from http://www. the teacher is concerned with providing positive and negative feedback. He or she is also concerned with the correct.edu/ctl/styles/tstyle. the teacher stands in front of the class as an expert. be overlap between them. acceptable. the teacher is an agent of instruction.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING The following descriptions13 provide an overview of the various teaching roles that have been conceived by education scholars. There will. establishing learning goals. and rules of conduct for students. 55-66. They strive to maintain their expert status by displaying detailed knowledge and by challenging students to enhance their competence. Disadvantages: If exaggerated. and by encouraging students to observe and then to emulate the teacher's approach.indstate. and skills the individual teacher possesses are an unquestionable asset. The information. guides. helping put students at ease. and directs by demonstrating how to do things.html#Teaching and from McKeachie 1986. From a wider social perspective within which the university classroom is situated. Advantages: Clear expectations and a focus on acceptable ways of doing things makes for consistency. and standard ways of doing things. inevitably. As such. expectations. Disadvantages: Too much focus on this role can result in standardised and inflexible ways of dealing with students and their concerns. Advantages: Teacher as formal authority The teacher-as-formal-authority possesses status among students because of his or her knowledge and role as a faculty member.
Students who feel they can’t live up to the expectations may end up feeling a sense of inadequacy and lack of confidence. Disadvantages: It can be easy to misread a student's readiness for independent work. Some students may become anxious when given independence. with the teacher being available as a resource person on request. . exploring options. The teacher-facilitator works with students on projects in a consultative fashion and tries to provide as much support and encouragement as possible. The teacherfacilitator guides and directs students by listening.Dean William R. Students work alone on projects or as part of an autonomous team. Advantages: Teacher as delegator The teacher-delegator is concerned with helping students develop their capacity to function independently. a focus on students' needs and goals. and encouraging them to develop criteria to make informed choices – without imposing his or her answers or even questions. and for taking independent action. Inge Teacher as facilitator This role emphasises the personal nature of teacher-student interactions. initiative. but of values. 35 . Advantages: Students perceive themselves as independent learners. Disadvantages: This role can be time-consuming. Advantages: In other words … The aim of education is the knowledge not of fact. The overall goal of the teacher-facilitator is to help students develop their capacity for working out questions and answers relevant to their own lives. Personal flexibility. suggesting alternatives. and adds concreteness to the learning situation. and responsibility. Disadvantages: Some teachers may believe their approach is the best way. asking questions. and the willingness to explore options and alternative courses of action – all help students grow and develop creativity and self-confidence.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING The emphasis on direct observation and role model following appeals to certain learning styles.
Advantages: Teacher as person In addition to all the roles just described. Disadvantages: Some students may resist attempts on the teacher’s part to channel them onto a pre-professional path. As such. The teacher-as-ego-ideal is typically devoted and enthusiastic concerning the discipline. and training students to “go on” in a particular field or discipline. Disadvantages: The teacher’s exuberance might intimidate and alienate some students. as well as membership in an institution that may be highly relevant to the professional aspirations of a student. or make them envious or resentful. the teacher conveys the excitement and value of intellectual inquiry in a given field of study. with the result that they work particularly hard in the course. both inside and outside its walls. which may or may not overlap with some of the others. Teacher as ego ideal In this role. who want more of themselves validated than just that part of themselves which joins with the other in the pursuit of course goals – are very much a part of the classroom. This role emphasises the teacher’s membership in the community of scholars within a particular profession or discipline. of which students are either outsiders or marginal members. The teacher-as-person is 36 . perhaps even controlling access to further training and membership in a certain elect.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Teacher as socialising agent The teacher-as-socialising-agent not only possesses certain intellectual material. But some students may identify even more strongly with a teacher-asfacilitator who demonstrates particular devotion to an educational philosophy. or who want to be respected for their dissimilarities. clarifying goals and career paths beyond the course. Advantages: Students benefit from an opportunity to join with a faculty member as a junior member of the circle. the teacher is also a person who seeks mutually validating relationships in the context of a course. and obviously enjoys and believes in what he or she is doing. Basic human and interpersonal issues – involving trust. Students may be inspired and motivated by the teacher’s enthusiasm and commitment. and who is especially patient and helpful – a more fitting ego ideal for them. The passionate lecturer who gives impressive intellectual performances often becomes an ego ideal for students. he or she is also part of various overlapping collectivities. clarifying rewards and demands of the major/field/discipline. the teacher functions as a sort of recruiting officer whose work involves encouraging or discouraging. perception and affection on the part of people who want to be seen as similar in some respects.
social reform – on teaching which form the conceptual backbone of the Teaching Perspectives Inventory. manager. Some might say teaching is the effective or efficient transmission of information from one person to another. None of the teachers studied held only one perspective. allowing for flexibility with respect to different learners and/or educational circumstances. But overall. facilitating. Each perspective is composed of a set of actions. intentions. 37 14 . one or two dominant perspectives and one or two back-up perspectives. apprenticeship. a person’s perspective is an expression of personal beliefs and values related to learning and teaching. The answers reveal something about each person’s teaching "perspective" or point-ofview. instructor.edst.ubc. Students are motivated to learn when they feel accepted as worthwhile individuals and contributing members of a group. learning and role of a teacher. Others might answer that teaching is the socialisation of people into a community. telling.educ. The results reveal five qualitatively different perspectives – transmission. helping. Most often. Still others might say that teaching is an arrangement of conditions that facilitate someone's learning.educ.html. They also tell something about their experiences – as parent. Some may prefer the teacher to remain an expert and formal authority.8 The Teaching Perspectives Inventory14 What does it mean "to teach?" Ask a dozen people and you will hear a range of answers that describe guiding. and beliefs related to the knowledge. friend. coach. The Teaching Perspectives Inventory is about five alternative points of view or perspectives on teaching adults developed by the University of British Columbia’s Dan Pratt and John Collins after several years of teaching and research involving over 250 teachers in five different countries. Disadvantages: Some students may resist attempts to make them a part of the group. when their needs for belonging and affiliation are met. adapted from http://www. or professional who is responsible for instructing others. while other aspects have been formed through careful reflection. showing. nurturing.ca/faculty/pratt/DPtpi. typically.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING typically self-revealing in ways which clarify his or her totality beyond the task at hand.html and from http://www. and is trustworthy and warm enough to encourage students to be open as well. Some of this experience is received unquestioningly. and more.ca/faculty/pratt/DPtpwh. someone has one particularly dominant perspective and one or two back-up perspectives. Advantages: 3.edst.ubc. planning. developmental. or as learner over many years of formal and informal learning. directing. Everyone held a combination of.
effective teaching is a process of socialising students into new behavioural norms and professional ways of working.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 1). Good teachers understand how their learners think and reason about the content. they engage learners within their 'zone of development'. As learners mature and become more competent. Apprenticeship From this perspective. the teacher's role changes. They provide clear objectives. Their primary goal is to help learners develop increasingly complex and sophisticated cognitive structures related to the content. Teachers reveal the inner workings of skilled performance to students. 3). direct students to appropriate resources. Whether in classrooms or at work sites. and develop objective means of assessing learning. effective teaching requires a substantial commitment to and mastery of content or subject matter. make efficient use of class time. Developmental According to this perspective. Transmission According to this perspective. clarify misunderstandings. summarise what has been presented. provide reviews. 2). Teachers offer less direction and give more responsibility as students progress from dependent learners to independent workers. they are recognised for their expertise. Good teachers are highly skilled practitioners of what they teach. set high standards for achievement. effective teaching must be planned and conducted "from the learner's point of view". A teacher’s primary responsibilities include representing the content accurately and efficiently. For many learners. Good teachers know what learners can do on their own and where they need guidance and direction. answer questions. good transmission teachers are memorable presenters of their content. adjust the pace of lecturing. provide timely feedback. allowing for different points of entry depending upon the learner's capability. Learners’ responsibilities include learning the content in its authorised or legitimate forms. 38 . and translate it into accessible language and an ordered set of tasks which usually proceed from simple to complex. correct errors. Good teachers take learners systematically through tasks leading to content mastery. Good teachers are enthusiastic about their content and convey that enthusiasm to their students.
Social reform From a social reform point of view. hard. Nurturing From this perspective. problems. persistent effort to achieve comes from the heart as much as it does from the head. Questions. 5). rather than the benevolence of a teacher. people are better at learning when they know that: (1) their learning efforts will be supported by both the teacher and peers. From a nurturing point of view. It is crucial. (2) their achievement is acknowledged to be a product of their own effort and ability. more complex and sophisticated forms of reasoning. Good teachers awaken students to values and ideologies that are embedded in texts and common practices within their disciplines. they analyse and 39 . effective teachers help learners set challenging but achievable goals. cases. and (3) their self-esteem and self-concept is not at risk during the learning process. reinforce effort as well as achievement. and acknowledge individual growth as well as absolute achievement. Rather. 4). The object of teaching is the collective rather than the individual. To do so. effective teaching assumes that long-term. particularly in the initial stages of learning. People become motivated and productive learners when the standards for achievement are clear and accompanied by a balance of academic and emotional support. that teachers adapt their professional knowledge to learners' levels of understanding and ways of thinking. effective teaching seeks to change society in substantive ways. Effective teachers do not lower their standards. nor do they excuse learners from doing what is required. and examples form bridges teachers can use to transport learners from simpler ways of thinking and reasoning to new. Good teachers also challenge the status quo and encourage students to consider how learners are positioned and constructed in particular discourses and practices.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING The key to changing those cognitive structures lies in a combination of two skills: (1) teaching that engages learners with content while also challenging them to move from relatively simple to more complex forms of thinking. and (2) 'bracketing of professional knowledge' which allows learners time to construct their own understanding of the content.
nurturing or apprenticeship. listening. talking. what is included and what is excluded. 64 40 . and for what purposes. discovering. though central to this view. analysis. and evaluation. Class discussion is focused less on how knowledge has been created. In other words … Education is for improving the lives of others and for leaving your community and world better than you found it. synthesis. Students engaged in active learning do more than simply listen to lectures. or perhaps social reform? Find out by taking the online Teaching Perspectives Inventory self-scoring questionnaire: http://www. Students are encouraged to take critical stances to give them power to take social action to improve their own lives and the lives of others. processing. exploring.Marian Wright Edelman Check it out Does your dominant teaching perspective tend toward transmission or development. who is represented and who is omitted from the dominant discourse. Critical deconstruction. active learning is based on the following effective teaching principles15: 15 adapted from Royse 2001. Texts are interrogated for what is said and what is not said. is not an end in itself. and reflecting during activities involving problem solving. and more on who has created the knowledge.htm 3. They are actively involved in the learning process. and applying information through reading.com/html/tpi_frames. writing. .9 Active learning Learning is by nature an active process.teachingperspectives.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING deconstruct common practices to reveal ways in which such practices perpetuate unacceptable conditions. According to the University of Kentucky’s David Royse.
granting students the freedom to learn independently of you. and familiar to both you and your students. Active learning is less authority-based and more co-operative. reflect and solve problems students benefit from opportunities to “try out” their ideas or content comprehension . who prefer passive learning. You can start with 90% lecture and 10% active learning proportions. from first year to graduate students. and help overcome resistance from individuals who are used to the lecture format. taking risks. demonstrated that • students prefer strategies which promote active learning rather than traditional lectures • many active learning strategies are comparable to lectures in promoting the mastery of content. and not all students are well served by the usual lecture classes. letting students get excited and off-track (and often noisier). but superior in promoting the development of thinking and writing skills • a significant number of individuals have learning styles served best by teaching techniques other than lecturing – techniques like active and co-operative learning. or who like the anonymity of large classes. Here are a few of the many different types of active learning activities you could use in your classes: 41 . Make sure to start with active learning techniques you feel at ease with – typically short in duration. personal examples. according to your comfort level. then work gradually toward more balance. in fact. It will put them into context for students. while others take more preparation and planning. and things they have already learned students learn best by performing authentic tasks that build and expand on what they already know students learn more when they have some control over what and how they are learning prompt feedback is essential to effective learning learning styles vary considerably within each classroom. Some active learning techniques require little preparation and can be implemented spontaneously. structured. Research has. and from immediate feedback from peers students learn new knowledge more easily when it relates to “real life” experiences. Active learning strategies mean giving up a certain measure of control. focused on straightforward subject matter. and accepting that active learning activities take longer and cover less content than lectures. If you’re a little uncomfortable with the idea of incorporating active learning activities into your classes. Make sure to explain the objectives and benefits of any active learning activities you implement.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • • • • • students learn more when they are challenged to discuss. with the teacher acting more like a guide or facilitator than the formal expert. Active learning can be applied to groups of various sizes and all levels of students. do it gradually.
during class or on their own time. in fact. These are essentially diagrams showing mental connections between a major idea or concept and other ideas or concepts students have learned. For their efforts. learners can receive grades. You can.g. Concept mapping Have students create visual representations of course content. consult with classmates. Finally. and use it to launch discussion or branch out into related questions. question to answer. One way of creating a concept map is to draw circles containing the concepts. This technique has been used in classes ranging from a dozen to hundreds of students. or simply constructive. instructional feedback. This activity provides an opportunity for students to process course material actively. Ask them to work on it for 2 to 5 minutes by themselves (think). and how that learning connects to their lives. Lecture pause Stop your lecture every 15 or so minutes to give students a chance to catch up with their notes. and gain a better understanding of the difficulties of writing reliable and valid exam questions. Address the question over the coarse of the class. or for setting the actual exam. problem to solve).CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Asking questions Start your class with an intriguing question. Then have them discuss their ideas for 3 to 5 minutes with a partner. Think-Pair-Share Give students a task (e. re-work the notes they’ve taken so far. review exam material thoroughly. usually the student sitting next to them (pair). and raise questions. write it on the blackboard. with lines (consider annotating them) linking 42 . or post it some other way so that so that students can read it and start thinking about it before class begins. students should be encouraged to reflect personally on what they are learning. ask or choose pairs to share their ideas with the whole group (share). They can do this on paper or on the computer. Student generated exam questions Put students into groups and ask them to draft exam questions. Journal-keeping Ask students to keep a journal and write in it at least twice a week about what they are learning. Either way. practice for the exam. This technique can be helpful for review.
check out the following websites: • • • http://www. then we may wish to set up conditions of learning which make for uniqueness. which our present system induces. Check it out For more information on specific active learning techniques and activities. 43 . Or make an appointment (562-5333) to meet with one of the CUT’s instructional consultants.edu/teaching_tips/handouts/newactive. These can be created individually or in groups.facultydevelopment. consult the website at http://www. but the answers should be discussed in class so that students can evaluate how well they are grasping course content.ca/services/tlss/cut/ for an updated workshop schedule. of values.cat.uottawa. These quizzes should not be graded. and critiqued. . The CUT also offers a wide variety of workshops to help you improve and expand your teaching skills. discussed.calstatela. then shared. strategies and techniques. Formative quizzes Give students brief quizzes for self-assessment purposes.shtml Food for thought If we value independence. if we are disturbed by the growing conformity of knowledge.edu/dept/chem/chem2/Active/ http://www. of attitudes. drop by the Centre for University Teaching (CUT) and consult the many teaching resources available to you.Carl Rogers Tip For more information about different teaching approaches. for self-direction. and for selfinitiated learning.ca http://www.ilstu.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING the concepts.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 44 .
4. and students with their peers. This allows for the professor to give individualized feedback and attention to each student. but can also be unproductive if the group is not managed properly. Small groups also aim to improve students’ interpersonal skills and prepare them for their future careers. In small groups. 4. 45 . Professors have a larger option of teaching techniques because they are not restricted by group size. Usually professors will consider a group small when they have the opportunity to know and work with each student individually. small group teaching allows for higher level intellectual skills such as reasoning and problem solving.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 4 4. create an active learning environment. Knowing what you want to achieve from the group and understanding the different teaching techniques available is crucial to making each group meeting successful. This type of teaching allows for more active teaching and learning strategies than large courses. The groups themselves will be small enough to allow all students to actively participate while giving each a turn to speak and listen. With small groups it is also easier to keep students motivated. and increase attendance. This contact allows students to develop skills. This type of group ensures that students take a more active role in their learning and will provide individualized attention to students’ needs.3 What defines a small group? There is no particular number of students that distinguishes small groups from large ones. students are expected to participate and communicate their ideas verbally.2 Importance of small group teaching Small group teaching is a type of teaching that allows for interaction between students and the professor. such as problem solving and communication that they may not be able to develop in their larger courses. 4.4 Aims and objectives As opposed to teaching large groups.1 TEACHING SMALL GROUPS Introduction Teaching small groups can be both rewarding and a great learning experience.
useful for large groups.5 Teaching methods There are many teaching options to you as a teacher in small groups.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 4. group work. Buzz groups One group is divided into subgroups each with a specific task. Encourage your students to participate and create sessions that will be both challenging and interesting. The possibilities are endless and only depend on which methods you choose to use and how comfortable you feel using them. Brainstorming A problem is given and students are then asked to write down their ideas. seminars. Discussion techniques Sometimes discussion groups aren’t always as productive as you had hoped. case studies. it is important that you test out the technique and determine whether or not you are achieving the goals and objectives you have set out for your students. Different teaching methods include tutorials. you as the professor act as the manager of the group. and so on. Different discussion techniques can be helpful in leading the group in a particular direction or to add variety to the session. the course objectives and the resources available. Cannon and Newble (2000) suggest trying the following discussion techniques: One-to-one discussion Two people discuss an issue amongst themselves. In each of the methods. 46 . group discussions. this method ensures that students will participate and listen to other opinions. You should therefore take control of the sessions and lead students in the right direction. this is a powerful technique valuable in teaching interpersonal communication skills. The difference in having a productive learning session versus a nonproductive one may solely depend on your skills as a manager and how you have prepared the sessions. Regardless of the method chosen. projects. Role-playing Students act out specific settings and situations. The type of method you will choose will probably depend on the content of the material being taught. this method is particularly useful to encourage wide and creative thinking.
47 . this will give students the experience needed when attending conferences and workshops.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Plenary session When groups are divided into subgroups to discuss and then report to the group as a whole.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 48 .
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 5 5. and when traditional evaluation methods are used to test learning. Studies have. however. This section touches on various aspects of large group teaching.Virginia Woolfe If the objectives are appropriate. at first. Large classes – characterised by the lecture method – can be as effective as smaller classes for introducing basic principles and terms to students. teaching methods. in fact. planning. It is possible to teach large classes well. In other words … The first duty of a lecturer: to hand you after an hour's discourse a nugget of pure truth to wrap up between the pages of your notebooks. transferring core knowledge. synthesis and application. They are not. and keep on the mantlepiece forever. including perception. explaining concepts. and directing student learning. a large majority of the teaching can be to large groups. depending on the discipline. large group teaching can be a rewarding and fun experience. Teaching large classes is extremely important at most institutions. be overwhelming for both teacher and students. The trick is not to develop unrealistic objectives. shown that they can be as effective as small classes when the goals are to learn and comprehend factual information.1 CLASSES TEACHING LARGE CLASSES Introduction Large group teaching is becoming increasingly important as enrolment rates and class sizes rise in universities across the continent. 49 . if the approach is organised and dynamic. large classes can be very efficient and effective in stimulating interest in a subject. . preparation. and strategies for making large class situations more personal. as effective if the goal is for students to develop higher cognitive skills such as analysis. Although they can.
For that reason. if you find yourself in a teaching situation where the class size strikes you as large. changing attitudes. you would likely consider the class to be large because you may be unable to apply your usual teaching techniques. then it is probably a large class. Students typically receive information but have little opportunity to process.16 If you don’t agree with that statement. and the class size suddenly doubles to 30. such as discussion. But a large class is typically described as one with at least 100 students. or question and answer exchanges. Ask yourself … Read through the following statement. apply or critically reflect on it. Then again. you must be prepared to adapt your teaching strategies accordingly. what are the implications for the teaching situations you find yourself in now? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 16 17 Royse 2001. You could try making eye contact with all the students during a class period. 95 Gedalof 1998 18 Royse 2001. If you are unable to do so.2 What.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 5.18 Regardless of which definition you choose to adopt. Questions: 5) Do you agree with the statement? ____________________ 6) If you agree. then answer the questions below: Large class teaching and lecturing tends to foster passive learning. exactly. there are other ways of determining whether or not a class is large.17 Or you could consider whether or not the class size may inhibit certain teaching techniques. or encouraging higher order thinking. 95 50 . large class teaching is not effective for teaching skills. if you are used to teaching 15 students. and many are subject to some debate. is a large group? Answers to this question vary.
Here are some ideas psychology professor Wilbert J.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 7) What would you like to do about the situation? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 5. arrive early in class and speak to students who also arrive early • reduce the distance between yourself and the students by making the large classroom smaller – move to different sections of the classroom as you speak. when teachers demonstrate concern about students and their academic progress.3 Adding a personal touch As pointed out in the previous section. when they “care”. but it can be done. it is a challenge to add that personal touch. the learning process is more effective when the intellectual side is balanced with the emotional. 110-112 adapted from McKeachie 1986. In a large class. make eye contact with students • make it clear to students that you would like to meet with them in your office. former Director of the University of Michigan’s Center for Research of Learning and Teaching. McKeachie. and that they can talk about a variety of subjects – not just course content. Social psychologist Jonathan Golding makes the following suggestions19: • appear approachable – use humour during lectures. when they show empathy and understanding with the non-academic interests and needs of students – in short. 188-189 51 . or teaching one himself 19 20 adapted from Golding 2001. has used to add a more personal touch to a large class20: • announcing that he will meet any students who are free for coffee after class • passing out invitations to ten students to join him for coffee and get acquainted after class • passing out brief student observation forms to ten students at the beginning of class and asking them to meet him to discuss their observations • circulating among lab or discussions sections.
. In other words … One looks back with appreciation to the brilliant teachers. and the one most widely used in North American post-secondary institutions today. Ralph 1998. Nilson 1998. 21 material adapted from a combination of sources: Gedalof 1998.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • moving into the aisles during lectures to solicit participation setting up occasional afternoon or evening discussion sessions for more informal exchange regarding an interesting question. McKeachie 1986. Adding the personal touch to a large class situation involves a certain investment of time and effort. but warmth is the vital element for the growing plant and for the soul of the child. Préjent 1990. but with gratitude to those who touched our human feelings. procedures. it can. but it makes the large class a more positive experience for everyone involved. or for review of content before an exam. It serves the main purpose of conveying information efficiently and effectively. Royse 2001 52 . or ideas • summarise • stimulate reflection • promote creative and critical thinking • provide alternative points of view. The lecture is one of the oldest teaching methods. if a lecture is well prepared and presented. An oral presentation carefully prepared by a qualified individual.4 Lectures and learning21 Many education scholars have written about lectures and learning. more specifically: • motivate or inspire learners • introduce a subject • clarify or update information • organise material in a particular way • explain or describe objects. the lecture is a typically teacher-centred method (see the “Learner-centred and teacher-centred approaches” section of the previous chapter). According to Ralph.Carl Jung 5. The curriculum is so much necessary raw material.
dramatics. unlike print and other media. of conflicting points of view. evidence that other approaches can be effective • the lecture method being the only one teachers are familiar with • teachers sticking with the lecture method out of tradition or insecurity • the belief that “covering the material” is the main goal of a course • teachers being preoccupied with this coverage. depends on the individual lecturer. which cannot be modified as quickly or as easily • the lecturer can immediately re-explain or re-teach any content that students find difficult to understand • the lecture can be enlivened through enthusiasm. according to anecdotal evidence and supporting psychological theory. disorganised • teachers lacking training in other instructional methods – ones which can be used to enhance learning in lectures • teachers not having. questioning/responding. be viewed as limitations in the lecturer’s ability to use the tool. As with any instructional tool. Disadvantages of lectures Weaknesses of the lecture method could. redundant. Yet the success of a lecture. or not accepting. humour. delete from. The following is a list of ineffective uses of lectures: • teachers making lectures too long. adjust and update the material as required. irrelevant. and ignoring the need for interaction. discussion. warmth. has certain advantages over certain other materials and techniques: • it can usefully summarise material scattered over a wide variety of sources • it can be made more current than print materials • it is a flexible teaching technique that can be used to adapt material to the background and interests of a particular audience • the lecturer can immediately add to. of challenges to ideas they have previously taken for granted • it is logically and administratively efficient and economical • preparing and delivering a lecture can. enhance a professor’s ability to retrieve and integrate subject matter. Ralph stresses. many education scholars point out. boring. the lecture can be misused and abused.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Advantages of lectures Ralph points out that the lecture. and other methods or materials • it can be used to synthesise or preview an entire topic in a live setting • it can provide a structure to help students read more effectively in a given subject area • it can stimulate further learning by helping students become aware of a problem. in fact. reflection 53 .
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • teachers believing and insisting that “teaching is telling” and “learning is listening”. not so much a question of whether or not the lecture method should be used – lectures being essentially. explanations. and explanations being a part of most university courses – but rather “when” it should be used. in fact. It is. writing your responses below: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3) Which of those qualities would you like to develop to make yourself a better lecturer? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 54 . Ask yourself … 1) Take a few moments to think about speakers or presenters who have captivated and held your attention. List them below: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2) What made them such effective speakers? Brainstorm around the question. and “how” it can be implemented to help and motivate student learning. Yet lectures can be effective.
5 The Fundamentals of Lecturing The successful lecturer Successful speaking and presentation skills can be learned.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 4) How do you plan to go about it? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ The Centre for University Teaching can provide resources and thoughtful assistance as you plan your course. they can pave the way for a successful lecture. 5. speaking softly or loudly at the appropriate times • knows when to pause and let students reflect on a point • provides relevant examples and illustrations • has no distracting mannerisms or irritating verbal habits • is comfortable responding to questions. Royse puts forward the following qualities of a successful lecturer: • makes frequent eye contact with the audience • knows the material so well he or she can speak without reading the text (and who has something to say …) • speaks to the audience instead of reading to them • always faces the audience. 55 . doesn’t speak to the blackboard or screen • works from an outline that makes it easy for listeners to follow the main points • incorporates humour – anecdotes or cartoons • provides an overview and summary • smiles occasionally • tells personal asides that illustrate points and provide a break from serious notetaking • emphasises major points • provides enough time for students to think of questions when asked. but doesn’t allow him or herself to get sidetracked from the topic of the lecture. and to answer questions when asked • repeats questions and answers to make certain all students can hear • knows how to tell a story • modulates his or her voice. Combined with enthusiasm for the subject and good organisation of main points.
Using your body effectively • • • • • • • adopt a solid. Projecting emotions project the following in a relaxed manner: • confidence and conviction • enthusiasm and passion • curiosity and interest • excitement and surprise • sincerity and openness • concern. and slow down to stress important points use pregnant pauses for emphasis. natural. Using visual aids and props • • • familiarise yourself with equipment rehearse the use of equipment see “Technology and course media” chapter for more details. including smiles where appropriate use gestures to complement and emphasise content briefly act out words to dramatise content make steady eye contact with the audience glance at your notes only occasionally. honesty and warmth • a sense of humour and suspense. 56 .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Presentation skills Nilson offers the following quick tips for speaking in front of a group – competencies which can be developed through presentation and public speaking skills workshops: Using your voice effectively • • • • • • adjust volume to be audible throughout the room. to the entire group enunciate words clearly project from the chest and diaphragm for a rich and resonant sound vary your intonation and volume to complement content and for emphasis vary your speaking pace – never speak too quickly. relaxed stance move naturally around the “stage” and toward the audience (for emphasis and to complement content) vary facial expressions.
consciously modulate your voice to maintain student attention and interest. or apply the active learning techniques described in the “Approaches to teaching” chapter. motivation. including particular problems or concerns to be highlighted • the course content and objectives • how the lecture fits into the course or curriculum • student demographics. with students both near the front of the room and at the back. but an entire course: Anticipation In this step. wall. or even eliminate the following distracting behaviours: • “um”. and other repetitive movements • leaning – against the lectern. you would consider the following: • the purpose of the lecture • the specific content of the lecture. readiness • what the students already know about the topic • the teaching methods that the students are accustomed to • how the course (and your lecture) will be assessed 57 . • mispronunciations • false sentence starts • mid-sentence switches to the start of a new sentence • volume fade-outs at the ends of sentences • pacing. of your engagement with the material and your attitude toward teaching. and enabling you to “read” their faces for interest and understanding If you ever notice a good number of glazed eyes and bored expressions while you’re lecturing. “uh”. swaying.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Distracting behaviours try to minimise. Eye contact is a powerful tool for managing the group. If you find yourself droning monotonously through a drier part of your lecture. “I had hoped to be better prepared …”) One of the most important skills is maintaining eye contact. ask learners for questions. and later in this chapter. “sort of”. “you know”. Planning the lecture A successful lecture is one which has been well planned. personalising class content. pause and change pace. etc. Royse presents the following four stages – an outline that can be used for planning not only a lecture.g. encouraging students to return your attentiveness. “kind of”. Another important skill is to monitor your vocal variety – a reflection. chalkboard • lengthy checking of notes • ritual apologies to listeners (e. accurate or not. Ask a question.
you would do the following: • acquire the necessary resources. 61) 58 . Support During this phase.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • the resources available for developing the lecture the physical characteristics associated with the lecture hall or classroom. equipment and examples • select the content to be presented • develop an outline listeners can follow easily • prepare handouts • compose the opening. Food for thought Consider concluding your lectures with questions and unresolved issues related to the topic. as well as the “Assessing and developing your teaching skills” chapter) • running a videotape and watching yourself • making an audio recording of your lecture and listening to it • inviting a colleague or one of the Centre for University Teaching’s instructional consultants to sit in on your lecture and provide feedback. . body and closing of the lecture. you would engage in self-evaluation and examination with a view to enhancing future lectures. It may involve the following: • obtaining feedback from students (see the “Evaluating your lecture” section in this chapter. not reading to them. Preparation During this phase. The theory is that it keeps listeners future-oriented and in an inquiring state of mind. Execution This step involves conscious decisions about the following: • timing and pacing • demeanour • body language • speech habits • speaking to the audience.David Royse (Royse 2001.
for example. The introduction According to Nilson. including existing knowledge and expectations. serving to fulfil only one of the objectives. At the heart of the content. For the content of a lecture. Ask yourself what.to 15-minute chunks. and plan active learning breaks between the chunks (see the “Active learning” section later in this chapter). Lecture overview and pacing Whenever possible. The lecture. Préjent stresses. including the explanation. should not take up the entire class time. Divide the major topic into 10.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Preparing the lecture As McKeachie points out. is a good explanation. precisely. to be effective. and two to three main points. then the lecture method will be most appropriate. The objectives will define the teaching methods and the structure. an effective lecture introduction has three parts: • a statement framing the lecture in the context of the course objectives • a statement reviewing and transitioning from content covered in the last class 59 . lectures have the built-in security feature of knowing that you can prepare with a certain sense of control over the content and organisation of the class session. limit the lecture to one major topic. It must bridge the gap between structure in subject matter and structure in the minds of students. and a good explanation has the following universally recognised qualities and ingredients: • clarity • good structure • pertinence in the eyes of students • plenty of appropriate examples • well designed and effective illustrations • success in stimulating students’ intellects. If. it must follow not only the logical structure of the subject matter. then an active learning (see the “Active learning” section later in this chapter) approach would be more suitable. one purpose of the class is to introduce new knowledge and concepts. If another purpose is to have students apply the new knowledge. but also the cognitive structure in the minds of the students. Class objectives Nilson points out the importance of first figuring out what your objectives are for the class session. you want the students to learn that day.
What handouts should do is provide a structure – essentially main themes and points. or should challenge or raise a question about something in the students’ existing method of organising material. suspense. You could even encourage them to compare notes with their neighbours to add an element of interaction. or connections to the familiar. or a strong generalisation which contradicts popular thought. a reference to a current event or aspect of popular culture (e.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • an attention-grabber for the material to be covered in the current class. Nilson points out some of the many different way you can approach the sequencing of the material: • deduction (from theory to phenomena/examples) • induction (phenomena/examples to theory) • hypothesis testing (theory to hypothesis to evidence) • problem to solution • cause to effect • concept to application • familiar to unfamiliar • debate to resolution • chronology of events. surprise. You can write it on the board. McKeachie adds that a lecture introduction should point to a gap in students’ existing cognitive structure. a story which illustrates the new subject matter.g. in fact. It is also important to make the organisation of the lecture clear to students. PowerPoint slide. The body The body of the lecture is the presentation and explanation of new information. or in a handout you distribute or make available on a course website. thereby overloading the students’ information processing capacities to the point that they learn less than if fewer points had been covered more slowly. a problem that can be solved with the knowledge which will come out of the lecture. overhead transparency. Handouts can. The goal is to draw the students into the lecture through curiosity. a demonstration of an unfamiliar phenomenon. Make sure to leave 60 . encourage better learning if they allow students more time to listen and think. Attention-grabbers can be an intriguing question you will answer in the lecture. One way to help students understand the content of a lecture is to pause at points to summarise content and give students time to catch up on their notes. movie or song). They also seem to agree that two common errors lie in trying to cover too much material and trying to cover it too fast. not exhaustive explanation – students can build on to understand class content. Education scholars appear to agree that it is a good idea to vary the sequencing to appeal to different learning styles and approaches (see the “How we learn” chapter).
and generally create anticipation of the future. "what did the students learn?" Students. passion and intensity set the tone for the class right from the beginning are mobile and use positive body language are loud enough to be heard at the back make visual diagrams and notes large enough for everyone to see repeat important information use variety in their instructional methods make eye contact read their students and recognise when things aren’t going well have a sense of humour start and finish on time (Gedalof. An effective approach to concluding a lecture is to plan a recap activity for students (see the Active learning sections in the “Approaches to teaching” chapter and at the end of this chapter for ideas). Evaluating your lecture As you develop as a lecturer. You may also want to consider adding partially completed diagrams and lists for learners to complete during or after the lecture. “how was that lecture?”. These sorts of activities are also useful techniques to have up your sleeve if you finish early. get them to ask you questions. it will be useful for you to answer questions like “how did I do?”. 1998). each from a different and worthwhile perspective. It is also a good time to ask students questions. The conclusion Make sure to leave two to five minutes at the end of the lecture to summarise key points and direct students toward further learning. colleagues and consultants will be able to provide answers to those questions. provide a sneak preview of the next class.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING plenty of space for students to take notes. 61 . Tip Effective lecturers also • • • • • • • • • • • go to their lectures with energy.
g. which take little preparation or extra materials to implement.g. pacing. Asking instructional consultants Consider the following: • asking a Centre for University Teaching instructional consultant to attend your class and provide feedback afterwards • make sure to let the consultant know which aspects of the lecture you would like him or her to focus on (e. technology use) • an instructional consultant can arrange for the lecture to be videotaped so that you can review it later with the consultant. and help gets students involved in the class. sequencing of information. Tool Simple informal evaluations. delivery style. sequencing of information. provide invaluable instant feedback. pacing.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Asking students Consider the following: • asking some of the students if you can read their class notes – it will provide valuable insight into what they have and have not understood • requesting verbal feedback from individual students • asking the class to complete an informal evaluation questionnaire • do some Classroom Assessment Techniques with the class (see the “Assessing and developing your teaching skills” chapter) Asking colleagues Consider the following: • asking a colleague to attend your class and provide feedback afterwards • make sure to let your colleague know which aspects of the lecture you would like him or her to focus on (e. technology use) • arrange to meet with the observer to discuss his or her feedback. Here is an example22: Rating Scale: A= Always true for me B= Often true for me C= Sometimes true for me D= Seldom true for me E= Never true for me 22 Gibbs 1992 62 . delivery style.
Difficulties with your presentation During your presentation. If you stop talking and wait for students to get the message. Don’t apologise or panic. 5. If the disruptive behaviour continues.6 When things go wrong Teaching large groups can be particularly difficult and challenging. use humour. 2) I have encountered this material before. the noise should stop.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Questions: 1) I understand the lecture content. and if you can. and the multimedia console. gather your thoughts. 4) The pace is a bit slow. be classified in one of the following categories23: Problems with audio-visual material and equipment You can prevent some of these problems by understanding your equipment and having back-up equipment ready. You may want to initially handle the situation with humour so as to not alienate the class. Many things can and probably will go wrong. Remain calm. 5) I have questions which I need answers to. and be ready to use other visual aids such as the blackboard. in fact. or some other active learning activity. If the problem persists. 3) My lecture notes are incomplete and probably inaccurate. Visit the classroom before your course starts to familiarise yourself with switches for the lights and screen. markers and erasers. Consider a lecture pause for students to review their notes. Always be prepared to go ahead with your course without high-technology equipment. you may wish to confront problematic students after class and let them know how you feel. you may forget what you were going to say or simply run out of time. location of chalk. but they will not be too disruptive or unsettling if you are prepared to deal with them. be sure to have a word with the disruptive students outside of class and let them know they 23 Cannon & Newble 2000 63 . while you prepare what to do next. Most problems that occur in large groups can. 6) Paying attention all through a lecture is a real struggle. Challenges from students Disruptive behaviour and talking in class are common problems in many lecture halls.
that students prefer teaching strategies which incorporate active learning. respond positively to student involvement. • ask students to elaborate on their answers. They also get students more involved in the learning process – particularly those who tend to view lectures as an opportunity to sit back and be entertained. and follow up on the results with the class. and superior in promoting the development of thinking and writing skills. Royse 2001 64 . 24 adapted from Angelo & Cross 1993. a good idea to break up the traditional lecture format with active learning activities every 15 or so minutes. So the lecture method together with active learning techniques is a powerful combination. Your role is to plan active learning activities carefully. Research reveals. 5. rather than responding immediately yourself • allow students to discuss their responses with each other before they answer you. Bonwell & Eison 1991.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING will be asked to leave should the behaviour continue (see the “Dealing with difficult teaching situations” chapter). Active learning activities reinforce knowledge and enhance learning. and add valuable problem-solving and knowledge-application components to the class.24 Active questioning Many questions posed during lectures revolve around fact rather than higher cognitive functions. in fact. It is. rather than one “correct” answer • ask students to choose among a clearly articulated set of alternative viewpoints or interpretations and to argue in support of their choices. Consider the following tips for asking questions that encourage active learning: • ask students to frame meaningful generalisations about some portion of the course material • ask a question that elicits a range of possible responses. Nilson 1998. • invite other students to respond to what a student has said.7 Active learning in large classes As stressed in the last chapter. and that many active learning strategies are comparable to lectures in promoting the mastery of content. provide insight into how well students understand the material. in fact. Here are a few of the many different types of active learning activities you could use to break up your lectures. explain their objectives and benefits. respond to what a student has said by rephrasing it or elaborating on it yourself. learning is by nature an active process.
Periodic free recall Ask students to put away their notes and ask them to write down the most important one. Asking other students to respond to the question can add to the interaction. or three points of your lecture so far. etc. This technique is particularly useful in discovering what students have difficulty understanding and in guiding teaching decisions accordingly. make sure to repeat it loudly enough for everyone to hear and know what was being asked. and clarify the most common muddiest points. unanswered questions do you have regarding today’s topic?” Give them one minute to write their responses. and collect the muddiest points as the students leave the room.)?”. Get students to ask YOU questions To overcome the fear students have of asking questions in a large group. or feedback related to what they tell you they learned. Then invite questions from groups at random. Students need time to shift from a listening to a thinking frame of mind. ask them to prepare questions in small groups. leave a few minutes for students to respond to the question. then collect the papers. Begin the next class with answers to their questions. leave a few minutes for students to take out a piece of paper and write their response to a question such as “What was the most important thing you learned in this class?” or “What important. Give them two to three minutes for the activity. the film. Minute paper At the end of class. Muddiest point This activity is similar to the minute paper. then get the groups to share their points and any questions which may have arisen during their discussion. two. Students can work individually or in small groups as they review and mentally process the lecture content. Count to ten slowly in your head while you wait for the answers to come. When someone asks the question. “What was the muddiest point in ______(the lecture. In the next class. They usually do. 65 . Again. provide feedback on the exercise. the assignment.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Remember – don’t be so intimidated by the silence that follows a question that you are prompted to answer it yourself. the discussion.
Involve me. They can work alone. and I remember. see the “Active Learning” section in the previous chapter. or turn it into a brief in-class writing assignment. Give students either a time limit. Make sure to time how long it takes you. Discuss the case study with the entire class. collect the summaries and compare them. Ask students to list related terms important to understanding that topic. and you need to know how much time to give your students − roughly twice as much as you needed. When time is up. Discuss the results with the whole group in the following class – perhaps using a handout with a selection of the best summaries. how. and to time it. . and discuss the relationships between them.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Focused listing Select an important concept or topic from your lecture and describe it in a word or brief phrase. Make sure to do this activity yourself first. write the concepts on the board. and ask students to discuss and analyse the case from the perspective of concepts. a number of items to list. or both. Quick case study Provide brief (four paragraph) case studies that relate to lecture content. and I understand. or in a think-pairshare sequence (see the “Active Learning” section in the previous chapter). and I forget. This activity is especially good for focusing students on gathering important information from a reading assignment. For more ideas on active learning techniques. Show me. in small groups.Chinese proverb 66 . data. and why?” Do the activity yourself by quickly jotting down the answers to the questions. When you give the students the assignment. provide clear instructions before revealing the topic. When they have finished. get the students to share items from their lists with the whole group. and to give students twice as long. One-sentence summary Select an important topic from a recent lecture. then linking them in a grammatical sentence. and theory from the class. where. In other words … Tell me. You may also want to consider doing an example with them first. You must make sure your focused topic is neither too broad nor too narrow. and ask students to summarise it in one sentence that basically answers the questions “Who (did/does) what (to whom). when.
” a compilation of 115 ideas from eighteen award-winning university teachers.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Tip For more information about teaching large groups. For an updated workshop schedule. The CUT also offers a wide variety of workshops on teaching and learning topics.ca/services/tlss/cut/ 67 .uottawa. In particular. you may be interested in our 3 DVD collection titled “Teaching Large Classes. consult the CUT website at http://www. Feel free to make an appointment (562-5333) to meet with one of the CUT’s instructional consultants. including one on teaching large classes. drop by the Centre for University Teaching (CUT) and consult the many teaching resources available to you.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 68 .
Develop creativity. During each lab a student will usually have to complete an experiment. you are primarily a guide who is there to help the students learn.3 Preparing to teach Whether you are a professor or a graduate student. According to the authors of A Handbook for Teachers in Universities and Colleges (Cannon and Newble. this is the professor in charge of the course as well as the other TAs. These meetings allow standards as well as common working methods to be established for the preparation and marking of lab sessions or practicals. you will help to make practical and lab sessions memorable for the students and find them gratifying for your own teaching experience.1 Conducting practicals and laboratories Labs involve scientific and theoretical subjects and often last three hours or more. 6. If you are a professor. If you keep this in mind. Some sessions may include a theoretical portion followed by an application. Acquire professional values. As a professor or teaching assistant in a lab.2 Purposes of practicals and labs Practicals and laboratory session complement the in-class component of a course. depending on the subject taught and the professor's objectives. 6. The second step is to meet with the individuals helping you organize the course.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING HAPTER CHAPTER 6 CONDUCTING PRACTICALS. the purposes of these practical lessons are to: • • • • • Learn scientific knowledge and concepts. 69 . These sessions may in fact vary. meeting with your TAs is of paramount importance. Learn practical skills and techniques related to the discipline. 2000). LABS AND TUTORIALS 6. They are therefore used to build upon knowledge already acquired and teach students skills that cannot be developed in the classroom. Learn to work cooperatively. If you are a teaching assistant. There is no standard form for lab sessions. begin by contacting your department and getting the information about orientation sessions and materials available to help you prepare your lab sessions.
You will earn credibility and thanks to your support. let the students choose their partners. it helps to share the responsibility for safety in the event of irresponsible or dangerous behaviour on the part of one or more students. if group work is permitted. Never forget: an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. The exact number of partners usually depends on the size of the class. Finally. be sure that all students know how to handle and take care of the equipment they'll be using. Students often have problems. You. While the need for safety regulations may be obvious to some students. Immediately prior to lab sessions. While the experiment is being conducted. monitor the progress of the various groups and offer to help where needed. Go over the specifics of the experiment and discuss potential problems the students may encounter. the number and degree of difficulty of the experiments. Remember that they may hesitate. as well as the students. 6. It is important to let your students know about these safety features. the students will maximize their learning. Get the students to prepare their experiments and organize their ideas in advance. It is important to locate the first aid kit. Continue with a discussion of the grading methods and the course objectives with regard to lab sessions or practicals. check that the lab is properly set up for the experiment and take a quick look at the equipment. Be sure that your students know how to write a report and are aware of the level of detail required (this does not apply to all cases of lab instruction). please don't wait 70 .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING You will then have to become familiar with the room in which the experiments will be conducted. the equipment and its storage locations. Then.5 Seeing that experiments are conducted properly Begin by arriving at the laboratory well in advance to perform the experiment yourself. will benefit from your preparation.4 Your first laboratory session Begin by providing policies about conduct and bringing your students up to date regarding safety regulations. the professor's wishes. evacuation procedures and know the means at your disposal for assistance in the event of an emergency. 6. the pre-established objective of the course and above all.
especially when a limited amount of equipment is regularly used by a large number of students. 1997). The method chosen should take into consideration the educational objectives. By doing this. the material being covered. as well as on your experience. In the event that equipment breaks down. They enable students to actively participate in the course. Be sure to check that students have cleaned their desks before leaving. 71 . Since the lab and equipment are shared.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING for them to come to you. This is very important. 1997): Tutor centred tutorial This is a highly controlled tutorial where the tutor gives a mini-lecture to students. On average. Student centred tutorial In this type of tutorial. social development and improvement of communication skills. This will also give you the opportunity to learn their names. understand connections and concepts. anyone who takes part in tutorial sessions has a better chance of understanding the material. students deliver tutorial papers and answer questions from their peers. depending on the type and level of the course. Types of tutorial There are many options available to the TA when deciding how to conduct a tutorial. and departmental expectations. Importance of tutorials Tutorials are extremely important for several reasons. especially during the first weeks. In fact.6 Conducting tutorials The time you spend in tutorials will vary greatly. courtesy is of the utmost importance. set it aside with a note briefly describing the problem and keep the lab supervisor apprised. Moreover. determine the relevance of the subject matter and finally. to delve into their learning experience (Lublin. solve problems. Here are several types of tutorial (Lublin. tutorials range in size from 15 to 30 students. 6. these sessions are catalysts for oral expression. non-functioning equipment is sent for service as quickly as possible.
as well as among the students. How the sessions are conducted. will affect students' learning and participation. It is therefore necessary for you to have in-depth knowledge of the material. tutorials are flexible. Discussion based tutorial The tutor leads the discussion but there is communication between both the tutor and the group. Tips for tutorials As a general rule. Introductions Introduce yourself and get the students to introduce themselves to the group. know how to help students formulate questions and master problem-solving strategies. Expectations Encourage the students to write down what they hope to learn and achieve during the sessions and what they expect from you. and your attitude. Arrive early This will give you time to prepare the classroom and your materials/equipment. tutorials are for answering student questions on the material and solving practical problems. Unlike discussion groups. which are necessarily quite structured. 1997) : Physical environment Try to hold the sessions in a comfortable room with moveable chairs and tables.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Question and answer based tutorial The tutor directs the session but communication goes both ways between the tutor and the group. How to begin the tutorial It is important that tutorial sessions begin in a positive manner. You can accomplish these tasks by taking the following steps: 72 . Here are a few tips on how to begin your tutorial sessions (Lublin.
to confirm that students have understood the strategy. Contextualization opens the door to well thought out solutions. ask students to investigate the facts and assumptions that were implied during the problem-solving process. You can use subgroups to encourage quieter students.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Review the material Review the material that has been studied. Once the main objectives have been correctly formulated. help the students choose a correct course of action. draw conclusions. critically examine the content. you can determine secondary objectives. This will enable you to assess their understanding of the problem and clarify their comprehension as necessary. In such cases. while trying to predict the questions students may have. Besides simply re-reading. Here are some examples and how to solve them (Lublin. call on students by name to answer. then describe the steps that will lead to the solution and finally. Even with the utmost preparation. Alternatively. You can redirect the group as soon as they deviate from the recommended strategy. Supervise the application of the strategy Lastly. you can direct students to reference materials where they can find the answers. expect questions that you cannot answer. You can help students by restating the problems until they are clearly understood. Help students with problem representation: Once problems have been clearly formulated. Typical problems encountered in tutorial sessions You will have to overcome a variety of problems during tutorials. just state that you do not have the answer but that you will for the next session. 1997): Dominant students These individuals monopolize the discussion and constantly answer questions to the extent that others do not have the opportunity to participate. or speak to 73 . analyze how the group applies it to a number of cases. Help students clearly state their problems: Students often have problems understanding specific concepts because they are not well-formulated. Help students develop a solution plan Coach students by first asking them to formulate goals.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING dominant students outside of class. then ask for their help in getting others to participate. Meet with them outside of class to express your concerns. Please consult chapter 11 for further guidance and ideas. Praise them and acknowledge their participation. You may also give bonus marks for preparation and participation. If the problem persists. You should therefore tell the class exactly what preparation is required. ensuring that this is realistic and achievable. Disruptive students These students are often hostile towards learning and constantly disrupt tutorials. Student participation Students who do not participate in class or who come unprepared can cause problems. This usually encourages them to change their behaviour. Encourage active participation by involving the whole group in discussions. 74 . consult the professor in charge of the course.
1 Importance of technology Technology is becoming ubiquitous in university classrooms. and enhance student learning.2 Advantages and disadvantages of using technology There are many advantages of using technology and learning materials in the university classroom. The use of technology allows professors to diversify their lectures.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 7 USING TECHNOLOGY AND LEARNING MATERIALS 7. There are many different learning materials available to professors in order to help them with their teaching. display more information. These include: • • • • Equipment failures The need for back-up plans Anxiety for professors Time spent learning new technologies The advantages for using technology often out weigh the disadvantages. this can help professors save time and energy and allow for more attention to be paid to the course content. 7.3 Types of materials The different learning materials available to professors include (Cannon & Newble. By using different technologies in the classroom. 2000): • Overhead projectors 75 . 7. These include: • • • • • More active learning Diversified teaching methods Better student attention Less time and energy for professors Visual stimulation However there are some downfalls to using technology when teaching your courses. Many of the problems with using technology and learning materials can be overcome by testing equipment beforehand and learning how to properly use each technology.
The blackboard can be used by professors throughout the lecture to explain ideas or define main points. Video or data projectors are more complicated to use and professors must be familiar with the equipment before the class starts.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • • • Video and data projectors Blackboard Videos Internet Course management programs Overhead projectors Overhead projectors are used as a visual aid to display information for students. Video or data projectors Video or data projectors generally serve the same purpose as the overhead projector. The blackboard can be a useful tool to help students visualize key aspects of the lesson but may make things difficult if you are trying to teach a large group. Tape counters may differ from those you have at home and you shouldn't rely on them to find something quickly in the classroom. It is important to make sure your writing is clear and visible and that all students can see what you are writing. Videos Videos are a good way of reinforcing the course material being taught. You as a professor may have to request specific materials if they are not provided for you in the classroom. It is also important to know all necessary programs and passwords before you begin. 76 . It is important if you are using a clip or a video to have it ready to go and at the proper location. It is recommended that only main points or ideas be written rather than long drawn out pieces of information. It allows for material or diagrams to be displayed to large classes enabling more time for teaching or class discussions. This enables professors to create presentations or videos using software programs and display them to their students. It is important that when you are making transparencies to write large and legibly. The overhead projector is easy to use and can be easily incorporated into the classroom. Blackboard The blackboard is often considered a traditional teaching tool. and to only include main points or ideas. However by using these methods it is easier to display information from more complicated sources.
4 Getting Help Technology can be a very beneficial and time saving tool for all professors. The course management program used by the University of Ottawa is called WebCT and the Centre for University Teaching offers courses on how to access and use this program.asp 77 . The Centre for University Teaching contact information is found in Appendix C. please contact the Centre for University Teaching. grades. etc. outlines. assignments. One good feature of using the internet is that you may display information from other sources or even create your own web pages. when the site opens to the main page. Check it out… Facultydevelopment.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Internet The internet is another way to reinforce the course content or to display specific publications available on the World Wide Web. Course management programs Most universities are now using course management programs to help professors organize and display course information. click on Hybrid Environment (in the Large Classes unit). It is also important that you have specific web site addresses written down so that you don't have to waste time searching for them. You can call either centre to obtain information for workshop information or for getting one-on-one help (see Appendix C for contact information). The Centre for e-Learning helps professors who wish to include an online component in their courses.ca has an online training module on hybrid teaching (traditional classroom courses that are taught with online components. If you wish to learn how to incorporate technology into your teaching but don’t exactly know what resources are available to you. 7.facultydevelopment. When using computers in the classroom it is important to try them out and see what programs and passwords you will need. You can access the module by registering (free) and. In the yellow Content column. The Centre for University Teaching offers a series of workshop on the use of different instructional technologies. Professors choose what they want to post on the program and can include things such as course notes. These course management programs allow students to access certain information regarding their courses through the University's server.ca/content/eng/tlc/hybrid/index. by clicking on the magnifying glass icon. http://www.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 78 .
11-12 79 . or revising an existing course.1 Introduction Course planning and review is a continuous process.25 It all requires careful planning. including teaching assistants. But before you embark on these tasks. whether you’re teaching your first course. 11 Nilson 1998. among other things. discussing. there are some key questions you must ask yourself: • why was the course proposed and approved in the first place. you also need to assess how well they have accomplished those goals. laboratories • developing an evaluation scheme. assignments and. creating a visual work. role playing. 8. Not only do you want students in your courses to learn key concepts and grasp a body of material. making an oral presentation.2 The planning and design process The course planning and design process involves a number of different tasks. or any other “display” you can perceive through your senses. including assignments. conducting an experiment. developing a new course. depending on. tests. each requiring a certain amount of time and other resources. adapting and/or producing new handouts and other course materials • developing and fine tuning exams. whether or not the course is brand new26: • researching the subject matter of the course • working out an outline for the course • writing the course syllabus • integrating. which means you must get them to do something with the content of the course – either writing.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 8 DELIVERING PLANNING AND DELIVERING YOUR COURSE 8. and by whom? • who will be taking the course? • what must the course accomplish within the program? • does the course serve a special purpose? • what are the prerequisites for the course? • is the course compulsory? • what is the level of the course? 25 26 Nilson 1998. grading criteria and keys • planning and co-ordinating the orientation and training of support staff. if applicable.
establish guidelines for testing. The following table outlines the different levels. 22-48 28 Sources differ on the placement of certain verbs. determine teaching methods. and to consider and develop course objectives. affect the way you teach your course. 80 . This system moves from the most concrete. in fact. you will be able to plan your course more effectively and efficiently. and project what students should be able to do after completing the course. 12-18. 8. 42-43. Some verbs may. verbs that could serve in drafting the objectives.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING With the answers to those questions. in fact.3 Course objectives27 Course objectives are statements which provide instructional focus and direction. they also help in thinking about and developing evaluation activities (see the “Assessing students” chapter). convey teaching intent. Bear in mind that Bloom’s taxonomy and associated verbs serve not only to develop specific course objectives. is in terms of Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive processes. through other modes to the highest cognitive level involving evaluation (for certain disciplines application may be the highest cognitive level). The objectives you develop will. lowest cognitive level of recalling stored knowledge. Royse 2001. Cognitive level Corresponding cognitive activities • • • • • Corresponding verbs28 • • • • • • • • • • define describe label duplicate list name cite order recall recognise Sample objectives KNOWLEDGE • recalling previously remembered material remembering factual materials • memorising recognising remembering describing recalling The student should be able to • define iambic pentameter • state Newton’s laws of motion • identify the members of the “Group of Seven” 27 Content adapted from the following main sources: Nilson 1998. It is up to each individual teacher to select and use the word most appropriate to the objective. work at more than one level. One way to promote student thinking and learning. Your choice of teaching method should reflect as much as possible the level of thinking and learning in which you wish students to be engaged. and sample objectives using some of the verbs. since particular teaching approaches are better suited to achieving certain objectives than others. Préjent 1990. with examples of corresponding cognitive activities.
describing.g. and explaining knowledge APPLICATION • using learned material in new and concrete situations e. problemsolving • applying facts.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • identify repeat reproduce state relate discuss describe explain express interpret indicate locate identify extrapolate arrange sort classify report restate review select translate apply illustrate sketch solve demonstrate use choose produce examples dramatise employ operate practice schedule analyse appraise categorise contrast criticise distinguish examine differentiate discriminate compare The student should be able to • describe the data shown on the graph • summarise the passage from Who Has Seen the Wind • translate into French the paragraph from “A Modest Proposal” COMPREHENSION • • grasping the meaning of materials restating the grasped meaning in one’s words interpreting. rules and principles to produce a result • ANALYSIS • understanding the structure and components of knowledge breaking down material into its component parts so as to understand its • • breaking down knowledge showing the relationships between parts • • • • • • • • • • • The student should be able to • describe an experiment to test the influence of light and light quality on the Hill reaction of photosynthesis • scan a poem for metric foot and rhyme • use the Archimedes Principle to determine the volume of an irregularly shaped object The student should be able to • list arguments for and against capital punishment • determine the necessary controls for an experiment • discuss the rationale and efficacy of isolation in the global 81 .
. original product combining ideas. to form a new whole • bringing together parts and components of knowledge to form a whole and build relationships for new situations EVALUATION • • making value decisions about issues resolving controversies • judging the value of material for a given purpose • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • calculate experiment question test compose create construct formulate propose plan design organise prescribe assemble collect design integrate manage plan predict prepare set up appraise argue assess challenge attack choose compare defend recommend dispute evaluate judge rate score support value economy The student should be able to • write a short story in Hemingway style • compose a logical argument on assisted suicide in opposition to his or her personal opinion • construct a heliumneon laser The student should be able to • assess the validity of the conclusions based on the data and statistical analysis • provide a critical analysis of a poem with evidence to support the analysis • suggest stock market investments based on company performance and projected value In other words … To repeat what others have said. to challenge it. putting together parts.Mary Pettibone Poole 82 . requires education. requires brains.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING organisational structure SYNTHESIS • • creating a unique.
affective or psychomotor – he or she would like students to make over the course of a term. Through general objectives a teacher expresses an abstract educational intention and describes the progress – cognitive. writing course objectives entails three steps: 1) • writing the general objective. Writing course objectives According to Préjent.place in terms of sense of place 3) drafting specific objectives for each theme • for example: At the end of the sense of place component.g. 2) dividing the general objective into themes • for example: . or at the end of. “This course will introduce students to the process of literary criticism”). Specific objectives are more precise statements detailing what students must do during. Specific objectives allow for links to be made between a given subject and student performance. a particular instructional situation to reach the general objectives (e.place as locale . Specific objectives These grow out of the general objectives. students should be able to . the student should be able to trace the carbon cycle in a given ecosystem”). no more than 1 to 3 lines for example: This course will introduce students to the geographical concept of “place”. broad statements which reflect the major themes and content of the course (e. The sample objectives in the preceding table are specific objectives. General objectives are essentially statements of what the teacher wants to do. “After studying the process of photosynthesis and respiration.g.place as location .describe “sense of place” in terms of certain major perspectives 83 .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Types of course objectives Course objectives take two main forms: General objectives These are brief.
review. They are typically flexible and subject to change.discuss the contribution of key figures to the evolution of the concept . Typically. (fully) appreciate. believe. formulate. Keep asking yourself. When an objective becomes lengthy and complex. - Tip29 Tips for developing and formulating course objectives • • • • • • • Always start your objective using a verb. contrast. become comfortable with. solve. describe. poorly written objectives begin with “The student will understand …” Write objectives using phrases that are open to as few interpretations as possible. grasp the significance of. calculate. break it into 2 or even 3 different parts. Make sure to establish a direct connection between the specific objectives and student evaluation. The specific objectives. understand.words open to many interpretations: know. determine the nature of exam questions of marking criteria for assignments.words open to fewer interpretations: arrange. Specific objectives can then be used to develop student evaluation activities (see the “Assessing students” chapter). . Never consider objectives as written in stone.apply “sense of place” to their own lives. in fact. evaluate 29 Tips adapted from Forsyth et al 1999. enjoy. 70-82 84 .compare and contrast historical and contemporary aspects of “sense of place” . have faith in.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING trace the philosophical roots and geographical origins of “sense of place” . internalise . apply. label. design. “What will the students be able to do when they have achieved this objective?” The best way to develop evaluation activities is from the learning objectives rather than the other way around.
The answers you develop will help you figure out the course objectives. Now list themes (no more than 4) for each of the general objectives.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Ask yourself … Are you currently developing a new course or revising an existing one? If you are. the course objectives. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 85 . or re-thinking. 1. To help you through the process. you will be thinking about. or of similar courses? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. What are the general objectives of the existing course. or the course you are taking over? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. work through the following questions. What do you envision as the most appropriate general objectives of the course you are developing. You may want to work on a separate piece of paper.
4 Course outline / syllabus30 The major goal of a course syllabus is to organise the content of a course. in fact. 25-33 86 . You may want to work on a separate piece of paper. You may want to work on a separate piece of paper. Now brainstorm some student evaluation activities related to those specific objectives. The syllabus should clearly communicate 30 Content adapted from the following main sources: Nilson 1998. the subject matter. 19-22. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 5. and you. and a student’s introduction to the course. The syllabus is. Royse 2001. 8.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 4. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ You now have the main ingredients for your new or revised course. Now list specific objectives (no more than 5) for each of the general objectives. your working plan for the course.
as well as its significance and attraction (according to you. faculty and department. required readings. It should also give students insight into and appreciation for the course subject. code. evaluation system: type of tests. 87 . and the fewer questions you will have about the course. essays.provide prompt and clear feedback on student work . exams.state objectives clearly .etc. discussion groups. percentage of final grade a statement regarding attendance a statement of commitment • your commitment to . included class dates and topics.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING course objectives. grading policies.be specific with instructions . the less you will have to improvise or make up on the spot. the fewer misunderstandings and problems that will arise. etc.be prepared . exams and assignments. and requirements regarding attendance at lectures. etc. other important dates. students should attend course objectives: course role and contribution to the program. optional) and other material a detailed course calendar. skills. office hours the same information for teaching assistants. thorough syllabus may easily fill four to six pages. Take the time to be as specific as possible in drafting your syllabus. A comprehensive course syllabus should include the following elements: • • • • • • • • • • • • • information about the course: title. or discussion/laboratory sessions. office address.be open to suggestions for course improvements . e-mail address. you expect students to have acquired and to demonstrate by the end of the course teaching methods: brief description of your teaching approach to help students reach the learning objectives learning material: textbooks. attitudes. course work: tests. etc. recommended. The more information you include in your syllabus.arrive on time for class . labs. expectations. Think of the syllabus as a standalone document which tells students all they need to know about the course and its requirements if they happen to miss the first one or two classes. if applicable course description and pre-requisites: details regarding the number of lectures. number of credits. according to former students) learning objectives: knowledge. assignments. etc. activities. seminars.be available for consultation . and location information about you: name. or more. A welldeveloped. assignments. schedule. telephone number. workshops. readings (compulsory.
Nilson (Nilson 1998. 25) • map for the term’s foray into knowledge.be prepared . tips for studying efficiently and succeeding in the course (learning strategies.Linda B.participate actively in class .) campus resources (writing centre. For suggestions and more information.sass. 19) Assessing your course syllabus Here are a few questions that might help you in assessing your outline: • • • • • • is the course material both challenging and interesting? is the outline flexible and coherent? are the major and minor points evident to students? will the students learn new skills as well as new knowledge? are the assignments and tests set so that students will apply what they learn in class? is the outline clear enough but not too detailed? 88 . but also a travelogue to pique students’ interest in the expedition . please visit the Access Service web site at: http://www. SASS) a statement regarding academic integrity.ca/en/access/professors/syllabus/ Food for thought A syllabus is a: • compass that guides and keeps students and faculty on the right educational path in a particular course of instruction . a statement regarding rights and responsibilities regarding accommodations for disabilities (see chapter 2).etc.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • • • student commitment to . time management.consult the course calendar regularly .offer constructive suggestions for course improvement s .arrive on time for class . etc. computer services.hand in assignments on time .be specific when they ask the professor questions .uottawa. libraries.David Royse (Royse 2001.
You may consider asking colleagues for copies of their syllabi to use as a starting point.6 General guidelines for effective teaching Effective classroom performance can be considered from the following three angles31: Organising each class carefully • outline the lesson content at the start of class • distinguish clearly between main and subsidiary ideas • draw attention to key ideas which underpin the lesson • signal transitions between different sections of a lesson • summarise after each section of the lecture • during the term. 8. 1988 89 . Once you have completed yours. you will be ready to deliver the course to students. Some of the following content may overlap with information in previous sections – confirmation of the widely considered importance of particular teaching principles. The “Teaching small groups” and “Teaching large groups” chapters provide lots of good information on delivering course content to classes of various sizes. Developing a healthy classroom climate • try to relax • establish rapport with your students • be early for class • be patient with difficult students • help students develop confidence to ask questions • never ridicule an answer 31 Diamond et al.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Tip • Before writing your first course syllabus.5 Delivering your course Once you have established your course objectives and have developed a comprehensive syllabus. you could ask them to review and comment on your syllabus. 8. The rest of this section offers additional information and suggestions. check with your department or faculty to see if there is a particular format you should use. periodically review important ideas and facts • connect current lessons to past lessons.
Tips for making showing more effective: • make sure that whatever you show is clear • avoid confusion by keeping the “showings” simple and breaking down complex images/concepts into manageable portions • ensure that the image.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • • help students with poor performance don’t discuss grades with students during class time be approachable to students be yourself. Showing The showing method includes the use of the visual aids such as black/whiteboards. 59-67 90 . readings. showing and doing32 One way to view course content delivery is in terms of telling. Adopting a concerned and professional approach • meet with students who are thinking of dropping the course • admit that you don’t know everything • use student feedback to improve your teaching. examples. models. audio and visual material. objects and artifacts. experiments. as well as the use of teaching aids such as self-instructional texts. photographs. slides. Telling The telling approach includes lectures. anecdotes) • summarise in point form • question students on what they are learning • provide the opportunity for students to use what they are learning. videos. showing. discussions and seminars. 1999. posters. and role playing. It also involves activities such as simulations. textbooks. digital presentations. object or activity can be viewed by everyone • check all equipment before class to make sure it is working properly • move at an appropriate speed for learners to be able to follow. Telling. Tips for making telling more effective: • tell the facts in the form of a narrative • make the facts more interesting by sharing your own experiences or connections with current events • elaborate on the facts (e. and doing. and computer and online content. overheads. demonstrations.g. computer projections. 32 Content adapted from Forsyth et al.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Doing The doing approach provides learners with the opportunity to apply or use the information they are learning. Putting it all together For particularly effective teaching. combine telling. It includes seminars. Tips for making doing more effective: • use “do” methods to consolidate learning • make sure the whole class is involved in the activities • make as much content as possible active to give learners something to do and maintain the class dynamic. nine universities. don’t proceed as though they 91 . and winner of Excellence in Teaching Awards from the University of Ottawa. brainstorming. group activities. and reinforcing learning. experiments. For example: • • • telling: explain the basic steps of the problem solving process showing: run a video illustrating the problem solving process with examples doing: have students work in groups to solve problems presented in case studies. role plays. surveys. games. “What two tips for teaching would you give a colleague?” The tips come from ten different professors. This approach is essential for involving students in the class.7 Advice on course delivery from award-winning professors The following advice was gathered by asking 3M Teaching Fellows. representing five provinces. workshops. case studies. Be willing to begin the course at the level of the students when they first arrive in your classroom. Department of Biology. University of Ottawa. discussions. projects. 8. and 3M. simulations. making course content relevant. For more information on “do” teaching methods for groups of all sizes. They were compiled and submitted by Professor Jim Fenwick. debates. • Be ready to deal with the ill-prepared student. seven faculties. field trips. see the active learning sections in the “Approaches to teaching” and “Teaching large groups” chapters. and practical work. showing and doing. OCUFA. If some of them do not have all the necessary prerequisites. and ten different departments.
Be able to explain why a student should learn something. All too often they learn the examples without ever putting them into context. The time before and after class can become the most intensive period for interaction with the students.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING are properly prepared for your course. Get students to uncover answers and concepts on their own whenever possible. or if you like. Relate the academic theories you are demonstrating to everyday events. • • • • • • • • • • 92 . Humour may help to break a long intense session and to alleviate the students’ tension. Be enthusiastic!!! Give your students something permanent. even to be a bit irrelevant for a minute or two. Bring personal experiences. Various studies seem to indicate that students’ attention is at its nadir about 20 minutes into the lecture. Encourage your students to do a bit of role playing. You won’t lose much and the students will benefit! If you can manage it. into the lecture. This is a good time to change pace. They know that you are intelligent and more knowledgeable than they. At the start of each lecture. Prove it by getting your message across in a simple and coherent fashion. Be certain that your students know what the examples you use are examples of. • • Be early for class and leave late. The students’ immediate goal is to learn the material necessary to pass the course. Try to make things relevant. This will provide the students with a framework for that lecture and will force you to focus your presentation. Try to see things from the students’ perspective. especially just before a difficult point or heavy message. Use a variety of devices and changes of pace to create interest and to keep things moving. yours or the students’. Your goal should be to prepare them to apply what they have learned today to solving future and unanticipated problems. list the objectives for that lecture. especially if it puts what you are saying into a context that is more accessible to the average student. Use analogies whenever possible. Don’t try to impress the students. don’t be afraid to use a bit of humour.
Australia have identified some characteristics they would like to see in a professor. Teaching Large Classes published in 2004 by the Centre for University Teaching. shows enthusiasm for the subject. we must change the way we teach different classes. More advice from 3M Teaching Fellows is available in the three DVD set. It is not “spoon-feeding” to let your students know what is expected of them. The Centre has disks available for loan (to University of Ottawa instructors) or purchase. University students are adults. and interest • is confident and knowledgeable about the material.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • If you have a tendency to lecture too quickly. treats teaching seriously and respectfully 93 . experiences. research. treat them as such. and is able to present it effectively • has a sense of humour • shows genuine interest in teaching and in students. does not appear to consider teaching as an unpleasant accompaniment to research. A good professor: • distributes detailed guidelines for the course in the first class • is approachable and friendly • shares with the class some information on his or her own educational background. Each class has its own personality and. Learn to “read” your class. and the University of Queensland. Familiarise yourself with all physical aspects of the lecture hall before you ever use it. just as we alter the way we handle different people. Not recognising the changing characteristics of the student population will ensure failure in the classroom. The following is a summary of their wish list from Pedagogical INFO (February 1990). your lecture pace will automatically slow down. Université Laval. As your hand tires. bring a small rubber ball to class and squeeze it gently with your hand. • • • • • Food for thought What do students seek in a good university professor? Undergraduates at Simon Fraser University.
8 Motivating students An important part of the “art” of teaching involves motivating students to become independent thinkers. 8. conflicts. but it is within your power to increase the probability that students will be motivated to achieve the course’s learning goals. or faculty secretariat. to the secretariats. Somebody will be there within a few minutes to unlock the door for you. call your department. This section provides answers to questions frequently asked by new professors who are unaware of the resources available to them in classroom emergencies large and small: You arrive at your classroom and the door is locked During regular office hours. engaging their curiosity. or to call a secretariat yourself.. to explore their own strengths. etc. etc. or faculty secretariat for help. You are uncertain about academic regulations.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • • presents material in a way that is different from that of the text gives and accepts suggestions and constructive criticism in a positive way marks and returns assignments and exams promptly knows how to convey the desire to learn. school. 8. This involves stimulating their interest in the course topic.9 What to do if . procedures.. Contact the department. and to grow personally and intellectually. 94 . call Protection. and encouraging them to employ their time in the classroom in active learning. Never hesitate to refer students who have questions. Here are some ways you can motivate your students to learn: • consider the students’ interests when using examples • discuss ways that you find the course content interesting • involve the students in choosing what they will be learning • start with learning tasks at the current level of the students’ abilities • reward students immediately with positive feedback • help the students discover things for themselves • get the students to use and apply what they are learning • use active learning techniques • encourage interaction in the classroom. You will most likely not succeed with every student. school. At other times.
including centres for health care. financial aid. or department who is responsible for scheduling classes (see Appendix D for the names and numbers of these people). counselling. or from your academic secretariat. etc. sometimes it is helpful to consult an experienced colleague on possible courses of action. particularly in front of others. Information on some of these services is available in this teaching guide. Inform students of the situation and what you have done and will do. Classes have started and the text book you have ordered has not arrived in the bookstore Ask the bookstore when it will arrive. Listen carefully and try to understand what the disruptive behaviour may mean for the student. from InfoService. in other university publications. placement. Professors are also invited to contact the Centre for University Teaching for assistance in dealing with these situations. campus ministry. b) write a brief description of the problem and deposit it in the box provided for this purpose in certain 95 . See also the “Dealing with difficult teaching situations” chapter. Never hesitate to refer a student to the most appropriate service. In private. Sometimes disruptive classroom behaviour is symptomatic of a serious personal problem with which the student needs professional assistance. Arrange a meeting after class. or drawing attention to the student. drapes falling. A student is disruptive in your classroom As much as possible. If the behaviour persists. avoid reprimanding. The classroom you are assigned requires maintenance If the classroom you are assigned is not properly equipped (e. insulting.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING A student appears to be in need of personal assistance or health care There are a number of student services available on campus. housing. or other means which may occur to you. Often such students are simply thoughtless and will correct the behaviour once it is pointed out to them. photocopies. You may do this in one of two ways: a) advise the administrative officer in your faculty. Refer the student to one of the student services described in this teaching guide. In the meantime. etc. lights burned out. describe the student’s behaviour to him/her as accurately as possible and indicate the effect it is having on the other students and your teaching. Be understanding but firm about your standard of acceptable classroom behaviour. other local libraries. school. It is not advisable to deal with such problems yourself. The best strategy is to approach the student privately.g. chalk or erasers missing or inadequate. make whatever arrangements you can to assist students to get the necessary reading via the library. chairs broken. the reserve shelves.) please note the deficiency and report it as soon as possible.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING classrooms. call the Multimedia Distribution Service (see Appendix C). it is important that you inform your faculty or your department secretariat as soon as possible so that the students can be informed. Individual professors should not take responsibility for such decisions. If you are a part-time professor. 96 . except the gymnasium of Montpetit Hall. Cancellation of classes If. you cannot be present for a particular class. In the case of events such as winter storms. The office space available to part-time professors varies from one department to another. You should not cancel a class without prior authorisation from the Dean.10 Managing courses at the University of Ottawa Availability to students Make sure to indicate clearly to students at the beginning of a course the hours during the week that you will be available for consultation. 8. • • • When a fire alarm sounds. for some reason. You are required to post these hours on your office doors. students should be asked to remain at their places until the guard posted in the hallway during all examinations advises the supervisors that the emergency is a real one. decisions concerning the cancellation of classes are made by the Office of the Vice-Rector (Academic). If the problem involves audio-visual equipment in any way. In the case of fire alarms in Montpetit Gymnasium. but leave examination booklets on their desks walk – not run – to the nearest exit follow the instructions provided by the yellow helmeted building fire guard. Contact your faculty or your department for more information. examination supervisors should ask students to: take along personal effects. which also assumes responsibility for public announcement of cancellation. A fire alarm sounds during an exam The sounding of a fire alarm must be followed by automatic evacuation of all classrooms. you should also specify to students the time and place where you are available for consultation.
or faculty. It is important to bear this regulation in mind so that students can arrive at their next class on time. Only the secretariats can approve course changes. available at the academic secretariat of the faculty or department. Limited enrolment in courses/course changes Enrolment in some courses is limited. Please refer students whose names do not appear on your class list to the appropriate secretariat to confirm their registration in the course. The number and distribution of these assistantships are determined by each academic unit prior to the start of the academic year. Student assessment and deadline for dropping courses At the beginning of each term. school. Consult your department for its policy on this. It is important for students to receive some feedback on their performance in courses before these dates. or department secretariat. Duration of classes The University Senate has approved a regulation that all classes must start at the specified time and end 10 minutes before the time indicated on the timetable. Teaching assistantships Teaching assistants are provided for certain courses. she or he must do so officially on the appropriate form. 97 . A copy of each course syllabus should normally also be on file in the faculty. Certain faculties or departments also have specific regulations concerning the format of course outlines.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Course syllabus A course syllabus should be distributed to students the first time that the class meets. When a student wishes to change from one course to another. Please remember that some students may have a class in another building at a considerable distance across campus. Please verify these policies with your department. Professors should not take the initiative in this matter. Consider that finishing on time is also a professional courtesy that you owe to the colleague teaching the next class in the same room. school. in accordance with the criteria of the unit and the policy of the department. don’t forget to consult your faculty’s timetable to determine the final dates for both undergraduate and graduate students to drop courses. It would be helpful if professors reminded students of the need to have any course changes approved by the academic advisor.
or faculty. See also Appendix G for the policy on treatment of graduate students on non-academic matters and non-employment issues. It doesn’t happen before late September in the case of full-year or first semester courses. The CUT also offers a wide variety of workshops on teaching and learning topics. Lists of students Over a two-week period at the beginning of each semester.uottawa. it is impossible to prepare a final class list of students registered in a particular course.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING school. or late January in the case of second semester courses.ca/services/tlss/cut/. students are permitted to make course changes. These class lists are prepared by the Registrar’s Office and are forwarded to professors as soon as they are available. drop by the Centre for University Teaching (CUT) and consult the many teaching resources available to you. consult the CUT website at http://www. Or make an appointment (562-5333) to meet with one of the CUT’s instructional consultants. 98 . During this period. For an updated workshop schedule. Tip For more information about planning and delivering a course. Part-time professors should also consult Article 9 of the APTPUO Collective Agreement.
The assessment process is not only designed to assign a particular grade to a particular student. Allow students to see what you expect. it is designed to serve multiple roles (Walvoord & Anderson. Make sure things are graded fairly and consistently. 1998): • • • • Evaluation: To assign a student a valid and fair grade based on the quality of their work. To do this. It is up to the teacher to choose methods of assessment that will accurately determine the students’ knowledge of the course material. Effective Grading (Walvoord & Anderson. Motivate students to achieve the standards you have set. Help teaching assistants in grading student work consistently. Aid in communicating with other teachers who teach similar courses. to aid them in their study habits and to determine how involved they become in the course. Help students to evaluate their own and each other’s work.1 Roles of assessment Assessing your students is an important and necessary step in the educational process. 9. Motivation: To influence the student to succeed. It is also up to the professor to perform this assessment in a fair and accurate manner. 1998) says that having clear standards can: • • • • • • • Save you time in marking. 9.2 Importance of criteria and standards It is important to set certain criteria and standards that you as a professor expect from your students. Communication: To communicate to the student on how they are achieving. as well as a means of communication to employers. Organization: To organize and structure the course. graduate schools and others. it is necessary that professors understand the purpose of assessment and the different assessment strategies that will work best for their courses. 99 .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 9 STUDENTS ASSESSING YOUR STUDENTS Evaluating student performance is a critical task for professors.
essay. Different methods available to you as a professor include assignments. The assessment should also reflect the subject matter of the course. reliability. etc.5 Exams and tests The examination is used to represent the amount a student has learned throughout the term and it determines the extent and nature of the student’s involvement in the course. determine if the assessment would provide the same results from one administration to another. Centrality is important and ensures that the items being evaluated directly relate to the central points of the course content. 9. It isn’t so much the type of assessment you use. choose methods that will follow and reflect the design of the course. don’t be afraid to evaluate and perhaps modify them based on how suitable they are for the course and also for you as a professor. practicals. Choosing the types of assessment that are best suited to you and your course can be tricky. To question reliability. tests. sensitivity and centrality (Cannon & Newble. 100 . but rather how you use it. group work. and any other method you may choose to use. Once you have chosen a set of assessment procedures.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 9. seminars. Table 4 discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different types of exams. exams. It is therefore important to examine this method of assessment a little more closely. It is important when selecting an assessment strategy that you consider its validity.4 Different types of assessment Professors use different types of assessment because various forms measure different types of knowledge and demand different skills from students. 2000). So feel free to experiment with different methods and see what works for you. It is important when you are determining the assessment methods to remember the purpose of the assessment as well as the aims and goals of the course. When determining its validity you may want to ask yourself whether the assessment measures the objectives that it is supposed to measure. The sensitivity of the assessment allows professors to distinguish students who have mastered the material from those who have not. the characteristics of the learners. true-false. 9. projects.3 Designing your assessment procedures When deciding how to assess your course. These types of questions include multiple-choice. The examination is commonly used and is generally worth a substantial portion of the overall assessment. Types of exams: advantages and disadvantages Different courses will require different types of questions on the courses exams and tests. and the resources available to the students. reports.
consuming unreliable grading resulting from professor’s bias and fatigue 101 .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Types of exams: advantages and disadvantages Types of exams Multiple choice Advantages Disadvantages thought to be objective scored easily assess specific knowledge ideal for large classes requires careful planning construction is time-consuming disliked by many students Short answer assess knowledge of details easy to construct allow students to express their thoughts exactly can be scored reliably and objectively ideal for large classes scoring is time-consuming tend to test recall only of specific facts not suitable for testing complex learning True-false easy to construct cannot test understanding high probability of correct answers by chance Essay exams can evaluate students’ ability to think critically and objectively ideal for measuring higher-level analysis. synthesis or evaluation perceived as fairer by students allow students to go beyond memorization of details provide good feedback to students if well evaluated difficult to grade reliably preserving student anonymity is difficult scoring is time.
e. 1987): • Do the questions reflect your goals for the course? Are the questions fair: i. Cannon and Newble (2000) state that essay questions can be classified as extended or restricted. etc? • • • • • • Essay questions The essay is a good method to determine the students’ knowledge as well as their ability to articulate their answer in an effective writing style. Prepare a marking sheet while preparing the exam. do they demand skills and knowledge that fall within the parameters of the course outline and content? Can the average student complete the exam within the allotted time? Are the directions and the format clear and well organized? Is the weight for each question clearly stated? Is any answer dependent upon being able to respond correctly to a prior question? Does the exam begin with questions that will build rather than undermine student confidence? Are the problems to be solved by the students interesting? Have you had a colleague read it over to check for possible ambiguities in the wording of questions. professors should: • • • • • • Leave spaces between questions. 102 . consider the following checklist (Marincovich. Leave enough space for written answers. Before finalizing your exam. The restricted question directly leads students to the structure of the essay and gives them distinct ideas on what is expected from them. Essay questions shouldn’t be too long. Choose the appropriate type of questions. This method of assessment helps to develop the students’ academic writing as well as their logical thought process and study habits. unclear instructions. An extended essay question allows students to show their knowledge of the subject as well as their organizational and language skills.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING General guidelines for exams or test When constructing an exam or test. Question students only on relevant course material.
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Examples of extended and restricted essay questions An example of an extended essay question would be: Compare and contrast extended essay questions with restricted essay questions. An example of a restricted essay question would be: Describe the advantages and disadvantages of using restricted essay questions with respect to marking.
General guidelines for essay questions When constructing and evaluating essay questions, professors should (Cannon & Newble, 2000): • • • • • • • • Write questions that will provoke the desired response; Write questions that will directly meet your course objectives; Set several shorter questions rather than one long one; Make sure that all students are answering equivalent questions; Have a set marking scheme; Mark questions anonymously; Mark one question at a time and without interruption; Have separate TAs mark separate questions.
Simple and short-answer questions
These types of questions are relatively easy for students to answer but can become very difficult for professors and teaching assistants to grade. It is necessary to have a strict marking guide for simple and short-answer questions because there tend to be discrepancies between markers and sometimes several correct answers are possible. Examples of simple and short-answer questions An example of a simple question is: 28*13= An example of a short-answer question is: List four countries in Europe.
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General guidelines for simple and short-answer questions When constructing and evaluating simple and short-answer questions, professors should (Cannon & Newble, 2000): • • • • • • Write direct and precise questions; Prepare a strict marking guide; Consider alternate possible answers; Mark anonymously; Mark one page at a time; Have teaching assistants mark separate questions.
Objective test questions
Objective test questions consist of multiple-choice, true-false and matching questions. These types of questions are extremely popular because of their simple nature and the ease in which they can be corrected. Examples of objective test questions An example of a multiple-choice question is: A sign of a good teacher is: a) a teacher who is always fair b) a teacher who humiliates his/her students c) a teacher who is always late d) a teacher who laughs at wrong answers An example of a true-false question is: T F • Objective tests are easy to mark.
An example of a matching question is: • Match the city with the appropriate country in which it is located. 1. Ottawa 2. New York 3. Paris 4. Rome A. United States B. Italy C. France D. Canada
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General guidelines for objective test questions When constructing multiple-choice questions, professors should (Cannon & Newble, 2000): • • • • • • • Write precise questions and keep the alternative answers short; Ask questions only about relevant content; Make sure that all answers are plausible; Make all possible answers the same length; Avoid ‘all of the above’ or ‘none of the above’; Don’t write trick questions; Write at least four possible answers.
When constructing true-false questions, professors should (Cannon & Newble, 2000): • • • • • • Write short questions that contain only one idea; Ask questions only about relevant content; Make sure that questions can only be either true or false; Don’t write questions that will lead student to the right answer; Try and make all questions the same length; Avoid negatives.
When constructing matching questions, professors should (Cannon & Newble, 2000): • • • State how the columns match together; Make the lists only single words or short phrases; Make sure there is only one possible answer.
An excellent website to learn how to construct multiple-choice questions is: http://web.uct.ac.za/projects/cbe/mcqman/mcqman01.html
Supervision of exams
One of your duties as a professor is to supervise your students during tests and exams. Exam supervision is to be taken seriously in order to assure that all students have equal opportunity and to prevent academic fraud. The University of Ottawa takes academic fraud very seriously and you should be familiar with the University’s regulations on academic fraud (Appendix H). When supervising students you should: • • Arrive early, before the students arrive; Have material ready;
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• • • • • • •
Have extra copies on hand; Have an attendance sheet for students to sign; Make sure all exam booklets are collected at the end; Have TAs or graduate students help supervise large groups; Have a policy for washroom breaks; Ensure that students have only what they are permitted to bring to the exam; Report students who cheat to the Dean of the faculty after the exam is over.
Exams at the University of Ottawa
Scheduling of exams No exam or test is permitted during the last two weeks of a class. Final exams must be held during the periods specified by the University. Take-home exams should be submitted within the official exam period. Changes or modifications from those rules must be approved by the dean of the Faculty. Assistance in the correction of exams While it is the professors’ responsibility to score exams, some funds may exist in the department or faculty to provide assistance to professors in the supervision and marking of examinations. Professors who may require such assistance should direct this request to the chair or director of their department, school, or faculty at the beginning of the academic year or term. Part-time professors should consult Article 9 of the APTPUO Collective Agreement. Care of exams and major papers According to Senate regulations, students may appeal any evaluation or grade, including the final examination. Should there be an appeal, it is important that a copy of the exam (or major paper) be available in order to carry out the revision. Therefore, professors are asked to retain all copies of final exams and of term papers, which have not been returned to students, for at least twelve months after the marks are submitted. Professors may keep exams in their office or forward them to the secretariat of their department, school, or faculty, depending on the policies of their academic unit. In the case of term tests, essays, assignments etc., which are returned to students during a course, it will be the responsibility of the student to provide the original paper if a revision is requested. Please verify with your department, school, or faculty specific procedures or practices for returning term papers and exam copies to students. Correction of exams by computer Professors who wish to use a computer for optical mark reading (OMR) should contact the Computing and Communication Services (see Appendix C).
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Optical Mark Reader (OMR) Coding Forms: OMR coding forms can be purchased at Cosmos, the computer department in the University of Ottawa Bookstore located at 85 University (phone 562-5800 ext 5858). The forms available are: • • Multiple choice response - (strawberry) Data collection - (pumpkin)
Please allow 2-3 weeks for large quantities.
Optical Mark Reader Request Form: An Optical Mark Reader request-forscanning form must accompany each optical mark reader request. Request forms are available at: Computer Centre 136 Jean-Jacques Lussier Street Vanier Hall, 5th floor 562-5867 All requests must indicate an approved departmental budget code and must be authorized by the department’s administrative officer. All processing will be refused if the request form is incomplete.
Examination schedules and conflicts Examination schedules for final exams are established by the University Scheduling Office (Office of the Registrar). The examination schedules are usually established within the first five or six weeks of the session. Information in this regard, as well as on how students are to report exam timetable conflicts are circulated to professors early in each session. Exam dates for summer courses are pre-determined and published with the timetable for summer courses. Language of exams and assignments The Senate has approved the following regulation concerning students’ rights regarding bilingualism: Except in language courses, Lettres françaises, and English, every student has a right to produce her or his work and to answer examination questions in the official (English or French) language of her or his choice. The regulation does not state that the professor is required to prepare the examination questions in both languages. It is nevertheless suggested that,
Usually. 1998): 1. The assistance of colleagues can be helpful in this regard. Do not give to all students what only some need. 3. Ask students to organize their work for your efficiency. Delegate the work. schools. professors should try to accommodate them. How you weigh different components of a course will allow students to see what you think is important in the course and the effort you require from them on each element. When supervising exams. professors are sufficiently bilingual to score exams in either official language. 6. Use what the student knows. Students should be aware of the grading system to be used throughout the course and the course outline should include the types of assessment to be given as well as their weight with respect to the calculation of the course grade.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING whenever such requests are made by students. Time-efficient grading One of the biggest complaints from professors around the world is the amount of time that they spend grading student work. 8. 9. Do not waste your time on careless student work. Some departments. Separate commenting from grading. Frame comments to your students’ use. It is therefore good practice to determine timeefficient grading procedures to save you time and trouble. 9. Consult your department for more information in this regard. 2.6 Grading The grading scale that you select should reflect your teaching objectives and the goals of the course. or faculties may be able to provide the assistance of a proctor for supervising large groups. professors are asked to keep in mind the directions concerning examinations that appear on the examination booklets. 4. 5. 7. 108 . Use technology to save time and enhance results. and use them singly or in combination according to your purpose. Supervision of examinations It is the responsibility of the professor to supervise her or his examination(s). Here are some strategies to consider (Walvoord & Anderson. Only the dean of the Faculty can approve an alternate arrangement. Use only as many grade levels as you need.
4. The possibility that standards for a grade will be lowered to enable a certain percentage of students to receive that grade. it is also possible for teachers to offer extra credit for extra effort from their students. Grading at the University of Ottawa Deferred marks Many faculties do not permit professors to give deferred marks. consult your department. and exactly what that penalization will be. for citation problems. Effective Grading (Walvoord & Anderson. 5. school. are a limited commodity dispensed by the teacher according to a statistical formula. rather than a role that includes rewarding all learning with the grade it deserves. Make students aware that there are strict rules concerning the documentation needed to support requests for deferral on the basis of ill-health or bereavement. lest that other person take one of the precious and limited high grades. or faculty for its procedure for granting a deferred mark (DFR). and the learning they supposedly represent. Academic fraud is taken very seriously at the University of Ottawa and the academic regulations regarding this issue are found in 109 . Students may be penalized for handing work in late. Fraud Cheating is a serious problem that is reaching significant proportions. Before approving a request for a deferral. A teacher’s role that focuses on awarding a limited number of grades by a formula. and the help of everyone will be needed to eliminate it. Grading on a curve Grading on a curve imposes a specific framework on the distribution of the marks. The notion that each class is a sample population. The notion that learning is a demographic characteristic that will show a statistical distribution in a sample population.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Penalties and extra credit Professors may alter the students mark with penalties and extra credit. This means that a certain percentage of students will receive an A. 1998) says that curving can be especially harmful on learning because: 1. Competition among students for a limited number of high gradescompetition that encourages students to keep the other person from learning. 3. The notion that grades. for spelling or grammar errors. 6. It is important to notify students of what infractions are cause for penalization. and so on. another percentage will receive a B. 2. On the other hand. etc.
To many professors. or faculty. the Senate instructs faculties that the use of such distributions with a view to determining the assignment of marks is contrary to the principles of evaluation endorsed by the Senate. professors owe a duty to the University and to the majority of honest students not to allow the dishonest few to profit from their crimes. Nonetheless. The problem will then be dealt with in accordance with University policies. the faculty may take whatever action it deems necessary. Trying to track down plagiarized sources can be frustrating and very time-consuming. The Centre for University Teaching can help you design activities to educate your students on plagiarism and help you create assignments where plagiarism would be more preventable. a normal distribution). Grading scale and notations List of marks Letter A+ A AB+ B C+ C 110 Grade Point Value 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 Definition Exceptional Excellent Excellent Very good Very good Good . school. the experience of uncovering exam cheating or plagiarism by students with whom they feel they have established a rapport and a relationship of mutual trust is extremely unpleasant. professors are to attribute marks reflecting the achievement levels established by the official grading scale. The grading scale approved by the Senate is not based on any particular statistical distribution. Should you detect any form of academic fraud. Grades and grading The Senate has approved the following policy concerning grades and grading: Students are to be evaluated in accordance with the official grading scale approved by the Senate. and no particular distribution is required for it.g.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Appendix H. submit a written report to the chairperson or director of your department. If a faculty judges that the distribution of marks in one or several of its courses does not conform to the official grading scale. even disturbing. That is. so long as the action does not result in lowering a mark that has already been communicated to a student. Although the Senate acknowledges that the mark distribution in a course might fortuitously correspond to a particular statistical distribution (e.
Arts. school. as well as for all courses at the 2000 level and above in Engineering. has failed to complete the requirements of the course within the prescribed time limit. i. or department secretariat.e. or if it seems that she or he has abandoned her or his academic activities. for a valid reason. school or faculty before the time of the permitted delay has elapsed. Such a symbol is equivalent to a failure mark (F). Such a symbol is equivalent to a failure mark (F). This time limit cannot exceed twelve (12) months after the end of the session.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING D+ D E F 3 2 1 0 Passable Redeemable failure Failure Percentage Values A+: 90-100 A: 85-89 A-: 80-84 Passing marks D C+ (50%) for all courses in a concentration (3-year) program (66%) for all courses in an honours (4-year) program (Professors are advised to consult their Faculty calendars in this regard) B+: 75-79 B: 70-74 C+: 66-69 C: 60-65 D+: 55-59 D: 50-54 E: 40-49 F: 0-39 Since the adoption of this scale. a student who has not completed the requirements of a course be given permission to do so within a certain time limit. DFR (Deferred): used when the appropriate authority decides that. If no mark has been received by the department. a redeemable failure entailing the right to take a supplemental exam. and Social Sciences. If a student has not fulfilled all the requirements of a course. Some faculties have developed specific procedures for granting DFRs. one of the following may be indicated beside the student’s name in the class list: ABS (absent): used when a student did not inform the department. school or faculty within the time limits specified in the University Calendar that she or he dropped the course. DFR will change to INC (F). INC (incomplete): used whenever a student. 111 . The supplemental privilege has been abolished in the faculties of Administration. a number of faculties have obtained approval to eliminate the E grade. Check with your faculty. without a valid reason.
students may request a formal revision. this deadline is now always 10 working days after the date of the examination. any of her or his written tests. According to the collective agreements. Tardiness in submitting marks creates a number of academic and administrative problems. or examinations after they have been marked. Accordingly. Pass around attendance sheets and check student cards. Basically. assignments. or department. 9. Walk around the room. except where the Dean or the Dean’s delegate consents to a longer time period. Have students sit in every other seat. on request. Submission of final marks Before the end of each semester. Remind students that cheating will not be tolerated. The University has strict policies and regulations on this growing concern and these regulations are shown in Appendix H. schools and faculties circulate a memo to each professor as a reminder of the deadline for the submission of marks. The Senate policy and procedure on appeal of marks is found in the calendar of your faculty. some departments. October 1999): • • • • • • • • • • Use proctors when administering exams to large classes. the co-operation of all is requested in order that marks are received before the deadline. school. academic fraud is when students cheat on assignments. tests or exams or they plagiarize a work and pass it off as their own. Have specific policies on washroom breaks. Keep track of exam booklets. school. Professors are reminded to check their faculty. 112 . Allow only selected materials for exams. Collect all booklets and exams while students are seated.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Appeal of marks The University recognizes the right of every student to see. If this does not lead to a satisfactory resolution.7 Academic fraud The University of Ottawa defines academic fraud as an act by a student that may result in a false academic evaluation of that student or of another student. A student who is not satisfied with a mark is encouraged to first approach the professor in order to obtain a re-evaluation. or department regulations on issuing marks for concentration and honours courses. Final marks are to be submitted on the class lists which are provided for this purpose. Tips to prevent cheating on exams from Tips to Prevent Cheating (Student Judicial Affairs. Use several versions of an exam.
Lock all evidence and records. professors will have less time for assessment and the assessments will become fewer. Change the course reading list. etc. Some of the assessment methods depend on the size and type of course given. Remember how varied plagiarism is. Outline your policy on plagiarism at the beginning of the course. 113 . Teach students about academic fraud. The type of assessment chosen may alleviate some of the strain on the professor and beneficially influence the students.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Tips to prevent plagiarism from The Plagiarism Handbook (Harris. Give students writing assignments in class to evaluate their writing and style. Have the evidence ready for the meeting. 2001): • • • • • • • • • • Change essay topics every time you teach the course. Verify evidence from third parties. rough draft. With many students there is less contact between them and the instructor which can cause problems with motivation. Ask for comparisons. outline. solving problems and undertaking different tasks. Remember you may be wrong. Ask students for written proposals. Consider the presence of a colleague when advising students. and quality of work. Don’t allow students to change topics. Due to the often large class sizes. shorter. Follow the steps provided by the University. and less frequent. 9. Dealing with plagiarism from The Plagiarism Handbook (Harris.8 Typical problems with assessment There are many different problems that may arise depending on the assessment method chosen for a particular course. Ask students for detailed citations. 2001): • • • • • • • • • Review all University policies and regulations. Typically the feedback provided to students will also suffer and altogether students will get less practice at writing. and therefore are more prone to problems than others. attendance. Make topics specific. Let the proper officials at the University deal with the student.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 114 .
10. 33 Content adapted from the following main sources: Angelo & Cross 1993. or for the results of the official course evaluation to be revealed to know how you are doing in the classroom. perhaps it would be a good idea to take a serious look at your teaching effectiveness. and document the steps you take. McKeachie 1986. This section offers information to help you through these steps. all teachers wonder if they are doing a good job. Vargas 2001.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 10 DEVELOPING ASSESSING AND DEVELOPING YOUR TEACHING SKILLS 10. Nilson 1998. how well students are grasping the material. or when something goes extremely well. You will likely know when something goes really wrong.hk/celt/ta/taguide/skills/goodjob.2 Assessing your teaching effectiveness33 If you assume that your students are learning what you are teaching them. or as well. But it is not easy to know how effective your overall performance is. as we expect them to. come too late to make adjustments to the course while you are teaching it.ust. which areas you can build on to make your teaching even better. With teaching effectiveness increasingly entering into the faculty review process at universities throughout North America.htm. 115 . have to wait for students to write the first exam or assignment. in fact. and from yourself through self-evaluation processes. what needs improving. Often students do not learn as much. or grade the first round of assignments they hand in. 254-280. 175-182. if teaching and learning objectives are being met. from Centre for University Teaching instructional consultants. you may be setting yourself up for disappointment when you mark the first exam they write. You can obtain feedback while the course in progress – from your students. it is often too late to sort out all the problems. By the time we discover their gaps in knowledge and understanding.1 Introduction At certain points in a course. work on developing your teaching skills. and to build your teaching confidence while the course is in progress. from supervisors and peers. The results from the official evaluations. You can use the results of the feedback you receive to fine-tune and improve your teaching approaches and techniques. http://www. 266-272. in fact. But you do not.
Critiques from a colleague will most likely be based on that particular individual’s teaching approach. But novice professors in particular report that they benefit enormously from discussing teaching problems with their colleagues. source of feedback on teaching effectiveness is colleagues. even if they don’t necessarily work for you. colleagues can help spot problem areas. It is designed to provide teachers with a quick. Fellow teachers have. you may be apprehensive about discussing your teaching methods with other teachers. and the suggestions they make. Teaching is reminding others that they know just as well as you. and his or her style may not be effective or compatible with your teaching approach. If you are a new teacher. however. and they may have valuable advice or teaching techniques to share. . Tip To complement feedback from colleagues … The Group Instructional Feedback Technique34 goes by many names and variations. Make your choice of colleague consultant carefully. asking for advice on handling teaching situations. doers and teachers. 334-338 116 . or is teaching. You are all learners. after all. but it essentially revolves around obtaining feedback from students with help from a colleague. from observing other professors in action. Doing is demonstrating that you know it. will be a good starting points for finding your own solution. or having a colleague visit your class. It may be particularly useful to discuss your course and teaching approach with a colleague who has taught. Nevertheless.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING In other words … Learning is finding out what we already know. rough summary of the most frequent responses to the following questions: • • 34 what do students think is helping them learn? what is hindering their learning? Content adapted from Angelo & Cross 1993. a course that relates to or complements your course. and often neglected. dealt with many of the same challenges and difficulties you are facing.Richard Bach Soliciting feedback from colleagues A good. and from responses from colleagues sitting in on their classes.
bear in mind your course objectives. Consider the following sorts of questions for discussions with students. Soliciting feedback from students Discussing your teaching with students. or rating scale format. genuinely and openly. can serve many purposes. You may also wish to solicit feedback from students through an informal questionnaire. consult Angelo & Cross 1993. or for your questionnaire: On general effectiveness • • • have you been challenged intellectually by this course/professor? what are you learning in this course. You may also wish to include a couple of easy-to-answer open-ended questions. develop an understanding of what students like and dislike. It can help build a positive rapport with the class. and determine what students have learned. and make the questions easy for students to answer through a yes/no. and is it what you expected to learn? is the professor interested in the subject? On planning and organization • • have the course goals and expectations been clearly communicated? is the professor prepared for each class? On communication in the classroom • does the professor use examples and other illustrative materials to explain new concepts? 117 . It is a good idea to maintain an ongoing dialogue with students throughout the semester for continuous improvement as the course progresses. agree/disagree. true/false. 334-338 – available through the Centre for University Teaching resource centre. For detailed information on the Group Instructional Feedback process. When you are formulating the questions.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • what specific suggestions do they have for improving learning in the classroom? The process involves a trusted colleague or instructional consultant visiting your classroom during the last 15-20 minutes of a particular class and collecting responses to the above questions from the students. You may also wish to take an entirely open-ended question approach.
118 . if I could change one thing about this course/professor it would be ...CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • does the professor show enthusiasm for the subject? does the professor invite and respond effectively to questions? On interpersonal communication • • have you been treated in a friendly and respectful manner? has the professor been fair/honest? On marking and grading • • • • have the marking and grading standards been clearly communicated? have they been applied fairly? are the professor’s comments helpful? have exams/assignments been returned within a reasonable period? Open-ended questions • • • the thing I like best about this course/professor is . It can serve to provide immediate responses and alerts to small problems that can be cleared up quickly before they become serious. Encourage students to use it.... You may also want to consider adding a “Feedback Box” to the classroom.. the thing I like least about this course/professor is .
What do you like most about this class? 4.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Tool Sample informal evaluation questionnaires35 The following questionnaires have been used successfully in the classroom. How do you prepare for class? What might get in the way of reading or assignments? 3. Make sure to leave plenty of space below each open-ended question for students to write their answers. what would help clear up the confusion? 4. and to generally adapt the questions to suit your needs and subject matter. please explain. and is it what you expected to learn? If not. What purpose does this course serve in your education or training? What relevance does it have for your intended career? 2. Sample 1 (open-ended) 1. What changes would you suggest for this course and how it is taught? Sample 2 (open-ended) 1. Are the assignments clear? Is the level of achievement needed to get a good grade clear? If confusing. Feel free to use them as is. Centre for University Teaching 119 . What are you learning in this course. to mix and match. What could you do to achieve good results in this course? What could the teacher do to help you achieve good results? 35 Source: Eric Kristensen. what might help clear up any confusion? 3. Do you understand what is expected of you regarding preparation for and participation in this class? If not. 2.
and conducting modest classroom experiments. in their landmark book Classroom Assessment Techniques. and is it what you expected to learn? If not please explain.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Sample 3 (combination closed and open-ended) Disagree Strongly I usually feel well-prepared for class. that individual teachers can learn much about how students learn. I understand the material better after class. 36 Content adapted from Angelo & Cross 1993 120 . 1 2 3 Agree Strongly 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 What are you learning in this course. The information collected can then be used to refocus teaching for more effective and efficient learning. What do you like best about the class? Is there anything you would change about this course or how it is taught? Classroom Assessment Techniques36 Angelo and Cross point out. I understand where the class is going and what we are trying to accomplish. and how students respond to certain teaching approaches by observing students in the process of learning. After class I am able to reconstruct the main points. I feel comfortable asking questions during and/or after class. collecting frequent feedback on student learning. how well students are grasping content in a particular course.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING These are the main ideas behind what is known as Classroom Assessment Techniques (CAT). self-assessing. insight and judgment • the individual teacher decides on what and how to assess. develop more confidence. focus more clearly. strengthen their own self-assessment skills. and acting on the results: “What are the essential skills and knowledge I am trying to teach?” “How can I find out whether students are learning them?” “How can I help students learn better?” Formative • the purpose of Classroom Assessment is to improve the quality of student learning. and the capacity to help students become more effective. The purpose of these techniques is to help faculty develop the ability to understand and promote learning. Characteristics of classroom assessment: Learner-centred • primary focus is on observing and improving learning. how much. not to provide evidence for evaluating or grading students • Classroom Assessments are almost never graded and are almost always anonymous • their aim is to provide teachers with information on what. lifelong learners. students reinforce their grasp of course content. and how well students are learning – with the goal of helping them succeed better 121 . and are likely to do better in their course work • teachers sharpen their teaching focus by continually asking themselves the following three questions. and how to respond to the information gained through the assessment • the teacher is not obliged to share any of the results of Classroom Assessment with anyone outside the classroom Mutually beneficial • by cooperating in assessment. academic freedom. students must learn to take full responsibility for their learning • both teachers and students need to make adjustments to improve learning • Classroom Assessment can provide information to guide the adjustments Teacher-directed • Classroom Assessment respects a teacher’s autonomy. rather than observing and improving teaching • to become independent. and self-directed learners – essentially to empower both teachers and students to improve the quality of learning in the classroom. professional experience.
although not exclusively. and more effective Food for thought The seven basic assumptions of Classroom Assessment – and of successful learning and teaching 1. Classroom Assessments have to respond to the particular needs and characteristics of each teacher-student group and each discipline – what works well in one class won’t necessarily work well in another • the most successful teachers are those who adjust their teaching in response to the unique “microculture” of each class Ongoing • Classroom Assessment is perhaps best thought of as the creation and maintenance of a classroom “feedback loop” • by using a number of quick and simple Classroom Assessment Techniques. The quality of student learning is directly. related to the quality of teaching. To improve their effectiveness. The type of assessment most likely to improve teaching and learning is that conducted by faculty to answer questions they themselves have formulated in response to issues or problems in their own teaching. and the feedback loop continues Rooted in good teaching practice • Classroom Assessment is an attempt to build on existing good teaching practice by making it more systematic. 4. as well as adjustments to teaching • teachers then use another Classroom Assessment Technique to check on the usefulness of their suggestions. they also need to learn how to assess their own learning . teachers need first to make their goals and objectives explicit and then to get specific. students need to receive appropriate and focused feedback early and often. one of the most promising ways to improve learning is to improve teaching. 122 . comprehensible feedback on the extent to which they are achieving those goals and objectives. Therefore. teachers get feedback from students on their learning • teachers complete the loop by responding to student feedback with their own feedback to students on assessment results and suggestions for learning.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Context-specific • to be useful. To improve their learning. 3. 2. more flexible.
visit • http://honolulu. and Classroom Assessment can provide such challenge. growth.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 5. Systematic inquiry and intellectual challenge are powerful sources of motivation.com/html/lib/bib/assess. Classroom Assessment does not require specialized training. check out the sources in the box below.hawaii.com/html/lib/bib/assess.htm For comprehensive information on Classroom Assessment Techniques. 7.htm • http://www. Check it out For more information on Classroom Assessment Techniques. available through the Centre for University Teaching resource centre. 6.htm For sample classroom assessment techniques.edu/~itconf/proceed99/Martin.ntlf. visit • Facultydevelopment.ntlf. The “Active learning” sections of previous chapters describe a number of activities which can also serve classroom assessment purposes.mtsu. it can be carried out by dedicated teachers from all disciplines.asp • http://www.facultydevelopment. and renewal for teachers. By collaborating with colleagues and actively involving students in Classroom Assessment efforts. For even more activities.htm • http://www.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/asse ss-2.ca Evaluation of Teaching unit http://www. Consider focusing your observations around the following questions: • what do students do before class begins? 123 . Observing student behaviour Another way to assess your teaching effectiveness is to observe the behaviour of students in the classroom. teachers (and students) enhance learning and personal satisfaction. consult the Angelo & Cross reference.ca/content/eng/evaluation/index.
near the end of the semester. Depending on the results. talk with their neighbours? do students act in desired ways in class – do they listen. course materials. The Centre for University Teaching can help arrange a recording of your class. ask questions. how. enabling faculties to 124 . Ask yourself • how well your rapport is developing with the class • do you show respect for students – by not making negative comments. You may want to consider playing them back in the company of a colleague or instructional consultant. and discussing the results with them.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • • • how do students act at the beginning of each class – do they prepare to take notes. exactly. show enthusiasm. 10. and playing them back later to see what. is happening in the classroom. These evaluations are used by the university to evaluate the course and the professor – more specifically to determine if the students find the course useful. and how well students are learning? • do you make an effort to identify what is and isn’t successful about your teaching approach and methods? • is there anything you can change to improve the course and help students learn better? You may want to consider recording some of your classes on videotape. by offering criticism in a constructive way? • are you clear about your expectations of the students? • do you show enthusiasm for the course? • are you helping students learn? • do you speak clearly and accurately and in an interesting way? • are you achieving the goals you have set? • do you take a personal interest in the what. participate in discussions? what is your relationship with your students – do they call you by your name and approach you personally to ask questions? what positive and negative sentiments are expressed by the students? what is their impression of you. Professors are also evaluated.3 Formal course evaluations at the University of Ottawa Formal assessments usually take the form of course evaluations. which are usually conducted only once. and if the course is fulfilling the requirements of the program. learning activities? Monitoring your own teaching performance You can also monitor your own teaching behaviour and activities. grumble. the course. courses can be altered from year to year to meet academic requirements.
Be aware that the statistical results of formal course evaluations are available to all registered students and all active members of the faculty at the University of Ottawa through their InfoWeb accounts. For each course and each question. This report contains the same data as the P Report for all courses evaluated. Questions from the customized formative evaluation tool may be used at any time during the semester to perform informal assessments. as described in the previous section – throughout the year in order to make improvements along the way. but rather to provide a catalyst to improve teaching skills. This customized evaluation allows you to add up to ten additional questions to the formal evaluation to more accurately reflect the type of course you are teaching and the strategies you use in your course. It is for this reason that professors are encouraged to perform informal assessments – for example. The University of Ottawa evaluates all courses with at least nine contact hours regardless of the number of students or the teaching method. Classroom Assessment Techniques.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING determine which faculty members are effective teachers and who can help others become successful. The P-Report is intended for teaching staff. One disadvantage of course evaluations is that they are conducted at the end of the semester. More information regarding course evaluations and related regulations at the University of Ottawa is available in Appendix I. The S Report is intended for students. 125 . Please make sure you are also familiar with Article 24 of the APUO Collective Agreement if you are a full-time faculty member. the number of respondents and the percentage of responses to each option of the response is recorded. It may be examined by students registered at the University of Ottawa by consulting the "Web-based Student Services" using their personal PIN. and Articles 5 and 11 of the APTPUO Collective Agreement if you are a part-time faculty member The questionnaire. It is important to understand that course evaluations are not used to penalize individuals. and the A-P-S-X Reports The questionnaire consists of 12 questions and the responses to these questions are compiled to produce the "P" and "S" reports. the comment sheets. Formative questions available The university also offers professors a customized formative evaluation feature which is available online from your InfoWeb account. Assessing your teaching while a course is in progress may yield better results on the formal course evaluation at the end of the semester. and that you do not see the results until the course is over and it is too late to adjust teaching to address problems which may have arisen.
. 4) I think the professor conveys the subject matter effectively.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING The X-Report is generated for courses that have fewer than six students or courses receiving fewer than six evaluations. is a highly individualised profession.. Many of these are described in the “Approaches to teaching” chapter.4 Developing teaching skills Teaching. it will be examined in the light of other courses taught by the professor concerned. For the application of the Collective Agreement. The A-Report is placed in each teacher's file in the faculties (Dean's office and department). evaluation results from these courses will be used only if a pattern of behaviour can be detected in the evaluations covering the last three years. identified certain strategies and techniques common to good teaching practice. Improving Your Classroom Teaching37 outlines the components of effective instruction as • enthusiasm • preparation and organization • ability to stimulate student thought and interest • clarity • knowledge and love of the content. is. 9) I find that the professor. the Administration will rely on at least five of these courses. 37 Weimer. nevertheless. often described as an art or a craft. Data for this report will not be used in the calculation of a faculty's A-report summaries. Education scholars have.. The A-Report contains the following three questions: 1) I find the professor well prepared for class. 1993 126 ... as a teacher. 10. Professors also receive a copy of this report. To establish such a pattern of behaviour. What makes one professor effective may not necessarily work as well for another. If a pattern does indeed exist.. Content of the A-Report helps the Dean and Teaching Personnel Committee annually evaluate professors' individual efficiency in managing their workload.
and excited about teaching. you approach teaching with a negative or pessimistic attitude. You must decide what content to present in class and what information students are to learn on their own. and a lot of course content must be covered in each session.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING The teaching mindset Your attitude about teaching can drastically influence the outcome of the course. Instructional development Teaching workshops are a tremendous tool for developing teaching skills. See the “Teaching large classes” and “Planning and delivering your course” chapters for information on planning and preparing courses and classes. the smoother each session will also go. you will be able to maximise class time and cover a significant amount of information. you are more likely to fail. The Centre for University Teaching offers a wide variety of both instructional and technological 127 . Students will realise that you enjoy teaching and will become more involved with the subject matter you are teaching. Having the right attitude or mindset can improve the learning experience for you and your students. and to share and exchange with faculty members from other disciplines. If you don’t. See the “Approaches to teaching “ chapter for positive and active teaching strategies and techniques. The better organized and prepared you are. and before you begin to teach it. you are more likely to succeed. If you have prepared well and wisely. enthusiastic. It is important that you follow your course syllabus to help students prepare for each class. Preparation and organisation Being prepared for class is an essential aspect of teaching. Do not teach a course if you don't know the material. Class periods are not very long. on the other hand. If you are positive. Make sure to conduct adequate research as you plan the course. you will not be able to explain the matter effectively or respond convincingly to questions students may ask. the more easily students will be able to follow the flow of content. Your negative feelings will be transferred to your students and will probably result in a lower attendance and poorer performance by students. Make sure to point out any changes you decide to make in the course outline. They enable you to learn about specific aspects of teaching from experienced instructors. Knowing your content Knowing your content is essential in order to accurately teach a course. If. and the more productively they will be able to learn.
see the box at the end of this chapter. research. self-evaluation. The teaching portfolio is essentially an extended teaching resume that describes your teaching experience and growth in the profession.5 Documenting your teaching skills and development It is highly recommended that you document your teaching effectiveness and development. most teaching portfolios include the following elements38: • • • • • • • • • • • a summary of teaching responsibilities a reflective statement on teaching philosophy. practices. and publications on teaching administrative and committee work related to teaching information from students information from colleagues information from other sources. see Appendix C. application for a position. 1996 128 .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING workshops free of charge. For information about workshops. depending on the reason for preparing the dossier. also known as a teaching dossier. and goals course development and modification development of teaching materials products of good teaching a description of steps taken to evaluate and improve your teaching presentations. An important part of each teaching portfolio is a Statement of Teaching Philosophy (see the “Approaches to teaching” chapter). such as promotion. However. 10. Other elements of the teaching portfolio can vary substantially. 38 O’Neil & Wright. For more information about the Centre for University Teaching. The best way to do so – and something that is being increasingly requested as part of applications for new jobs or tenure – is by putting together a teaching portfolio. Focus on the following three points when you are putting together your teaching dossier: • • • describe your teaching philosophy or approach show how effectively your students learn demonstrate activities of continuous professional development for improvements and innovations in your teaching. etc.
ca • register if you have not already done so • click on “Site Map” magnifying glass icon • look under the “Content” (yellow) menu • click on “Teaching Dossier” http://www. including help in developing a teaching dossier.ca/services/tlss/cut/.uottawa.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Check it out For more information on teaching portfolios/dossiers and putting them together.uottawa. The CUT also offers a wide variety of workshops on teaching and learning topics. 129 . developing. drop by the Centre for University Teaching (CUT) and consult the many teaching resources available to you.ca/services/tlss/cut/ • click on “Online Resources” • click on “The Teaching Dossier” Tip For more information about assessing. check out the following: http://facultydevelopment. and documenting your teaching skills. consult the CUT website at http://www. Or make an appointment (562-5333) to meet with one of the CUT’s instructional consultants. For an updated workshop schedule.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 130 .
and chronic talking in class.2 Troublesome Behaviour Troublesome behaviour on campus is essentially anything that interferes with academic or administrative activities. or chatting. some of which you may have encountered. as both a student and a professor: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • challenges to the professor’s authority entering class loudly and late cell phones and beepers sounding leaving class early talking on cell phones personal grooming verbal abuse of teaching staff demands for special treatment lack of preparation for class reading newspapers doing homework for other classes consistent absenteeism sleeping listening to personal portable sound devices an “I paid for this …” attitude talking out of turn • • • • • • • • • • • • making offensive remarks talking about other students behind their backs visiting. as well as unmotivated. about preventive measures. with other students dominating discussions refusing to participate shuffling backpacks and notebooks eating and drinking in a distracting manner missing deadlines sexual “hits” and harassment arguing relentlessly over grades leaving trash behind in the classroom overt inattentiveness. lack of attendance. professors are bound to face difficult teaching situations. It is cause for rising concern. Besides the common challenges of grade disputes. 131 . The following are some examples of troublesome behaviour. 11. particularly behaviour which disturbs you or the other students in the class – behaviour which impedes the teaching and learning process. hostility and anger in the classroom. disruptive behaviours.1 Introduction During the course of a career. and about ways to deal with a certain number of difficult teaching situations. This chapter provides information about factors contributing to the growing problem of troublesome behaviour. typically more than once.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 11 DIFFICULT DEALING WITH DIFFICULT TEACHING SITUATIONS 11. post-secondary institutions across North America are observing increasing displays of disrespect.
Gerald Amada (Amada 1994. MSU. harsh. . TAP Teaching Thoughts 22 132 . It is something worth reflecting upon for teaching staff. including the following39: • consumerism: students considering themselves as customers. 11. the typical contemporary college no longer stands apart from the stresses and violent social upheavals that take place in the society outside its hallowed walls.Young 2003 40 Content adapted from Gonzales and Lopez 2001. and one all university faculty and administrators must be aware of. and regarding professors as employees rather than instructors • the “dumbing down” of elementary and secondary education • students with no interest in or love for learning • students with no intellectual life to speak of • dysfunctional families • upwardly mobile pressures • the need for students to work while they are pursuing their studies • poor parenting • stress from the academic program • students living at home. and associated job orientation • perception of post-secondary educational institutions as uncaring.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Food for thought Traditionally regarded as safe and hospitable havens for young students. 1-2. University of Ottawa Centre for University Teaching disruptive behaviours workshop note. 39 Content adapted from the following main sources: Amada 1994. Royse 2001. 1) Factors contributing to troublesome behaviour Numerous factors have been identified as contributing to the growing problem of troublesome behaviour on campus. Gonzales and Lopez 2001. and insensitive.3 Faculty behaviour40 Faculty behaviour is one contributing factor professors do not always consider. with related emotional dependency and delayed maturity • substance abuse • student uncertainty about what they should be studying and what they want to be studying • faculty behaving badly • media violence • the shrinking job market. 212-213.
personal or other non-academic characteristics of students in awarding grades 133 . Moral turpitude • a teacher has romantic or sexual relations with a student in the class • a teacher makes suggestive sexual remarks to a student enrolled in the course.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING If certain behaviours regularly resurface in your classes. The following is a list of seven intolerable faculty behaviours. a condensed version of John Braxton and Alan Bayer’s findings published in Faculty Misconduct in College Teaching. Troublesome behaviour can be mitigated by certain teaching strategies and techniques. while unclear and lax standards can result in disrespect. though able to teach. can engage the entire class and keep restless students busy. Inattentive planning • the professor fails to prepare and provide a course syllabus for the class • the professor is routinely late in ordering required texts and other reading materials. Something you are doing may be unintentionally inciting or allowing for certain responses or behaviours from students. most student complaints about faculty behaviour revolve around issues related to whether or not they feel faculty care about them and their academic progress. Condescending negativism • the teacher makes condescending remarks to students in class • the teacher displays impatience with slow learners in class • the teacher criticises the academic performance of an individual in front of other students • a professor treats an advisee in a condescending manner • a faculty member makes negatives remarks about a colleague in public before students. • the teacher. for instance. a study carried out over 6 years among 1003 faculty from a wide variety of institutions. Extremely strict standards. It is interesting to note that according to certain research. Particularistic grading • the teacher takes into account social. An active learning approach. See the “Active learning” sections of previous chapters for more details and activity ideas. arrives in class intoxicated. thereby reducing disengagement and disinterest. for example. you might examine your teaching approach and techniques. may cause students to become defiant.
• the teacher uses profane language in class • the teacher practices poor hygiene Uncommunicated course details • the teacher changes the location of the classroom to another building without informing students in advance • the teacher changes class meeting times without letting students know • the teacher neglects to inform students of his or her policy on missed or make-up exams. 134 .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • • the teacher allows a personal friendship with a student to interfere with the objective marking of that student’s work the teacher does not apply stated policies about late work and incomplete assignments universally to all students the teacher offers certain student extra-credit work to improve their final course grade after the term is completed students are not allowed to express perspectives that differ from those of the teacher. Personal disregard • the class routinely finishes early • the teacher is usually late for class. Uncooperative cynicism • a professor refuses to advise departmental majors • a professor refuses to participate in departmental curriculum planning • a teacher expresses cynicism toward the role of teaching • a professor’s involvement in research is so great that he or she fails to prepare adequately for class.
Nevertheless. disruptive. 11. Disruptive Disruptive students tend to overtly enter class late and exit early. disrespectful. disturbed – offer different challenges in the classroom and affect the total classroom experience for both the teacher and students: Disinterested and disengaged These individuals typically distract other students by reading newspapers. often interrupting the flow of the lecture or discussion as a result.listening to music. defiant. Disturbed Disturbed students display behaviours that make others feel anxious or fearful for their safety.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Food for thought41 Categories of uncivil student behaviour Each of the following six categories of uncivil student behaviour – disinterested. disengaged. Disrespectful These students engage in conversation with each other during class time to the extent that other students have difficulty understanding what the teacher is saying. 41 Content adapted from Gonzales and Lopez 2001 135 . etc. Defiant These individuals characteristically make unrealistic demands for accommodation and often refuse to follow class requirements. making it difficult for the professor to balance individual student needs and remain fair to all students.napping. they are good teaching practices to follow.4 Measures to help prevent difficult teaching situations The following measures can help prevent certain difficult teaching situations. although their success in doing so is not necessarily guaranteed. ones which will facilitate the teaching and learning process in your classroom.
consider inserting the following: • a definition of what will be considered acceptable or unacceptable absences • clear consequences with respect to attendance. begin with an adapted version of the preceding paragraph. by you and each individual student. and missed deadlines • the reasonable period of time students should wait in the event you are late for class • possible opportunities for extra credit or boosting flagging marks. with satisfying results. lateness. The following table provides ideas for classroom contract content. Classroom contracts are used by increasing numbers of professors at universities across North America. react positively to the clarity of behavioural standards identified in the contracts and the usefulness of the agreement. Most students sign the contracts when asked. to put it into the context of increasing disruptive behaviour across the campus. 136 . and those who don’t tend to observe the rules anyway.” Specify behavioural standards In addition to the list of unacceptable behaviours in the course syllabus. Recurring incivility will result in a request to leave class. Students. you may wish to present your class with a contract adhered to. In addition to the elements listed in those guidelines. at specific periods or throughout the term • clear assignment deadlines and exam dates • a list of unacceptable behaviours preceded by a statement along the lines of the following: “Students are expected to contribute to creating a class environment that promotes learning. students are prohibited from engaging in the following uncivil behaviours. perhaps even signed. before handing out the contract for students to read and possibly sign. as well as frustration with classroom disturbance experienced by student colleagues. The contract provides professors with a valuable reference when problems arise. To ensure that all students have the opportunity to benefit fully from time spent in class. contrary to fears they would be offended at being reminded of basic common courtesy. in fact. It is a good idea. The contract could.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Provide a clear and comprehensive syllabus The “Planning and delivering your course” chapter contains a section on developing a course syllabus.
• Wait until the professor finishes the class before walking out the door.doc and www.virginia. • Submit assignments according to the deadlines outlined in the syllabus.edu/sociology/teaching%20web/teachingtips/CLASSROOM%20CONTRACT. • Marking exams and assignments according to unbiased criteria. read the assigned materials.g. • Activities which violate the preceding list of responsibilities. • Arrive in class on time. • Putting down others. • Be prepared to start on time (e. • Allow other students the opportunity to voice their comments and questions. • During group work.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Tool Content for a classroom conduct contract42 Student responsibilities: • Come to each class. • Come to class prepared (e. unless previously arranged with the professor. in your seat and attentive). from homepages. • Being available by e-mail and office hours for additional help. doc 137 . 42 Adapted. or others who may enter the classroom • Keep the classroom neat and clean by depositing your trash in the appropriate containers – not leaving it on desks or throwing it onto the floor • Turn off cell phones when you enter the classroom. Teacher/instructor/professor responsibilities: • Coming to each class on time. • Starting and finishing class on time. • Talking while someone else has the floor. • Talking about unrelated topics during class discussions. substitute professors. • Respond to other students’ comments and questions. • Recognising appropriate participation in large and small groups.g. having discussions with people not from your group.wwc. Unacceptable behaviours: • Interrupting others. • Volunteer comments and questions in class. • Being prepared to teach the content and manage learning activities. • Participate appropriately and equally in group work • Be respectful of guest speakers. • Turning off the cell phone before class begins. bring completed assignments). with additions.edu/student/mclabo/ Study%20Guides/Classroom%20Contract.
and on motivating learning. 2) Include signature requirements Signature (student) ________________________________ Date ____________ Signature (teacher) ________________________________ Date ____________ ** The Centre for University Teaching has additional sample classroom contracts available for consultation and inspiration. On the first day of class. and begin promptly • if you are going to be absent. let students know why you are the best person to teach the course. and make arrangements for substitution 138 . for example: • arrive in class on time. Make sure to be consistent and impartial in all teaching and learning activities. Establish credibility It is important to establish credibility from the very beginning of the course. and they approach learning tasks positively. and in all dealings with students. And try hard to avoid the faculty misbehaviours listed earlier in this chapter. inform the class ahead of time. See the “Approaches to teaching” and “Teaching large classes” chapter for information and tips on creating a positive and caring learning environment. and try to make course content relevant to the lives of your students. Don’t forget that you are a role model for the students in your courses. Demonstrate that your knowledge of the material is up to date. Set a good example It is important to set a good example for students.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Concluding the contract 1) Add a statement along the lines of the following: Your continued participation in this class binds you to this contract. Create a positive and caring learning environment Students are more motivated to learn. You should. Your course grade at the end of the semester is a reflection of your success in following this contract. when they feel they are accepted as worthwhile individuals and contributing members of a group – when their needs for belonging and affiliation are essentially met.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING
• • • • •
be prepared for class – to teach the material effectively, and to manage discussions and other activities efficiently adhere to the syllabus and class agenda be available for consultation during the office hours specified in the syllabus respond to appropriate e-mails promptly etc.
If you sign a code of conduct contract with your students, make sure to adhere to your part.
In other words …
Education is the ability to listen to almost anything without losing your temper or your self-confidence. - Robert Frost
11.5 Dealing with certain difficult teaching situations43
Certain difficult teaching situations are common on campuses across North America. If you address the following situations in your syllabus and/or classroom contract, and if they still persist as problems, remind students of the relevant section of the appropriate document and discuss how to resolve the situation with them. The following sub-sections offer additional suggestions on how to deal with certain difficult teaching situations. There will, inevitably, be overlap between some of the sections.
The noisy classroom
It can be very difficult to walk into a noisy classroom and get the attention of students. One strategy is to be start with and be consistent with an act – for example, closing the door, writing something on the board, turning on a piece of equipment, distributing handouts, saying a certain phrase – which will eventually become an automatic signal for the class to start.
Content adapted from McKeachie 1986, 209-211; Nilson 1998, 46-48; reed 1997; Royse 2001, 212-223; Texas Tech University 2002
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING
Talking and inattention
Occasional comments or questions between individuals are to be expected in a classroom. Yet chronic talking among students can interfere with the ability of other students to focus on what you are saying, and for you to concentrate on the subject matter. To put an end to chronic talking, try the following: • make direct eye contact with the students doing the talking – try a dramatic stare • continue the lecture or other classroom activity, while physically moving toward, and stopping at, the area where the chronic talking is occurring • or, stop talking, and wait for the students doing the talking to stop too – don’t continue the lecture or other classroom activity until you have the attention of everyone in the room • if necessary, say something along the lines of, “It would be a good idea to listen to this, because it will be on the exam” or “You are disturbing the other students in the class” • call on members of the offending group to answer a question • speak to the offending students privately, explain how much their behaviour is disturbing the other people in the room, and ask them to help you solve the problem • if the problem persists, try to find a task for those students (e.g. distributing handouts, taking notes for a student who is absent, highlighting the salient points of the lecture for the rest of the class).
Packing up early
Students who pack up early, before class has ended, can also interfere with concentration and trains of thought. If this behaviour becomes consistent and persistent, you may want to try the following: • routinely reserve important pieces of content or classroom activities (quizzes, classroom assessment exercises, writing exercises, clarification of upcoming readings, lecture content review) for the end of the class • have students submit assignments at the end of the class • apply techniques similar to those for chronic talking in class.
Arriving late / leaving early
Arriving late and leaving early can be just as disruptive as chronic talking and packing up early. If this behaviour becomes consistent and persistent, consider the following: • be a good role model – start and end class on time • implement, from the beginning of class, a starting ritual students would hate to miss or be embarrassed to miss • draw attention to offenders by pausing, or addressing them, when they arrive • subtract course points for arriving late or leaving early, but only if you set this policy at the beginning of the course
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING
if the tardy behaviour is justified, you could set aside an area beside the door for latecomers and early leavers apply techniques similar to those for packing up early (e.g. save important activities for the beginning or end of class).
Spotty class attendance
Attendance, in general, drops off as class size increases. Lecture-oriented classes also tend to have lower attendance rates. If this is a problem in your courses, try the following: • build in more opportunities for active student involvement during class (see “Active learning” sections in the “Approaches to teaching”, “Teaching large classes” and “Preparing and delivering your course” chapters for more information) • build a class community from the very beginning – something each student feels an important part of • base part of the course grade on attendance and participation • take attendance regularly (even if you don’t include it in the course grade) • conducting frequent, graded in-class assignments and quizzes • make sure lecture content and learning activities are crucial for exams and professional life • have logical consequences for missing class – follow through and do not rescue students; make them responsible for catching up on what they missed • present material in class that differs from what is covered in the readings • conduct in-class group learning activities, and base grading in part on peer assessment • don’t make lecture notes available to students, or make them only partially available.
Sleeping in class
If you have students who regularly fall asleep in class, bear in mind that it is not necessarily happening because they are uninterested in class content. Some of the lack of sleep is a result of undergraduate lifestyle – from late-night practical jokes and disturbances in dormitories, to all-night parties and long weekend road trips, and more. Some of the sleepy behaviour may be attributed to the time of day the class is held (early afternoon, right after lunch, is notorious for drowsiness), or to poor air circulation, which can result in carbon dioxide in the room and drowsiness. If a student is sleeping in class, you can do the following: • walk close to the sleeping student and carry on lecturing, questioning, leading a discussion in their vicinity • open the windows, if you can, to allow some fresh air to enter the room • get the whole class to stand up, stretch, touch their toes, do a bit of exercise to get the blood flowing.
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Another possibility might be that a certain sleepy student works long hours to earn money to attend school. If a student is regularly falling asleep in your class, arrange to speak to the student about it outside of class, and try to come up with a solution to the problem together. If the problem can’t be resolved – if the student is so sleepdeprived that he or she can’t keep from falling asleep in class – then the kindest thing may be to leave them alone, unless they snore, in which case you may wish to gently shake or wake them to avoid disturbing the rest of the class.
Requests for special consideration
Some students may request opportunities to earn extra credit, re-take a test, re-write an assignment, or write the final exam at an alternative time. If this problem arises in your course, bear the following in mind: • make the same offer (e.g. re-writing, extra credit) to all the students (but first consider the potential value and the required time commitment) • enforce consequences for late work or missed exams, with or without an “approved” reason • if you wish to be more flexible, assess each request and excuse on an individual basis, and act accordingly • allow each student a single, documented “exception”, but draw the line at the second instance • discuss the situation with any student who makes regular special requests • ask colleagues about chronic cases among majors in the department.
If a student, or students, in your class habitually try to monopolise class time with questions and comments, consider the following: • encourage the student to speak with you after class to clarify questions and discuss comments • broaden the discussion and call attention away from the disruptive student by asking the rest of the class for input • put out a box for questions and comments to be deposited, and address as many as appropriate in the next class • encourage students to send their questions and comments via e-mail, or to post them on the course listserv or newsgroup. These last two strategies are less personal, but they offer alternatives involving less confrontation.
Make sure to have clear grading criteria and guidelines, and to follow them when you mark class assignments and exams. If a student disputes grades, be prepared to explain exactly how marks were attributed and lost. If you have made a grading or calculation error, acknowledge your mistake and correct it. Make sure to stick to
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your grading scheme, and don’t allow a student to push you into changing it to accommodate a grade change on their part. See the “Assessing students” chapter for more information on grading assignments and exams.
Challenges to authority / disrespect
Students can, at times, be vocal about their challenges to authority. If students challenge you, it is important not to become defensive. Remain open and calm, and try the following: • • • • explain the instructional objectives of the course and how assignments and other activities relate to those objectives if students persist, ask to discuss the matter after class say “no” firmly – but neither aggressively nor submissively be honest if something does not seem to be working, and discuss alternatives and solutions with the entire group.
Sometimes students become verbally aggressive and abusive, particularly in frustrating situations they perceive as being beyond their control. Fear of rejection and feelings of righteous indignation are often associated with hostile behaviour. These students tend to displace their anger and frustration onto others. In situations of overt hostility • make sure to handle the offending student with respect • allow the student to ventilate, and recognise their feelings (“I can see that you are very upset”) • tell them verbal abuse cannot be tolerated (“When you shout, it is difficult to hear what you are saying”) • reduce stimulation – invite the student to a quiet, neutral setting to speak privately; try to find common ground • consider writing the student a letter describing the hostile behaviour and how it disturbs everyone in the classroom, as well as your expectations and requests for behavioural change – and make sure to cc the department head or other appropriate authority. Don’t • get into an argument • press for an explanation of the behaviour • walk away from the person • get others (e.g. student, faculty) to help settle the student down.
Sexual hits and harassment
The best way to deal with sexual come-ons is to ignore them completely, to avoid reinforcing them in any way. Act as if you are unaware, and stick to your
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professional agenda. Address sexual harassment personally, privately, and directly. Request that all specified behaviours cease immediately. If sexual harassment persists, it is extremely important to follow university procedure. See the information and contact details in Part III and the appendices for more information.
If you experience an unsettling, confrontational situation with a student(s), remember to remain calm. Count to ten, breathe deeply, visualise something soothing, but don’t lose your temper. No matter how much a student may try to needle you, you will lose credibility if you lose your cool. If you maintain your composure, you will gain the sympathy and support of the other students in the group. They may even rally around you and start applying peer pressure to help curb uncivil behaviour.
11.6 Dealing with other difficult situations
Students with academic problems
If you notice that a student is having academic problems, meet with them to discuss the issue, and to work on identifying and tackling problem areas. Help the student find a tutor if necessary. Other academic services, such as writing assistance and academic counselling, are also available to University of Ottawa students. See Part III and the appendices for more details and contact information.
Students with personal problems
It is important to create a positive learning environment, to let students know that you care about them and their academic progress, and to be approachable and friendly with students who are having personal problems. But remember that you are not a counsellor. The University of Ottawa provides a variety of professional counselling services to students with personal and other problems. See Part III and the appendices for more details and contact information.
Academic dishonesty – cheating and plagiarism – are serious matters in postsecondary education. It is important to express your policies on academic dishonesty at the beginning of the course, to reinforce them in your syllabus, and to be clear about the consequences. You may need to teach students about “what is” and “what isn’t” considered cheating. Make sure to familiarise yourself with the university’s policies on intellectual integrity and academic dishonesty. See the “Assessing students” chapter for more information.
Tip For more information about dealing with difficult teaching situations.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 11. grade disputes.7 Additional strategies Become familiar with university policy It is important to know the university’s policies and procedures regarding issues of incivility. If disruptive behaviour is regularly interfering with the teaching and learning process. Or make an appointment (562-5333) to meet with one of the CUT’s instructional consultants. classroom disruptions. The CUT also offers a wide variety of workshops on teaching and learning topics. drop by the Centre for University Teaching (CUT) and consult the many teaching resources available to you. you should report it to the appropriate authorities – particularly if it is a problem that poses a threat or risk of harm to yourself and students in the class. including dealing with disruptive classroom behaviour. Consult your Faculty's Academic Calendar for more information (see Appendix C). to ensure a safe and stimulating learning environment for the benefit of all students who attend class. other appeals and grievances. sexual harassment.ca/services/tlss/cut/. For an updated workshop schedule. it is important to document details of the behaviour – for reporting and follow up purposes. If the problem persists.uottawa. you must take action to solve the problem. etc. Report problems you cannot resolve yourself It is your responsibility. particularly a problem that poses a threat or risk of harm to yourself and students in the class. Document recurring troublesome behaviour In the case of recurring disruptive behaviour. consult the CUT website at http://www. as a professor. 145 .
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These resources may be of particular interest to you since you may not always be on campus and may need extra help in a particular area. leave messages or ask questions. make sure to set office hours and let students know where and when you are available for consultation.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 12 TEACHING PART-TIME 12.1 Introduction The University of Ottawa’s part-time professors are invaluable to the functioning of both the university and the entire higher education system. 12. If you have office space. Contact the Centre for Mediated Teaching and Learning for information regarding viable alternatives (see Part II for contact information). 12. If you have set up university email and voice mail accounts. regular availability to students can be a challenge. it is a good idea to encourage students to contact you for help by telephone or email. You may also wish to set up an online chat space or forum using your course’s WebCT account where students can get updates. Consider requesting a university email address and voice mail account to allow students to reach you. Please contact your faculty or your department for more information. The services offered by the Centre for University Teaching (CUT) and the Teaching and Learning Support Service (TLSS) are particularly helpful to part-time professors. Library services. If you don’t have designated office space or office hours. See also the “Approaches to teaching” chapter and the “Adding a personal touch” section of the “Teaching large classes” chapter for more ideas about connecting with students.3 Keeping in touch with students The University of Ottawa recognizes that it is often difficult for part-time professors to keep in contact with their students. Office space available to part-time professors varies from one department to another. teaching services. 147 . and administrative services are designed with all teaching staff in mind. See Part II for contact information regarding teaching resources.2 Resources available to part-time professors Part-time professors are eligible for all the same resources as full-time professors. computing services.
with additions. you have more influence on the education of your students than you may think. and after the first class • gather information from students to tune in to their needs and interests • follow up promptly on student inquiries and absenteeism • update students on course developments through e-mail. during. consider the following: • anticipate challenges students are likely to face. Richard E.Henry B. Lyons. .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 12. from Lyons 2004. aimed at strategic. is based on the successful and popular book The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People (1989) by Dr. adapted from Successful Strategies for Adjunct Faculty by Dr. a faculty development consultant who has held an array of faculty and leadership positions in higher education. Lyons. In other words … A teacher affects eternity. your teaching will be more effective. 18-24 148 . One of the most satisfying rewards of part-time teaching is developing relationships with students in your classes. and plan for their resolution • orchestrate a rich first class that meets multiple objectives • speak with as many students as possible before. your students will learn better. Adams 44 Content adapted. To be proactive as a part-time professor. professor and consultant. has developed a higher-education teaching version of those seven habits. If you take a proactive approach to fostering those relationships from the very first class. and you will be able to anticipate and manage challenges that typically arise later in the term. he can never tell where his influence stops. Stephen Covey. 1) Be proactive As a part-time professor. accountability-minded thinkers.4 The seven habits of highly effective part-time professors44 The content of this section.
you will avoid the trap many part-time professors fall into: procrastination. Stay organised and discipline yourself to divide your weekly planning into two distinct steps: promptly evaluate and analyse the class that just finished.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 2) Begin with the end in mind Since a part-time professor’s teaching contract is not automatically renewed each term. 149 . To put first things first. and refer back to it openly and often • throughout the term. strategies and guidelines. 3) Put first things first If you have an effective course plan in place. and for ideas on matching them to help students learn better. and that students perceive as relevant to their lives • develop a detailed. See the “How We Learn” and “Approaches to Teaching” chapters for information about approaches to learning and teaching. The “Planning and delivering a course” chapter provides practical information about efficient and effective course design. including time parameters • address critical learning objectives early in each class. clarify the course objectives outlined in the syllabus • make sure assessment activities reflect course objectives. obtain departmental documents that specify objectives for the courses you are assigned • develop rich assignments that help students meet these objectives. integrate the following tactics into your teaching approach: • before you start planning your course. To begin with the end in mind. do the following: • evaluate and analyse the class that just finished • develop a detailed agenda for each class. while students are still fresh and most receptive • develop assignments and objectives that encourage student mastery of the course’s most critical content • dedicate the majority of class time to content on which students will be evaluated • provide an overview of the next class to enable students to organise their thinking in advance of new material • communicate regularly with students via e-mail to clarify and reinforce upcoming course activities. and look ahead to the next class. visually appealing syllabus that clearly outlines course objectives. and if you are persistent in following through on it. it is particularly important that you provide particularly rewarding learning experiences for students – ones that meet the needs of each particular group of students you teach.
Professors are often viewed by students as employing win and win/lose strategies in teacher-student interactions. and will begin to internalize high standards for performance.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 4) Think win/win Steven Covey’s book details the common strategies individuals bring to their dealings with others. the students who enrol in your courses or course sections. With a win/win approach. essentially six paradigms of human interactions: • • • • • • lose/win (I will lose and help you win) lose/lose (because I’ll likely lose. Effective professors have learned that they do not teach a ‘discipline’ as much as they teach students – individuals who have the potential to grow well beyond the challenges of the classroom. 5) Seek first to understand. both you and your students can achieve success. most critically. Such professors typically say that the most rewarding aspect of their profession is to see the lights come on in their students’ eyes. individualised feedback on marked exams and assignments • talk regularly with students before and after class. the university’s policies on issues influencing teaching. Students who see the professor as a caring individual who invests in their wellbeing will typically extend themselves to meet higher expectations. about their progress toward learning objectives. and via e-mail. especially the first one in the course • foster student performance by providing and reviewing the marking rubric for each assignment when they give it • provide prompt. See the “Approaches to teaching” chapters for additional practical information on taking a win/win approach in your courses. you will lose too) win (you’re on your own. and. These perceptions often lead to student detachment and de-motivation. because I’m going to make sure I win) win/lose (the opposite of lose/win) win/win win/win or no deal. then to be understood Invest the time and emotional effort necessary to fully understand the perspective of the instructional leaders in your faculty/department/school/course section. Professors who think win/win typically do the following: • provide positive feedback to students in front of their peers • encourage flexibility on assignments to enhance student mastery of learning objectives • prepare students thoroughly for exams. 150 .
90 151 . night) employment information (employer/title. (Lyons suggests asking students the following information. See the “Approaches to teaching” chapter for additional practical information on seeking to understand students. Tool Sample student profile form45 Date _____________________ The information you volunteer below will enable me to meet your individual needs more fully. and to have on hand when consulting with the student • view student characteristics. experiences and attitudes as assets and potential class enriching factors for both you and the rest of the class • demonstrate awareness of popular culture. hours/week) goal in taking the course ultimate educational goal background hobbies/interests personal accomplishments 45 Lyons 2004. from assignments and other critical events. and use vocabulary and examples students can relate to • solicit informal feedback from students throughout the term (see the “Classroom Assessment Techniques” section of the “Planning and delivering a course” chapter for more information). avg. Make sure to set up your form so that students have enough space or blanks to write their answers) • • • • • • • • • • • name course complete mailing address e-mail telephone number (day.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Seek first to understand and be understood by trying the following: • use a student profile form to gather useful information about each student during the first class (see the following “Sample student profile form” tool) • update the form throughout the term to note key points that arise during teacher-student interactions. All information will be kept in strict confidence.
life experiences.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • • • • special situations most memorable learning experience learning challenges how do you learn best? signature (indicating receipt of syllabus) questions/concerns related to the class. and personal insights. draw out student experiences relevant to class content • link assignments and discussions to students’ lives • encourage students individually to contribute more of themselves to the class as a whole • use active learning techniques to help students synergise with each other • orchestrate out-of-class study groups • be proactive in building a classroom community that celebrates the unique nature of learning. For more information on active learning techniques and ideas for synergising in a course. 7) Sharpen the saw Steven Covey’s book relates a number of parables. 6) Synergize One way to view synergy is as ‘creative co-operation’. These professors thrive on the diversity of experience and perspective that students bring to the classroom. including one about a man spending an inordinately long time cutting down a tree. When asked why he doesn’t 152 . Synergy in a course is based on the previous five habits. To realise synergy in your courses. see the various related sections in the “Approaches to teaching” and “Teaching large courses” chapters. exam results and classroom interactions. Each course or class section should truly enrich the lives of all students by giving them a foundation on which to build an interconnected understanding of and current and subsequent academic work. combined with trust that students will develop the insights and courage to take their learning a step further. Professors who work toward synergy believe their courses should be more than the sum of their assignments. do the following: • promptly review student profiles to identify strengths of individual students • during discussions.
Formal course evaluations.5 Assessing and developing your teaching skills It is important for your career that you assess. See the “Assessing and developing your teaching skills” chapter for more information. informal class assessments. consider the following: • establishing a mentoring relationship with effective veteran professors • mentoring a novice part-time professor. To continuously “sharpen your saw”.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING sharpen his saw. continuing instructional education. 153 . develop. If you are becoming frustrated because your tried and true techniques fail with a particular group of students. As a professional. your teaching tools. teaching portfolios. he responds that he doesn’t have the time because he is too busy sawing. it would be wise for you to invest time and energy in becoming familiar with some of this research and assessing its implications for teaching and learning in your courses. As a part-time professor. regularly discussing effective teaching approaches and strategies • annually stretching beyond your discipline to read a well-received book on teaching and learning (the resource centre at the Centre for University Teaching offers plenty of titles) • consulting with a Centre for University Teaching instructional consultant • taking workshops and courses offered through the Centre for University Teaching • accessing online faculty development resources • reading through the rest of this guide if you haven’t already done so. statements of teaching philosophy. 12. Recent research reveals fascinating information and crucial insights into how people learn. and document the evolution of your teaching skills. are important and useful tools for developing your teaching career. etc. and education scholars have developed valuable strategies and techniques for adapting teaching to help students learn more effectively. sharpen your saw. you have access to all the university’s career development services.
consult the CUT website at http://www.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Tip If you have any questions about teaching part-time at the University of Ottawa.ca/services/tlss/cut/. APTPUO The Association of Part-time Professors at the University of Ottawa bargains collectively on behalf of all part-time professors teaching on the campuses of the University of Ottawa. For an updated workshop schedule.ca/associations/aptpuo/index.uottawa. and a significant range of workshops on teaching and learning topics.html 154 .uottawa. if you have comments. drop by the Centre for University Teaching (CUT) or make an appointment (562-5333) to meet with one of the CUT’s instructional consultants. or if you would like to simply consult with someone regarding teaching. if you face challenges you don’t know how to deal with. You can access the current collective agreement and communicate with the Association through their website. which is located at: http://www. The CUT also offers access to a wide variety of teaching resources.
As you acquire teaching skills and greater expertise in your field of study. These situations lend themselves to interaction among the students and direct. teaching assistantships also present graduate students with a multitude of enriching opportunities. For TAs who aspire to a teaching career. Complements graduate studies Teaching undergraduate students is an optimal way to attain expertise in your area of study or future profession. As Allen and Rueter (1990) state. and evaluating others’ work. the teaching assistantship is a valuable employment credential. 155 . which is difficult in large classes. feel great personal satisfaction. Teaching experience The roles and responsibilities of being a TA provide opportunities to develop teaching skills and acquire teaching experience. in small discussion or tutorial groups. However. working effectively with groups.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 13 THE TEACHING ASSISTANTSHIP 13. grow intellectually. or in laboratories. Students who have been assigned teaching assistantships naturally appreciate them for their financial rewards. there is no better way to internalize knowledge more effectively than by attempting to explain it to others. and last but not least. personal feedback on their performance. Personalizes undergraduate education TAs add a personal dimension to undergraduate studies by giving students the opportunity to interact with teaching staff. you will become more self-confident. In addition. Personal and social enrichment Regular contact with students will help you better understand the concerns and experiences of undergraduate students. TAs often interact with students on a one-on-one basis. the professional skills acquired in teaching are applicable in most fields and professions: presenting ideas clearly and concisely.1 Becoming a teaching assistant Advantages of being a TA There are many advantages to being a TA. By the same token. frequent discussions and exchanges with professors can help you discover interests that may lead to exploring new career options.
the University of Ottawa. Roles of the TA You will gain experience in a number of roles by performing the tasks you have been assigned as a teaching assistant. 156 . don't be afraid to admit it if you do not know the answer to every question a student may ask. the University of Ottawa does not expect you to know everything. You can acquit your duty well by correcting your mistake and quickly communicating the correction to your students. Running and supervising laboratories. The TA's tasks will depend on the professor's requests and the nature of the course. Occasionally teaching classes. Since no one is perfect. The roles of the teaching assistant include (Wright and Herteis. Some of the most common tasks are the following: • • • • • • • Marking assignments and examinations.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Responsibilities of the TA Teaching assistants are typically graduate students who have been assigned to assist professors with the tasks of teaching undergraduate courses. Administering and proctoring examinations. together with the professor you are responsible for establishing reasonable standards for the students. Teach them the importance of inquiry and knowing how to find a suitable answer. Leading discussion groups or tutorials. 1993): Instructor As a TA you will be expected to teach students or assist in marking student work. Advising students on an individual basis. Departmental representative Since you indirectly represent the department and consequently. You must be well prepared for this task and may have to learn new material. Teacher You are responsible for helping students learn and develop their minds. Concomitantly. Please do not be afraid if to make a mistake on occasion. Office hours for supporting students in the learning process.
the teaching assistant acts as a primary contact with the students. you will discover many responsibilities you were probably unaware of before. tutor. In order to put students at ease. Now that you are a teaching assistant. regardless of whether your primary duties are those of a marker. Responsibilities of the TA When you were an undergraduate student. Moral support You know from your own experience what it feels like to be a student and you are in the best position to understand students and interact with them. and especially as someone who took part in your evaluation.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Role model Your involvement in graduate studies makes you an excellent role model for undergraduate students. There are various aspects to being a teaching assistant and thus. a number of roles to be played: Student advisor Office hours Office hours are an extension of the classroom relationship and can ameliorate the impersonal relationship between the TA and his or her students. dedicated and knowledgeable. it is important to invite them to come during your office hours and let them know they are welcome to discuss any concerns that they might have. 157 . lab monitor or other. These duties vary from one course or faculty member to another and often. problems solved in the tutorial. in large lower level courses. you probably looked upon your teaching assistant as someone with superior knowledge and mastery of the subject. Another way to attract them would be to post the answers to the homework. Intermediary Your role will enable you to be a meaningful and productive link between the faculty and the student body. or marked assignments on your door during your office hours in order to meet with students. Try to show students by example what they can aspire to and achieve. You will create a positive learning environment if you are fair and enthusiastic.
Allow sufficient time for students to ask you questions concerning points they do not understand. if he or she speaks very quickly or softly. Don't forget that you will not always be the most appropriate person to solve a student's emotional problems. or personal problems. Conflicts may also arise due to ethical issues concerning students. In a way. For example. Occasionally. It is of the utmost importance that the student not feel that he or she is wasting your time. you should always 158 . Finally. or both. It is normal for you to suspect certain problems but don't press the student to the point that he or she is uncomfortable.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING One-on-one help for students In this regard. Advising these students to contact a more qualified individual would be a wise choice! Liaison between students and staff As a teaching assistant. As a matter of fact. logistics having to do with the course. don't hesitate to discuss it respectfully and politely with him or her. you may feel trapped when time limitations make it difficult to fulfill your academic requirements as well as your requirements as a TA. Take time to listen to the student. as well as clear up misunderstandings between the administration and students. you are an intermediary between the professor and the students. doesn't write enough information on the board or is difficult to follow). students may have serious emotional or personal problems. it is important to analyze the reasons why students attend a TA's office hours. Don't forget that the best thing to do when a student comes to visit you is to make him or her feel welcome. Challenges faced by TAs Throughout your career as a TA. This enables you to facilitate the learning process by communicating course requirements and standards. you belong to both groups. Don't do anything else while the student is in your office. the reason for this visit may be related to: material that is not completely mastered. professors. Some tips that can make your role easier: • • • Take the time to discuss the course organization so that students have a good understanding of requirements. you will likely face many challenges. It is of the utmost importance that you be aware of the means at your disposal for encouraging exchange and advice: • • • Try to be natural and friendly. If you discover a problem with the professor's teaching style (for example.
student advisors. As a TA. If you are unable to fulfill your academic and TA requirements within the allotted time. These issues are discussed in greater detail in the following sections. Trained and skilled resource persons are always available to help you. when you should be available to students. By doing this. the dates of examinations that you will have to proctor. you may request the professor in charge of the course to put in writing your responsibilities. Conflicts related to TA duties Conflicts can arise for a number of reasons. the grading of examinations and assignments. In some cases. and the amount of time that you have for correcting assignments. At the same time. TA activities can be personally rewarding but also very demanding. 159 . They can occur between you and the professor due to differing views about student needs. Some steps that you can take to manage these conflicts are summarized below: Negotiating tasks with professors and program directors You can inform professors and/or program directors when you are unable to perform certain assigned tasks. you can plan your work and confidently perform the required tasks. be sure that you have a clear understanding of what is expected of you and that these expectations are realistic.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING display a high level of competence in your area of study and in the course for which you are a TA. Don't hesitate to contact the Centre for University Teaching (see Appendix C) should you experience these problems. you can also negotiate with the program director of your department regarding the type of course in which you can most effectively assist. Obtaining clear instructions from professors From the moment you sign your contract. which can lead you to neglect your academic work and cause you psychological stress. and student evaluators. you may also find yourself performing work that does not conform to the agreed upon duties or that you are working more hours than normal. you are also a graduate student. Role conflicts TAs are required to act as professors’ assistants. At times. or your efficiency in completing tasks assigned to you by the professor. This is considered acceptable when you lack the necessary training for performing the job or when the workload of your assistantship surpasses the weekly maximum number of hours. it may be because you are not prioritizing your tasks.
which are also those of the University of Ottawa with regard to quality in teaching. it is important to list a few points that describe a good teaching assistant: Preparation Whatever your task. listen carefully to the students' questions and let them explain their confusion. 160 . Do not hesitate to ask for help from the professor or to ask former assistants for materials they developed for the course.2 The teaching environment What makes a good TA? As mentioned above. Communication skills Develop interesting examples that apply to the topic of discussion. Above all. you will find that being a teaching assistant is one of your best university experiences. plan the material to be presented in advance. complex. 13.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Being familiar with Policy 110 Understanding Policy 110. particularly when you must clearly explain relatively advanced and at times. concepts. Knowledge Besides your education and specialization in a particular field of research. be careful to stay up to date with the course content for the course you're assisting in. If you maintain this perspective. All of this gives you the opportunity to observe and understand the organization and how courses function while having close contact with students and learning objectives. basic presentation skills can contribute to your comfort and. It is located in Appendix G. the teaching assistant experience can be great for learning the art of teaching and having a positive influence on the students. will avoid misunderstandings about your rights and obligations. There is nothing more disappointing for a student than to discover gaps in the assistant's training or to find a gap between the level of the reading assignments and the tutorials. therefore. In order to fulfill your requirements. Furthermore. The Treatment of Graduate Students on Non-Academic Matters and Non-Employment Issues. a TA is a key link between students and the faculty. Moreover. to your success as a TA.
to explore their own strengths and to grow – personally and intellectually. Motivation plays a role in the amount of time students will devote to learning a subject.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Accessibility Give students the impression that you are there to support them. This is just a matter of concentrating on the positive aspects of the course and your interaction with the students. involve the students in choosing what they will be learning. A good relationship with the professor A good TA creates a solid link between the professor's objectives and his or her daily accomplishments. Friendly relations can be nurtured with your students by staying a few minutes at the end of the class to talk with them and inviting them to come to your office during office hours or to email you if they have urgent questions. interact positively and on a regular basis with the professor and provide him or her with constructive feedback on how the course is progressing from both your point of view as well as that of the students. motivating students to become independent thinkers. Discuss what makes the course interesting to you. It is easier for students to learn material that interests and challenges them. A major component of the "art" of teaching is. Encourage them to participate in class. This means looking for the means and documents that can make the activities related to teaching more effective. and stimulate their interests and intellectual curiosity. To the extent possible. therefore. Motivating students There is a strong link between student motivation and learning. Here are some ways that you can motivate students to learn: • • • • Consider the students’ interests when using examples. Start with learning tasks at the current level of your students’ abilities. 161 . Concern for students' learning Students can easily tell the difference between a TA that considers the job a waste of time and one who likes to teach and interact with the students. It is unlikely that you will succeed with every student but you can motivate him or her enough to achieve the learning objectives for the course. To do this. Organization Anticipate ways to make the course go smoothly and pleasantly for the professor as well as for the students.
etc. Surviving your first day The first day of class may seem to be the most difficult for you. it is the organization of the course that will enable the students to follow it and learn in depth. and most of all that this is an important class with interesting material. Students will respect you more if you admit to not knowing something than if you avoid 162 . Help your students to discover things for themselves. the smoother each session will go. It is normal to feel a little nervous before the class begins because your first meeting with the students is important and can set the tone for the entire session. If you prepare effectively.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • Reward students with positive. tutorials or discussion sections is an essential part of teaching. You will also be less nervous or anxious if you are well prepared for your lecture and can anticipate the questions students may ask. Here are a few tips on how to survive your first day: • • • • • • • • • • • Be well prepared. plagiarism. Preparing for class Being prepared for your labs. enabling students to prepare for each session." (Wright & Herteis. Together with the professor. Moreover. Discuss the materials that will be used. Relax and speak slowly. Clearly describe the course goals and objectives. constructive feedback. Show them “that you are approachable and knowledgeable. Know the course outline. Arrive on time. It is therefore important that you follow the course syllabus. Make eye contact with the students. Introduce yourself to the students and introduce the course. Give your office hours and contact information to the students. Remember that nobody knows everything and you shouldn't be afraid to admit you don't know something. The course periods are not generally very long but there is often a lot of course content. The better organized and prepared you are. you must decide which information will be presented in class and which the students will learn on their own. 1993). late assignments. you will be able to take full advantage of the class time to present a significant amount of information. Interact with your students in the classroom. State the rules and policies regarding attendance. Visit the classroom ahead of time.
Don't worry if there are questions you can't answer. Never humiliate or belittle a student. Handling questions Most of the questions you'll be answering will be from students during tutorials. Be clear. Use humour appropriately. 1993): • • • • • • • • Know at least your students' fist names. thinking that a student is asking the question. discussion sessions or after class. Don't let silence unnerve you. they will ask questions about the work or tests. Do not dismiss student comments. Encourage participation. Listen carefully. Here is a classroom communication checklist to help you with your communication skills (Wright & Herteis. During these meetings. You must be able to communicate this knowledge clearly and effectively. Office hours Office hours enable students to meet with you individually. Create a climate of equity in your classroom or laboratory. you can research the question and give an answer during the next class. Be sensitive to student behaviour. You can then research the answer and bring it to the following class. When answering student questions: • • • • • • • Listen carefully. Repeat students' answers. or simply seek clarification on a marked assignment. If appropriate. It is better to postpone the question until the next class than give your group incorrect information. Questions are a fundamental part of the learning process and are used to assess how well students understand the course material. Set your office hours before the term begins and make sure that 163 . Effective communication In order to teach. Avoid jargon. Give students enough time to ask question.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING questions or mislead the class. it is not enough just to know the material you are teaching. Avoid interrupting.
The second list includes the tasks that you have to complete in order to achieve those long-term goals. you cannot engage in effective planning. Create a list of activities that you have spent time on during the day for one week. social activities. By comparing the tasks on these two lists with your time log. researching at the library. reading. The first is to become aware of how time is actually spent. Without being aware of time limitations and the tasks that need to be completed within that time. Include activities such as • • 164 . sleeping. weekly. you can verify whether you are actually spending your quality time on tasks that lead to achieving your most important goals. and studying for an examination. a major cause of failure to meet academic and TA requirements. Students should also be able to contact you by telephone or e-mail. This task can assist you in investing energy in the tasks that are most important to you. Step III: Construct daily. and teachers. These lists will make you aware of how you are spending your time during the week. Time-management Time-management can help TAs achieve three goals. meeting with supervisors. Being available to students encourages them and guides them in the learning process. it is also important to be concerned about your physical and psychological well-being. The first will contain the goals that you plan to achieve in the long-term. weekly and monthly lists that can bring you closer to them. travelling to school. procrastinating. Create two additional lists. and monthly calendars. marking examinations.3 Survival Skills for TAs This final section introduces you to strategies that can help you survive as a graduate student and as a teaching assistant. writing papers. The third goal is to deal with procrastination. Consult Appendix C for services available to students. Then note the amount of time that you spent engaged in each of the activities. Step ll: Prioritizing goals. researchers. While concentrating on your most important goals. construct “to do” daily. It emphasizes the fact that while graduate students are in the process of learning to be professionals.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING you are available during these times all term. Uruh (1989) describes the following time-management techniques: • Step l: Keeping a time log. The following sections suggest strategies on how to manage your time and maintain your health throughout your graduate studies. 13. Your activities may include household chores. a “B” if they are of secondary concern and a “C” if they are unnecessary. Evaluate the importance of each long-term goal and work tasks by assigning them an “A” if they are of the highest priority. The second goal is to identify and prioritize the tasks that are most and least relevant to successfully completing your degree.
The following time management techniques complement the methods indicated above: • • • • • Keep order on your desk. the “fire” can wait! Always plan your work for the times when you are more productive and set specific times of the day to do those small jobs during your less productive time of the day. Instead. Note all your work on a master list that you keep on your desk. Always schedule your days to start with a BANG! This makes you feel productive and like you’ve accomplished something. as it can only lead to frustration. STOP and reorganize yourself. This plan can help you focus your attention on your more important tasks until you can return to your previous schedule. Avoid the impulse to stop everything to “put out the fire”. • Step IV: Be prepared for the occasional failure to complete your tasks. • • • • 165 . Other strategies for effective time management When time is limited. socializing and travelling. TAs can use time-management skills to facilitate their coping with time stress. Even well-planned schedules can fall apart during stressful periods. This will reduce stress and make you punctual. Schedule your most important tasks during the period of the day when you are most alert and productive. Remember: “It’s far better to refuse a job than to accept it and never get it done!” Use the “15 minute edge” method. Do not over-schedule.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING resting. give yourself slightly more time than would be normally required to complete each task. always plan to get to your destination 15 minutes ahead of time when possible. One way of regaining some control over your plans is to create and follow a “master plan” of your most important short-term goals. When you feel that you are losing control over your time. Complete your most unpleasant and difficult tasks before other tasks. This “extra” time allows for unexpected interruptions and changes of plans. Over estimate the time requirements for tasks to ensure that you complete them with little stress. Very often.
procrastination is a major cause of failure to complete tasks on time. increasing perspiration. Difficulty in concentration. People can experience fear of failure. and depression are also common. Sit or lie in a comfortable chair in a dimly lit and quiet room where you are unlikely to be interrupted for approximately thirty minutes. fear of not being able to complete an assignment within a specific period of time. During periods of stress and fear. Do not forget your face and neck muscles. Then reward yourself for each task that you complete. Then tense and relax one muscle group at a time. absent-mindedness. • • • • 166 . concentrating on the relaxation or your body as the tension is released. they are easier to manage. Many fears are associated with accomplishing important goals. It is important to identify and control these fears. A support person who has experienced the same fear may also offer advice on how to deal with the demands you face. manageable tasks. Seek social support from friends or support services. you may be able to consciously relax your muscles in situations other than the room in which you had begun. Break down overwhelming assignments into small. One can experience increases in heart rate and respiration. This may alleviate some fear and help you realize that you are not alone. fear of being evaluated and judged. Controlling reactions to fear. After you have practiced this daily exercise for several weeks. headaches. Once the fears are identified. chronic fatigue. and tension in the body muscles. fear of not understanding the material of a course. tightening of the stomach muscles. These reactions can be diminished or eliminated. many physiological reactions occur. Breathe deeply and slowly at regular intervals during this period. fear of public speaking. or fear of having to prove oneself to one’s peers and professors. Engage in relaxation exercises. • Identifying fears associated with accomplishing a goal. Make your tasks manageable.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Procrastination Even though it may not appear intentional to you or your students. fear of the expectations of others if one masters a skill. allowing your body to relax. Confide your worries to a friend or counsellor who can provide you with support. fear of not being capable of mastering a skill or teaching a class. TAs and students procrastinate most when they feel overwhelmed by the amount and level of difficulty of the work that has been assigned to them. fear of success.
mood swings. lack of sleep can eventually creep up on you in the form of fatigue. markers. but you can change the way you interpret and react to them. In addition to the other strategies to manage your time and avoid procrastination. numerous methods. Come see them for answers to your questions. You may not be able to control your sources of stress. students do not give enough importance to sleep. of O. 10:00 A. approaches. or an increase in substance abuse. lack of energy or headaches.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Stress-management Very often. • If after consulting the above references and having tried some of the techniques. If you wish to get in touch with them outside regular office hours. • Get enough sleep: Unfortunately. stress can manifest itself through signs such as nail biting. CUPE Canadian Union of Public Employees – U. For more information. and techniques have been developed to combat it. Ever since stress was acknowledged as an integral part of everyday life. The University of Ottawa Health Services employs a part-time dietitian who can be consulted by students free of charge. Eat well: Like sleep.M. high levels of stress can lead to depression. to 3:00 P. Their office hours are: Monday through Friday. muscular tension. examination proctors and students at SFRB at the University of Ottawa. If you feel that you suffer from bad eating habits. Thus excess stress can have a detrimental effect on your health and your capacity to work and enjoy life in general.ca. and eventually “burn-out” if done for prolonged periods of time.uottawa. you can also leave a message at 562-5345 or e-mail info@cupe2626. Physically.M. sleeping problems. Since it is an integral part of a healthy person’s rest cycle. CUPE local 2626 is the union representing teaching and research assistants. Counsellors and psychologists can help you develop a personalized stress management program. eating is an integral part of a healthy person’s cycle. remember to take care of your physical being. seriously consider consulting a dietitian.ca/associations/SCFP-CUPE2626/ 167 . please refer to their web site: http://www. Very often. procrastination and poor time-management can be a result of excess stress. your physical or psychological symptoms persist consider contacting the Counselling or Health Services. lack of alertness and energy. See Appendix C for the relevant services available to students at the University of Ottawa.
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This section will provide some practical tips to professors and graduate students who have recently arrived from abroad. The Centre for University Teaching and your colleagues who have had experience as TAs or professors can provide you with lots of information to help you familiarize yourself with your new academic environment. you were undoubtedly familiar with a different teaching system from the one the students at the University of Ottawa encounter over the course of their studies.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 14 TEACHING IN CANADA FOR THE FIRST TIME 14. These differences have to do with the university's administrative operations. communicate with your colleagues in charge of the other sections or with the department head. If you are a professor in charge of a course. These tips will help facilitate their transition and integration into the University of Ottawa teaching system. You can start by asking questions about organizational matters. Suggestions Here are some tips for getting off to a good start! • • Communicate with the other professors or TAs in your department to take advantage of their experience getting along with the faculty and students. communicate with the professor in charge of the course.1 Practical advice All professors and teaching assistants encounter new challenges every time they teach a course. students' education. If you are a teaching assistant. People from other countries face the same challenges but also encounter difficulties that are unique to their own situation. the relationship between the professor and students. This is an excellent way to get the teaching tools that are specific and suited to University of Ottawa teaching criteria. like: What are your expectations and those of the students? What are the course objectives? What are the grading policies? What has been the class average in past years? Attend workshops organized by the Centre for University Teaching or your department. • 169 . During your studies or teaching experience abroad. marking policies and above all.
the wall or the mirror. You may also ask the students to share with you and your colleagues either what they already know of the course content or the reasons why they are taking this particular course. These hours are extremely useful for becoming better acquainted with the students and the particular needs of each one.3 A few details about the University of Ottawa Remember that professors and students may be more informal in their communications with you than you may have experienced in other places. Don't be embarrassed – this is an excellent way to develop confidence. • • • • 14. create a comfortable environment by discussing your personal interests as well as your expertise in the subject you're teaching. This information will complement your oral presentation. if you should mispronounce a word or have a problem explaining a certain concept. You can always rely on a dictionary of the language of instruction. tutorials or laboratory sessions that they are welcome to come and see you during office hours.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • Starting with your first class session. 170 . Encourage the students to ask questions and get them to ask for clarification if they are having trouble understanding.2 The language of instruction (English or French) is your second language For the purpose of clarifying your explanations in your second language: • Write a summary on the board or provide an outline of activities to be completed during the class. Regularly remind students during your classes. Students may even openly disagree with or challenge the professor regarding the subject matter. aloud. If you have a problem with the pronunciation of a word. in front of your friends. do not hesitate to ask your colleagues for assistance. This way. Write the terms and key concepts on the board or use Power Point. your students will still be able to follow you. Try to practice what you have to explain. whether it is a concept pertaining to the subject or simply your accent. • • 14. and may use familiar forms of address.
their job restricts the time they have for their studies and as a result. whether in literary or scientific subjects. 14. free of charge46.ca/international/f/main. may hamper their efforts to get good marks.4 Second language courses (French or English) The University of Ottawa wants to help you be successful in your university and professional career. 14. etc.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Students in a course often do not have the same level of expertise or knowledge. courses in French or English that will help you speak and write these languages better and improve your understanding of the cultures. If you are interested in these courses.5 International Office The University of Ottawa’s International Office provides assistance to international students arriving in Canada and in Ottawa. 171 . In general. Many students work part-time and are either fully or partially responsible for their university expenses. On their website and in their office you will find helpful guides and links to information and resources. Through the Office. you can also find professional training and development resources plus listings of University of Ottawa international projects. research. they may not always have the knowledge necessary to complete the assignments you give them. Please visit their web site at: http://www. Many of these guides and much of the information may be useful to faculty.uottawa. The Second Language Institute invites you to take. Therefore.html 46 If you are a full time professor or graduate student. funding. contact the Second Language Institute (see Appendix C for more information).
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honest. Student grades. in writing.1 Creating a positive environment The University of Ottawa is dedicated to creating a positive environment for all students. An exception to this rule applies when you have reasonable grounds to believe there is a risk of significant harm to the health or safety of the student or others. representative. To avoid conflict of interest. at least in the context of the teacher’s own area of expertise. according to research evidence (including personal or self-reflective research). A university teacher respects the dignity of her or his colleagues and works cooperatively with colleagues in the interest of fostering student development.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING CHAPTER 15 DIVERSITY AND ETHICS 15. professors and support staff. It is for this reason that professors are expected to meet high ethical standards. accurate. 1996) is included below: • • A university teacher maintains a high level of subject matter knowledge and ensures that course content is current.. Topics that students are likely to find sensitive or discomforting are dealt with in an open. to disclosure and if the disclosure is necessary for the performance of the teacher’s duties. and respectful way. 173 • • • • • .2 Ethics in teaching In the university classroom the professor is in a position of considerable power and authority over his/her students. and selects methods of instruction that. and private communications are treated as confidential materials. a teacher does not enter into dual-role relationships with students that are likely to detract from student development or lead to actual or perceived favouritism on the part of the teacher. and appropriate to the position of the course within the student's program of studies. The University does not tolerate any form of discrimination or harassment. and should be released only if the student has consented. The overriding responsibility of the teacher is to contribute to the intellectual development of the student. 15. other academic records. The University expects all of its members to behave in a professional and respectful manor. and to avoid actions such as exploitation and discrimination that detract from student development. A pedagogically competent teacher communicates the objectives of the course to students. The professor is also in a position where he/she represents the entire institution. are effective in helping students to achieve the course objectives. is aware of alternative instructional methods or strategies. A general guideline for ethics in teaching from Ethical Principles in University Teaching (Murray et al.
implied or expressed threat of reprisal or actual reprisal for refusal to comply with a sexually oriented request.ca/services/sex-har/eng/ To view the University of Ottawa Policy on Sexual Harassment in full please refer to Appendix E. the University therefore affirms that sexual harassment is a negation of such reciprocal respect in addition to being a violation of the fundamental rights. fair. a university teacher is aware and respectful of the educational goals. 174 .67). . Fore more information. a sexual relationship which constitutes an abuse of power in a relationship of trust: or sexually oriented remarks or behaviour which may reasonably be perceived to create a negative psychological and emotional environment for work or study. please call or write to the university’s Sexual Harassment Office or visit their web site at: http://www.uottawa. policies.” The University policy (No. defines sexual harassment as including any one of the following: • • • • • unwanted sexual attention from a person who knows or ought reasonably to know that such attention is unwanted. . 15. open. In the interests of student development. instructors are responsible for taking adequate steps to ensure that assessment of students is valid.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • Given the importance of assessment of student performance in university teaching and in students' lives and careers. and [that] promotes due respect and regard for the rights and feelings of all. implied or expressed promise of reward for complying with a sexually oriented request. “that all members of the University community are entitled to a working and learning environment which is pleasant [and] professional. and congruent with course objectives. dignity.3 Sexual harassment The University recognizes . and standards of the institution in which he or she teaches. and integrity of the person and that it undermines the environment required for the advancement of learning and the dissemination of knowledge.
Recommendations for accommodations of the following disabilities are available on the Office’s webpage: http://www. age.5 Helping students with disabilities The University of Ottawa has a proud tradition of helping students with disabilities reach their full academic potential. marital status. The University of Ottawa fully supports the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Ontario Human Rights Code and does not tolerate any violations of the law. colour. ancestry. OCD. professionalism and confidentiality. record of offences. national or ethnic origin.4 Human rights and discrimination The Canadian Human Rights Act states that it is against the law to discriminate on the basis or race. creed.ca/en/access/professors/ • • • • • • • • Students with acquired brain injury Students who are blind or visually impaired Students with medical conditions Students who are deaf. free from discrimination based on race. Through the expertise of its Access Service. sex. disability. citizenship.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 15. the University strives to integrate students with disabilities into the greater university community. marital status. age.) Students with attention-deficit disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 175 . sex.sass. sexual orientation and pardoned criminal conviction. family status. it has offered a variety of services and resources with expertise. etc. family status or handicap. ethnic origin. Under the Ontario Human Rights Code every person has the right to equal treatment. deafened. religion. This underscores the University's commitment to creating and maintaining a learning environment that's open to all. the Access Service acts as intermediary between students. 15. Specifically.uottawa. colour. their faculty and other University offices to ensure that the special needs of these students are addressed and that the best possible learning conditions are being offered. place of origin. sexual orientation. Since 1985. or hearing impaired Students with learning disabilities Students with a physical disability or mobility impairment Students with psychological or psychiatric disabilities (such as depression.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Further resources are available to instructors through the Access Service office. room 339 Phone :(613) 562-5976 TTY Phone : (613) 562-5214 Fax : (613) 562-5159 Email : email@example.com 176 . Access Service University Centre. Please consult the web page or call the office for assistance with any questions or concerns you may have.
html 177 .ca/admingov/orgchart_1.1 University of Ottawa Organization Chart http://web5.uottawa.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX A.
To check for current information.html 178 . please see: www.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX A.uottawa. language professors M: Male W: Women *This is the most current data available as of April 2007. Rank and Gender Fall 2002* Faculty Full M W 61 8 46 2 5 21 41 44 36 9 15 5 4 19 6 2 1 288 75 21 9 1 1 6 Associate M 51 7 14 Assistant M W 22 6 30 16 4 5 Lecturer M 5 Other M 2 1 2 W 31 13 5 W W 4 Arts Education Engineering Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies Health Sciences Management Medicine Science Social Sciences Common Law Droit civil Other TOTAL 1 1 10 24 11 24 27 10 1 20 5 7 6 14 5 3 1 5 13 9 19 14 1 20 8 7 4 13 9 3 2 1 2 5 5 1 2 2 1 12 17 2 4 179 110 NOTES 119 91 • • • • • Teaching Staff data as per Statistics Canada file Other units includes: Human Rights Research & Education Centre and Institute of Women's Studies Rank other includes: visitors.2 Academic Staff by Faculty.ca/services/irp/eng/staff_index.
Dean 179 .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX A. Master's and doctoral degrees are also offered in most disciplines by the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies. U of O offers the second-highest number of doctoral programs in Ontario. Arts. Health Sciences. Today. we have been teaching pure and applied sciences in both French and English since the 1800s. the University offers a full range of academic and professional programs at the undergraduate level in nine faculties: Administration. Law. Faculty of Arts: George Lang. Dean Aboriginal Studies Arts administration Communication Classics and Religious Studies English Environmental Studies Geography History Institute of Canadian Studies Lettres françaises Linguistics Medieval Studies Modern Languages and Literatures Music Philosophy Second Language Institute School of Translation and Interpretation Second Language Teaching Theatre Visual Arts Faculty of Education: Marie Josée Berger. Engineering. Education. Medicine.3 Faculties and Departments Although the University of Ottawa was originally a liberal arts college. Science and Social Sciences.
Dean Anatomy Anesthesia Biochemistry. Dean Human Rights Research and Education Centre Faculty of Medicine: Jacques Bradwejn. Dean School of Human Kinetics School of Nursing School of Rehabilitation Sciences Faculty of Law Civil Law Section: Nathalie Des Rosiers. Microbiology and Immunology Cellular and Molecular Medicine Epidemiology and Community Medicine Emergency Medicine Family Medicine History of Medicine Medical Oncology Medicine 180 . Dean Chair of Ukrainian Studies Faculty of Health Sciences: Denis Prud’homme. Dean Chemical Engineering Civil Engineering Mechanical Engineering School of Information Technology and Engineering Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies: Gary Slater.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Faculty of Engineering: Claude Lague. Dean Common Law Section: Bruce Feldthusen.
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Obstetrics and Gynecology Ophthalmology Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Pediatrics Psychiatry Radiology Surgery Faculty of Science: André Lalonde, Dean Biology Chemistry Earth Sciences Mathematics and Statistics Physics Faculty of Social Sciences: François Houle, Dean Criminology Economics International development and globalisation International studies and modern languages Political Studies Public administration School of Psychology School of Social Work Sociology and Anthropology Women's studies School of Management: Michéal J. Kelly, Dean BCom - Honours Bachelor of Commerce Accounting e-Business
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Finance Human Resources Management International Management Management Management Information Systems Marketing MBA - Master in Business Administration MHA - Master of Health Administration M.Sc. in Management – Master of Science in Management EMBA - Executive MBA
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Number of Students by Faculty, Field of Studies and Language in Use47
Fall 2005 Students by Faculty
Underg. French English
Grad. French English
Arts General Visual Arts Classical Studies Communication Second Language Teaching (Eng.) Second Language Teaching (French) Aboriginal Studies English Canadian Studies Women's Studies Medieval Studies Lettres françaises Geography History Second Language Institute Linguistics Modern Languages and Literatures Mathematics Music Philosophy Religious Studies Theatre Translation and Interpretation 258 69 55 444 2 24 4 71 5 4 7 179 122 224 12 118 49 40 66 52 37 80 136 712 151 75 647 42 39 14 652 4 7 13 30 228 593 80 156 106 53 189 186 75 148 90 19 11 17 7 35 54 24 3 31 9 8 35 30 47 18 30 2 20 59 2 56 27 3 20 970 220 133 1,138 44 63 18 781 9 11 20 258 388 906 92 318 193 93 301 309 143 231 276
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TOTAL Law Common Law Civil Law Law Programmes (Graduate level) TOTAL Education Educational Studies Formation à l'enseignement (français) Teacher Education (English) TOTAL Graduate Postdoctoral Studies E-Commerce - Interdisciplinary Programs E-Business Population Health Systems Science TOTAL Engineering Computer Engineering Chemical Engineering Computer Science Civil Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Management Mechanical Engineering Software Engineering TOTAL Management General Health Administration 184
683 129 23 65 65
876 521 88 1,485
205 655 41 696 28 1,012 1,040 205
503 683 1,053
2 2 10 2 14 14 26 58 100
2 16 36 60 114
77 52 83 104 93
217 194 220 208 395 1 11 7 20 9 59 171 76 240 105 82
294 306 485 395 748 114 609 230 60 733 3,181
157 78 644
358 152 1,744
2,200 12 34
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M.B.A. (Executive) M.B.A. Pub. Pol. and Gov. TOTAL Medicine Biochemistry Cellular and Molecular Medicine Postgraduate Medical Education Epidemiology and Community Medicine M.D. Microbiology and Immunology Pharmacology Physiology Special-elective TOTAL Science General Biochemistry Biomedical Science Biology Biopharmaceutical Sciences Chemistry Environmental Science Earth Science Physical Geography Mathematics Ophthalmic Medical Technology Physics TOTAL Health Sciences Human Kinetics 303 866 24 149 113 164 160 34 30 24 4 80 3 45 830 44 624 221 490 417 93 68 33 3 216 12 67 2,288 2 2 205 7 20 133 1,211 151 409 50 636 6 1 855 2,200
65 335 1
106 165 686
85 8 22 135
68 773 334 19 80 753 577 30 57 214 98 14 24 95 7 15 48 359 15 19 97 34 243 165 3,458
607 1 41 56 252 1.154 250 2.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Audiology Occupational Therapy Speech-Language Pathology Physiotherapy Nursing Bachelor in Health Sciences TOTAL *Nursing .307 20.133 1.443 359 333 30 42 1. Sc.576 186 . Sco.855 5 691 58 7.234 9.096 13 40 833 359 2.113 346 131 15 10 3 13 146 33 33 217 26 65 1.043 33. (First Year) Sociology and Anthropology Social Services TOTAL GRAND TOTAL 229 2 2.Algonquin Campus Social Sciences General Criminology International Development and Globalization Economics International Studies and Modern Languages Women's Studies Public Administration.216 4.351 101 484 196 136 141 11 61 309 564 232 790 377 467 218 12 136 741 917 1 416 177 357 128 1.346 573 21 98 722 359 23 197 58 46 25 80 1. Management and Governance Political Studies Psychology **B.281 487 97 137 3.
B.: Graduate Level *Collaborative Nursing Program .: Undergraduate Level Grad. Colleges and Universities of Ontario.Algonquin College **Students enrolled in First Year in Social Sciences 187 . Registrations as of November 1st Saint Paul University students and visitors are excluded from all tables Special students.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING NOTES • • • • • • All the data are assembled in accordance with policies and rules of the Ministry of Training.Q. are included Underg. and A.Q. foreign students defined as exchange students from abroad as well as students registered to A.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 188 .
room 127 Phone: 562-5800 ext. room 106 Phone: 562-5333 Fax: 562-5616 email: firstname.lastname@example.org/library/archives/index-e.html Art and Archaeology Slide Library 65 University Private.php Centre for Legal Translation and Documentation 113 Osgoode St. Phone: 562-5407 Fax : 562-5401 189 .biblio.uottawa. Collections and Resource Centres On Campus Schedules are available here : www.ca www.biblio.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX B: Libraries.uottawa.ca www. room 603 Phone: 562-5910 Fax: 562-5133 email: email@example.com/services/tlss/cut Health Sciences Library Roger-Guindon Hall.ca www.ca www.ca/map/index-e.uottawa.ca/hrs-index-e.uottawa.ca Centre for Geographic.php Archives and Special Collections 65 University Private. Phone: 562-5244 Fax: 562-5245 email: dagel@uottawa. Statistical and Governmental Information 65 University Private. 3720 Fax: 562-5133 email: libmedia@uottawa. room 308 Phone: 562-5211 Fax: 562-5133 email: firstname.lastname@example.org. 451 Smyth Rd.ca/associations/ctdj Centre for University Teaching Resource Centre 120 University Private.
Director) www. room 302 Phone: 562-5209 email: email@example.com Reserve Desks www. 50 University Private.ca/academic/education/crplrc/welcome.uottawa.uottawa.ca/library/health Law : Brian Dickson Library Fauteux Hall.uottawa.ca (Hélène Carrier.html Media Resources: 65 University Private Phone: 562-5723 Fax: 562-5133 email: libmedia@uottawa. 145 Jean-Jacques-Lussier.carrier@uottawa. Faculty of Education Lamoureux Hall.biblio. Statistical and Governmental Information 562-5211 Health Sciences (Roger Gundon) 562-5407 Law Library (Fauteux) 562-5812 Learning Resource Centre 562-5800 x4168 Media Resources 562-5723 190 .uottawa.ca/library/droit-law Learning Resource Centre.ca www.uottawa.biblio.ca/library/mrt/index-e. 57 Louis Pasteur Private Phone: 562-5812 Fax: 562-5279 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.ca www.uottawa.html Music Library: Perez Hall.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING email: email@example.com Centre for Geographic.ca www.ca/library/firestone/index-e.ca/media/ Morisset Library: 65 University Private Phone: 562-5882 Fax: 562-5133 email: helene. room 245 Phone: 562-5861 Fax : 562-5146 www.uottawa.ca/form-rsrv-e.
php Morisset Library (Arts and Science) Discipline Audiovisual Biochemistry Biology Chemical Engineering Chemistry Civil Engineering Classical Studies Communication Computer Science Criminology Economics Education Electrical Engineering English Literature Name Ginette Mageau Edith Arbach Halina de Maurivez Edith Arbach Edith Arbach Francine Bisson Ingrid Haase Diego Argáez Francine Bisson Elizabeth Reicker Elizabeth Reicker Ingrid Haase Edith Arbach Caitlin Tillman Telephone E-Mail 562-5800 (3632) 562-5800 (3093) 562-5800 (3596) 562-5800 (3093) 562-5800 (3093) 562-5800 (3616) 562-5800 (3107) 562-5800 (4563) 562-5800 (3616) 562-5800 (3654) 562-5800 (3654) 562-5800 (3107) 562-5800 (3093) 562-5800 (3655) gmageau@uottawa. please check : www.biblio.ca firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org diego.ca email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org ctillman@uottawa.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Morisset Music Library 562-5800 x3596 562-5800 x3638 Subject Librarians 65 University Private Phone: 562-5213 For current information.ca email@example.com@uottawa.ca firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com/lnx-spcte.ca firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com 191 .ca imhaase@uottawa.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING General Reference Gerontology History Human Kinetics Leisure Studies Lettres françaises Library Science Linguistics Jennifer Haire 562-5800 (3615) firstname.lastname@example.org Ann.ca email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Ann.ca earbach@uottawa.Hemingway@uottawa.ca firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Cécile 562-5800 Prud'Homme (3094) Ingrid Haase Ann Hemingway Ann Hemingway Francine Bisson Ann Hemingway 562-5800 (3107) 562-5800 (3656) 562-5800 (3656) 562-5800 (3616) 562-5800 (3656) Cécile 562-5800 Prud'Homme (3094) 562-5800 (3616) 562-5800 (3654) 562-5800 (3093) 562-5800 (3616) 562-5800 (3107) 562-5800 (3638) 562-5800 (3615) 562-5800 (3107) 562-5800 (3093) Littérature canadienne.ca firstname.lastname@example.org cprud@uottawa.Hemingway@uottawa.ca email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Ann.ca email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com fbisson@uottawa.Hemingway@uottawa.Francine française Bisson Management Mathematics Mechanical Engineering Modern Languages and Literatures Music Elizabeth Reicker Edith Arbach Francine Bisson Ingrid Haase Debra Begg Newspaper Articles and Jennifer Current Events Haire Philosophy Physics Psychology Religious Studies Second Language 192 Ingrid Haase Edith Arbach Cécile 562-5800 Prud'Homme (3094) Ingrid Haase Cécile 562-5800 (3107) 562-5800 .
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Teaching Social Work Sociology Spanish Language and Literature Theatre Translation Visual Arts Women's Studies Prud'Homme (3094) Cécile 562-5800 Prud'Homme (3094) Caitlin Tillman Halina de Maurivez Elizabeth Reicker 562-5800 (3655) 562-5800 (3596) 562-5800 (3654) firstname.lastname@example.org Carl 562-5800 Martinez (2725) Louise Gibson Louise Gibson Louise Gibson 562-5800 (2721) 562-5800 (2721) 562-5800 (2721) Carl 562-5800 Martinez (2725) Carl 562-5800 Martinez (2725) Brian Dickson Law Library Discipline Law Name Stephen Park Telephone E-Mail 562-5800 (5845) email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com@uottawa.ca firstname.lastname@example.org hdemauri@uottawa. Statistics and Government Discipline Canadian Government Information Earth Sciences Environmental Studies Geography International Development Political Science Name Telephone E-Mail carl.ca carl.ca email@example.com valerie.ca Cécile 562-5800 Prud'Homme (3094) Ingrid Haase Valerie Critchley 562-5800 (3107) 562-5800 (3881) Geography.firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com@uottawa.ca firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com@uottawa.ca 193 .ca carl.
ca Dianne 562-5418 Kharouba Off Campus Library Services for Distance Students Halina de Maurivez.ca for Cornwall. rooms 405 and 406 (study rooms) contact: Halina de Maurivez Phone: 562-5800 ext.ca www. 3656 Service to Students with Disabilities: Morisset Library.uottawa. Morisset Library 65 University Private Phone: 562-5800 ext.ca www.php?s=12&n=srv-dst 194 .biblio.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Health Sciences Library Discipline Health Sciences and Medicine Name Telephone E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org?s=12&n=srv-dsb Library Orientation and Services for Distance Education: contact: Halina de Maurivez Phone: 562-5800 ext. 3596 Fax: 562-5133 email: email@example.com?s=12&n=srv-dst Student Services Library Tours: Orientation Phone: 562-5800 ext. 3596 or 3046 email: firstname.lastname@example.org. 3596 email: hdemauri@uottawa. Pembroke students www.biblio.ca/page-e.ca/page-e. Hawkesbury.ca/page-e.uottawa.
ca/index. room 339 Phone: 562-5976 Fax: 562-5159 email: email@example.com Academic Appeal Centre University Centre 215A Phone: 562-5800.ca/en/access/ Access Copyright (formerly CANCOPY) Morisset Hall. 4529 Fax: 562-5301 email: ARC-CRA@uottawa.htm 195 . room 124 Phone: 562-5800 ext. 4375 Fax: 562-5153 email: aptpuo@uottawa. 2350 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www. 4364 Fax: 562-5197 email: apuo@uottawa. 3105 Fax: 562-5136 Resource Person: Suzanne Lévesque Email: Suzanne.uottawa. room 215A Phone: 562-5800 ext. 85 University Private.sass.Levesque@uOttawa.ca www.ca/services/equite/arc/index. ext.ca www.ca Access Service Information for faculty and students on accommodating disabilities.uottawa.ca www.ca/associations/aptpuo/ APUO – Association of Professors at the University of Ottawa 85 University Private. room 023 Phone: 562-5800 ext.ca APTPUO – Association of Part Time Professors at the University of Ottawa 85 University Private.uottawa.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX C: Campus Services and Resources Aboriginal Resource Centre 85 University Private.uottawa. room 348 Phone: 562-5800 ext.
ca/associations/SCFP-CUPE2626/ Career Services 85 University Private.htm CUPE 2626 – Canadian Union of Public Employees Local 2626 Union representing Teaching and Research Assistants.uottawa.uottawa. room 501 Phone: 562-5850 Fax: 562-5148 http://www.ca www.to www. You can find your faculty’s regulations in the right hand blue column at the following link: www.ca www.com www. Proctors and SFRB students at the University of Ottawa.uottawa.agorabookstore.php?lang=en 196 .ca/academic/info/regist/crs/homeENG.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Bookstore. room 312 Phone: 562-5806 TTY: 562-5214 Fax: 562-5154 Manager: Patrick Milot email: scs@uottawa. room 303 Phone: 562-5345 Fax: 562-5220 Email: email@example.com. Markers.bkstr.ca Bookstore.html Centre for e-Learning 120 University Private. Student (Agora) 145 Besserer St.tlss.ca/index.ca/students/career/index. Phone : 562-4672 Email : info@agora. 85 University Private. University (CosMos) 85 University Private. course schedules and examinations. Academic Each faculty maintains its own academic regulations affecting grades.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/StoreCatalogDisplay?storeId=11 012 Calendars. requirements. room 04 Phone: 562-5353 Fax: 569-1657 email: ottawa@bookstore.
Bernadette Centre Brooks Complex.ccs.ca/services/tlss/distribution/English/Classrooms/classroom_ho me5.ca www.uottawa.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Centre for Mediated Teaching and Learning 139 Louis Pasteur. including current office hours.ca/ Computing Help Centre On-line help form: http://www.uottawa.uottawa. cultural and community life at the University of Ottawa.ca/students/community/ Computing and Communication Services http://www. instructions for use and a virtual tour of the room.uottawa.htm Each listing contains information on size. Community Life Promotes social. University Centre 318 Phone: 562-5800 ext.uottawa. equipment and lighting inventory.ca www.ca/cybersos Urgent issues: 562-5800 extension 6555 Copy Centres Full information.uottawa. Multimedia Self-Serve Rooms With Podium: (a workshop must be taken in order to obtain access to podium) Full descriptions of all currently available multimedia classrooms can be found at the following website: www.html#bernadette Classrooms.ca/services/hr/newweb/familycare.uottawa.ca/services/tlss/reprography/index.maestro.htm 197 .uottawa.ca Centre for University Teaching 120 University Private.ccs. can be found here : http://www. room 262 Phone: 562-5787 Fax: 562-7499 www.ca/services/tlss/cut Child Care. 4424 Email: commlife@uottawa. 100 Thomas More Private Phone: 562-5937 http://www. room 106 Phone: 562-5333 Fax: 562-5616 email: centre@uottawa.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Main office & services for professors: Morisset Hall. room 022 Phone: 562-5876 Louis Pasteur Branch : 139 Louis Pasteur.html Graduate Student Association (GSAED) 601 Cumberland St.uottawa.ca http://www. 4th Floor Phone: 562-5200 Fax: 562-5964 http://www. Tabaret Hall.ca www. 65 University Private. 451 Smyth Rd.ca/gsaed/ Health Services 100 Marie Curie. room 023 Phone: 562-5876 Morisset Main Office: 65 University Private. Phone: 562-5800 ext.ca/ 198 . 6563 Roger Guindon Hall Branch. Phone: 562-5935 Fax: 562-5142 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.ca/personal/ Financial Aid and Awards Service 85 University.ca/students/financial/index. rooms 102 and 123 Phone: 562-5734 Fax: 562-5155 email: email@example.com. 3rd floor Phone: 564-3950 [emergencies included] Fax: 564-6627 www. 8298 Counselling and Personal Development Services 100 Marie Curie.sass.hr./sante Human Resources Service 550 Cumberland. room 157 Phone: 562-5800 ext. room 019 Phone: 562-5832 Fax: 562-5206 email: infohr@uottawa.
and Leave Sector 550 Cumberland. 1555 Occupational Health. Benefits and Information Sector 550 Cumberland. Tabaret Hall. room 046 Phone: 562-5800 ext. Disability. room 046 Phone: 562-5800 ext. Tabaret Hall. room 019 Phone: 562-5800 ext. Tabaret Hall. 1206 or 1747 pension@uOttawa. Tabaret Hall. Tabaret Hall. Tabaret Hall. 1535 Pension Sector 550 Cumberland. 1478 Training and Development Sector 550 Cumberland. room 046 Phone: 562-5800 ext. 1552 Compensation. Tabaret Hall.ca Staffing and Employment Equity Sector 550 Cumberland. room 017 Phone: 562-5800 ext. 1542 InfoService 75 Laurier Ave. Tabaret Hall. East. room 012 Phone: 562-5800 ext. 2315 Systems Sector 550 Cumberland. 1472 Payroll Sector 550 Cumberland. room 019 Phone: 562-5800 ext. Tabaret Hall Phone: 562-5700 Toll Free Phone: (877) 868-8292 Fax: 562-5323 199 . Tabaret Hall. 1477 or 5832 Employee Relations Sector 550 Cumberland.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Academic Labour Relations Sector 550 Cumberland. room 019 Phone: 562-5800 ext. room 06 Phone: 562-5800 ext.
uottawa. Audiovisual Material 65 University Private.ca www.biblio. room 215B Phone: 562-5800 ext.ca/ Physical Resources Service 141 Louis Pasteur Private Phone: 562-5712 Fax: 562-5182 email: infosdi@uottawa. Room 014 Phone: 562-5900 Fax: 562-5316 www.htm Media Resources.ca/en/section/resources/mature.ca/services/tlss/distribution Peer Help Centre 85 University Private.peerhelp. room 211D Phone: 562-5249 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www. Morriset Library Phone: 562-5723 Fax: 562-5133 Email: libmedia@uottawa. 3756 email: email@example.com http://www.sfuo.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Mature Student Centre 85 University Private.ca/services/immeub/eng/prs.ca/media/p.uottawa.uottawa. room 215E Phone: 562-5800 ext.uottawa.htm Pride Centre (GLBTQ) 85 University Private.ca http://www.viecommunautaire.php?g=e&s=5&n=coll Multimedia Distribution Service 65 University Private.ca http://www.ca/student/glbtq Protection Services 141 Louis Pasteur General Inquiries: 562-5499 Emergencies: 562-5411 Fax: 562-5183 200 . 3161 Long-distance:1 -877-UOTTAWA poste 3161 Fax: 562-5969 email: uopride@sfuo.
.ca www. room 3042 Phone: 562-5399 Fax: 562-5336 Courriel : ttbe@uOttawa.asp Technology Transfer and Business Enterprise (TTBE) office 800 King Edward.uottawa.uottawa.ca http://www.ca http://www.uottawa.ca http://www.protection. 7433 (PIED) email: firstname.lastname@example.org/services/rgessrd/rges/index.ca/index.ca http://www. Room 114 Phone: 562-5743 Email: ils-sli@uottawa. 100 Thomas More Private.uottawa.html Sexual Harassment Office 100 Marie Curie. 4th Floor Phone: 562-5222 Fax: 562-5964 Officer: Andrée Daviau email: email@example.com Second Language Institute 600 King Edward Ave.secondlanguage.protection.html Research Services Research Grants and Ethics Services 550 Cumberland.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING email: firstname.lastname@example.org http://web9.harassment. room 102 Phone: 562-5785 Fax: 562-5110 email: email@example.com/en/foot-patrol.uottawa.ca/sexual/ Spiritual Services Centre 201 . room 159 Phone: 562-5841 Fax: 562-5338 Courriel : firstname.lastname@example.org Foot Patrol Phone: 562-5800 ext.ca/en/index.uottawa.ca/index.ca www.html Parking and Traffic Brooks Complex.ca/en/parking.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 85 University Private.sfuo. room 209 Phone: 564-5300 Fax: 564-5237 email: email@example.com/services/tlss Technical Services 202 .communitylife.ca/ Teaching and Learning Support Service 120 University.php Student Federation of the University of Ottawa (SFUO) 85 University Private.ca/welcome. 4525 email: firstname.lastname@example.org/services/sports Fitness Centre.ca http://www.uottawa.ca www.uottawa. room215B Phone: 562-5800 ext. 125 University Private Phone: 562-5789 Fax: 562-5496 www.ca/services/sports Sports Complex 801 King Edward Phone: 562-5789 Fax: 562-5496 www. room 07 Phone: (613) 562-5966 Fax: (613) 562-5966 www.uottawa. Montpetit Phone: 562-5800 ext.sass.ca http://www. 4327 Health & Lifestyle Centre.ca/en/section/resources/spiritual/ Sports Services Montpetit Hall. Sports Complex Phone: 562-5789 Student Academic Success Service (SASS) Phone: (613) 562-5101 Fax: (613) 562-5964 email@example.com.
uottawa.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Technical coordinator: Pierre Bouchard pbouch@uottawa. Room 840 Phone: 562-5892 Fax: 562-5711 email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 562-5800 ext. room 119 Phone: 562-5601 Fax: 562-5229 Email: email@example.com http://www. 0021 Simard Hall (enter from Waller Street) Phone: 562-5800 ext. 4492 Fax: 562-5278 WHMIS (Environmental Health and Safety Service) 1 Nicholas St.ca Writing Academic Writing Help Centre Serves students from all faculties.arts. 2267 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.wrc.uottawa.ca/writing/ Faculty of Arts Writing Centre Services for students in English and Lettres françaises courses.ca www.ca/services/ehss/ Women’s Centre 85 University Private. 110 University Private.uottawa.ca/writcent/ 203 .ca http://www.. 60 University Private.uottawa. room 220 Phone: 562-5755 email: wrc@uottawa.
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uottawa. D.boudreau@uOttawa.ca 562-4945 562-8062 email@example.com@uOttawa.ca sbiage@uOttawa. Carrière.ca sonia. Sarrazin Hong Zhao Tang (schedule MBA) John Udvarhelyi Monique Walker (schedule – EBC) Nathalie Paré Francine Daoust (temp.ca 205 .uottawa.ca Administration 562-5884 x4718 562-4669 562-4763 562-4714 562-5404 firstname.lastname@example.org Architecture Jean Guénette Sonia Cadieux Academic Administrator 562-6579 562-1028 562-1017 562-5335 jguenett@uottawa.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX D: Persons responsible for scheduling in faculties.uottawa.ca 562-3825 mbrodeur@uOttawa.ca email@example.com jpouliot@uOttawa. schools and departments Updated April 2007 FACULTY NAME Alain Boisvenue Annabelle Mineault (schedule –ADM undergraduate level) N.ca 562-3072 firstname.lastname@example.org chantal.uottawa.ca email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Administration Nursing 562-8032 francine.uottawa.ca jtrude2@uOttawa.ca Arts Jacynthe Pouliot Supervisor of Academic Services Josianne Trudel (Secretary) Canadian Studies – Schedule Houria Messad Classical and Religious Studies Communication – Schedule Mélanie Brodeur 562-3231 hmessadh@uOttawa.) (schedule NSG-ERGPHT-REA) Francine Daoust (schedule NSG-ERGPHT-REA) Karen Littlejohn (schedule –NSG graduate level and PHT graduate) Lynda Chénard (schedule -HS-PHA-ANP-BAC) Suzanne Biagé Academic Administrator TELEPHONE 562-5821 x4664 E-MAIL email@example.com@uOttawa.uottawa.ca firstname.lastname@example.org mwalker@uottawa.
ca mletourn@uOttawa.ca email@example.com hlabelle@uottawa.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING English – Schedule Marie Tremblay-Chénier Yves Desnoyers Geography/Geomatics and Spatial Analysis/Environmental Studies Schedule– Sylvie Letang History and Medieval Studies Schedule Manon Bouladier-Major Lettres françaises – Horaire Marjolaine Létourneau Linguistics – Schedule Jeanne D’arc Turpin Modern Languages and Literatures – Schedule Michelle Sigouin Music–Schedule Linda Bergeron Philosophy – Schedule Jocelyne Lacasse Second Language – Schedule Marthe Bergeron Theatre – Schedule Nathalie Parent Translation– Schedule Odette Thauvette Visual Arts-Schedule Carolle Girouard Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology Linda Fulton (schedule as well as for ERG graduate level) Céline Sarazin Nicole Bernier (Schedule) Pauline Laferrière (Schedule) Chrystine Frank (Schedule) Nathalie Gravelle Paulette Baddour Andréa Palasczka (APALACZ) Hélène Labelle 562-1133 562-1132 mchenier@uOttawa.ca apalaczk@uOttawa.ca Civil Law 562-3216 562-3218 562-3738 firstname.lastname@example.org 562-3752 562-2325 562-3697 562-3390 msigouin@uOttawa.ca Common Law Conventions and Reservations Service 206 .ca 562-1757 jaturpin@uOttawa.ca ottrans@uOttawa.ca email@example.com@uOttawa.ca jlacasse@uOttawa.bouladiermajor@uOttawa.ca paulette.ca firstname.lastname@example.org cgirour@uOttawa.baddour@uOttawa.ca email@example.com 562-1062 sletang@uOttawa.ca 562-315 562-1083 manon.ca lbergero@uOttawa.ca 562-3727 562-3228 562-3725 562-8063 nathalie.ca 562-3272 562-3273 562-3077 562-4414 562-4415 firstname.lastname@example.org yves@uOttawa.ca mbergero@uOttawa.
PHS.ca raymond@uottawa. PHA.ca Human Kinetics 562-4238 562-2419 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org ntrudel@uottawa. ANP Fay Draper (Schedule) EPI Guylaine Renaud (Schedule) MED.ca email@example.com@uOttawa.ca 562-5424 cakelly@uottawa.CLI.ca rlebland@uOttawa. NSC.ca Psychology (SSOC) Joanne Chartrand Academic Administrator all levels 562-4183 jchartra@uOttawa.ca frederick.ca firstname.lastname@example.orgOttawa.ca 562-8164 Nurse Practitioner Technical Support Strategic Enrolment Management 562-8443 562-2423 email@example.com monique.rainville@uOttawa.ca Engineering 562-5784 562-6178 562-5347 marie.ca 562-8396 562-8008 562-8427 dhooper@uottawa. Microbiology) Francine Drouin Denis Soulière 562-4413 562-5771 562-5771 562-5787 562-4021 562-4427 562-4024 562-4025 562-6702 marsenau@uOttawa.BCH.ca grenaud@uottawa.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING (HXLZY) Mandy Arsenault (MARSENA) Reception Distance Teaching Education Lilian Hajjar Denise Raymond Madeleine Fortier Marie Beaulieu Stéphanie Tavares Frédérick Tremblay (Schedule – undergraduate level) Marie Rainville (Schedule – graduate level) Monique Lalonde Natacha Chiasson (Schedule – graduate level) Joanne Howard Rachelle Leblanc (schedule-APA) Lise O'Reilly (Schedule)) Carol Ann Kelly (Schedule) BMI.ca Kinanthropology Medicine 562-2236 lcosa@uottawa. MIC. HMG Donna Hooper (Schedule) CMM.ca firstname.lastname@example.org natacha. ELE Nicole Trudel (Schedule) Biochemistry.ca 207 . ANA.lalonde@uOttawa.ca email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org.
ca Sciences Biopharmaceutical Sciences – Schedule Lynda Baron Environmental Sciences and Earth Sciences – Schedule Hélène De Gouffe Mathematics and Statistics – Schedule Michelle Lukaszczyk Physics – Schedule2 Madeleine Thomas Nadine Roberge Supervisor of Academic Services France Dompierre (Requests for schedule modification or swap have to be sent to France Dompierre) Criminology – schedule Anne Donavan Economics – schedule Diane Ritchot 562-6033 lbaron@.ca 562-5171 562-5727 email@example.com 562-6870 hdegouf@uOttawa.uOttawa.ca nroberge@uOttawa.ca 562-5729 562-5846 elegault@uOttawa.uottawa.ca firstname.lastname@example.org dritchot@uOttawa.ca Louise Smith Academic service officer Schedule – Biomedical Sciences and Ophthalmic Medical Technology Annie Robillard – Schedule Exams Diane Perras – Schedule Exams Biology – Schedule Edith Legault Biochemistry and Biotechnology – Schedule Mireille Bruyere Chemistry and 562-6001 562-6031 email@example.com Social Sciences 562-1809 562-1428 adonovan@uOttawa.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Julie Monette (Schedule undergraduate level)e Mireille Coté (Schedule – graduate level)e Louise Labelle Undergraduate Programs Co-ordinator 562-4184 562-4197 firstname.lastname@example.orgOttawa.uOttawa.uOttawa.uOttawa.ca 208 .ca 562-6750 562-1726 mthomas@uOttawa.ca email@example.com 562-1700 firstname.lastname@example.org 562-5788 mlukas@uOttawa.ca email@example.com dperras@science.
firstname.lastname@example.org dsoulier@uottawa. Dev.ca mgouiaa@uOttawa.ca 562-1890 email@example.com 562-6384 hmlafra@uOttawa. and Int. : 613-8642299 5626576 236-1393 ext.ca 209 .schedule Éliane Lafrenière Political Studies Anick Mineault (horaire EIL.ca UNIVERSITÉ STPAUL Francine Forgues firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Technical Support Strategic Enrolment Management Benoit Asselin Transport Serge Lafrance 562-6576 Cell.ca 562-1256 frprud@uOttawa.PAP.ca SIS Bertin Paulin Mohammed Gouiaa Sylvain Léonard Denis Soulière 562-2944 562-2751 562-1918 562-2423 bpaulin@uOttawa. 2237 benoit.ca slafranc@uOttawa.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Glob.POL) Social work – schedule Hélène Lafrance Sociology and Anthropology– schedule France Prud’homme Women’s Studies – schedule Margot Charbonneau 562-2833 562-1546 amineau@uOttawa.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 210 .
provides inter alia that every person who is an employee has a right to freedom from harassment in the workplace because of sex. Sexual harassment is: a) unwanted sexual attention from a person who knows or ought reasonably to know that such attention is unwanted. and promotes due respect of and regard for the rights and feelings of all. the University has made a commitment to create an atmosphere of reciprocal respect among members of the University community. the University recognizes as well that all members of the University community are entitled to a working and learning environment which is pleasant. and whereas. or c) implied or expressed threat of reprisal or actual reprisal for refusal to comply with a sexually oriented request. and whereas. the University affirms that sexual harassment is a negation of reciprocal respect in addition to being a violation of the fundamental rights. Definition 2. or b) implied or expressed promise of reward for complying with a sexually oriented request.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX E Policy 67: Policy on sexual harassment Preamble 1. and whereas romantic or sexual relationships between faculty members and students or between supervisors and employees or students are ones in which a power differential may exist. dignity and integrity of the person and that it undermines the environment required for the advancement of learning and the dissemination of knowledge. provides that one of the University of Ottawa's objectives is to promote the advancement of learning and the dissemination of knowledge. 1965. or d) a sexual relationship which constitutes an abuse of power in a relationship of trust. or e) a sexually oriented remark or behaviour which may reasonably be perceived to create a negative psychological and emotional environment for work or study. 1981. and expects members of its community to refrain from engaging in them. and whereas an abuse of that power differential creates a negative environment for work and study and casts doubt on the validity of the consent to such relationships. and whereas the Ontario Human Rights Code. the University therefore strongly disapproves of romantic or sexual relationships between faculty members and students or between supervisors and employees or students. professional. Whereas the University of Ottawa Act. 211 . in recognition of its responsibility to have an appropriate environment for the discovery and sharing of knowledge.
two people h) Clinical professor .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Committee on sexual harassment (CSH) Structure 3. 9. 7. a) maintain confidential records. the offended party may contact the Sexual Harassment Officer for advice or to make a verbal or written complaint.three people e) 796A. The Chair of the Committee on Sexual Harassment must appoint a Sexual Harassment Officer whose duties include counselling and recommending on matters related to sexual harassment as well as investigating under the authority of the Chair of the Committee on Sexual Harassment or Dean where appropriate.one person d) Support Staff Executive Committee . 796B .one person c) Graduate Students' Association . The Committee is chaired by the Secretary of the University. 10. Any complaint should be made as soon as possible but in any event. b) make recommendations with respect to the Sexual Harassment Policy and Procedure. in addition. In a case of suspected or alleged sexual harassment. a complaint will not be considered if it is made more than six months after the alleged incident. Terms of reference 6. who then appoints members of the Committee as follows: a) Administrative Committee . c) provide an investigative and hearing process for the settlement or determination of sexual harassment complaints. The Committee must. The primary mandate of the Committee is to develop and coordinate an education and awareness program on campus relating to sexual harassment. d) report its activities annually to the Administrative Committee.one person f) Association of Part-Time Professors of the University of Ottawa (APTPUO) one person g) Association of Professors of the University of Ottawa (APUO) . Each of the groups listed below must forward five nominations to the Secretary of the University. 212 .two people b) Students' Federation . Appointments are for a period of two years. 4. unless exceptional circumstances exist.two people 5. Complaint procedure General 8.
5. b) Where the respondent is a member of APUO. 12. if the matter cannot be resolved informally. The Sexual Harassment Officer must. pursuant to 39.a)i) or 16. and the file will then be closed. No further official steps may be taken unless the complaint is in writing and signed by the complainant. i) If the Sexual Harassment Officer determines that 16. The Sexual Harassment Officer may assist the complainant in formulating a reply. or ii) that no further action be taken because a settlement has been reached.1.a) The Sexual Harassment Officer files as soon as possible. A complaint may be made by either the individual or individuals who have been directly affected by the alleged sexual harassment or by any person who has actual knowledge that sexual harassment has taken place. the Chief Librarian or the Director of the Career and Counselling Service.a)ii) applies. the Sexual Harassment Officer assists the complainant with the written form. vexatious or vindictive. 16. setting out all of the information obtained as well as copies of all documentation filed by both parties and recommending: i) that no further action be taken because the complaint is frivolous. The Sexual Harassment Officer may assist the respondent in the preparation of a response. the following provisions apply. If a response is received. who then proceeds with an investigation pursuant to 39. and determine whether there is a need to refer the matter to another appropriate body. any additional information obtained from the complainant and a request that the respondent reply to the complaint in writing within five working days. arrange a meeting with the complainant in order to obtain information to confirm and clarify the circumstances giving rise to the complaint. 213 . or iii) that a Complaint Panel be appointed. or because the conduct complained of cannot reasonably be said to fall within the definition of sexual harassment as set out in section 2.a)i) nor 16. The Sexual Harassment Officer then forwards to the person against whom the complaint is made (hereinafter referred to as the respondent) a copy of the written complaint filed. within five working days of the receipt of complaint.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 11. ii) If the Sexual Harassment Officer determines that neither 16.2 of the agreement. 13. the Sexual Harassment Officer will convene a meeting with the parties to attempt a settlement.a)ii) applies. but in any event within thirty days of receipt of the complaint. 14. the Chief Librarian or the Director of the Career and Counselling Service. but that the complaint should be dealt with further.6 of the APUO collective agreement. Except where the Sexual Harassment Officer is absolutely convinced that there is no possibility of settlement by agreement or withdrawal. A copy of the report is sent to the complainant and the respondent. he or she. 15. The Sexual Harassment Officer notifies the complainant and the respondent that the matter has been referred to the Dean. In the case of a complaint made verbally. forwards the appropriate documentation to the member's Dean. a report with the Chair of the CSH. he or she will inform the complainant and the respondent of his or her determination in writing. the Sexual Harassment Officer forwards a copy of such response to the complainant and the complainant has five working days to reply in writing.
The Complaint Panel will.a)i) the complainant has the right to appeal such a decision by forwarding to the Chair a notice to that effect within ten working days of the receipt of the Sexual Harassment Officer's report. b) When the respondent is a member of APUO. after the expiry of the time granted to the respondent to reply to the notice of appeal. if so: a) recommend appropriate disciplinary action. Such meeting will be held on a mutually convenient date. c) recommendations as to appropriate disciplinary action and other measures which in its opinion are necessary in the circumstances. In the event that a notice of appeal is filed. In the event that the recommendation is to appoint a Complaint Panel. the Chair appoints a Complaint Panel pursuant to paragraph 17. The report of the Complaint Panel must be in writing and delivered to the Chair of the CSH within ten working days of the meeting referred to in paragraph 18. 23. 24. the following replaces the provisions of 26. The Complaint Panel invites the complainant and the respondent to appear before it to submit any additional pertinent documentation and make oral submissions. 20. 26. the Chair must forward a copy of the report to the Administrative Committee for appropriate action. the Chair immediately appoints three members of the CSH and nominates one of the appointees to the chair. If the report of the Complaint Panel contains any recommendations. but in any event within twenty working days of the appointment of the Panel. a) The Complaint Panel notifies the parties in writing of its decision within five working days. In the event that the Sexual Harassment Officer recommends that no further action be taken pursuant to sub-paragraph 16. review all the material considered by the Sexual Harassment Officer as well as all other material filed to determine whether the grounds of appeal reasonably establish that the Sexual Harassment Officer was in error in making his or her recommendation and that the appointment of a Complaint Panel should have been recommended. b) a determination as to whether the acts complained of constitute sexual harassment as defined in article 2. 25. The report must provide: a) a summary of the relevant facts. if any. The Complaint Panel notifies the parties in writing of its decision within five 214 . 21. 19 and 20. b) recommend any other measures it considers appropriate for remedying or mitigating any academic or employment harm or disadvantage suffered by any person as a result of the sexual harassment. Appeals 22. The notice of appeal must clearly set out all of the factors relied on by the complainant in disputing the recommendation made. 18. The Complaint Panel must determine whether the acts complained of constitute sexual harassment and.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 17. 19.a). and if the Panel agrees with the complainant that the Sexual Harassment Officer should have recommended the appointment of a Complaint Panel then the matter proceeds in accordance with paragraphs 18.
30. reprimand. Nothing in this policy prevents a complainant from seeking redress in any court and/or through the Ontario Human Rights Commission in addition to or instead of following the procedures outlined above. The filing of a complaint of sexual harassment is the right of every member of the University community and may be exercised without fear of reprisal or threat thereof.6 of the APUO collective agreement so that an investigation pursuant to 39. the Committee must ensure that: a) any reports of the Sexual Harassment Officer or reports of the Complaint Panel required to be considered by the CSH be amended so as to protect the identity of the complainant and of the respondent. Rights of complainant and respondent 32. constitute grounds for disciplinary action against that individual. In addition. suspension. The University's procedures for dealing with complaints of sexual harassment are carried out independently of any investigations being or to be conducted by any outside agency. it being understood that any disciplinary action must be undertaken in conformity with the procedures set out in the relevant collective agreement or University policy.2 could be carried out. Confidentiality of records 31. 27. For the purpose of this policy. the respondent's connection to the University. If the Panel confirms the Sexual Harassment Officer's recommendation. If the Panel agrees with the complainant that the Sexual Harassment Officer should have forwarded the file to the Dean. Any disciplinary action taken against an employee or a student may be subject to a grievance or an appeal in accordance either with the procedures set out in any applicable collective agreement or with the policies and procedures of the University.5. the Panel orders that this be done. disciplinary action includes but is not limited to an apology. the mere fact that a complaint has been filed against an individual does not. b) all procedures and deliberations of the Complaint Panel be held in camera. the Chief Librarian or the Director of the Career and Counselling Service pursuant to 39. in and of itself. expulsion or dismissal. depending on the seriousness of the conduct. 215 . the respondent's prior record and any mitigating factors. Any complaint received pursuant to this policy must be considered to be strictly confidential and all committee members are under a duty to take all necessary steps to maintain such confidentiality. transfer. 28. the complaint file will be closed and no further action may be taken by the complainant pursuant to this policy. but without limiting the generality of the foregoing. In particular.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING working days.1. Disciplinary action 29.
No exception may be made to this policy without the written consent of the Administrative Committee.ca/admingov/reg-e.ca/admingov/reg-e.php?id=67 POLICY 67A : “Policy on sexual harassment applicable to all members of the university community except when the respondent is an APUO member” can be found here : web5.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Exception 33. Revised March 17.uottawa.php?id=67a 216 . 1998 (Office of the Secretary) web5.uottawa.
The policy must be posted at conspicuous locations on the health and safety bulletin boards. materials and protective devices. 3. 4. and supervision to employees to protect their health or their safety. without limiting the requirements imposed by the OH&S Act the University shall: • • • provide equipment. To achieve this. and shall maintain them in good condition and ensure that they are used as prescribed under the OH&S Act ensure the measures and procedures prescribed are carried out in the workplace. The University of Ottawa recognizes its legal and moral responsibilities in health and safety for the University community by ensuring sound and safe conditions in all its activities.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX F Policy 77: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY Purpose 1. In accordance with the Occupational Health and Safety Act (OH&S Act). provincial and municipal laws. This policy takes into account all existing federal. 217 . provide information. all reasonable precautions having regard to the particular circumstances of each case will be taken to ensure the protection of employees in the performance of their duties. Roles and Responsibilities of the University 5. instruction. regulations and guidelines. 58 (Regulation on Smoking in University Buildings) and 87 (Temporary Interruption of University Activities at a Faculty. School or Service). Having regard for the protection of employees. 2. the University must prepare and review at least annually a written occupational health and safety policy and develop and maintain a program to implement that policy. It must be read in conjunction with University policies 18 (Workmen's Compensation). The University of Ottawa has a Joint University Occupational Health and Safety Committee structure which has been sanctioned by the Ministry of Labour and whose terms of reference are contained in the document detailing the Committee's structure.
218 . materials and protective devices required for research projects will be paid from the grant supporting the research project. Directors. chairs and principal investigators who must show due diligence in the application of health and safety measures in general and who must ensure that those under their authority are diligent in the application of their responsibilities. provide the Occupational Health and Safety Committee with the results of reports prepared respecting occupational health and safety. the responsibility for health and safety in faculties and services lies with the deans. where prescribed in the OH&S Act. In the application of the responsibilities stated in Section 5. afford assistance and co-operation to the Occupational Health and Safety Committee or any of its members in discharging their responsibilities under the OH&S Act or its regulations. they must also: • • • • • • keep informed of the health and safety needs of employees under their authority. they are competent with respect to their responsibilities under the OH&S Act. in particular. carry out training programs for employees. safeguard workers from undue exposure to biological. 6. chemical or physical agents as prescribed under the OH&S Act.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • • • • • ensure that when appointing supervisors. directors. incorporate preventive measures in all functions and activities in which there may be some incident or accident with health-related consequences. supervisors and committee members as may be prescribed under the OH&S Act. advise workers of the results of occupational health and safety reports. provide workers with written instructions as to the measures and procedures to be taken for the protection of employees. Where applicable and when allowed by the granting agency. section 4). provide assistance and co-operation to the University Occupational Health and Safety Committee and to its Sectoral Occupational Health and Safety Committee members in the carrying out of their functions as stipulated in the terms of reference under which they must act (cf. ensure that their supervisory personnel are aware of their health and safety responsibilities and that they provide proper information and instructions to individuals under their supervision. equipment. Roles and Responsibilities of Deans. provide safety training opportunities for all their personnel. Chairpersons and Principal Investigators 7. initiate necessary preventive measures to control health and safety hazards associated with activities under their authority.
Roles and Responsibilities of Employees 9. measures and procedures required under the OH&S Act. incorporate preventive measures in all functions and activities in which there may be some incident or accident with health-related consequences. use or wear the equipment. initiate necessary preventive measures to control health and safety hazards associated with activities under their authority. Supervisors and principal investigators or anyone who has charge of a workplace or authority over other employees must show due diligence in the application of health and safety measures in general. ensure that employees under their authority use or wear the equipment. not use or operate any equipment. in particular they must also: • • • • • • keep informed of the health and safety regulations applicable to the employees under their authority.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • report accidents and incidents according to sections 17 and 18 of this policy and investigate reports and further actions according to section 19 of this policy. machine. device or thing or work in a manner that endangers themselves or other employees and not remove or make ineffective any protective device required by the regulation or by the 219 . report accidents and incidents according to sections 17 and 18 of this policy and investigate such reports and further actions according to section 19 of this policy. ensure that employees under their authority work in the manner and with the protective devices. The responsibility for health and safety lies with all University personnel in the performance of their duties. the following particular requirements must be adhered to by all University employees: • • • • work in compliance with the provisions of the OH&S Act and all health and safety procedures and instructions. report to the appropriate supervisory staff all known health and safety hazards or any violation of the OH&S Act or its regulations. protective devices or clothing required. Roles and Responsibilities of Supervisors and Principal Investigators 8. In addition. protective devices or clothing that the University requires to be used or worn and report to their supervisors the absence of or defect in any equipment or protective device of which they are aware and which may endanger themselves or other employees.
without providing an adequate temporary protective device. not engage in any prank. and . directors. contest. when the need for removing the protective device has ceased. handling and disposal of these materials. 11. Deans. they must ensure: • • that material safety data sheets are available and up-to-date. storage. All employees exposed to. the original protective device shall be reinstalled immediately. The University must ensure that workplace-specific and mandatory training is provided to employees to conduct their activities safely. 15.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • University. Units where health-and-safety-related training has been provided will maintain up-to-date data bases regarding the training provided (centrally or locally). deans. a hazardous material or to a hazardous physical agent must receive and participate in instruction and training regarding the use. Employees are required to attend mandatory training sessions related to their work environment. unnecessary running or rough and boisterous conduct or otherwise endanger their co-workers or themselves. 14. or likely to be exposed to. that all hazardous materials in the workplace are identified in the prescribed manner. Workplace Hazardous Materials Information Systems (WHIMIS) 13. directors. Training 10. In particular. If material safety data sheets are accessible on a computer terminal at a workplace. chairpersons and principal investigators are responsible for ensuring that all legally required systems and procedures are in place with respect to WHMIS. 12. feat of strength. report accidents and incidents according to sections 17 and 18 of this policy and investigate such reports and further actions according to section 19 of this policy. for consultation by all employees exposed to or likely to be exposed to hazardous materials or who must handle such materials. chairpersons and principal investigators shall: • • 220 take all reasonable steps necessary to keep the terminal in working order. give a worker a copy of the material safety data sheet upon request.
In cases of critical injury or death. emissions) must be entered on an Accident. fires. including accidental spills and emissions both inside and outside the workplace. This must be done according to the University's Investigation Guidelines Following a Work-related Accident or Incident. appropriate means of communications must be in place to reach Protection Services or designated first-aiders for the area. Incident or Occupational Disease Report. Reporting and Investigation of Incidents and Accidents 17. Disability and Leave Sector within 24 hours of the occurrence. biological or radioactive substances and physical agents. 16. The Occupational Health and Safety Officer must notify the Ministry of Labour immediately after a critical injury or a fatality and must send a written report to the Ministry of Labour within 48 hours or its occurrence. and the supervisor must submit the report to the Occupational Health.g. To ensure this. or likely to be exposed to. Communications in Cases of Emergencies 20. or after accidents and incidents involving chemicals. spills. 18. Employees who are exposed to. and other potentially serious incidents (e. a hazardous material or agent have the responsibility of consulting material safety data sheets for these materials. or where the type of activity 221 . 21. In accordance with Regulation 1101 . the Occupational Health and Safety Committee may investigate and inspect the workplace where the accident occurred. 19. All accidents. The Occupational Health and Safety Committee may assist when necessary and will make appropriate recommendations for corrective actions to the dean or director involved. Deans and directors will ensure that telephones for emergency are installed in University laboratories with increased risk due to the presence or use of hazardous materials in quantities capable of causing injury.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • teach committee members and employees who work with or close to hazardous materials how to retrieve the material safety data sheet on the computer terminal. The supervisor must advise Protection Services immediately after a serious or critical injury or fatality. the University must provide immediate first-aid assistance to an injured worker. Responsibility for investigating and for taking appropriate actions against recurrences lies primarily with the dean or director concerned.First Aid Requirements.
penalized. Disciplinary Measures 22. 2000 (Human Resources Service) 222 . intimidated or suspended for complying with this policy or the OH&S Act and its regulations. or if the room is isolated from public areas and there is limited access to a telephone. Exception 25. No exception may be made to this policy without the written consent of the Administrative Committee. coerced.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING performed is at a level where risks of injury can occur. dismissed. Reprisal Prohibited 23. External Contracts 24. Revised March 15. No employee can be disciplined. Contracting officers of the University must ensure that external contracts include a requirement for adherence to the OH&S Act and its regulations. Employees who contravene this policy are subject to disciplinary measures in accordance with the policies (Policy 2d Disciplinary Measures for Reprehensible Acts) and collective agreements governing their work conditions.
We will continue protecting individual rights and safeguarding the principles of equal opportunity and equitable treatment. any academic evaluation may be appealed through procedures specified by the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies (FGPS). Not only are students learning for their own benefit. in which our students. No student will suffer academic consequences as a result of exercising his/her rights under this policy. This policy covers all full-time and part-time graduate students registered at the University of Ottawa. their rights and privileges are specified by collective agreements. the University of Ottawa made the following commitment: "We will provide a safe and inviting intellectual. As students." The University recognizes the many contributions of graduate students to this institution and is committed to offering them protection from abuse in all aspects of their relationship with the University. Others may also function as employees (for example. research assistants). In its strategic plan approved in 1995. 223 . This policy shall have effect 30 days after approval by the Board of Governors of the University of Ottawa. teaching assistants. in particular (but not limited to) • • • • • • discrimination harassment and intimidation fair and equitable treatment intellectual property academic misconduct or fraud health and safety Application 2. As employees. cultural and social environment. sessional lecturers. but many contribute to the research life of the University as a required part of their degree programs. faculty and staff are motivated and challenged to perform at their highest potential. The purpose of this document is to address other aspects of the graduate student's experience at the University of Ottawa.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX G Policy 110: Policy on treatment of graduate students on nonacademic and non-employment issues Preamble 1.
race. The procedures for recourse in this policy may be used as well in any circumstance where any other policy of the University of Ottawa is applied or should be applied to a graduate student or graduate students other than situations involving: • • the appeal of academic decisions related to grades or other requirements for entry into or completion of degree or diploma programs. belittling. sexual orientation/choice. including. citizenship. intimidating. or adversely affects the environment for study. national or ethnic origin. In such cases. or is offensive. creed. No member of the academic community shall be subjected to harassment or intimidation. shouting. the relevant collective agreement shall apply. colour. or the exercise of rights under this policy. Such appeals are subject to the general regulations of the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies. vexatious or vindictive. Harassment 5. academic or religious beliefs or affiliations. but not limited to: verbal or written intimidation/harassment (for example. embarrassing or humiliating. whether deliberate or inadvertent. ancestry. No member of the academic community shall be subject to discrimination by reason of age. There shall be no discrimination on the basis of language except where language competence is an academic requirement and is consistent with the University's policy and regulations on bilingualism. Definitions and Statements of Principle Discrimination 4. swearing. age. parental or family status. b) Non-sexual harassment: Harassment involves engaging in a course of comment or conduct. which denies individuals their dignity and/or respect. any issue subject to a collective agreement between the University and one of its unions. • • a) Sexual Harassment: The University's Policy 67 on sexual harassment shall apply to any complaints of sexual harassment and may be addressed to the University of Ottawa Sexual Harassment Officer. The procedures for recourse in this policy are not intended to supersede Policy 67 on sexual harassment or Policy 110a on soft-funded research bursaries. or to student status. or membership or non-membership in any student organization. political. There are many types of harassing or intimidating behaviour. sex.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 3. that is known or ought to be known to be unwelcome. disability. marital. 224 . demeaning comments or communications).
225 . The usual responsibilities and expectations of both parties are outlined in general terms in the FGPS document "Research and Thesis".CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING physical intimidation/harassment (this includes any violent or threatening behaviour). Graduate students have the right to be treated according to commonly accepted norms of fairness and ethical behaviour. Moreover. soft-funded research bursaries. including but not limited to: financial aid. impartially. proctors. c) Funding opportunities: It is understood that some programs have established guidelines setting minimum guaranteed funding levels and durations for graduate students. subject to the availability of funds and the eligibility conditions as specified by the agency in question. research assistants. reprisal or threat of reprisal. In particular: • • • a) All academic evaluations will be performed fairly. There are many sources of funding available to graduate students. employment as part-time professors. Any appeal of an academic evaluation must be made in writing in accordance with the appeal procedures of the FGPS. scholarships. No graduate student shall be subjected to educational imbalance (this may include inadequate supervision and/or excessive demands without educational merit). Scholarships awarded by the University and by external agencies recognize academic merit. It is expected that programs will make these policies known and accessible to students in writing. and will abide by them unless all parties agree to an exception in writing. b) The nature of the relationship between thesis director and student is unique. laboratory monitors and demonstrators. Professors and students must always act in accordance with University policies. laboratory monitors and demonstrators. teaching assistants. and are awarded on a strictly competitive basis. markers. • • Financial aid is awarded based on financial need and is subject to provincial or federal regulations. and will vary according to the individuals and discipline involved. proctors. markers. research assistants. Fair and Equitable Treatment 6. The University is committed to at least maintaining these levels and encourages graduate programs that do not currently have such guidelines to introduce them in accordance with University of Ottawa practices. and by the collective agreement with CUPE 2626 in the case of teaching assistants. The rights and privileges of students as employees are governed by the APTPUO collective agreement in the case of part-time professors. and in a timely manner. tutors.
In exceptional circumstances this may entail foregoing normal holidays or absences. Victoria Day. Students have the right to receive appropriate recognition for and to benefit from their research endeavours. University policy on intellectual property rights is defined by Policy 29 on Patents and in the collective agreements with the APUO. it is understood that it is the student's responsibility to ensure that he or she meets all academic deadlines. Good Friday. Labour Day. Canada Day. as indicated above. any absence in excess of four weeks must be approved by the FGPS. both from hard (HFRA) and soft funds (SFRA). and to carry out his or her research in a timely manner. provided satisfactory progress is maintained. without imposed academic activities. in addition to official holidays and the Christmas shutdown. and shall not normally be required to perform academic activities between December 23 and the first day of classes in January. the 226 . provided that it does not impinge on course requirements. Christmas Day. Soft funds may be used to offer "soft-funded research bursaries" (SFRB). It is understood that a professor will not discontinue the soft-funded support of a student making satisfactory progress during the normal duration of the program (as determined by the policy of the academic unit) in order to offer funding to a new student. Likewise. When a thesis director offers an SFS. are regarded as employment and are subject to the collective agreement with CUPE 2626. However. two of which must be consecutive. Such scholarships are subject to the FGPS Policy on Soft-Funded Scholarships. Boxing Day and any other statutory holiday or other holiday declared by the University's Board of Governors. Intellectual Property 7. Students are entitled to observe holidays associated with their religion. • d) Holidays and absences: Students are not normally required to perform academic activities on any of the following holidays: New Year's Day. Civic Holiday. SFRA or SFRB to his/her student. which are defined in and subject to Policy 110a. Requests for short term absences for just cause will not unreasonably be denied. Easter Monday. a student may expect to have a period of three weeks.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • Professors may use their own research funds (soft funds) to offer "soft-funded scholarships"(SFS) to their students on a non-competitive basis. Thanksgiving Day. Notwithstanding the above. Research assistantships. it is assumed that the professor will make reasonable efforts to secure adequate soft funds to continue to support the student in accordance with the funding policy of the academic unit.
to protect herself and her fetus.2. including a modification of her academic program. Academic or scientific misconduct or fraud 8. the following: • • • • • • plagiarism or cheating false claims of authorship or ownership of intellectual property falsification or concoction of research data.3 of the FGPS publication "Research Ethics". any student who is concerned about his/her health and safety in performing an assignment or activity required by his/her academic program may bring this to the attention of the University's sectoral occupational health and safety committee. she shall report her pregnancy to her thesis director.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APTPUO. If the assignment or activity is found to be safe. The University will not tolerate any form of academic or scientific misconduct or fraud on the part of any member of the academic community. This includes. and a modified program will be implemented for the 227 . and the University's Radiation Safety Inspector. the University abides by those principles as shown in Policies 77 and 91. Notwithstanding the fact that Health and Safety Committees are established under legislation for workers. If the student considers such an assignment or activity to be unsafe. The University's guidelines on authorship are stated in Articles 3. lack of honesty in the collection or interpretation of data attribution of a purported statement or reference to a source which has been concocted falsification or misrepresentation of a document. the Occupational Health and Safety Nurse. but is not limited to. and CUPE 2626. Health and Safety 9. where appropriate. While students are not subject to the provincial legislation on occupational health and safety. he/she may suspend its performance and request that a member of the University's sectoral occupational health and safety committee investigate and determine whether it is safe. or use of a falsified document colluding with colleagues in committing academic or scientific misconduct or fraud Academic fraud and scientific misconduct are dealt with pursuant to the Senate Policy on Academic Fraud and the applicable collective agreements. Should she request any such measures. the student must perform it.2. Any student who becomes pregnant may request precautionary measures.2 and 3. The University is responsible for providing all of its students with a safe and healthy working environment. Students are covered by the general liability insurance held by the University.
Women of childbearing age should ensure that they seek all relevant information concerning exposure to hazardous materials. The Policy 110 Joint Consultative Committee shall be composed of two graduate students named by the GSAED. Meetings may be called by either party on written notice of five working days or by mutual consent. Recourse 11. with the exception of any employment issue subject to a collective agreement. including those which are biohazardous in nature. any graduate student or group of graduate students shall have access to this procedure for recourse in order to compel the fair application of any existing University policy pertaining to graduate students. from the appropriate MSDS information and/or the Radiation Safety Inspector. A graduate student may be assisted or represented at any step of this recourse process by a person of his/her choice. 228 . Recommendations from the Policy 110 Joint Consultative Committee for such regulations or procedures shall go directly to the Administrative Committee. unless the vaccination is required as a prerequisite of admission to a program of study. As noted above. Policy 110 Joint Consultative Committee 10. The Policy 110 Joint Consultative Committee shall meet as necessary. or any policy. The University agrees that it will not amend the current prerequisites of admission relating to vaccinations without consulting the GSAED unless the change is imposed by an external agency legally entitled to require compliance. bursary or salary during the period of the modified program. In cases where a student is exposed to an infectious agent either by working directly with an infectious organism or by working with human or animal tissues or fluids. Quorum shall consist of all four members and minutes of meetings shall be taken. as a matter of right. the cost of any required vaccination not covered by a provincial or municipal health plan will be paid from the thesis director's research grant. The Committee will also draw up the list of internal arbitrators for internal recourse. regulation or procedure used to undertake the appeal of academic decisions related to grades or requirements for entry into or completion of degree programs. and the Dean and the Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies or their delegates.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING duration of the pregnancy. There shall be a Policy 110 Joint Consultative Committee which shall draft and amend from time to time any regulations or procedures required for this policy to have effect. with no academic prejudice or loss of scholarship.
he/she may proceed directly to step 4 below. or if the student has elected to skip Step 2.2 (Discipline for violation of article 10) of the APUO collective agreement or under article 6 (Discipline and Discharge) of the APTPUO collective agreement. Where after consultation with the Dean of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies the Vice-Dean is of the opinion that the complaint may involve a breach of ethics under article 10 (Professional Ethics) of the APUO collective agreement or 2. who shall have a further ten working days to attempt to resolve the matter. as appropriate . The dean of the faculty will inform the Dean of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies once the appropriate steps have been completed. The student may skip Step 2 if the student believes that circumstances warrant doing so. the student may refer the matter to an internal arbitration by notifying the Dean of the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies within a further five working days. only that part (if any) of the complaint that does not deal with a question of ethics can proceed to step 4 of this policy. the matter may be submitted in writing within five working days to the Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies or his/her delegate. Step 1 A graduate student who feels that a University policy has not been appropriately or fairly applied should first attempt to resolve the matter informally with the person whom the student believes has failed to properly apply that policy. 2 and 3 below and file a written complaint directly with the professor's dean. or. the complaint or such part of the complaint bearing on the possible breach of ethics shall be transmitted to the dean of the faculty of the professor concerned to be dealt with under 39. the student should follow the conflict resolution procedure of the faculty. from the dean of the faculty. Where the resulting action by the dean is deemed unacceptable by the student. Otherwise. 229 . the student may seek recourse in writing within five working days from the chairperson of the student's department. Step 3 If the matter is not resolved at Step 2. Step 4 If the matter is not resolved at Step 3. he/she may bypass steps 1. if one exists.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Where a student is alleging harassment or discrimination by a professor. where no department exists. and may proceed directly to Step 3. Step 2 If the matter is not resolved at Step 1.6 (Ethical Behaviour) of the APTPUO collective agreement. according to the relevant collective agreement. All faculties are strongly encouraged to develop such procedures.
The use by the student of the provisions of this section shall not be taken into consideration in any matter relating to grades in graduate courses or in eligibility for admission to other graduate programmes.php?id=110a 230 .uottawa. from the internal arbitrator's faculty. if dealing with a faculty which does not have departments. The University of Ottawa agrees to be bound by the decision of the internal arbitrator. or.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING The matter shall be heard by an internal arbitrator chosen either by mutual consent or by lot from the list drawn by the Policy 110 Joint Consultative Committee. Revised March 14. and the student's use of the internal arbitration process is deemed to represent acceptance by the student of the binding nature of the internal arbitration process. No internal arbitrator shall serve in respect of a dispute involving a student or an employee from the internal arbitrator's own department.ca/admingov/reg-e. 2000 (Board of Governors) Policy 110A “Graduate students holding soft-funded research bursary (SFRB Students)” policy can be found here: web5.
A student who has committed or attempted to commit academic fraud. c) presents research data that has been falsified or concocted in any way. e) expulsion from the Faculty.ca/plagiarism. or who has been a party to academic fraud.uottawa. d) attributes a purported statement of fact or reference to a source that has been concocted. an exam. c) the mark F or zero for the course concerned and the loss of all or part of the credits for the academic year concerned and/or an additional requirement of 3 to 30 credits added to the student’s program of studies. b) submits a work of which the student is not the author. misrepresents an academic evaluation. consult our Web site at www. The courses for which credits were withdrawn remain in the student’s file. an essay. and a thesis. a research report. is subject to one or more of the following sanctions: a) the mark of F or zero for the work concerned. in whole or in part (except for duly cited quotations or references). b) the mark of F or zero for the course concerned. a test. or a thesis or other work that has already been submitted elsewhere. e) submits the same piece of work or significant part thereof for more than one course. Without limiting the generality of this definition. Academic fraud is an act by a student that may result in a false academic evaluation of that student or of another student. uses a forged or falsified academic record or supporting document. whether written.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX H University Regulations on Academic Fraud Academic Fraud Definition 1. d) suspension from the program or from the Faculty.pdf). g) undertakes any other action for the purpose of falsifying an academic evaluation Sanctions 2. or facilitates the use of a falsified academic record or supporting document. 231 . they are included in the grade point average and must be repeated or replaced by other courses at the discretion of the Faculty. academic fraud occurs when a student commits any of the following offences: a) commits plagiarism or cheating of any kind. Such work may include an academic paper. f) falsifies an academic evaluation. oral. for at least one session and at most three academic years. or in another form. (to obtain more information on plagiarism and how to avoid it. without written authorization of the professors concerned and/or of the academic unit concerned.
within a prescribed time limit. as well as of this regulation. if it deems it appropriate. the committee of inquiry: a) either concludes that the allegation is not sufficiently founded and that no further action should be taken. b) solicits any other information that it considers relevant to its inquiry. 7. the regular admission process shall apply. 5. or. The dean informs the student that he or she 232 . The committee of inquiry: a) invites the student to present. and once the student has been given the opportunity to be heard in writing and/or in person. On the basis of this documentation and information. b) concludes that the allegation is founded and prepares a summary report for the dean. in writing. to the dean of the Faculty in which the student is registered. where applicable. which shall include a recommendation for the appropriate sanction. Allegations of fraud are submitted in writing. with the possibility. If the student reapplies for admission. diploma or certificate where the offence relates to the eligibility to receive such degree. 6. Sanctions 2 (e) to (h) are taken by the Senate committee for the study of individual cases upon the recommendation of the Faculty. invites the student to appear before the committee. any information or documents relevant to the allegation which has been made and. and was discovered or determined after its award. Decisions shall take effect immediately. of having the notice of expulsion withdrawn from the student’s transcript. If the dean or the dean’s representative decides that the allegation is founded: a) the file is referred to a committee of inquiry consisting of at least three persons appointed by the dean. Procedure 4.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING f) expulsion from the University of Ottawa for at least three years. Sanctions stipulated in articles 2 (a) to (d) are taken by the Faculty in which the student is registered. b) the dean informs the student in writing of the allegation made against him or her and provides a copy of all supporting documentation. with supporting documentation. g) cancellation or revocation of a degree. notwithstanding appeal. h) inclusion of the following statement in the student’s academic transcript: “Sanction pursuant to contravention of the University regulations on fraud. diploma or certificate.” Decisions 3. The student is informed by the dean of the conclusions reached by the committee of inquiry and of the next procedural steps. it being understood that three years after being expelled. the student concerned may ask the Senate committee for the study of individual cases to review his or her case.
whose powers. The report of that committee is forwarded to the Senate committee for the study of individual cases. must so inform the secretary of the University and provide the reasons for the appeal. in accordance with the procedures described under Appeal. notwithstanding appeal. The report of the committee of inquiry. 13. 12. If the sanction is one the Faculty has the power to impose. b) solicits any other documentation or information it considers relevant. the committee of inquiry consists of one professor appointed by each Faculty concerned and of one chairman jointly appointed by the deans of these faculties. Appeal 11. the decision of the Senate committee for the study of individual cases may be appealed to the executive committee of the Senate.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING may submit comments on the report of the committee of inquiry. A student who decides to appeal the decision of the executive committee of the Faculty or its equivalent. the written submissions made by the student. the decision of the executive committee of the Faculty or its equivalent shall take effect immediately. The dean informs the student in writing of the decision or the recommendation made by the executive committee of the Faculty or its equivalent. within 10 days following the date at which the decision or recommendation was sent. 8. and. which either decides the sanction to be imposed or recommends it to the Senate committee for the study of individual cases as the case may be. The decision of the Senate committee for the study of individual cases is final and cannot be appealed. provided that such comments are made in writing within 10 working days following the date at which the report was sent. The secretary of the University transmits the file to the Senate committee for the study of individual cases which: a) invites the student to appear before the committee and/or submit in writing any information the student considers relevant. are those described under procedure number 8 for the executive committee of a Faculty. for this purpose. 233 . 9. When the allegation of fraud concerns students from more than one Faculty. and of the procedure to be followed should the student wish to appeal. In this case. Fraud concerning more than one student 14. if applicable. 10. the chairman will be appointed by the vice-rector. academic. Failing such appointment. or its recommendation to the Senate committee for the study of individual cases. are submitted to the executive committee of the Faculty or its equivalent.
A mark of F (zero) will be assigned retroactively. A student who has been suspended from a program shall not be awarded any credit for courses otherwise acceptable as part of the student’s program or as part of the overall requirements of the program. the student will be authorized to continue the program once he or she has registered in accordance with the conditions applicable at that time. and tuition fees will not be refunded.htm 234 . 16. to any course so taken at the University of Ottawa.uottawa. when such courses are taken. www.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Suspension 15. if applicable. At the end of the period of suspension. during the period of suspension which has been imposed.ca/academic/info/regist/crs/home_5_ENG. at the University of Ottawa or elsewhere.
the University of Ottawa Senate adopted a policy on evaluation of teaching and courses which is administered by the Senate Subcommittee on the Evaluation of Teaching and Courses. The followings are a few points to remember: PURPOSE OF THE EVALUATION • • • • • to provide teaching staff with information that might help them improve their teaching to establish a method for factoring teaching performance into decisions about the teaching staff to provide students with a means for voicing their opinions on teaching and/or the flow of the course to provide students with information on certain aspects of their professors' teaching which may help with their course selection to help the University of Ottawa maintain a high standard of teaching WHICH COURSES AND PROFESSORS ARE EVALUATED? At the University of Ottawa. The evaluation must take place at the beginning of the class. The results of the evaluation are available online to all students and teachers through Infoweb. who will place the questionnaire in a sealed envelope (R). If two or more professors teach a course. the questionnaire underwent major revisions so that its questions applied to the varied ways that courses are taught. The professor must leave the classroom before the monitor issues instructions and students start filling out the questionnaire. Procedures and instructions are forwarded to the professor in question by the dean prior to the evaluation date. regardless of the number of students and the teaching method used. each professor is evaluated at the end of the part of the course that he/she taught if the part represents more than nine hours in that course. on specific dates. all courses involving at least nine contact hours with the same professor will be subject to an evaluation by students. Evaluations take place near the end of courses. The Customized Formative Evaluation components was added in 2002 allowing teachers to choose an additional 10 questions for their own feedback on specific aspects of their teaching.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX I University Regulations on Course Evaluation In November 1977. WHEN AND HOW ARE EVALUATIONS FILLED OUT? The process used to administer the evaluation was developed in consultation with the Internal Audit Office. Students give the completed questionnaires to the monitors. Professors must assign one or more student monitors who will provide instructions and oversee the evaluation. insert the confidential comment sheets in 235 . In 2005.
The S-REPORT contains the tabulated results for all the questions on the official evaluation form along with lists of all the courses and professors evaluated during a specific session. ANONYMITY is guaranteed. the S-Report is published on the Web and is accessible to all students currently registered at the University of Ottawa and all faculty members. WHAT DOES THE UNIVERSITY DO WITH COMPLETED QUESTIONNAIRES? Evaluations are done on the official form. The responses to these questions are compiled to produce up to four different reports: The A-REPORT is placed in the professor's files in the Dean's office and at his/her department. click on Services and then on SReport – Evaluation of Teaching and Courses. login to InfoWeb at https://web3. This part of the information is considered annually by the Dean and Teaching Personnel Committees during the review of a faculty member's efficiency in managing workload duties and is considered collectively for a minimum period of three years in order to establish a trend in teaching performance. The faculty then sends the envelopes containing the questionnaires unopened to the Computing and Communications Service and the envelopes containing students’ confidential comments unopened to the professor once the final marks have been submitted. The evaluation form contains two sections: a questionnaire (response sheet) and a confidential comment sheet. as a teacher is… The P-REPORT. To view the S-report. the 236 .ca/infoweb/logon/en.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING another sealed envelope (C). The questionnaire consists of 13 general questions and 3 questions used for statistical purposes only. contains the tabulated results of all the questions and provides professors with feedback that might help them improve their teaching. unless the Senate approves a specific evaluation method or an exemption. The evaluation cannot affect students’ grades. It is generated only when there have been at least six evaluation forms completed over a period of three consecutive academic years or less.html. To establish such a pattern of behaviour. As of 1998. for the same course code. and deliver all the envelopes directly to the faculty. Evaluation results from these courses will be used only if a pattern of behaviour can be detected in the evaluations covering the last three years. The A-Report contains the following three questions: • • • 1) I find the professor well prepared for class 4) I think the professor conveys the subject matter effectively 9) I find that the professor.uottawa. The X-REPORT is created when fewer than six students are registered in a course or when less than six evaluations are received in a course. The professor is also provided with a copy of this report. which only professors receive.
Students may access this form through InfoWeb.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Administration will rely on at least five of these courses. so they can get feedback on specific aspects of their course. responses remain anonymous. This evaluation is administered along with the official evaluation but its results are not part of the official evaluation and the professor is the only person who will see these results. At his or her discretion. 237 . a few weeks after the final exams. Evaluations should be done on the official questionnaire on the Web that is located on a secure site and can be filled out only during the official evaluation period. If a pattern does indeed exist. All Web-based courses will be evaluated by students on the Web. The comment sheet is attached to the response sheet and contains students’ confidential commentaries. It is important to note that students are not required to provide information that could be used to trace their identity. it will be examined in light of other courses taught by the professor concerned. the professor may ask students to answer up to 10 additional questions chosen from a customized bank of questions. The professor is the only one to see these comments. The envelope containing the comment sheets is personally addressed to the professor evaluated and is returned sealed to him/her only after all the marks are handed in. The Customized Formative Evaluation provides professors with an optional evaluation tool adapted to their individual needs.
CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 238 .
The Teaching Personnel Committee of each faculty selects the nominations to be forwarded to the Teaching Awards Committee and prepares a brief in support of each selected candidate. Check with the APUO for information related to nomination forms and deadlines (Appendix C). but preferably should relate to the ongoing activities spanning a period of time. The nominator should indicate the candidate's contributions to teaching.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX J University of Ottawa Award for Excellence in Teaching The University of Ottawa Award for Excellence in Teaching was created in 1976 to recognize one professor each year for outstanding contributions to university teaching. Psychology 1976-77: Alphonsus Campbell. English 239 . the Association of Professors (APUO). broadly defined. Recipients of the University of Ottawa Award for Excellence in Teaching 1975-76: William Barry. Sponsored by the university. composed of two members appointed by the APUO (usually the two most recent laureates). Procedures Nominations from any member of the University community must be submitted by the deadline set annually (usually in the month of February) to the dean of the nominee's faculty. such as instructional ability. and innovative practices. and the Alumni Association. the Award comprises a $3000 honorarium. Activities for which the individual professor is cited should not be limited to those in the current year. The winner of the award is chosen by the Teaching Awards Committee. Criteria Only regular members of the teaching staff (with tenure or on a tenure-track appointment) may be nominated. a framed parchment certificate and a photo-portrait of the winner. contributed by the sponsors of the award and presented on the occasion of the annual Teaching Lecture given by the recipient. curriculum development and course design. Mention also is made of the award. and the winner recognized at fall convocation. interpersonal skills.
Administration 1990-91: William Hallett. Civil Engineering 1996-97: Victor DaRosa. Engineering 2005-06: Jon Houseman.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING 1977-78: Michel Nedzela. Human Kinetics 1992-93: Denis Williamson. Biology 240 . History 2002-03: Rachel Thibeault. Psychology 2001-02: Chad Gaffield. Biology 1982-83: André Vachet. Administration 1978-79: Robert C. Rehabilitation Sciences 2003-04: Judith Robertson. Administration 1994-95: Jean-Paul Dionne. Political Science 1983-84: Gérard Artaud. Medicine 1993-94: Jane Fulton. Civil Law 1988-89: James Fenwick. Physics 1979-80: Danielle Juteau Lee. Smith. Anatomy 1981-82: Tom Moon. Sociology 1997-98: Benoit Pelletier. Chemistry 1999-00: Denis Caro. Administration 2000-01: Claude Lamontagne. Mechanical Engineering 1991-92: Terrance Orlick. Pathology 1987-88: Donat Pharand. Biology 1989-90: Jean-Louis Schaan. Education 2004-05: Sylvia Boyd. Education 1984-85: Emil J. Hayek. Jacques. Education 1995-96: Murat Saatcioglu. Sociology 1980-81: Vladimir Sistek. Civil Law 1998-99: Tony Durst. English 1986-87: Nadia Mikhael. Common Law 1985-86: Raymond St.
Selection Criteria Excellence in teaching. Sponsored by the University of Ottawa. the Alumni Association. The award winner will also be recognized at the Fall Convocation. and the candidate's contribution to university life will be taken into account as selection criteria. Selection • • Each department chair or head of an academic unit submits one nomination from his or her department or unit to the dean of his or her faculty. Academic of the University of Ottawa 241 . The dean of each faculty then submits two nominations to the Part-Time Professor of the Year Award Committee. any member of the University community may nominate a candidate. Selection Committee The Selection Committee consists of: • • two members of the APTPUO two members appointed by the Vice-Rector. Eligibility Members of the Association of Part-Time Professors of the University of Ottawa (APTPUO). the Award consists of a $ 2 000.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX K Part-Time Professor of the Year Award The Award The Part-Time Professor of the Year was created in 1996 in recognition of the contribution of the members of the APTPUO to university education. The nominator must include a letter outlining the candidate’s exceptional contributions to university teaching. which will be conferred during the special lecture given by the recipient. participation in research. Nominations • • Except for members of the Selection Committee. and the Association of Part-Time Professors of the University of Ottawa.00 honorarium and a photo portrait.
html 242 . Women’s and Religious Studies www. Psychology Félix Quinet. Rehabilitation Sciences Steven Desjardins. Mathematics and Statistics Pierre Sabourin. Computer Science Daniel Lavoie. School of Psychology Shelley Rabinovitch. Education Peggy Kleinplatz.ca/associations/aptpuo/awa. Administration Michael Wilson. Psychology Darene Toal-Sullivan. Mathematics Joseph Khoury.uottawa. Management Shelley Jordan.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING • • • one member of the Alumni Association one member of the Graduate Students’ Association (GSAED) one member of the Students’ Federation of the University of Ottawa (SFUO) Recipients of the Part-time Professor of the Year Award 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Weixuan Li.
The objectives of the Teaching/Learning Grants Program are: • • to improve teaching and learning effectiveness to encourage innovation in teaching. but need some help to do it? Do you have a new idea to help your students learn? Are there innovative teaching materials you would like to develop? If so. Eligibility All regular full-time faculty members of the University of Ottawa are eligible to apply for a Teaching/Learning Grant. the Teaching Grants Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Teaching. evaluates applications according to the following criteria: • • • • • • • potential to meet program objectives stated above departmental and faculty support (financial and other) applicant's involvement in the project lack of other suitable sources of funding plans for dissemination of results quality of the proposal development of pedagogical material rather than it's production 243 .CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING APPENDIX L Teaching and Learning Grants Program Introduction The Centre for University Teaching is responsible for the management of the Teaching/Learning Grants sponsored by the Teaching Grants Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Teaching. The funds are used to sponsor pedagogical projects aimed at improving teaching and learning on the campus. Are there teaching strategies you would like to test. consider applying for a Teaching/Learning Grant. Evaluation Criteria A committee of peers. Application Procedure • • Application procedures are straightforward and uncomplicated. Application forms and detailed procedures are available from the Centre for University Teaching and on our Web site.
00 and is for a project clearly focused on instructional development. Centre for University Teaching 120 University Private. Amounts Available 1. Consequently.uottawa. 2. room 106 Telephone: (613) 562-5333 Fax: (613) 562-5616 E-mail: centre@uottawa. Limited funds (about $56.00/yr) are available.ca 244 . Practicing Writing on the Web: a WebCT template for all languages.tlss.00 for the development of French-language multi-media material. Special grants program for innovative pedagogical material. the typical grant is under $5.000.ca http://www.000. Further Information The staff at the Centre for University Teaching will gladly provide additional information and direction in formulating applications.000. Regular Teaching and Learning Grants Program. This program offers $50.recueil de jurisprudence annoté Cours pratique d'écriture sur Internet: un gabarit WebCT pour toutes les langues.CENTRE FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING Recently Funded Projects • • • • • • • Introduction to Dispute Resolution: Interactive Web Site for French and English Courses Production d'un CD-ROM sur l'histoire de la traduction en vue de son utilisation à titre expérimental comme moyen d'enseignement Elements of Software for Internet-Based Problem-Solving Tutorials Cybermétho.Dix modules d'une banque de ressources méthodologiques pour les sciences humaines Faculty of Medecine Conflict Resolution Web Site Project: Increasing Medical Students' Core Competencies Through Conflict Resolution Training and Implementing the Faculty of Medicines Conflict Resolution Policy Le droit de la responsabilité civile délictuelle en Common Law.
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