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ESSAY-WRITING AT THE TERTIARY LEVEL

The ability to write a good essay is one of the most important skills that you will need at University. Academic writing is a specialist form of English which usually accounts for half of your total marks. It is not conversational, nor is it your opinion unsubstantiated by published literature. It is intended to be a detached review and critique of contrasting ideas most commonly in response to a question relevant to your field of study. This response then should be in support of or against a viewpoint you are arguing about a set topic or issue. Academic writing has its own style, and its own traditions. By learning the style, by adopting the traditions you are indicating your willingness to join the academic community. In a very literal sense, the awarding of a qualification by the University is a statement by a University that you have joined and reached a standard of academic achievement — which includes, but is more than, the ability to write high quality, acceptable English to an agreed standard and format. The format is given to you by a set of advice rules. The basic ones are:

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You write in the 3rd person past tense, except where you deliberately want to emphasise a point. That is the use of "I" and "we" in an essay is not acceptable. You always reference other people’s ideas — whether directly by a reference [e.g. Smith (1990) report that…] or by an indirect acknowledgment [e.g. Some authors (Smith, 1990; Landsbury, 1999) believe that … while others contend that… (Jones, 1953; Morris, 1998). Your essay and your argument should not be a collection of quotes. You use a standard referencing system. There are two main methods "Oxford" and "Harvard" styles of referencing. The School of Employment Relations and Work strictly requires the Harvard or APA method as it is sometimes called. See "Referencing" section for more detail.

What is an Essay?
The word "essay" comes from a late Latin word meaning "weighing". Knowing this helps one to grasp the essence of answering an essay question well. The goal is to construct an argument based on your own critical assessment of available evidence. This involves weighing up a variety of sources, some of which may be contradictory, contingently relevant, illogical or brilliantly

convincing but based on weak evidence. Your essay succeeds or fails according to your capacity to understand and evaluate the material you have gathered and to create from it your own well-argued interpretation and conclusion expressed lucidly in your own words. See Attachment One for the marking scale. In this creative process it is extremely important to make clear to the reader where the dividing lines are between your own ideas and the sources you have read. This is for two reasons. Firstly, you need to let your own thinking shine through, so you can be acknowledged for it; secondly, citing other people’s ideas without acknowledgment is intellectual theft or plagiarism and is heavily penalised.

Planning an essay

1. Choosing the question: Your first step towards a successful essay is to choose your topic wisely. The topics and questions posed by the lecturer are not necessarily perfect. The most you can do is choose a question that you feel is good - that is: (a) provokes your interest, and (b) explains to you exactly what it is asking for. There are three basic approaches used by lecturers to the setting of essay questions. Firstly, essays may require the writer to take a position on the stated question and logically develop sound arguments based on research to support the position taken. Secondly, essays may require the writer to analyse using several perspectives and draw a conclusion based on critical analysis. Thirdly, essays may require the writer to analyse a question using an identified theoretical framework. Your research findings may enable you to raise related issues and extrapolate associated ideas, concepts or trends. The sorting of information into that which is important, less important and irrelevant will depend upon your interpretation of the topic set. The following instructions often given in essay topics should act as a guide:

ACCOUNT FOR or TRACE THE DEVELOPMENT OF: requires a chronological setting out of the historical development of a theory or strategy. In the academic world those terms have specific meanings. It helps you to understand the question that is posted to you. ANALYSE: means to break a proposition into the elements of which it is composed. Look at its parts and how they relate to each other.

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COMPARE: look for and comment critically upon the similarities and differences between the items mentioned with emphasis on the similarities. CONTRAST: look for and comment critically upon the similarities and differences between the items mentioned with emphasis on the differences. CRITICISE: to offer your own judgement on the merits of a theory or proposition, discussing both the limitation and benefits. DEFINE: give a concise and accurate definition or explanations of the item, construct, etc. mentioned. DESCRIBE: mention the chief characteristics of a situation or item, retell the essential features of a case study, theory, etc. DIAGRAM: provide a chart, drawing or plan. DISCUSS: to argue critically for and against a proposition or why you consider a particular stance has been taken EVALUATE: to assess the validity or plausibility of an argument against experimental findings or other sets of findings (e.g. research findings). EXPLAIN or EXAMINE: involves a close scrutiny of a set of material as seen by yourself and others. ILLUSTRATE: use examples and where appropriate, provide diagrams, figures or drawings. INTERPRET: translate, solve or comment on a subject, usually giving your judgement about it. JUSTIFY: provide the reasons for your conclusions or for the statement made in the question. Support your decision with evidence. OUTLINE: organise your response into main points and subordinate points. PROVE: provide factual empirical evidence. RELATE: show the connection between the things mentioned in the questions. Note: this does mean to compare, so if you were asked, for example, to relate the Human Relations approach to management with Theory Y approach, you are not only to compare them but to show the one influence the other. REVIEW: provide a critical summary while commenting on the important aspects of the questions. SUMMARISE: to select and interpret the most relevant features of a theory or discussion, writing briefly about each point.

2. Research: Make use of ideas from lectures and tutorials, but the most important input (apart from your own thinking) will come from your research.

Most topics have key readings which the lecturer will point out — begin with these ensuring you peruse the reference lists associated with them. You may also want to ask your tutor for advice on where best to begin. Additionally, the suggested reading list is not comprehensive, therefore you must do your own research into the topic area, but be careful that what you are reading is really relevant to the topic or questions posed. Note that even suggested readings are sometimes only tangentially relevant. As a general rule, a 2000 word essay should be based on a minimum of five or six sources apart from the textbook. It is not the number of quotes, but the quality that counts. The more widely you read, the more well informed you will be and the better your essay will be. There are basically four categories of reference: published books; journals or monographs (‘small’ books which are often published with limited distribution and purchase access); unpublished documents within organisations, essentially intended for internal use by staff; and interviews. A reference can be used in the following ways: as a general overview of a field of interest; as a source of specific diagram; frameworks of ideas/logic; further reading or references for a problem or issue; as background material for an issue or problem; and/or as an example of how to approach and deal with a specific problem or issue. Obviously one reference can provide more than one of the above, but it is important to realise that references fall into different categories of usage when you are beginning to framework an answer or develop a viewpoint on a problem. UWS has a plethora of computerised databases some of which address separate fields of study. See Attachment Two for a useful list of references and internet sites. The majority of databases provide indexing and abstracting services for journal articles. Each database system uses its own ‘logic’ for its filing system, and typically each reference is filed in up to 5 reference indicators. The key to successful literature searching is therefore to find the relevant indicators (descriptors, including subject headings) which lead to useful references. The library has a number of courses on using the databases and using the internet. Once you have located the appropriate databases you search will yield the reference information such title, author, etc. as well as a summary of each item. These summaries or abstracts will help you determine if you should pursue the reference. In most cases, articles can be found in its entirety (full text) on the electronic databases, in which case you can simply print them out or save to disk. If this is not the case, you will need to consult the library’s

catalogue to locate the item(s). It would be unrealistic to expect every library to have all the information that you want, therefore you may have to order it on inter-library loan through the library staff. This process can be slow e.g. 2-4 weeks and may cost a fee. The other option is to visit other libraries in your area — ask your librarian about reciprocal borrowing at other institutions. Additionally, we suggest that you develop a habit of reading ‘update’ materials such as ‘serious’ newspapers (e.g. Financial Review, The Australian, Sydney Morning Herald); commentary publications (such as The Bulletin, Time, Newsweek, Business Review Weekly) and social commentaries. These types of publications often will show an awareness of changes and trends and can provide excellent introductory, background or concluding linkages and comments. However, they should not be used as your primary set of references. The research process can take up to a month in worst case scenarios, so we suggest that you start your literature review as soon as you get the topic(s). 3. Taking Notes: Make notes on each article or chapter you read. As you research material for your essay, you will be formulating the presentation of your ideas and thoughts on the topic. It is therefore helpful to research with some tentative questions in mind. As a result of your research you may reshape some questions and abandon or reformulate others. Your notes should summarise the arguments of the writer for the benefit of your purpose, i.e. do not take notes on matters not relevant to your topic or question. Also, make notes on your own immediate responses to the ideas and arguments you are reading while they are fresh in your mind. Remember to always keep the essay question in the forefront of your mind. Record the reference information to any quotes you may want to include in your essay, and note the page numbers for these quotes. If you are working with your own photocopies, you can save time here by using a highlighter to indicate passages you might want to quote or refer to. Writing out your own notes, however, is often the best way to clarify for yourself what the writer is saying. A good essay will get the relevant facts straight and give a correct account of the relevant views and arguments of the writers referred to. This requires careful study of your sources and accuracy in presenting the material. In order to develop these ‘mega’ skills, you should consider training or advice

to improve your personal skills of: speed-reading; comprehension of text; and reading introduction, summaries and conclusions carefully for the ‘overall messages’ of text. The Learning Centre may prove useful in acquiring these skills through various workshops. 4. Making an essay plan: "People don’t plan to fail, but fail to plan". The following steps are suggested: a. Read over your notes including lecture notes. b. Return to the question, remembering that the purpose of your notetaking was to answer the question. Get in touch with what the question is asking and eliminate from consideration any notes and ideas that are not really relevant. c. Write down in point form your thoughts from your materials. Do not worry about order or clarity at this point; do not hesitate, just get on paper your own thoughts. d. Now look critically at what you have written and at the relevant data and conclusions from your reading notes. Do not accept what you read uncritically. Draw your own conclusions from the available evidence. Does one author raise important points not considered by others? Are some authors in contradiction with others over facts or theoretical positions? Are there sufficient data available to you from which you can decide between different positions or interpretations? What additional data might be required? Try and anticipate possible objections to your arguments and make an effort to reply to them. Make sure that what you plan to say in one part of your essay does not contradict another. e. Having worked over your thoughts and materials critically, circle the points which seem most important. Do this until you reduce your points to six or eight. f. Look at the resulting essay plan. Does it have a beginning, middle and end? Are your points in the best order to make the over-all organisation of your arguments clear? Do they answer the question(s)? Return to previous steps if necessary. 5. Writing up: Writing up should come easily if you have chosen a good topic, have read accordingly and made notes on what you have read, and — most importantly — have made a good plan. Your plan is your over-all argument, what you think about the question. The points in your plan now need to be substantiated from your reading notes and it all needs to be expressed as clearly and succinctly as possible. One of the most powerful aids to a good

answer occurs when the detail is written to illustrate and support a theoretical framework (of logic and clearly identified relationships) which develops a viewpoint you have decided to adopt about a set problem or issue. There must be a logical progression from step to step of your arguments, from paragraph to paragraph, etc. which is in line with the conclusions of your research. That is, you should 1) tell the reader what you are going to say or argue (introduction); 2) say it in sufficient detail to justify it convincingly to the reader (main body); and 3) remind the reader of what you have just said or argued (conclusion). a. Introduction: Your essay should begin with an introduction that foreshadows the questions to be answered and shapes the substance of your argument. It is often easier to leave writing the introductory paragraph(s) until the end, when you have fully developed your arguments and have a final structure for your essay. Writing the introduction is a separate exercise from the plan and should: state what you assumed to be the problem or issue and any assumptions you may have made (limit the scope of your argument(s)); state the basic viewpoint or central argument that you will address; and provide advance notice of any major conclusions that you will make. Remember, the introduction is not a summary, so do not say: "The essay shows that…". The function of the introduction is to provide your reader with the necessary background for what is to follow. So give a clear, concise statement of the problem you are going to investigate; define the limits or the scope of your investigation; and if you are dealing with terms that are ambiguous, define them clearly and concisely. The introduction should also include a plan of the way you intend to develop your answer; that is, a list of the main sections or steps in your argument. The essential components of the introduction are as follows:
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Background of the topic: Differing views of the topic. Definitions: o If a controversy exists in the literature concerning the meaning of certain terms in the question, mention this and state the way in which you will be using the term(s).
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This allows the reader to know what your frame of reference and understand your argument(s) better. Choose an appropriate place to discuss the use of terms, usually where each particular term is first mentioned. Introductory paragraphs dedicated to definitions should be avoided. Also, it is important to work within employment relationsí understandings of theories, concepts and terms. Therefore, do not rely on general dictionary definitions. If you misinterpret components of the question but the argument is sound based on that misinterpretation, then the likelihood of failing the assignment may be reduced.

Make your assertion It must be clear and to the point. If the marker does not know what you argument is then your grade will suffer. Map your arguments o A statement of how the rest of your essay will be laid out; guides the reader through your arguments; and shows up front what you will be discussing in your essay Example of a very simplistic introduction ó yours should be more complex. For many years there has been some considerable debate over the average work week. Proponents for a 45 hour work week believe that increasing the number of hours work per week will increase productivity (Jones, 1990) and make Australian more productive internationally (Landsbury, 1999). Others believe that 25 hour work week would lead to happier home lives which would lead to increased job satisfaction and productivity (Morris, 1998; Leece, 1980). International research shows that these two positions are unrealistic. An average work week of 35 hours for white-collared workers and a 30 hour work week for bluecollared workers will maximises efficiency, productivity and reduce absenteeism and turn-over.
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Here, background information is present (debates over the average work week and the two main view points). Your assertion (Both views are wrong and 35 and 30 hour work week for white and blue collared workers respectively). The flow/layout of your substantiating arguments (efficiency, productivity, absenteeism, and turn-over.) would then be fully addressed in the main body in that same order for both white-

collared and blue-collared workers. Superior introductions should define and/or indicate controversy over topic definitions; overview the structure of the essay (eg. Define, present briefly the argument for and against); and state the position you intend to take. Usually, introductions are about three paragraphs. b. Main Body: This is where good planning reaps its rewards. The body of the essay should contain a logical development of the argument. It is useful to think in terms of subsections. Sub-section by sub-section, point by point, you present and asses the evidence, demolish the phoney and grasp the real; and gradually build your case.. Be critical and analytical in your approach. Keep your focus on the problem and do not get sidetracked by irrelevant detail and padding. On the other hand, do not make the mistake of regarding all counter-arguments as "irrelevant". Important alternative views must be met. Refute them if possible. If not, take them into consideration in your final assessment and meanwhile give your reasons for having doubts about their validity. Similarly, do not ignore evidence that does not support your case. Examine the evidence. If you can find no fault and if you do not have any counter evidence, then maybe something is wrong with your case — do a bit more research. There are several analytical strategies that you may apply in arguing your point. They include:
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Make purposeful use of definitions Classification: show what kind of thing x belongs to Differentiation: shows how x differs from all the other member of its class Divide an object or idea into its parts o Spell out all the parts or stages that make up the whole Illustrate the point o Provide an example to flesh out an idea and to show that the idea really does not rest on demonstrable cases. Establish cause and effect o X causes y o X causes y, but a, b, and c may have played a part. Develop comparisons and contrasts Cover the steps of the process Present evidence for your claims
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Facts and figure Reasoning Citing authority Handling objections through concession and refutation Develop an analogy

In developing these strategies you must try to keep a balance between abstraction (concepts or theory) and concreteness (facts or specific examples). Avoid the extremes of either getting bogged down in masses of descriptive detail or staying in the realms of theory without specifics. The essential point is to grapple with the relation between evidence and theory. c. Conclusion: The conclusion should logically flow from your main body, summarising what you have shown by analysis and application to the problem and answer the question. The concluding viewpoint should also address if the issues have been fully/completely or superficially resolved and if it was not resolved then recommendations for further action or problems that need to be addressed. If you have reservations about any points, make them. If points are left open, indicate the need for further research. It should not introduce new ideas and frequently consists of more than one paragraph. Key point about writing up:

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The practice of taking the ideas or words of other writers and trying to pass them off as your own is plagiarism. To avoid a charge of plagiarism, you must be careful to acknowledge the source of any material that is not your own. This applies not only when you are quoting the actual words of other writers but also when you are paraphrasing (putting into your own words) the thoughts of other writers, or relying on the research findings or theories of others. Rather than extensive quoting from the literature, summarise the main points in your own words. Quotes are most effective when they express ideas succinctly or dramatically. Only use direct quotes when the writer expresses an idea so succinctly that it is worthy of quotation. For example, "It nourishes short term performance, annihilates long term planning, builds fear, demoralises teamwork, nourishes rivalry and politics" (Walton, 1990, pp. 119-120). An essay consists of paragraphs and sentences. A paragraph should have a main idea of a coherent unity of theme. It often facilitates comprehension if you present the main idea of the

paragraph first and then go on to elaborate. One-sentence paragraphs are not acceptable. Your paragraphing will indicate the progress of your argument. A new paragraph indicates to the reader a new step in the development of your answer. The first sentence, often called the topic sentence, at the beginning of each paragraph is the most important sentence of that paragraph. This logical sequencing of ideas assists you in relating your ideas back to the question. This approach to formatting your answer is essential to avoid including irrelevant information in your essay. The last sentence should sum up your paragraph.

Pay attention to spelling, punctuation and grammar. Write complete, grammatical sentences; do not use note form or bullet points. Avoid abbreviations and contractions except in citations and references. You can check your essay for clarity and grammar by reading it aloud to yourself or having a friend proof read it for you.

6. Presentation: a. The ideal essay presentation would be one that meets the standards required of manuscripts submitted for publication in professional journals — i.e. error-free and set out in accordance with academic style guidelines. The School of Employment Relations and Work strictly requires the "Harvard" method which is detailed in the section on "Citations and References". b. Essays should be typed or word-processor printed in a size 12 font. c. Leave a margin of 3.5 - 4 cm on the left-hand side of each page to allow for comments to be made by the marker. d. Write only on one side of the page. e. Essays should have double-spaced lines, except for single line spacing in references and longer quotes. Quotes of forty words or more should be single-spaced and indented on the left and right, without quotation marks. For example: The foundation of modern HRM emerged from several interrelated sources. These include conflict management associated with the tensions and contradictions which are inherent in the employment relationship, the increased specialization of labour related to the growth in the scale of work organizations, the scientific approach of management to managing people, the ‘empire building’ activities of the

specialists, and the employment-related law of the last three decades. (Bratton and Gold, 1999, p 6). f. Put page numbers on all but the first page of your essay. g. Make sure that you proof-read and spell-check your final copy. You are responsible for the final document, whoever did the typing! Correct all typographic and other errors as neatly as you can, using black ink and white-out. h. Retain a hard and soft copy of your final document as an insurance policy against the possibility of your work getting lost in the marking process. Also, if you should need to appeal for a re-mark of your essay, it is best to submit a clean copy without marker’s comments. i. Complete the school’s cover sheet ensuring that all the information, including the tutors name and tutorial time required is present and correct. Cover sheets are available from the school’s administrative assistant. Attach cover sheet to your essay with a single staple in the top left corner and place in the appropriate assignment bos. It is not necessary to place in a folder or plastic sleeve. Checklist Department Coversheet
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Subject number Your name Your SID Subject name Subject Coordinator Your name and SID Subject name Essay question Tutors name The date of submission

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Lecturer’s name Tutor’s name Tutorial date/time Campus Date submitted

Title Page

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Introduction

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Background of topic Brief discussion of the arguments Definitions Your assertion

Map of your argument Well developed and researched arguments Flows from argument to next Discusses and/or refutes other views Properly Cited Synthesises your arguments and ideas Show relations ship to original question Points to further research or discussion In Harvard format Alphabetical order 2nd line indented

Main Body

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Conclusion

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References

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Help with Writing Skills
The Learning Centre conducts free workshops on critical essay writing. Please ring 9685 9266 or 047 362 335 for information. The text Critical Analysis - What Is It may also assist. Copies are in Werrington and Parramatta libraries and available from the Co-op Bookshop. There are also a number of books on writing skills which can be useful as guides for self-improvement or if you need help in the middle of writing. We recommend: Betts, K. and Seitz, A. (1986) Writing Essays in the Social Sciences, Nelson Wadsworth, Melbourne. Gowers, Sir E. (1986) The Complete Plain Words, 3rd ed., HMSO, London. Markman, R. and Waddell, M. (1988) 10 Steps in Writing the Research Paper, 4th ed., Barrons, New York. Marshall, L.A. & Rowland, F. (1981) A Guide to Learning Independently, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne. Chaps. 11, 12, and 14.

Strunk, W. and White, E.B. (1979) The Elements of Style, 3rd ed., Macmillan, New York.

Plagiarism
Plagiarism (from Latin plagiare, "kidnap") is the presentation of another person’s writing, ideas, etc. as one’s own. This applies to the use of both published and unpublished materials, including another student’s writing and even your own essays if you have previously submitted them for assessment elsewhere. Plagiarism, even the faintest whiff of it, is a serious academic offence. (So serious that an Australian sociology professor lost his job for incorporating material without quotation marks and proper citations in one of his books and an American psychology professor had to pay $6 million in damages.) Even avowedly unintentional plagiarisms (e.g. "I forgot to use quotation marks in my notes and did not realise I was copying a quote") can result in your essay being penalised or failed. More serious cases (e.g. submitting another student’s essay as your own) are referable to the University Discipline Committee and can result in suspension from University. The basic rule for avoiding plagiarism is always indicate explicitly what sources of information are being used and how they are being used. The most common forms of plagiarism are as follows: a. Quotation of material from a source without the use of quotation marks. All direct quotes must have quotation marks even it is cited and citations must include page numbers. b. Close paraphrasing — i.e., passages presented with wording similar to the source or sources used — you must indicate that the source is paraphrased even if it is cited. c. Unacknowledged use of information or ideas, even if not quoted or paraphrased, unless such matters are common knowledge such as dictionary meanings. d. Citing sources which have not been consulted, without acknowledging the ‘secondary’ source from which knowledge of them has been obtained. e. Collaborative writing efforts (e.g. working together with a friend or in groups and sharing ideas and notes) can result in plagiarism if the exact nature of the collaboration and identity of the collaborators is not made explicit.

f. Any tables, statistics, and diagrams which are not your own must be clearly documented. In many instances students will be faced with ‘borderline’ cases. In such cases it is wise to consult the relevant lecturer or tutor for advice. Generally, however, it is best to follow a strict interpretation of the rule when in doubt and to give a reference for ‘borderline’ cases. All references should be sufficiently detailed and accurate to enable the source to located speedily. Citations In academic writing you will have to steer a course between overdependence on published material to the exclusion of any critical assessment of your own and uninformed comment. The way to achieve a proper balance is to read as widely and appropriately as possible but in the final analysis concentrate on writing your informed opinion in your own words, making appropriate acknowledgment of sources and studies. On the whole, only a minor part of your essay should comprise direct quotations or material that is a merely modified or condensed version of another author’s work. It is your essay, not a collection of quotes. Extensive quotation or paraphrase is not intellectually productive. Show that you can think not just quote. 1. Direct and Indirect Referencing: The reference system outlined below is a summary of the American Psychological Association format. APA format is based on the in-text or author/date system for scholarly citation of references, also known as the Harvard system. School of Employment Relations and Work strictly requires the Harvard/APA system in all of its units. Learning to use a new system and getting it right, down to the details of punctuation and bibliographic format, may seem trivial but it is a necessary skill in academic writing and it demonstrates that you take academic scholarship seriously. a. Using direct quotes:

Gardner and Palmer said, "Authoritarians also saw trade unions as a useful instrument…" (1997, p. 87).

"Authoritarians also saw trade unions as a useful instrument…" (Gardner and Palmer, 1997, p. 87).s Notice that the full stop comes after the citation. Remember that quotes longer than four lines should be indented throughout but without quotation marks. Be careful with your punctuation prior to the quotation b. b. Outlining or describing arguments that is not verbatim:
• • Gardner and Palmer (1997) made the point that … and they suggested that … • • Others have conducted similar experiments and report that... (Alexander and Lewer, 1998). • • Deery, Plowman and Walsh (1999) made a useful distinction between …

This wording makes it clear you are paraphrasing, condensing or otherwise giving a modified version of someone else’s work. If possible indicate where this ends and your own material begins. For example: However, one could argue that Duffy and Fells (1989) did not consider… Never quote without acknowledgment and always make it clear when you are conforming closely to someone else’s text, i.e. paraphrasing. c. c. Secondary quotes:

We suggest that you used original sources where possible to ensure that the information is quoted correctly. However, if you read about someone’s work in another publication, for example Gardner and Palmer (1999) mentions Roche (1993) but you

have not yourself read the Roche article, make this clear:

Roche (1993) argued that.. (cited in Gardner and Palmer, 1999, p. 43) • • Gardner and Palmer (1999, p. 42) quotes from Roche’s paper as follows … The Gardner and Palmer (1999) article then appears in the reference list — not the reference for Roche. d. d. Multiple Authors:

If you have multiple authors for one article it is only necessary to use their names in its entirety once.

A recent study (Deery, Plowman, and Walsh, 1999) become (Deery et al., 1999) for subsequent citations. Et al. Meaning others. e. e. One author with multiple works:
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Jones (1990) Jones (1970a) Jones (1970b)

If the author has published several works in the same year then they need to be distinguished by adding a letter following the year of publication. In this instance, Jones published two articles in 1970. Note that the most recent publication date for publications in the same year should be listed first. Therefore, from these citations, the reader could correctly assume that Jones (1970a) was published after Jones (1970b). That is, Jones (1970a) could have been published in a November journal while Jones (1970b) was in a May journal. If you can not distinguish when the articles where

written then use the "a" suffix for the first citation used in your essay. f. f.

Several related studies:

Many authors (Deery et al., 1999; Gardner and Palmer, 1999; Roche, 1993) have looked at … • • Several studies argue that… (Jones, 1970a; Jones, 1970b; Deery et al., 1999). g. g. The internet:

Studies have shown … (http://badger.stat.wi.us, 1997).

2. Endnotes or footnote: can be used with the APA/Harvard format for the purpose of calling attention to minor points or further references. This is often a good strategy in essays in order to include extra information without "breaking the flow", but they should not be used as a system of citation.

Reference List
The last part of your essay is a list of all and only the references cited in the text of your essay. This should be titled "References", not "Bibliography". A bibliography usually includes other relevant sources not mentioned in the text and is thus unacceptable for academic essays in the School of Employment Relations and Work. 1. Books: present information (where relevant) within each entry in the following order:
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Author’s last name and first initial(s) Year of publication Title of part of book Title of book Name of editor, translator, or compiler Edition used

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Number of volumes Name of series Name of publisher City of publication Page numbers (for and anthology)

As you review the following examples please note the indentations of lines two onwards, the punctuations, and the use of capitals and italics for publication titles in each case. A BOOK BY A SINGLE AUTHOR: Langbaum, R. (1970) The Modern Spirit: Essays on the Continuity of Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Literature, Oxford University Press, New York. TWO OR MORE BOOKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR: The most recent publication goes first. Michaels, L. (1981) The Men’s Club, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York. Michaels, L. (1975) I Would Have Saved Them if I Could, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York. A BOOK BY TWO AUTHORS: Liehm, M., and Liehm, A. J. (1977) The Most Important are: Soviet and Eastern European Film After 1945, University of California Press, Berkeley. A BOOK BY MORE THAN TWO AUTHORS: All authors’ names must be present. Burns, J. M., Peltason, J. W., and Cronin, T. E. (1984) Government by the People, 12th ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. A BOOK BY A CORPORATE AUTHOR: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists (1982) Consumer Drug Digest, Facts on File, New York.

AN ANONYMOUS BOOK: ---, (1982) Chicago Manual of Style, 13th ed., University of Chicago Press, Chicago. A WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY: Herbert, G. (1987) The pulley, in M. Meyer (Ed.) The Bedford Introduction to Literature, St. Martin’s, New York. pp. 790-791. THE ANTHOLOGY ITSELF: Meyer, M. (Ed.) (1987) The Bedford Introduction To Literature, St. Martin’s, New York. A WORK FROM A COLLECTION BY ONE AUTHOR: Mill, J. S. (1975) On liberty. In Three essays: On Liberty, Representative Government, the Subjection of Women, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 1-141. (Original work published 1859). A BOOK EDITED BY TWO OR THREE PEOPLE: White, G. A. and Newman, C. (Eds.) (1972) Literature in Revolution, Holt, New York A BOOK EDITED BY MORE THAN THREE PEOPLE: Kermode, F., Hollander, J., Bloom, H., Price, M., Trapp, J. B., and Trilling, L. (Eds.) (1973) The Oxford Anthology of English Literature, Vols. 1-2. Oxford University Press, New York. A TRANSLATION: Kundera, M. (1981) The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, Heim,M. H. (Trans.). Knopf, New York. (Original work published 1978). A REPUBLISHED BOOK: Conroy, F. (1977) Stop-Time, Penguin, New York. (Original work published 1967).

2. Journal Articles, Magazines and Newspapers: Present information (where relevant) within each entry in the following order:
o o o o o o o o

Author’s last name and first initial(s) Year of publication Title of article Name of periodical Series number or name Volume number Page numbers Page numbers

As you review the following examples please note the indentations of lines two onwards, the punctuations, and the use of capitals and italics for publication titles in each case. AN ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL WITH CONTINUOUS PAGINATION: Cooper, A. M. (1984) Psychoanalysis at one hundred: Beginnings of maturity, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, Vol. 32, pp. 245-267. AN ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL WITHOUT THE EXACT DATE OF EACH ISSUE: Wheeler, R. P. (1972) Poetry and Fantasy in Shakespeare’s Sonnets 88-96. Literature and Psychology, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp.151-162. AN ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE WITH SEPARATE PAGINATION FOR EACH ISSUE: Begiebing, R. (1983) Twelfth round: an interview with Norman Mailer, Harvard Magazine, March-April, pp. 40-50. A REVIEW: Schwendener, P. (1984) (Review of Red and Hot: The Fate of Jazz in the Soviet Union). American Scholar, Vol. 53, pp. 429-430. AN UNSIGNED MAGAZINE ARTICLE: ---, (1972) Drugs that don’t work, New Republic, January 29, pp. 1213.

A SIGNED NEWSPAPER ARTICLE: Nelson, J., & Wines, M. (1986) North reportedly shredded papers, San Francisco Chronicle, November 27, pp. 1, 28. AN UNSIGNED NEWSPAPER ARTICLE OR EDITORIAL: ---, (1986) Insider trading: A matter of trust, New York Times, November 23, Section E, p. 5. AN ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRY: L(ustig), L. K. (1985) Alluvial fans. Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia, London. A DISSERTATION: Boudin, H. M. (1970) The Ripple Effect in Classroom Management, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. A WORKING PAPER: Hayward, H. E. and Mortimer, D. E. (1988) Towards an Integrated Perspective of Employee Relations, Working Paper No. 1:88, University of Western Sydney, Parramatta. A CONFERENCE BROCHURE: International Industrial Relations Conference (1993) Improving Performance Appraisal and Management. (Seminar Brochure). ABS PUBLICATIONS: Australian Bureau of Statistics (1988) Small Business in Australia 1983-84 to 1986-87, Cat. No. 1321.1. A MONOGRAPH: Bureau of Labour Market Research (1986) The First Wave of the Australian Longitudinal Survey: Facts and Figures about Young CES Registrants, Monograph No. 12, Australian Government Publishing Services, Canberra.

A PUBLIC DOCUMENT: United States Dept. of Agriculture (1925) Shipments and unloads of certain fruits and vegetables, 1918-1923, Statistical Bulletin, April, No. 7. AN ENTERPRISE AGREEMENT: EPA Enterprise Agreement 1994-1996. A PUBLISHED LETTER: Allen, S. (1978) Popular Photography, 1978, June 15, p. 4. (Letter to the editor) AN UNPUBLISHED LETTER: Graff, G. (1984) Views on Employment Relations, 1984, August 18. (Letter to the author). 3. Electronic Sources: Put down as much information as possible. Some useful references can be found on Attachment Two. CD-ROM: Author/Editor (Year) Title, edition, [Type of medium] publisher, place of publication. Available: Supplier/Database identifier or number, [Access date]. ---, (1994) Longman Interactive English Dictionary, [CD-ROM] Available: Cartemill, London, [1996, April 20] INTERNET SITE: Author/Editor (Year) Title, edition, [Type of medium] publisher, place of publication. Available: Protocol (e.g., http): Site/Path/File, [Access date]. DeRemer, D. (1996) Beyond Apollo: A Manned Mission to Mars, [Online] Available: http://nepean.uws.edu.au/library/LIBRES/ESERIALS/EGJ/egj01/stoss 01.txt. [1996, October 17] ELECTRONIC SERIAL ARTICLE: Author (Year) Title, Journal Title, [type of Medium] month, volume, issue, paging. Available: Site/Path/File [Access date].

Stoss, F. (1994) Environmental education resources: Government agencies, and professional associations, Electronic Green Journal [Online] June, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 1-6. Available: http://www.nepean.uws.edu.au/library/LIBRES/ESERIALS/EGJ/egj01/ stoss01.txt. [1996, July 5] E-MAIL: Author (Year), Subject, Receipt date [E-mail to the author]. Smith, D. (1996) Critical assessment of the Pluralist Perspective, 1996, August 10. [E-mail to the author]. 4. Nonwritten Works: In some cases, you may be able to obtain written transcripts or unpublished text. If you cannot the following are examples should prove useful. A FILM: Scorsese, M. (Director) (1986) The Color of Money, Touchstone/Silver Screen. A RADIO OR TELEVISION PROGRAM: Moyers, B. (1979) The World’s Worst Air Crash, July 27, PBS, Los Angeles. A LECTURE: Do not cite lectures for course work Hirsch, E. D., Jr. (1987) Frontiers of Critical Theory, Paper presented at the Wyoming Conference on Freshman and Sophomore English, July 9, University of Wyoming, Laramie. AN INTERVIEW: Cillier, P. and Horowitz, D. (1987) November 5. (Interview with the author) COMPUTER SOFTWARE: The Benchmark (1984) (computer program) Metasoft, IBM DOS, Version 4.0. 5. Abbreviations: Acceptable abbreviations in the reference list for parts books and other publications include:

Chap. (Chaps.) Chapter (Chapters) Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors) ed. Edition p. (pp.) page (pages) rev. ed. revised edition No. (Nos.) number 2nd ed. second edition Tran. (Trans.) Translator (Translators) Vol. (Vols.) Volume (Volumes) Cat. (Cats.) Catalogue (Catalogues) 6. A reference list: The following is an example of the reference list presentation. Again, note the indentations and punctuations. ---, (1986) Insider trading: A matter of trust, New York Times, November 23, Section E, p. 5. ---, (1972) Drugs that don’t work, New Republic, January 29, pp. 1213. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1988a) Small Business in Australia 1983-84 to 1986-87, Cat. No. 1321.1. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1988b) Industrial Disputes, Australia, Cat. No. 6322.0. Adams, G. (1996) Political Review, November 1989-January 1990, The Australian Quarterly, Vol.61, No. 4, pp. 520-1. Bain, G. (1970) The Growth of White Collar Unionism, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Creigh, S. (1986) Australia’s Strike Record: The International Perspective, in Blandy, R. and Nilan, J. (Eds) Alternatives to Arbitration, Allen & Unwin, Sydney. Gospel, H. and Palmer, G. (1993) British Industrial Relations, 2nd ed., Routhledge, London. Portus, J. (1971) Australian Compulsory Arbitration 1990-1970, Hicks and Sons, Sydney.

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School of Management UWS 2000