DEEE-73(1)

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DEEE-73(1)

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VLADIMR VOLKO, ANETA ELESCHOV, ANTON BEL, PETER JANIGA, DOMINIK

VIGLA, MIROSLAVA SMITKOV

Department of Electrical Power Engineering

Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava

Ilkoviova 3, 812 19, Bratislava 1

SLOVAK REPUBLIC

vladimir.volcko@stuba.sk, zaneta.eleschova@stuba.sk, anton.belan@stuba.sk, peter.janiga@stuba.sk

dominik.viglas@stuba.sk, miroslava.smitkova@stuba.sk

Abstract: - This article deals with the design of mathematical model of three-winding autotransformer for

steady state analyses. The article is focused on model simplicity for the purposes of the use in complex

transmission systems and authenticity of the model taking into account different types of step-voltage regulator.

Nowadays, there are many programs used for steady smaller current than nominal output current.

state analysis of electric power transmission Also, magnetic circuit of transformer is less

systems. However, these programs often do not massive because With autotransformers we

distinguish between transformers and distinguish the passing power which the

autotransformers. autotransformer is capable to transfer and the inner

Autotransformers are almost exclusively used in power, for which the autotransformer is

electric power transmission system and ignoring this dimensioned. [1].The issue of transformers and

fact may cause inaccuracies in simulations of steady autotransformers is solved in detail by ref. [1, 2].

states, especially if the tertiary winding is loaded

with a compensating element (reactor or capacitor).

In this paper will derive the mathematical model

of three-winding autotransformer for two different

equivalent elements with consideration of the

symmetric system and the symmetric transformer,

constant frequency and skip saturation of the

transformer core.

2 Autotransformer

Autotransformer does not have the primary and

Fig.1 Three-winding autotransformer

secondary winding in contrast with transformer, but

it has the serial and common winding. In no-load

Three-winding autotransformers have windings

state, output voltage corresponds to the common

connected mostly the way as shown on fig. 1. The

winding inducted voltage and input voltage

common winding is connected in a grounded star

corresponds to sum of the serial winding inducted

and the tertiary isdelta.

voltage and the common winding inducted voltage.

Despite the fact it concerns autotransformer, for

The advantage of autotransformer in comparison

compliance with convention, further we will not use

with transformer is material saving and smaller

term the input/output current (voltage, power) but

dimensions at the same operating parameters

the primary/secondary current (voltage, power).

(voltage, power). The serial winding of

autotransformer has fewer turns than the primary

winding of transformer. Furthermore, output current 3 Step - voltage regulators

is equal to the sum of input current and current It is essential to be able to control voltage in electric

inducted in the common winding, so the common power transmission system on each voltage level.

Recent Advances in Energy, Environment and Economic Development

The use of regulating transformers is the main We can therefore say that by how many percent the

method of voltage regulation in distribution ratio between the primary voltage and the secondary

systems. voltage and the ratio between the primary voltage

There are many voltage regulator types and and the tertiary voltage changes, that many percent

voltage regulator connections of regulating the count of the common and serial winding turns

autotransformers which are described in detail in changes.

ref. [2] but in principle we distinguish three basic

voltage regulator connections:

3.2 Regulator located at the output

Regulator located at the input of The voltage regulator located at the output of

autotransformer, autotransformer regulates voltage either by adding

Regulator located at the output of turns to the output (fig. 3a) or by changing

autotransformer, proportion between the serial winding turns and the

Regulator located in the node of common winding turns (fig. 3b).

autotransformer.

The voltage regulator located at the input of

autotransformer regulates voltage by change of

number of the serial winding turns. The advantage

of this type of connection is that the regulator is

dimensioned to the smallest possible current. Great

disadvantage is the level of voltage to which

insulation of regulator must be dimensioned. a) b)

Therefore, this connection of voltage regulator is not Fig. 3 Regulator located at the output

used in practice with autotransformers.

For both cases is valid that the count of numberb of

the common and serial winding turns is constant and

does not change by regulation and so the ratio

between the primary voltage and the tertiary voltage

is (see equation 2) is constant, too.

Location of the regulator in the node of

autotransformer does not have its equivalent among

common types of transformers. Simulating of such

autotransformer by the model of common type of

transformer may cause mistakes.

Fig. 2 Regulator located at the input Regulator changes the ratio by change of number

of the common winding turns.

The ratio between the primary voltage and the

secondary voltage may be calculated as follows:

U1 N C N S

p12 = (1)

U2 NC

tertiary voltage as follows:

U1 N C N S

p13 = (2)

U3 NT

Fig. 4 Regulator located in the node

Recent Advances in Energy, Environment and Economic Development

For the change of number of the common winding related to the primary voltage. It is possible to

turns by k %, the following relation is valid for the derive the relationship between real impedances and

ratio between the primary voltage and the substitute impedances but in this case there is no

secondary voltage: reason to do so.

Substitute impedances of transformer may be

N S 1 k / 100N C calculated from the system of three equations. The

p12 = (3)

1 k / 100N C sum of two optional impedances ZI, ZJ equals to:

ukIJ U N2 1

And the ratio between the primary voltage and the ZI ZJ (6)

tertiary voltage shall be: 100 S N

p13 = (4)

windings of the equivalent circuit equals to:

NT

in the node of autotransformer, not only the ratio RI RJ PKIJ (7)

between the primary voltage and the secondary S N2

voltage is changed by regulation but also the ratio

between the primary voltage and the tertiary voltage Magnetizing impedance may be calculated from

does change while the change of particular ratio values measured in no-load test:

differs.

Percentage change of winding turns is mostly

unknown in case of voltage regulators. Change of 1 i SN

YM 0 (8)

the secondary voltage ku is usually identified on the ZM 100 U N2 1

nameplate.

It is possible to prove (and from equation 4 to P0

derive) that in order to reach the step of regulation GM (9)

U N2 1

of the secondary voltage ku (with constant primary

voltage), the step of change of the common winding

turns shall be: The ratios are calculated on the basis of the type of

regulation according to the equations mentioned in

part 3. It is essential to adhere to equation 5 for

U1 calculation between the voltage step (stated on the

k= kU (5)

U1 U 2 nameplate) and the step of turns in case of

regulation.

In general, mathematical modeling and simulations

The equivalent circuit of three-winding

as well as solving of non-linear models are dealt

autotransformer is based on T- element and is

in ref. [3, 4].

identical to the equivalent circuit of three-winding

For requirements of modeling of steady state

transformer.

analysis under conditions as described in the

introduction, for autotransformer it is enough to

derive the square admittance matrix of complex

numbers [Y], with size 3x3 which meets the

following condition:

autotransformer (T- element)

Where: [I] vector of currents flowing into trans-

Real impedances of the serial, common and tertiary former

windings are replaced by substitute impedances of [U] vector of terminal voltages

the primary, secondary and tertiary windings,

Recent Advances in Energy, Environment and Economic Development

(15)

I 2 Y.U 2

Admittance matrix may be derived by means of one I 3 U 3

of the following substitute elements.

5.1 - element

The element is based on the equivalent circuit (fig. Y 11 P12 Y 12 P13Y 13

4). Magnetizing admittance is not concentrated in Y P12Y 12 Y 22

P13P13Y 23 (16)

the middle node (like in case of T- element) but P13Y 13

P13P13Y 23 Y 33

divided into particular nodes of transformer.

The next step of transmission from T- element to

- element is the transformation of a star And diagonal elements are:

(connection of substitute impedances into a star)

into triangle (see fig. 5). Y0

Y 11 Y 12 Y 13 (17)

3

Y 0

Y 22 Y 12 Y 23 P122 (18)

3

Y 0

Y 33 Y 13 Y 23 P132 (19)

3

with admittances. It is suitable for the use in case

when magnetizing admittance equals zero. The

model working with impedance might be insoluble

Fig. 5. Diagram of - element as transverse impedance would equal infinity in that

case.

The following equations are valid for particular

nodes:

5.2 T - element

T-element is based directly on the equivalent circuit.

I 1 I 10 I 12 I 13 (11) Under normal conditions the models transform T-

I 2 / P12 I 20 I 21 I 23 (12) element into three independent -elements with

I 3 / P13 I 30 I 31 I 32 (13) expressed middle node. This method tasks

calculation itself as each transformer adds a node

into the diagram where it is necessary to calculate

For the purpose of generalization, if we think for an voltage.

ideal transformer with ratio P11=1 on input 1, then We chose a different approach. For T-element it

the following is valid for each node A for ground is easy to derive voltage equations leading to

current IA0: derivation of impedance matrix.

If voltage in the middle node is U0, then the

Y0 following is valid for this voltage

I A0 P1 AU A (14)

3

I2 I3

U 0 Z M I 1 (20)

And the following is valid for each pair of nodes A,

P12 P13

B:

And the following is valid for particular loops of T-

I AB Y AB ( P1 AU A P1B U B ) (15)

element:

It is possible to derive the basic equation of - I2 I3

U 1 Z 1 I 1 Z M I 1 (21)

element of transformer from equations 11 15: P12 P13

Recent Advances in Energy, Environment and Economic Development

P12U 2 Z 2 Z M I 1 (22) autotransformer was simulated and the results were

P12 P12 P13 compared with solutions of two other commercially

I3 I2 I3 available software.

P13U 3 Z 3 Z M I 1 (23) The first software does not consider

P13 P12 P13 autotransformer and uses T-element split into three

independent -elements with expressed middle

From equations 21 - 23 it is possible to derive node. The second software uses - element and

voltage equation of transformer: considers autotransformer. A print-screen of

application with simulated system is on fig. 5.

U Z. I

The autotransformer was fed by hard source 400

(24) kV (NODE1, or UZOL1) during simulation,

constant load 250 MW (NODE2, or UZOL2) was

Where the impedance matrix is: connected to the secondary terminals and two

reactors 32 kV, 40 MVA were connected to the

ZM ZM tertiary terminals. Autotransformer parameters are

Z 1 Z m listed in Tab.1.

P12 P13

Z2 Zm

Z Z M ZM

(25) Tab. 1Parameters of autotransformer

P12 P122 P12 P13

Par. Value Par. Value

ZM ZM Z3 Zm

P13 P132

P12 P13 SN1 350 MVA PK12 606,2 kW (SN1)

With regard to the fact that simulating programs SN2 350 MVA PK13 566,6 kW (SN3)

work with the admittance matrix, it may be

calculated by inversion of the impedance matrix: SN3 100 MVA PK23 578,2 kW (SN3)

0,042

however, this model cannot be used if we consider

zero magnetizing admittance in transformer. UN3 34 kV Step 1,5 %

6 Model application

Model of autotransformer was programmed in uK13 10,24 % (SN3) Min -8

programming language JAVA for demonstration

and confirmation of mathematical models. The uK23 5,74 % (SN3) type In node

application allows simulations of steady state

analysis of simple electric power transmission The simulations were executed for edge states of

systems. voltage regulator (tap: -8 and 8) and for middle state

(tap: 0) while values on the secondary and tertiary

terminals and values of demanded active and

passive power was monitoring. The results are listed

in Tab. 3. The results of new model using T-element

are labeled as New T, the results of new model

using - element are labeled as New . The results

of commercially available software using T-element

are labeled as Com T and commercially available

software using - element is labeled as Com .

Recent Advances in Energy, Environment and Economic Development

Tab. 2 The results of simulations value of the secondary voltage (despite the fact that

the step of the regulation was defined on the level of

New T New Com T Com 1, 5% U2 and voltage has changed by less than 12 %

in the result), we assume that the software does not

Tap: -8 calculate the step of voltage regulation to the step of

turns regulation (see equation 5).

U2 [V] 101814 101812 102300 105734

It is possible to model three winding

P1 [MW] 250,87 250,87 250,5 250,87 autotransformer by means of T-element or -

element. Precision of both elements is comparable.

Q1[MVAr] 115,64 115,63 105,4 112,37 In both cases it is important to take into account

whether it concerns transformer or autotransformer

Tap: 0 and where step-voltage regulator is located. At the

middle position of voltage regulator (tap: 0) were

U2 [V] 116125 116123 116200 116114 differences between individual simulation programs

very small the principles of simulations were

U3 [V] 30961 30962 31020 30958 similar, but at the side positions of voltage regulator

(tap: -8 and +8) were the differences between results

P1 [MW] 250,8 250,8 250,5 250,8 considerable. Commercially available programs

were wrong.

Q1[MVAr] 107,39 107,38 105,4 107,6

Tap: 8

8 Acknowledgements

U2 [kV] 130518 130516 130200 125628 This work was done during implementation of the

project Effective control of production and

U3 [kV] 29448 29448 31020 30281 consumption of energy from renewable resources,

ITMS code 26240220028, supported by the

P1 [MW] 250,74 250,74 250,50 250,47 Research and Development Operational Program

funded by the ERDF.

Q1[MVAr] 99,44 99,43 105,4 102,89

between the model using T-element and the model

using - element are minor.

Then, the smallest differences are in the middle This paper was supported by the agency VEGA

state when the regulator is set up for zero tap MVVa SR under Grant No. 1/1100/12.

position. Differences range on the level of tenths to

hundredths of percent and it is caused by different

calculating programs. References:

[1] Httner ., Klug .: Elektrick stroje;

Commercially available software using T- Vydavatestvo STU, 1. edition 2005, ISBN 80-227-

element in both edge states of the regulator held the 2234 0

constant tertiary voltage. It is caused by the fact that [2] Jezierski E.: Transformtory: teoretick zklady;

although the regulator was located in the node of the Academia 1973

secondary winding, the software did not consider [3] Kuti V.: Zklady modelovania a simulci; Katedra

autotransformer. mechaniky FEI STU Bratislava; 20.09.2006;

Commercially available software using - available in

element calculated similarly to new designed http://aladin.elf.stuba.sk/Katedry/KMECH/slovakve

models. It proved that the tertiary voltage decreases rsion/person/kutis/ZMS.pdf

[4] Bel A.: Lectures of "Power System Control"

as the secondary voltage increases. However, in

comparison with new designed models, voltage

changes against the middle position of the regulator

are smaller. As the software was different also in

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