Project
Submission
Pro­Forma


NAME: Arinze Chizoba Onyekwere Home Address. 3 Beauchamp House Greyfriars Road Coventry, CV1 3RW I wish the dissertation to be considered for (tick one only) MSc in Digital Manufacturing Management MSc in Electronic Business Management MSc in Engineering Business Management MSc in Engineering Enterprise Excellence MSc in International Technology Management MSc in Manufacturing Systems Engineering MSc in Process Technology & Business Management MSc in Programmes & Project Management MSc in Supply Engineering & Logistics         

I have checked that my modules meet the requirements of the above award  I confirm that I have included in my dissertation: An abstract of the work completed A declaration of my contribution to the work A table of contents A list of figures A glossary of terms (where appropriate) A clear statement of my project objectives A full reference list and bibliography       

I am willing for my marked dissertation to be used for staff training purposes 

Signed: AC ONYEKWERE

Date: 28/08/2008


 


MARKETING
IN
NIGERIAN
 TELECOMMUNICATION
INDUSTRY



 

WARWICK
MANUFACTURING
GROUP
 
 
 
 Submitted
by:
ARINZE
C
ONYEKWERE
 Course:
ENGINEERING
BUSINESS
MANAGEMENT
 Date:
August
2008
 Supervisor:
Andy
Young
 
 
 ii
 
 
 
 
 

 
 UNIVERSITY
OF
WARWICK
 
 COVENTRY



ABSTRACT
 The
 dissertation
 is
 focused
 on
 marketing
 in
 Nigerian
 Telecommunication
 Industry
 with
 some
 reference
 to
 the
 industry
 in
 United
 Kingdom.
 The
 Nigerian
 telecommunication
industry
has
become
quite
competitive
in
recent
years
due
to
 its
liberalization,
and
the
market
potential.
This
has
seen
the
influx
of
companies,
 both
foreign
and
indigenous
into
the
industry.
Their
competition
has
been
a
bid
 to
 attract
 and
 retain
 subscribers,
 with
 the
 companies
 displaying
 several
 marketing
 techniques
 to
 realize
 this
 objective.
 Some
 companies
 within
 the
 industry
that
can
not
compete
or
have
feeble
strategies
seize
to
exist.
 The
 dissertation
 documents
 the
 various
 processes
 in
 the
 investigation
 of
 the
 companies’
 various
 approach
 towards
 realizing
 the
 objective.
 The
 various
 processes
include
the
review
of
literatures,
and
research
methodologies
towards
 having
 an
 in‐depth
 knowledge
 of
 the
 industry.
 Also,
 discussion
 of
 the
 results
 obtained,
 in
 a
 bid
 to
 display
 knowledge
 of
 marketing
 within
 the
 industry.
 The
 research
 implemented
 resulted
 in
 discovering
 gaps
 within
 the
 industry,
 that
 when
 referred
 to
 the
 UK
 industry
 are
 opportunities
 that
 can
 be
 exploited
 towards
realizing
the
objective.
 Finally,
the
future
trends
that
are
foreseen
within
the
industry
are
also
included
 in
the
dissertation.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


iii



for
the
support
through
 its
implementation.
The
 professional
collaboration
enabled
me
complete
the
work.
 Many
thanks
to
the
companies
contacted
in
a
bid
to
get
information.
 Andy
 Young
 for
 the
discussions.
 
























































ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
 I
 would
 like
 to
 express
 my
 sincere
 gratitude
 to
 my
 supervisor.
and
the
time
he
spent
constantly
reviewing
the
dissertation.
I
dedicate
this
dissertation
to
my
family
and
God.
thanks
 to
the
respondents
of
the
questionnaire
in
Nigeria.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 iv
 .
Also.
 Finally.
I
would
not
have
developed
a
 robust
case
without
them.



 
 
 Name:
ARINZE
C
ONYEKWERE
 
 SIGN:
AC
ONYEKWERE
 
 DATE:
AUGUST
2008
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 v
 .
 declare
that
no
part
of
the
work
was
copied
from
a
previous
work.
 Also.
and
I
did
not
 let
colleagues
copy
any
aspect
of
my
work.
 which
 are
 duly
 referenced.
 





DECLARATION
 I
 hereby
 declare
 that
 the
 entire
 work
 is
 mine
 except
 for
 quotations
 and
 information
 from
 literatures
 and
 journals.

........................................................ Background
to
research ........................................................... 8
 
 Chapter
THREE:
LITERATURE
REVIEWS........................................1 What
is
marketing?............2 Marketing
Environment..................4....... 41 3..................................................................2 Deciding
whether
to
go
abroad ................................................................. Basic
rationale
and
Justification............4 Marketing
planning
and
implementation ....4....................................................5 Deciding
on
the
global
marketing
program ...3........................................ 15 3.............................................................1 
 1.1 Project
objectives ............................ 37 
 3...................................................... 19 3..................................1 Structured
Questionnaires ........3..................................................................................................................................................................... 28 3..1 Detailed
Research
Design ......................................1 International
marketing
environment .......... 38 3................ Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................................10
 3..............................2.............4...................... 3 
 Chapter
TWO:

RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY………………………………………………...........4....................3 Deciding
which
market(s)
to
enter..............3 Designing
Marketing
Mix .................................. 5 2.............4......6 Deciding
on
global
marketing
organisation............... i 
 Chapter
ONE:
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………….....................................................1............................ 39 3....2 Secondary
Research ....1
 1.................................................... 42 3.........................................................4.....................................................................2 Marketing
strategy............ 45
 
 
 
 
 vi
 ....................………………………………………………….....3.................................... 44 3.1............................................................................ 16 3...........................2 Limitations
of
research
methodology .. 10 
 3....................4
 2........................
 Table
of
Contents
 Project
Submission
Pro­Forma ......................3 Marketing
Management ............. 21 3................3......................................................................................................................................................... 7 
 2......................2.............1.............. 22 3........................................................1 Marketing ......................................................................................................................4 
 2.......................................... 5 2........... 13 
 3................................................................................. 12 3....................................................4 Deciding
how
to
enter
the
market ....................................................... 40 3.......1 Microenvironment ..............4 International
Marketing ..........1 Adopting
a
marketing
philosophy.................... 17 
 3.......................................................................2 Macro‐environment .

................................................... 83 Increasing
the
Sample
size ................. REFERENCES ........................................................... 50 4..... 73 5........................................................................2.........................................................................................................1 7........... 60 
 4...............3 Gaps
within
the
industry.......1......................................................................................................................................................................... 9.....3 UK
industry......................... 69 
 Chapter
FIVE:
DISCUSSION………………………………………………………………………...........1 Brief
description
(Post
Independence).................................................1................. 47 
 4........................................2 Users
and
Retailers
Result............2 The
United
Kingdom
Telecommunication
industry ..................... Background............2 Questionnaires
and
Secondary
Research
Result .......................3 7... 83 Contacting
the
Nigerian
Communications
Commission
(NCC)......................2 7.....................................................................1 Companies’
result........................ 81 
 8................................................................................ 84 Conclusion.1 Nigerian
Telecommunications
Industry......2 Techniques
implemented
and
effects............................................................. 79 
 Chapter
SIX:
CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………......2........ Background......... 47 
 4............................................................................................................4 Future
trend
within
the
Industry ......1 Fixed
wireless
Vs
mobile
telephony
operators ........................................ 
 Chapter
SEVEN:
RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR
FURTHER
WORK……………………83
 7........................ 94 
 
 
 vii
 ......................................................................4 Inclusion
of
Interview
to
the
survey
techniques .................................... 78 
 5...1......................................................................................................................................................................................... 49 4.......... 86 BIBLIOGRAPHY:..... 77 5...................
 Chapter
FOUR:
RESEARCH
RESULT…………………………………………………………................................................................................. 72 
 5.................................. Background................ 84 Investigating
potential
entrant.................................72
 5................ 83 
 7........................................ 74 5........ 73 5................................47
 4..................................................... 89 10.........................81
 6.... APPENDICES............................1..............................

3:
The
marketing
management
process………………………………………….65
 Fig
4.67
 Fig
4.…30
 Fig
3.……...….66
 Fig
4.67
 Fig
4.3(a):
The
product
lifecycle……………………………………………………….……….68
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 viii
 .………….…….2(d):
ZAIN
customer
satisfaction………………………………………...2.2(c):
GLO
customer
satisfaction……………………………………….2(g):
Percentage
sales
result
for
multi‐retailers………………………...65
 Fig
4.2.61
 Fig
4..3..2:
Targets
of
competitor
analysis……………………………………………….2.….2(h):
Percentage
complaint
according
to
multi‐retailers……………..24
 Fig
3.3:
Three
levels
of
a
product………………………………………………………..…62
 Fig
4...…..….2(a):
Percentage
of
the
package
utilized
based
on
respondents…….2..2.2.29
 Fig
3.20
 Fig
3.….
 List
of
Figures
 Fig
3.2(b):
MTN
customer
satisfaction…………………………………….3(c):
The
BCG
Matrix………………………………………………………………..3.2.64
 Fig
4..….2(e):
STARCOMMS
customer
satisfaction…………………………….2(f):
 VISAFONE
customer
satisfaction…………………………………......……..……….3.32
 Fig
4.2..2.….2:
Percentage
marketshare
based
on
respondents……………….3..


coverage.1(b):
companies’
targets………………………………………………………..1(f):
percentage
ratios
for
the
forms
of
advertisement
 implemented………………………………………………………………………………….………………………71
 Table
7.1(h):
concentration
of
staff
from
management
to
 intermediaries…………………………………………………………………………….….57
 Table
4...2.2.
 List
of
Tables
 
 Table
3.2.53
 Table
4.69
 Table
4.1(d):
Research
result
for
price…………………………………………….1(e):
Research
result
for
promotion…………………………………….
price.58
 Table
4.3.2.…..2:
Sample
of
respondents…………………………………………….51
 Table
4.1(g):
corporate
social
responsibility
implemented………………..63
 Table
4.3:
UK
industry
Significant
differentiators……………………………….….2.1:
main
strategies………………………………………………………………….….84
 
 
 
 
 ix
 .56
 Table
4.52
 Table
4.3:
The
Marketing
Mix
and
the
product
lifecycle……………………….2..2.…….1(a):
research
result
for
companies’
products
and
services…….55
 Table
4.…….……..2(a):
Responses
on
Quality
of
service...2.2.….
customer
 service
and
cross
network
call
access……………………………………………….31
 Table
4.2:
sample
size
determination…………………………………………………….54
 Table
4...….…….2.2.50
 
Table
4..….60
 Table
4.1(c):
Research
result
for
Place…………………………………………….3(a):
Example
of
phone
manufacturers
contracted
to
the
 industry………………………………………………………………………..


and
the
way
the
data
are
to
be
analyzed.
 advertisement..
This
chapter
reviews
and
 implements
 these
 procedures
 that
 are
 suitable
 to
 understand
 the
 marketing
 approach
 implemented
 in
 the
 Nigerian
 Telecommunication
 Industry.
industries.
stated
that
every
firm
competing
 in
 an
 industry
 has
 a
 competitive
 strategy
 whether
 explicit
 or
 implicit.











































































































































Introduction
 Chapter
ONE:
 
 
 
INTRODUCTION
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 This
 section
 introduces
 the
 overall
 research
 process.
 Also.

 First
 step:
 The
 research
 starts
 with
 selecting
 the
 research
 design
 necessary
 to
 achieve
 the
 objective.
 and
 product
 introduction.
 the
 object
 to
 be
measured.
(1998).
 the
 United
 Kingdom
 telecommunication
 industry
 is
 reviewed.
 Additionally.
Porter
M.
 Also. Background
to
research
 In
today’s
competitive
world.
there
 are
several
processes
that
require
implementation.
 the
 design
 will
 help
 understand
 the
 UK
 telecommunication
 Industry.
The
Nigerian
Telecommunication
Industry
is
comprised
of
more
than
 five
 telecommunication
 companies.
 These
 competitive
 strategies
 incorporate
 price
 competition.
To
achieve
the
research
objective.
as
to
discover
opportunities
to
be
exploited
in
the
Nigerian
industry.
 the
 measurement
 approach.
 all
 competing
 to
 attract
 market
 share.
 the
chapter
includes
limitations
that
hinder
the
approach
implemented.
 and
 the
 objectives
 of
 the
 research
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 1.
 the
 data
 collection
 method.
 The
 companies
within
the
industry
are
both
foreign
and
indigenous
companies.

 
 
 1
 .
 towards
gaining
competitive
advantage.
The
 focal
 point
 is
 studying
 the
 companies
 as
 to
 understand
 their
 approach
 towards
 sustainability.
 Tull
 and
 Hawkins
 (1993)
 stated
 that
 research
 design
 incorporates
 a
 list
 of
 procedures
 involving
 decisions
 on
 what
 information
 to
 generate.
human
beings
all
compete
against
each
 other
to
realize
superiority.
 The
 research
 seeks
 to
 uncover
 marketing
 as
 a
 technique
 utilized
 in
 the
 Nigerian
 Telecommunication
 Industry
 to
 achieve
 competitive
 advantage.


 the
 final
 thought
 on
 if
 the
 objectives
 were
achieved
is
explained.
 The
 presentation
 of
 the
 data
 collected
 is
 dependent
 on
 the
 type
 of
 research
 design
 implemented.
 to
 overcome
 some
 of
 the
 limitations.

 Third
 step:
 This
 is
 the
 presentation
 of
 the
 data
 from
 the
 research
 design.
 The
 suggestions
 for
 further
 work.
 Having
 examined
 the
 marketing
 approaches
 by
 the
 company.
 marketing
 management.
 reduces
 or
 eliminates
the
limitation
during
extended
or
future
work
on
the
subject
matter.
highlighting
the
strength
and
weaknesses
with
examples.
This
approach
enables
the
reader
to
understand
 the
data
without
reading
the
discussion
section.
pie
 charts
and
tables
is
mainly
used.
As
qualitative
research
is
deemed
appropriate
for
the
research.
 This
 enables
 effective
 discussion
 of
 the
 industry.
 The
 section
 incorporates
 various
 interpretations
 of
 marketing.
 marketing
 environment.
Also
some
 reference
 to
 the
 UK
 industry
 to
 show
 opportunities
 for
 exploitation
 towards
 gaining
 competitive
 advantage.
 However.
Brown.
there
are
limitations
that
hinder
the
 various
stages
highlighted
above.

 Fourth
 step:
 The
 discussion
 chapter
 details
 the
 status
 of
 the
 companies
 investigated.
 suggestions
 for
 further
 work
 are
 highlighted.
 Mc
 Dowell
 and
 Race
 (1995).
awareness
of
relevant
 theories.
 At
 this
 stage.
These
limitations
questions
the
validity
of
the
 result
 obtained.
 and
 international
 marketing.











































































































































Introduction
 Second
step:
The
subsequent
process
is
the
review
of
literatures
to
comprehend
 marketing
and
the
elements
that
lead
to
gaining
competitive
advantage.
 the
 reader
 will
 have
 a
 conclusive
 view
on
the
subject
matter.
 debates
 and
 controversies.
 Sixth
step:
Over
the
course
of
the
research.

 Fifth
 step:
 This
 chapter
 concludes
 the
 realization
 of
 the
 objective
 based
 on
 the
 literature
 reviewed.
 result
 obtained
 and
 the
 discussion.

 
 
 2
 .
 claim
 that
 academic
 research
 should
 show
 a
 comprehensive
knowledge
of
any
relevant
previous
work.
 including
 gaps
 within
 the
 industry
 that
 could
 be
 exploited
 to
 gain
 competitive
 advantage.













































































































































Introduction


1.1 Project
objectives

The
 implementation
 of
 a
 research
 or
 project
 is
 to
 fulfill
 an
 objective.
 The
 research
 is
 focused
 on
 marketing
 in
 Nigerian
 telecommunication
 industry.
 It
 seeks
 to
 explain
 the
 fact
 that
 marketing
 plays
 an
 important
 role
 in
 the
 development
 of
 an
 industry,
 and
 business
 sustainability.
 As
 stated
 by
 Porter
 (1998),
every
firm
within
an
industry
has
a
competitive
strategy;
the
strategy
is
 marketing
and
it
is
being
utilized
in
various
forms.
Hence,
the
objectives
of
the
 research
is
as
follows

 ⇒
 ⇒
 Investigating
the
companies
with
the
majority
market
share.
 Investigating
 the
 marketing
 techniques
 they
 implement
 to
 attract
 and
 retain
subscribers,
as
to
gain
competitive
advantage.
 ⇒
 


Investigating
the
impact
of
marketing
in
the
development
of
the
Nigerian
 Telecommunication
industry.


Hence,
 developing
 solutions
 to
 uncover
 the
 following
 objectives
 would
 lead
 to
 understanding
 marketing
 in
 the
 Nigerian
 telecommunication
 industry.
 In‐ addition
the
importance
of
marketing
to
the
sustainability
of
businesses
will
be
 understood,
at
the
end
of
the
research.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


3





















































































































Research
Methodology


Chapter
TWO:
 
 
 








RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


This
 section
 displays
 the
 research
 design
 implemented
 and
 justification
 for
 the
 choice.
 The
 design
 incorporates
 the
 survey
 design,
 and
 the
 secondary
 research
 implemented
 coupled
 with
 its
 importance
 towards
 realizing
 the
 objective.
 The
 limitations
that
hindered
the
choice
of
research
methodology
are
highlighted.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


2. Basic
rationale
and
Justification

This
is
the
selection
of
appropriate
research
design
to
achieve
the
objective.
This
 chapter
 displays
 the
 ways
 in
 which
 the
 data
 would
 be
 collected
 for
 analysis
 towards
 realizing
 the
 objective.
 The
 objective
 of
 the
 dissertation
 influences
 the
 research
 design
 to
 be
 implemented.
 Investigating
 the
 required
 task,
 qualitative
 research
 design
 is
 seen
 as
 the
 most
 appropriate
 to
 achieve
 the
 objective.
 According
 to
 Hancock
 B.,
 “Qualitative
 Research
 is
 concerned
 with
 developing
 explanations
 of
 social
 phenomena.”
 The
 research
 design
 seeks
 to
 answer
 the
 following
questions,
 ⇒
 ⇒
 Which
company
or
companies
control
the
mobile
market?
 How
do
the
companies
attract
and
retain
subscribers
using
the
marketing
 techniques?
 ⇒
 How
 did
 the
 marketing
 techniques
 enable
 the
 development
 of
 the
 industry?

 Two
 approaches
 will
 be
 implemented
 towards
 collecting
 sufficient
 data
 for
 analysis.
The
first
approach
would
be
the
review
of
literatures
on
marketing.
The
 second
 approach
 will
 investigate
 the
 companies
 approach
 to
 marketing;
 hence
 would
show
their
marketing
techniques.
Subsequently,
the
effect
of
the
approach
 on
customers
including
customer
perception
will
be
reviewed,
as
their
approach
 to
 marketing
 determines
 their
 status
 in
 the
 mind
 of
 the
 customers,
 expressing
 their
market
share.
Thus,
“company
with
the
better
approach
would
command
a


4





















































































































Research
Methodology


bigger
market
share
compared
to
others.”
The
data
collection
for
the
qualitative
 research
would
include
survey,
literature
reviews,
and
secondary
research.
 Five
 out
 of
 the
 eight
 known
 telecommunication
 companies
 in
 Nigeria
 will
 be
 investigated.
 The
 five
 chosen
 were
 as
 a
 result
 of
 their
 vast
 coverage
 in
 the
 country,
as
it
would
help
obtain
a
diversified
data
sample
for
examination.
The
 five
 Telecommunication
 companies
 to
 be
 investigated
 in
 Nigeria
 are
 MTN,
 GLOBACOM,
 ZAIN,
 STARCOMMS,
 and
 VISAFONE.
 The
 first
 three
 companies
 are
 global
system
mobile
operators
(GSM),
while
the
remaining
two
is
fixed
wireless
 operators.
 Also,
 VISAFONE
 is
 considered
 because
 it
 entered
 the
 Nigerian
 telecommunication
 industry
 last
 year.
 However
 as
 an
 entrant,
 the
 investigation
 would
seek
to
establish
the
approach
it
implements
to
win
a
market
share
in
an
 already
competitive
industry.

 For
 the
 UK
 telecommunication
 industry
 reviewed,
 secondary
 research
 (the
 websites
 of
 T‐mobile
 network
 and
 Vodafone
 network,
 and
 published
 journals)
 will
 be
 consulted.
 This
 approach
 was
 adopted
 because
 these
 companies
 deem
 some
information
confidential
hence
they
do
not
disclose
information
apart
from
 their
published
information.
 


2.1 
 

2.1.1 


Detailed
Research
Design


Structured
Questionnaires


The
structured
questionnaire
was
implemented
using
the
following
steps,
 ⇒
 Establish
objective
 ⇒
 Delimiting
the
sample:
(marketing
officers
/
subscribers
/
sub
dealers)
 ⇒
 Questionnaire
construction:
(open
/
closed
questions)
 ⇒
 A
pilot
study
(reviewed
by
a
friend
or
supervisor)
 ⇒
 Contacting
the
respondents
(Phone
call)
 ⇒
 Follow
up
(emailing
the
respondents)


5



 Interviewing
 the
 marketing
 executives
 of
 these
 companies
 is
 a
 possibility
 but
 will
 not
 be
 implemented
 because
 Michael
 and
 Martin
 (2004)
 deemed
 the
 response
 from
 interview
 as
 personal
 ideas
 that
 may
 be
 inaccurate.
 their
 approach
 to
 marketing
 would
 determine
 their
 status
 within
the
industry
whilst
expressing
the
techniques
utilized.
and
perception.
 multi‐ 
 6
 .
 and
 analyzed
 to
 prepare
 report.
Silver
and
Abramson
(1998)
claim
that
interviewer’s
expectations
or
 personal
 characteristics
 (such
 as
 race
 or
 sex)
 can
 influence
 responses.
promotion.
However.
 In‐addition.
constant
contact
will
be
maintained
through
phone
 calls
and
subsequently
emails.
 The
 questionnaire
 seeks
 to
 uncover
 their
approach.
which
is
basically
getting
 someone
else
to
review
it.
company
and
 overall
 opinion.
 The
 questionnaire
 for
 sub
 dealers
 will
 be
 in
 two
 forms.
The
questionnaire
 designed
for
the
companies
can
be
seen
on
the
appendix
section.
 Anderson.

 The
second
research
design
will
also
require
using
a
user‐friendly
questionnaire.
In
designing
the
questionnaire.

 For
 the
 first
 research
 design.
The
indirect
contact
with
some
of
the
respondents
will
 be
due
to
the
diversification
of
the
sampling.
Prior
to
 sending
the
questionnaire.
 a
 user‐friendly
 questionnaire
 comprising
 of
 both
 closed
and
open
questions
about
the
product.
 


















































































































Research
Methodology
 
 ⇒
 Analyzing
result
and
report
preparation
 Questionnaires
 will
 be
 the
 main
 survey
 technique
 for
 both
 research
 designs.
 The
 user
questionnaire
derives
the
customer
perception
of
the
product.
Based
on
the
information
from
the
 literature
 review.
 Finally
 the
 questionnaires
 would
 be
 received.
Contacts
through
telephone
calls
will
be
made
to
the
 marketing
officers
of
the
targeted
companies
prior
to
sending
a
questionnaire
by
 email.
hence
intermediaries
will
be
used
 to
collect
the
data.
there
will
be
a
pilot
study.
to
marketing.

 The
 questionnaire
 will
 be
 designed
 for
 users
 and
 sub‐dealers
 (retailers).
and
sent
to
the
marketing
officers
of
the
targeted
companies.
but
there
will
be
no
direct
contact
with
 some
of
the
respondents.
 issues
such
as
question
wording
will
be
considered
and
appropriately
presented.
The
marketing
officers
would
be
sent
an
email
every
week
to
remind
them
 of
 the
 response
 until
 reply
 is
 received.
 The
steps
highlighted
above
will
be
used.
 also
 influenced
my
idea
of
not
conducting
interviews.
place
and
price
will
be
 designed.


the
corporate
statement
will
be
studied
to
seek
 a
 link
 between
 the
 company’s
 vision
 and
 mission.
 and
 sub
 dealers
 in
 city
 centers
 for
 each
 region.
 the
 distribution
 channel
or
place.

 
 2.
 the
 company’s
 websites
 and
media
sites
(newspapers
and
magazines).
 Copies
of
the
questionnaires
designed
are
attached
in
the
appendices
section.
 


















































































































Research
Methodology
 
 product
sub
dealers
and
mono
product
sub
dealer.
Nevertheless
the
comparison
of
 articles
 written
 in
 a
 journal
 gives
 an
 opportunity
 for
 the
 reader
 to
 have
 conclusive
evidence
on
subject
matters.
 East.
The
multi
product
sub‐dealer
 gives
a
clear
sample
of
the
most
accepted
product
and
the
least
accepted
product
 by
 the
 customers
 (effect
 on
 customers).
Journals
comprise
of
factual
based
articles
written
 by
 professionals
 on
 the
 telecommunication
 companies.
and
brand
image.
 This
 secondary
 research
 will
 be
 implemented
 for
 both
 research
 designs.
 in
 order
 to
 obtain
 a
 diversified
 data
 sample.
 as
 most
 company’s
 website
 gives
 a
 lot
 of
 insight
 about
 the
 company.
Although
journals
do
not
give
a
hundred
 per
 cent
 view
 on
 a
 company.
 The
 mono
 sub‐dealer
 questionnaire
 looks
 at
 the
 efficiency
 and
 effectiveness
 of
 one
 of
 the
 channels
 of
 distribution
 whilst
 deriving
 information
 on
 their
 perception
 of
 both
 the
 company
 and
 product.
 hence
 giving
 an
 insight
 on
the
company
performance.2 
 Secondary
Research
 A
 secondary
 research.
Also.
 West.
 it
 is
 seen
 as
 a
 supplement
 for
 the
 data
 collected
 
 7
 .
 their
 promotional
 means.

 The
 questionnaires
 for
 sub
 dealers
 and
 users
 will
 be
 sent
 to
 four
 different
 regions
 of
 the
 country.
 which
 includes
 on‐line
 journals.
 and
 South.
 North.
and
price.
 The
 various
 companies’
 website
 will
 be
 reviewed.1.
will
also
be
reviewed
to
develop
a
 robust
 case.
 
 The
 website
 review
 is
 based
 on
 the
 company’s
 products
 and
 services.
 Twenty
 questionnaires
 will
 be
 distributed
 to
 users
 in
 universities
 and
 social
 centers.


 On‐line
 journals
 on
 Nigerian
 telecommunication
 industry
 are
 another
 form
 of
 research
to
be
implemented.
 and
 their
 present
 business
 activities
implemented.


 The
 post
 comments
 for
 each
 article
(news)
by
readers
help
understand
the
customer’s
perception
and
views
 on
 the
 issues
 being
 described.2 
 
 
 Limitations
of
research
methodology
 My
 approach
 has
 some
 limitations.
 


















































































































Research
Methodology
 
 from
 questionnaire.
In‐addition.
 and
 Tell
 Magazines.
professional
writers
critically
discuss
the
 attitudes
 of
 these
 telecommunication
 companies.
 ⇒
 The
 marketing
 officers
 that
 filled
 the
 questionnaires
 might
 be
 biased.
 ⇒
 The
 marketing
 officers.
 The
 criticisms
 are
 viewpoints
 of
 the
 writers.
 News
 watch.
 
 8
 .

 
 2.
 as
 they
feel
their
Job
could
be
threatened
with
regards
to
the
feeble
nature
of
 their
employment
contract.
 and
 companies
 contacted
 might
 not
 disclose
 all
 the
 information
 required
 on
 the
 questionnaire.
 The
 possible
 limitations
 to
 my
 approach
are
highlighted
below.
Daily
 Champion.
 The
 most
 notable
 journal
 to
 be
 consulted
 is
 the
 Nigerian
 Communication
Commission
(NCC)
publications
on
the
industry.
they
could
be
biased
to
promote
 the
image
of
their
employers.
 In
 the
 recognized
 local
 newspapers.

 Furthermore
in
the
same
local
media.
Some
of
the
local
on‐line
newspapers
to
be
reviewed
are
Vanguard.
This
does
 not
imply
that
the
overall
data
to
be
presented
is
not
accurate.
 some
 companies
are
criticized
for
some
activities
and
other
praised
for
some
activities.
 
 These
 are
 perceptions
 and
 views
 that
 present
 gaps
and
opportunities
that
can
be
exploited
for
customer
satisfaction.
 These
 media
 sites
 also
 reveal
current
news
on
the
activities
implemented
by
these
companies.
rather
it
is
keen
 on
 proving
 the
 validity
 of
 the
 data
 sampled.
 which
 can
 hinder
 the
 presentation
 of
 a
 hundred
per
cent
accurate
data
on
each
of
the
companies
investigated.
 Media
sites
such
as
the
on‐line
newspapers
and
magazines
are
another
form
of
 research
 to
 be
 implemented.
 which
 could
 be
 seen
 as
 a
 user’s
 voice.
 as
 they
 deem
 some
 confidential.
 This
 Day.


 


















































































































Research
Methodology
 
 ⇒
 The
 retailers
 (sub
 dealers)
 response
 could
 be
 influenced
 by
 the
 better
 incentives
they
receive
from
a
particular
network
provider.
 ⇒
 The
 media
 sites
 consulted
 for
 supplementary
 information
 could
 be
 biased.
 ⇒
 The
 number
 of
 respondents
 received
 could
 have
 an
 effect
 on
 the
 result
 and
 conclusion.

 ⇒
 As
 some
 companies
 deem
 some
 information
 confidential.
 as
 the
 more
 respondents
 the
 more
 accurate
 the
 data
 obtained.
as
companies
are
capable
of
paying
for
good
reviews.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 9
 .
 it
 hindered
 direct
 contact
 with
 the
 companies
 to
 obtain
 the
 required
 information
 specifically
in
United
Kingdom.


 However.
and
of
them. Introduction

 Understanding
marketing
in
Nigeria
telecommunication
industry
would
require
 reviewing
 various
 literatures
 on
 marketing
 and
 its
 elements.
 Marketing
 elements
 to
 be
 considered
 are
 marketing
 environment.
Hence.
Hence.
and
international
marketing.
 and
 gaining
 competitive
 advantage
 within
 an
industry
specifically
telecommunication
industry.
 and
 gaps
 that
 exist
 within
the
industry.
one
in
five
are
successful.
 a
 third
 of
 start‐ups
 do
 not
 last
 for
 more
 than
 two
 years.

 
 10
 .
this
chapter
reviews
various
published
journals.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 Chapter
THREE:
 
 LITERATURE
REVIEW
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 This
chapter
is
a
review
of
the
various
literatures
on
the
principles
of
marketing.
the
 industry
 grows.
Even
some
business
that
 does
 not
 require
 investment.
 and
 lack
 of
 customer
 understanding.
when
businesses
within
an
industry
battle
for
sustainability.
 investors
 report
 that
 they
 only
 invest
 in
 one
 in
 every
 hundred
 of
 the
 plans
they
see.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 3.
Some
of
the
examples
using
telecommunication
 companies
 were
 included.
 business
 management.
marketing
management.
and
 accredited
 books
 on
 marketing.
 understanding
 marketing
 as
 well
 as
 its
 elements
 is
 crucial.
It
 also
includes
critical
examination
of
the
procedures
with
relation
to
its
application
 in
the
telecommunication
industry.
 This
 reason
 has
 shown
 that
 for
 business
 sustainability.

 According
to
Harris
(2006).
 It
 enables
 the
 design
 of
 appropriate
 questions
 for
 the
 companies
being
investigated.
lack
of
appreciation
of
what
is
involved
in
starting
a
 business.

 Harris
(2006)
claimed
that
the
reason
for
this
failure
are
varied
but
the
majority
 are
caused
by
poor
planning.
 This
 approach
 would
 lead
 to
 understanding
 the
 techniques
 implemented.
new
businesses
are
set
up
because
of
the
 dream
 of
 reaping
 the
 full
 reward
 of
 hard
 work
 and
 sense
 of
 accomplishment.
Everyday.
 It
 focuses
 on
 how
 it
 impacts
 an
 industry
 development.


Understanding
the
environment
at
which
one
exists
is
vital
in
 guarding
 and
 elimination
 of
 threats
 whilst
 seeking
 opportunities
 for
 survival.
 
 
 11
 .
 which
 is
 extending
 beyond
 the
boundaries
of
home
country
in
search
of
success.
 The
 management
 of
 marketing
 seeks
 to
 establish
 the
 processes
 or
 activities
 to
 be
 implemented
 by
 firms
 in
 making
 the
 pubic
 aware
 of
 their
 product.

 The
 second
 section
 looks
 at
 the
 marketing
 environment
 as
 businesses
 battle
 to
 stay
in
existence.
 Pareek
 (2007)
 emphasized
 the
 importance
 of
 customer
 understanding
 in
 his
 book
 Business
 intelligence
 in
 telecommunication
 industry.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 The
 first
 section
 introduces
 the
 various
 interpretations
 of
 marketing
 by
 recognized
 marketing
 associations.
 Clark
 (1997)
 claims
 that
 businesses
 focus
 on
 marketing
 push
 strategy
 and
 very
 few.
 “In
 competitive
 telecommunications
 environment.
 The
 interpretations
 facilitate
 basic
 understanding
 of
 marketing.
 This
section
looks
at
the
various
marketing
environments
that
exist.
 customers
choose
their
service
providers.
 2007).
 Pareek
 continued
 by
 stating
 that
 the
 adoption
 of
 the
 retail
strategy
of
tailoring
the
products
to
individual
customers
would
eliminate
 the
overtime
threat
of
driving
profit
margins
to
an
unacceptable
low.
 
 The
 third
 section
 discusses
 the
 management
 of
 marketing.
 and
 marketing
 champions.
1997).

 
 The
 final
 section
 discusses
 international
 marketing.
 focus
 on
 the
 pull
 strategy.
which
is
one
of
the
secrets
to
success.
As
MTN
and
ZAIN
are
the
 only
two
foreign
telecommunication
companies
operating
in
Nigeria.
and
ways
of
 utilizing
opportunities
for
survival.
wireless.
 which
 establishes
 the
 fact
 “achieving
 customer
 satisfaction”.
it
would
be
 interesting
to
review
their
technique
of
attracting
and
retaining
subscribers.
whether
long‐distance.
He
continued
by
claiming
that
it
 is
 the
 responsibility
 of
 the
 company
 to
 make
 the
 potential
 customers
 aware
 of
 what
the
products
can
do.
Internet
Service
Providers.
 Pareek.
or
local
 POTS”
 (D.
Today.
this
is
a
reality
for
all
sizes
of
 telecommunication
 companies
 as
 well
 as
 all
 types
 of
 telecommunication
 companies.
Clark.
Hence.
the
customers
will
pull
the
products
from
the
 end
of
the
pipeline
and
the
products
will
flow
smoothly
(S.


 and
 suppliers
 and
 consumers.
 In
 an
 expression.
Bishop.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 3.
 According
to
Bishop
(2002).
Marketing
is
associated
with
the
following
activities
 in
an
attempt
to
achieve
customer
satisfaction.

 Marketing
=
Exchange
 The
 exchange
 relationship
 is
 between
 producer
 and
 user.
2002)
 
 12
 .
 Baker
 equates
marketing
to
exchange.1 Marketing
 There
 are
 various
 interpretations
 of
 marketing
 by
 different
 academic
 professionals.
Also
Bishop
(2002)
used
various
 activities
involved
with
marketing
to
establish
the
meaning
of
marketing.
the
problem
of
 timing
and
problem
of
value
has
to
be
resolved.
 Baker
 (1995)
 literature
 on
 evolution
 of
 marketing
 stated
 that
 marketing
 evolved
 during
 the
 ages
 of
 trade
 by
 barter.
He
further
emphasized
that
for
the
exchange
to
occur.
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 Selling
 Research
 Pricing
 Image
 Services
 Market
Analysis
 Processes
 Planning
 Satisfying
customers
 Distribution
 Publicity
 Advertising
 
 
 
 
 (J.


 Then.
 in
 order
 to
 meet
 those
 needs
 that
 have
 been
 identified
 in
 the
 market.
 the
 first
 part
 of
 the
 definition
 requires
 the
 company
 studying
 the
 external
 environment
 for
 the
 nature
 of
 the
 existing
 and
 potential
 markets.
 the
 definition
 establishes
 the
 fact
 that
 understanding
the
environment
is
vital
to
business
success.”
(A.
anticipating
and
satisfying
 customers
profitably.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 Bishop
 (2002)
 further
 explained
 that
 satisfied
 customers
 will
 return
 to
 the
 organisation
 in
 the
 future
 and
 will
 recommend
 it
 to
 their
 family
 and
 friends.
Palmer
&
I.”
(P.
Kotler
&
G.
 Both
 academic
 professionals
 view
 on
 marketing
is
quite
logical
because
subscribers
of
mobile
telephony
establish
such
 connection
with
the
providers
(operators).
 Below
 are
 two
 different
 definitions
 by
 chartered
 institute
 of
 marketing
 and
 American
 Marketing
 Association
 respectively.
 some
 academic
 professionals
 specifically.
 The
 chartered
 institute
 of
 Marketing
 (CIM)
 defines
 marketing
 as
 “the
 management
process
responsible
for
identifying.
 “Marketing
 is
 a
 social
 and
 managerial
 process
 by
 which
 individuals
 and
 groups
obtain
what
they
need
and
want
through
creating
and
exchanging
 products
and
value
with
others.
1992)
 Palmer
 and
 Worthington
 (1992)
 further
 broke
 down
 the
 above
 definition.
 Richard
 Wilson
 &
 Colin
 Gilligan
(2005)
argued
that
the
AMA
definition
of
marketing
is
a
list
rather
than
a
 
 13
 .
Worthington.
and
if
satisfied
will
spread
the
news
 by
“word
of
mouth”.
 resulting
 in
 company’s
 profitability.1.
2005)
 However.

 According
to
Kotler
&
Armstrong
(2005)
whose
definition
is
based
on
American
 Marketing
Association
(AMA).
 Hence.
 the
 second
 part
 requires
 it
 to
 study
 the
 internal
 environment
 to
 ensure
 that
 it
 manages
 its
 resources
 effectively.


 
 3.1 What
is
marketing?
 There
 are
 several
 accredited
 definitions
 of
 marketing
 from
 professional
 institutions
 and
 academic
 professionals.
Armstrong.


 Kotler
 &
 Armstrong
 described
 this
 perception
 to
 be
 because
of
the
broad
array
of
products
available
to
a
customer
to
satisfy
a
 given
need.
for
example
basic
physical
need
for
 food.
 Products
 are
 physical
 objects.
 marketing
 requires
 two
 parties
 to
 mutually
 agree
 on
 the
 exchange
 of
 goods
 and
 services.
a
transaction
is
 marketing’s
unit
of
measurement.
 They
 are
 a
 basic
 part
 of
 the
 human
 makeup.
 the
 exchange
that
occurred
as
a
result
of
the
mutual
agreement
is
transaction.
 Consumers
 perceive
 products
 as
 bundles
 of
 benefits
 and
 choose
 products
 that
 give
 them
 the
 best
bundle
for
their
money.
 safety
 and
 warmth.
 Transactions
 and
 Relationships:
 they
 are
 interrelated
 in
 a
 bid
 to
 achieve
 effective
 marketing.
 clothing.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 definition.
 Value
 and
 satisfaction:
 It
 is
 concerned
 with
 the
 consumers’
 perception
 of
 the
 product’s
 value.
 Referring
to
Transaction
as
a
core
concept
of
marketing.
 the
 following
 terms
 were
 stated
 crucial
 towards
 achieving
 effective
 marketing.
 However.
 reviewing
 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong’s
 (2005)
 definition
 of
 marketing
 further.

 Products:
 they
 are
 responsible
 for
 satisfying
 consumer
 needs
 and
 wants.

 Exchange.

 Wants:
 described
 in
 terms
 of
 objects
 that
 would
 satisfy
 the
 need.
 physical
 services
 and
 a
 variety
 of
 other
 vehicles
that
can
be
offered
to
a
market
to
satisfy
a
want
or
need.
This
is
 reviewed
further
in
marketing
management
section.
As
explained
by
Kotler
and
Armstrong
 
 14
 .
 It
 also
 shows
 that
different
people
at
different
places
would
want
to
satisfy
a
common
 desire
with
different
objects
because
of
diversity
in
culture
and
individual
 personality.

 Demand:
 it
 occurs
 when
 the
 buying
 power
 backs
 “want”.
 Just
 as
 Bishop
 (2002)
 emphasized
 that
 marketing
 is
 vital
 for
 exchange
 to
 occur.
 Human
need:
It
is
a
state
of
felt
deprivation.
 Their
 reason
 being
 that
 it
 does
 not
 demarcate
 what
 is
 or
 is
 not
 marketing.
thus
presenting
marketing
as
a
functional
process.

 However.


Hence.
 Armstrong.
The
telecommunication
industry
in
Nigeria
is
at
a
growth
stage.
it
is
vital
to
 understand
 the
 environment
 in
 which
 it
 is
 being
 implemented.
it
is
vital
to
understand
the
environment
in
 which
 one
 exists.
and
region
to
region
with
varied
 social.
 and
 seize
 opportunities.
 2005).
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 (2005).
 They
 further
 explained
 that
 a
 market
 could
 grow
 up
 around
a
product.
 and
 seize
 opportunities
 for
 growth.
 the
 processes
 and
 the
 systems
would
differ
from
country
to
country.2 Marketing
Environment
 As
mentioned
in
the
previous
section.
economic.
distributors.
companies
must
use
research
and
intelligent
systems
to
study
and
adapt
 to
the
trends
and
developments.
 They
 further
 explained
 that
 as
 the
 environment
 presents
 opportunities
 and
 threats.
the
development
of
a
firm
depends
on
its
 understanding
 of
 the
 environment
 it
 exists.
 smart
 marketers
 work
 at
 building
 long‐term
 relationships
 with
 valued
customers.
suppliers
and
dealers.
 Validating
 the
 idea
 is
 Palmer
 and
 Worthington’s
 (1992)
 claim
 of
 understanding
 both
 internal
 and
 external
 marketing
 environment.
 It
 is
 vital
 to
 understand
 the
 environmental
 factors
 that
 could
 influence
 their
 techniques
 towards
 attracting
 and
 retaining
 subscribers.
 in
 order
 to
 guard
 against
 threats.
Kotler
and
G.

 
 3.
 There
 are
 two
 kinds
 of
 marketing
 
 15
 .

 Having
established
the
meaning
of
marketing
using
the
above
terms.
leading
 to
 companies
 competing
 for
 subscribers.
 in
 order
 to
 eliminate
 threat.
service
or
anything
else
of
a
value.
Kotler
and
G.
2005)
 Market:
“is
the
set
of
actual
and
potential
buyers
of
a
product”
(P.
 According
 to
 Dawson
 (1979).
Armstrong.
legal
and
political
environments.

 Kotler
and
Armstrong
(2005)
described
marketing
environment
as
consisting
of
 the
 actors
 and
 forces
 outside
 marketing
 that
 affect
 marketing
 management’s
 ability
to
develop
and
maintain
successful
transactions
with
its
target
customers.
(P.
Hence.
marketing
is
 shifting
from
trying
to
maximize
the
profit
on
each
individual
transaction
 to
 maximizing
 mutually
 beneficial
 relationships
 with
 consumers
 and
 other
parties.


 microenvironment
 consist
 of
 the
 forces
 close
 to
 the
 company
 that
 affect
 its
 ability
 to
 serve
 its
 customers.
 
 3.
 suppliers.
customer
markets.
 as
stated
by
palmer
and
Worthington
(1992)
in
its
explanation.
 Its
 management
 and
 distribution
 channels
 are
 discussed
 in
 detail
 in
 section
3.
competitors
and
publics.
 and
 also
 the
 price
 trend.2.
 Company:
 the
functional
areas
of
a
company
from
top
management
through
 to
accounting
all
have
an
impact
on
the
marketing
department
plans
and
 actions.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 environment.
Hence.
(CIM
definition).
 such
 as
 the
 company.
 marketing
 channel.
hence
marketers
need
 to
 gain
 strategic
 advantage
 by
 positioning
 their
 offerings
 strongly
 against
their
competitor
offering
in
the
mind
of
the
customers.
 internal
 (microenvironment)
 and
 external
 (macro‐environment).

 
 16
 .3.
the
 customer
markets
require
close
attention
and
study
in
order
to
segment
 the
customers
and
understand
them.1 Microenvironment
 Based
 on
 Principles
 of
 marketing
 by
 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong
 (2005).
 A
 good
 example
 would
 be
 a
 telecommunication
 company
 designing
packages
(Pay
as
you
go
and
pay
monthly)
that
are
attractive
 and
acceptable
to
customers.
 The
 telecommunication
 companies
 have
 to
 contract
 with
 mobile
 phone
 manufacturers
 to
 make
 available
 the
 mobile
 phones
 that
 would
 be
 in
 tandem
with
package(s).
 Customers:
 the
customers
are
the
main
focal
point
of
any
business.3.
 Competitors:
competitors
are
threats
to
any
organization.
 Marketing
 Channel:
 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong
 (2005)
 described
 it
 as
 the
 various
 ways
the
producer
distributes
its
products
and
services
to
the
final
user.
 as
 an
 increase
 in
 supply
 cost
 would
 increase
 the
 price
 of
 the
 products.

 Suppliers:
 the
 relationship
 between
 marketing
 and
 suppliers
 is
 based
 on
 monitoring
 resources
 availability.



 Demographic
 Environment:
 kotler
 and
 Armstrong
 (2005)
 described
 demographic
 influence
 on
 marketing
 plan
 as
 involving
 people.

 Natural
Environment:
the
natural
environment
has
been
a
cause
for
concern.
 This
 change
 prompted
 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong
(2005)
to
state
that
companies
need
to
watch
the
change
in
 variables.
 government.
 and
buying
behaviour.
and
pose
threat
to
a
company.
Kotler
and
Armstrong
(2005)
 described
 these
 forces
 that
 affect
 the
 marketing
 plan
 as
 demographic
 forces.
technological
forces.
and
cultural
 forces.
 there
 are
 six
 major
 forces
 that
 shape
opportunities.
 local.
Hence.
 The
 increasing
 abuse
 of
 the
 environment
alerted
Kotler
and
Armstrong
(2005)
to
emphasize
on
the
 four
 trends
 in
 the
 natural
 environment
 that
 would
 have
 an
 effect
 on
 
 17
 .
 It
 would
 require
 businesses
 strategically
targeting
a
particular
or
a
wide
range
of
customers.
 and
 general
 publics.

 Economic
 Environment:
 the
 economy
 of
 a
 country
 would
 influence
 the
 purchasing
power
and
buying
pattern
of
the
customers.
This
increase
has
influenced
their
buying
pattern.
political
forces.
the
buying
pattern
 and
 purchasing
 power
 changes.
as
the
economy
grows.
 Within
 the
 macro‐environment.
and
 would
 influence
 marketing
 decisions.
the
 democratic
stability
of
Nigeria
has
influenced
the
increase
in
income
per
 capita
of
the
populace.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 Publics:
 the
 publics
 include
 media.
 An
 example
 of
 the
 effect
 is
 that
 marketers
 of
 telecommunication
 companies
 have
 to
 be
 thorough
 about
 the
 safety
 of
 the
 mobile
 phones
 on
 publics.2.
 As
 any
 hazard
 caused
 by
 the
 product
 would
lead
to
lawsuits.
 and
 people
 make
 up
 the
 target
 markets.
 financial.
 economic
forces.2 Macro­environment

 Macro‐environment
 is
 seen
 as
 the
 environment
 outside
 or
 within
 which
 the
 business
 exists.
For
example.
 These
 functional
 areas
 impact
 the
 marketing
 plan
 of
 an
 organisation.
 
 3.
and
take
advantage.
natural
forces.


 These
 agencies
 do
 not
 directly
 influence
 marketing
 but
 the
 employees
 that
 oversee
 these
 organisations
 make
 poor
 decisions
 that
 are
 detrimental
to
marketing.
 increased
 pollution
 and
 government
 intervention
 in
 natural
 resource
management.
Kotler
and
G.
as
they
do
not
have
business
knowledge
and
 understand
its
operations.
The
developments
within
these
elements
 of
 the
 political
 environment
 affect
 the
 marketing
 decisions
 of
 a
 firm.
are
the
trends
that
require
monitoring.
These
factors
coupled
with
research
and
 development.
 These
 trends
 are
 shortages
 of
 raw
 materials.
perceptions.
 The
 competitive
 nature
 of
 the
 industry
 presently
 is
 attributed
 to
 the
 rapid
 pace
 of
 technology
 advancement.
Hence.
2005).
 The
 
 18
 .
 as
 it
 would
 pave
 way
 to
 developing
 strategies
 that
 would
 attract
 and
 retain
 the
 customers.
For
example
the
shortage
in
raw
materials
would
 increase
its
cost.

 Political
 Environment:
 the
 political
 environment
 consists
 of
 laws.
Armstrong.
and
regulations.
 they
 need
to
be
aware
of
any
negative
aspects
of
their
innovation
that
might
 harm
users.
These
values
shape
the
 society
 that
 the
 firm
 exist
 and
 the
 marketers
 have
 to
 understand
 the
 society
in
order
to
develop
a
robust
marketing
plan.
This
environment
is
 highly
 important
 for
 telecommunication
 industry.
and
behaviours.
This
is
an
important
 factor
 for
 the
 telecommunication
 industry
 to
 understand.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 marketing.
marketers
need
to
set
aside
strategies
 to
tackle
such
development
if
arise.
 increased
 cost
 of
 energy.
 because
 customers
 constantly
 seek
 innovative
 products.

 Cultural
Environment:
 these
 are
 forces
 that
 influence
 a
 society’s
 basic
 values.


 Technological
 Environment:
 “new
 technologies
 create
 new
 market
 and
 opportunities”
(P.
In
as
much
as
the
 marketers
 need
 to
 rely
 on
 research
 and
 development
 to
 improve.
preferences.
and
in
turn
affect
the
cost
of
products
for
the
customer.
 The
marketing
environment
and
how
it
influences
marketing
decisions
discussed
 have
 shown
 its
 relevance
 towards
 achieving
 competitive
 advantage.
 government
 agencies.
and
pressure
groups.


Also
the
trends
within
the
industry
 would
depend
on
the
environment.

 
 3.
and
control
of
programs
designed
to
create.
 all
 the
 forces
 discussed
 will
 have
 a
 huge
influence
in
the
status
of
the
companies.
However.
planning.3 Marketing
Management
 According
 to
 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong
 (2005)
 marketing
 management
 is
 “the
 analysis.
 while
 GE
 (General
 Electric)
 identified
 and
 followed
 global
 marketing
 strategies
 for
 the
 future.
Although
their
analysis
was
from
different
perspectives.
They
stated
that
IBM
got
into
trouble
because
 they
 focused
 on
 selling
 products
 from
 the
 past.
 They
 also
 stated
 the
 relevance
 of
 appointing
 the
 right
 candidate
 for
 the
 chief
 executives.
Armstrong.
Kotler
and
G.

 Dalrymple
 and
 Parsons
 (2000)
 established
 the
 importance
 of
 marketing
 management
by
citing
example
of
two
companies.
 and
 maintain
 beneficial
 exchanges
 with
 target
 buyers
 for
 the
 purpose
 of
 achieving
organizational
objectives.
 Considering
 a
 telecommunication
 industry.
the
list
of
activities
 
 19
 .
 This
 section
 considers
 Dalrymple
 and
 Parsons
 (2000)
 literature
 on
 marketing
management.
research
showed
that
more
top
executives
 come
out
of
marketing
than
any
other
field.
 According
to
Dalrymple
and
Parsons.
2005)
 Many
 academic
 professionals
 stated
 the
 importance
 of
 marketing
 management
 using
case
studies.
 and
 developing
 solutions
 whilst
 accommodating
 some
 marketing
 factors.
one
seized
an
opportunity
and
 grew.

 Marketing
 management
 incorporates
 a
 list
 of
 sequential
 interactive
 activities
 that
help
the
firm
achieve
its
goals.
but
would
rely
on
monitoring
and
reacting
 to
the
environment.
 build.
implementation.
while
the
other
faded
away.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 competitive
 advantage
 in
 this
 scenario
 is
 commanding
 a
 huge
 market
 share.
The
environmental
forces
cannot
always
be
 affected
by
marketing
management.”
(P.
hence
the
right
candidate
needs
to
 possess
marketing
backgrounds.
This
list
of
activities
may
vary
according
to
 the
products
or
services
being
offered
by
the
firm.
their
 literature
 still
 establishes
 the
 main
 idea
 of
 understanding
 the
 targeted
 customers.


(2000).
However. market segmentation .
 whilst
implementing
the
processes.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 discussed
 is
 applicable
 within
 a
 telecommunication
 industry.
 The
 main
 processes
 are
 adopting
 a
 marketing
 philosophy.
 developing
 a
 marketing
 strategy.

 Marketing
management
process
 Adopt a marketing philosophy Do a customer analysis Do a competitor analysis Estimate market potential Develop a marketing strategy.
 
 
 20
 .
 planning
and
implementing
marketing
program.3
 shows
 the
 sequential
 activities
 to
 be
 implemented
 towards
 achieving
 a
 firm’s
 goal..positioning Take into account societal concern Develop marketing mix.3:
The
marketing
management
process
(Dalrymple
D.
 The
feedback
obtained
would
enable
the
top
management
develop
or
redesign
a
 marketing
strategy
that
would
lead
to
gaining
competitive
advantage. product / service price channel promotion Take into account international factors Forecast sales and contribution Plan and implement marketing programs Obtain feedback on results 
 Figure
3.
 Different
 literatures
 share
 the
 same
 principles
 of
 marketing
 management
 though
 the
 terms
used
are
different..
and
Parsons
L.
there
are
factors
worth
considering.
competitor
analysis.
such
as
 customer
analysis.
and
obtain
feedback
on
results.
and
international
factors.
 designing
 a
 marketing
 mix.
 Marketing
management
text
and
cases)
 
 The
 flowchart
 above
 fig
 3.


Aeppel.
Parsons.
 (D.
 A
good
example
is
an
article
on
BMW
zooms
ahead
of
Mercedes
Benz
in
 1993.
 Dalrymple
 and
 L.
BMW
designed
a
wide
 range
of
its
products
specifically
the
3
series
in
order
to
attract
customer
 that
 like
 the
 product
 but
 cannot
 afford
 the
 higher
 priced
 models.
 J.
 the
 target
 customers
 have
 to
 be
 established
first
before
a
study
of
their
need
and
how
it
could
be
satisfied.
This
act
reduced
the
number
of
employees
 needed
but
increased
the
number
of
cars
produced
in
their
South
Carolina
 plant.
 Dalrymple
and
L.
2000)

 The
 widely
 accepted
 marketing
 philosophy
 is
 the
 marketing
 concept.3.
 and
 other
 functional
 areas
 towards
 satisfying
 the
 
 21
 .
(K.
 Parsons.
 They
 emphasized
 the
 fact
 by
 citing
 example
 with
 H.
it
explains
how
and
why
BMW
sold
more
cars
in
1992
 than
its
German
rivals
Mercedes
Benz.
In
the
article.
and
Japanese
market.
Miller
and
T.
1993)
 
 An
integrated
company
effort
is
about
closely
coordination
of
the
firm’s
 marketing
 activities.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 3.
 their
understanding
of
the
customer
resulted
in
only
including
the
value
 adding
features
to
the
product.
 stagnation
 and
 perhaps
 even
 bankruptcy.
 (D.
 Dalrymple
 and
 Parsons
 (2000)
 emphasized
 the
 importance
 of
 firms
 adapting
 to
 changing
 economic
 environment
 and
 meeting
 competitive
 threats
 to
 prevent
 loss
 of
 market
 share.
 Also.
 This
 is
 widely
accepted
and
implemented
because
it
maintains
that
the
key
to
achieving
 organizational
 goals
 is
 to
 determine
 the
 needs
 of
 the
 target
 markets.
The
loss
was
as
a
result
 of
 their
 slow
 to
 change
 and
 lack
 of
 customer
 focus
 in
 these
 countries.
 and
 to
 deliver
 the
 desired
 merchandise
 more
 efficiently
 than
 do
 competitors.
 Heinz
 that
 dominated
 the
 US
 ketchup
 business
 for
 over
 100
 years
but
lost
the
French.1 Adopting
a
marketing
philosophy

 This
is
the
first
step
in
marketing
management
as
it
states
clearly
the
focus
of
the
 firm
 either
 on
 the
 customer
 or
 the
 product.
In
the
year.
 However.
 This
 concept
 has
 three
 basic
 facets
 that
 include
 customer
 orientation.
 2000)

 
 Customer
orientation
is
entirely
focused
on
understanding
and
serving
 the
 customer
 better.
 integrated
 company
 effort
 and
 goal‐directed
 behaviour.
Swedish.


 customer
 analysis.

 
 3.
Parsons.
the
behaviour
of
the
various
departments
has
to
be
in
 accordance
with
the
goal
of
the
firm.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 customers’
 needs.
 
 Goal
directed
behaviour
emphasizes
the
need
to
channel
the
behaviour
 of
 the
 staff
 from
 top
 management
 to
 shop
 floor
 towards
 achieving
 the
 company
goal.
 which
 is
 one
 of
 the
 best
 marketing
philosophies
that
would
impact
a
firm’s
market
share.
 Also
 Hooley.
 Saunders
 and
 
 22
 .
 competitor
 analysis
and
market
potential.

 The
 facets
 have
 established
 marketing
 concept.
According
to
them.
 which
 works
 to
 unify
 the
 independent
 functional
 areas
of
a
firm
to
increase
satisfaction
and
improve
profit.”
(D.3.
Also.
 General
Motors
spent
$40
billion
on
plant
and
equipment
to
achieve
cost
 reduction
 and
 standardise
 products
 and
 unfortunately.2 Marketing
strategy
 “Organisations
that
fail
to
plan
for
the
future
will
find
themselves
fading
into
the
 market.
An
example
cited
in
the
literature
is
 the
problem
encountered
by
General
Motors
in
1980s.
 Its
 operation
 justifies
 the
 marketing
 concept.
 the
 goal
 was
 not
 fully
 realized.

 Dickson
 (1992)
 claimed.
 developing
 a
 sustainable
 competitive
 advantage
 would
 rely
 on
 the
 ability
 to
 learn
 fast
 and
 adopt
 quickly”
 (P.
 
 The
 marketing
 activities
 including
 sales
 and
 production
 would
 require
 working
 in
 tandem
 in
 order
 to
 meet
 the
 customer
 demand
 as
 and
 at
 when
 required.
 The
growth
stage
of
the
mobile
market
in
Nigeria
has
presented
an
opportunity
 for
companies
within
the
industry
to
implement
the
facets
in
order
to
attract
and
 retain
customers.
 which
 will
 include
 the
 three
 following
 factors.
Dalrymple
and
L.
 1992).
2000)

 Another
activity
in
marketing
management
is
the
design
of
a
marketing
strategy.
The
marketing
 concept
discussed
has
established
how
a
competitive
advantage
can
be
achieved.
 Dickson.
 The
 act
 impacted
 on
 their
 cost
 of
 cars
 and
 their
 market
 share
reduced
from
50
percent
to
33
percent.
 “In
 this
 rapid
 and
 unpredictable
 environment.


 There
 is
 fierce
 competition
 within
 different
 industries.
This
challenge
prompted
the
quest
to
learn
about
 the
competitors.
 in
 the
 future.
as
it
is
the
only
way
to
compete
against
them.
 how
 will
 the
 customer
 requirement
 and
 need
 change?
(G.
2004)
 The
answers
to
these
above
questions
would
result
in
explicit
understanding
of
 the
 targeted
 customers.
 and
 organisation
 resource
 analysis.
 supported
 the
 claim
 by
 stating
 that
 designing
 the
 marketing
 strategy
 should
 be
 based
 on
 meeting
 the
 changing
 economic
 environment.
 only
 
 23
 .
 The
 second
 stage
 is
 based
 on
 competitive
 positioning
 that
 would
 lead
 to
 selection
 of
 target
 customers
and
establishing
the
competitive
advantage.
both
seeks
to
understanding
the
 following
about
a
customer.
 but
 retaining
 them
 and
 overcoming
 the
 competition
 within
 the
 industry
would
be
a
challenge.
 Understanding
 the
 targeted
customers
would
lead
to
developing
products
and
services
that
would
 attract
 them.
business
or
non‐profit?
 Where
are
my
customers
–
location?
 When
do
my
customers
buy
–
seasonality?
 What
do
my
customers
want
–
explicitly?
 How
do
my
customers
buy
–
motives
and
influence?
 How
do
my
firm
become
customer
oriented?
 Finally.
 two
 different
 literatures
 reviewed
 expresses
 the
same
motive
but
in
different
ways.
 organisation
 and
 control
 of
 marketing
 effort
 to
 achieve
 positioning.
 competitor.
 In
 their
proposal
for
the
marketing
strategy.
 In
 the
 medium
 term.
 and
 ways
 to
 satisfy
 their
 needs.
they
developed
three
stage
processes.
Then
the
final
stage
is
the
 use
 of
 marketing
 mix.
 defining
 the
 business
 purpose
 and
 deciding
 on
 strategic
 focus
 to
 be
 adopted
 through
 customer.
and
N.
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 Who
are
my
customers
–
consumer.
Hooley.
J.
Saunders.
 and
 companies
 that
 cannot
 match
 and
 better
 the
 products
 seize
 to
 exist.

 First
 stage:
 in
 customer
 analysis.
However.
Piercy.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 Piercy
 (2004).


and
 N.
2004)
 In
 implementing
 competitor
 analysis.
 Fig
 3.
 Piercy.
 proposed
 seven
simple
stages.
Hooley..
 Dalrymple
 and
 Parsons
 (2000).
and
collusion?
 ⇒
 How
 do
 you
 learn
 about
 your
 competitors
 –
 using
 tools
 (strength
 and
 weaknesses)?

 
 24
 .
This
shows
that
the
main
threat
an
industry
faces
is
not
only
 the
 current
 competitors
 but
 also
 substitute
 (new
 entrant)
 that
 are
 eager
 to
 question
 the
 conventional
 industry
 practise.
 potential
entrants
would
be
a
threat
to
the
industry
(G.3.2:
Targets
of
competitor
analysis
(adopted
from:
marketing
strategy
and
 competitive
positioning.
 Their
 recent
 entry
 poses
 a
 real
 threat
 to
 the
 companies
 within
 the
 industry.2
 shows
 the
 targets
 of
 competitor
analysis.
J.
 competition.
 2004).
 Target
of
competitor
analysis
 New entrants or substitutes Industry competition Strategic group 
 Fig
3.
the
company
with
a
robust
strategy
would
withstand
the
threat
posed
 by
these
entrants.
 A
 good
 example
 is
 the
 recent
 entry
 of
 VISAFONE
 Telecommunication
 Company
 into
 the
 Nigerian
 Telecommunication
 industry.
Hooley
G.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 the
 companies
 in
 the
 strategic
 group
 have
 to
 be
 screened
 but
 in
 long
 term.3.
 ⇒
 ⇒
 Who
are
your
competitors
–
both
current
and
potential
entrants?
 What
 are
 your
 relations
 with
 your
 competitors
 –
 conflict..
 coexistence.
and
Piercy
N.
cooperation..
 However.
Saunders.
Saunders
J.


 Also.
 Saunders
 and
 Piercy
 (2004)
 named
 these
 distinct
 resources
 as
 Brand
 Equity.
stated
that
while
an
organisation
can
boost
 a
 wide
 range
 of
 resources.
 Prahalad
 and
 Hamel
 (1990)
 who
 argued
 that
 the
 most
 fundamental
 source
 of
 competitiveness
 lies
 in
 the
 core
 competency
 of
 the
 organisation
 suggested
 three
 tests
 to
 identify
 a
 firm’s
 core
 competence.
 relationship
 with
 customers.
 However.
and
it
also
 makes
 it
 harder
 for
 the
 firm
 to
 effectively
 compete
 in
 its
 rivals’
 own
 market.
 claimed
 “while
 differentiation
enables
a
firm
to
insulate
its
own
market
to
some
degree
from
the
 actions
of
its
competitive
rivals.
 Nevertheless.
Saunders
and
Piercy.
 Hooley.
but
would
not
lead
to
 maintaining
a
sustainable
competitive
advantage.
(2004).
firms
can
isolate
themselves
from
limitation
and
duplication.

 
 25
 .
the
relationship
is
a
symmetric
one.
 it
 is
 highly
 crucial
 that
 it
 identifies
 those
 resources
 that
would
help
create
a
competitive
advantage
within
the
industry.
and
how
to
compete.
the
realisation
of
the
distinct
resources
would
depend
on
the
firm’s
 core
 competencies
 (capabilities
 and
 assets).
 leading
to
maintaining
a
sustainable
competitive
advantage
within
the
industry.
 just
 like
 in
 customer
 analysis
 would
 help
 the
 firm
 understand
 the
competitors
within
the
industry.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 Where
do
you
compete?
 When
do
you
compete?
 How
do
you
compete
–
attack
strategies
and
defence
strategies?
 Finally.

 Hooley.
 Beath
 and
 katsoulacos
 (1991).
 and
 competitive
 position
 occupied.
 Mahoney
 and
 Pandian
 (1992)
 supported
 the
 claim
 by
 stating
 that
 strategic
 management
 theorist
 have
 showed
 that
 with
 the
 distinct
resources.
and
can
be
 sustained
 for
 a
 long
 period.
 effective
 distribution
 channel.”
 This
 claim
 by
 Beath
 and
 Katsoulacos
 is
 really
 important
 as
 the
 telecommunication
companies
are
within
one
market.
how
do
you
position
your
products?

 These
 questions.
 Some
 of
 these
 resources
 are
 described
 latter
 in
 the
 section.


 .
 ⇒
 Distinctive
 and
 pre‐emptive
 –
 the
 difference
 cannot
 be
 duplicated
 or
 bettered
by
others.
 Positioning
 is
 what
 you
 do
 to
 the
 mind
 of
 the
 prospect.

Kotler
(1997)
highlighted
six
criteria
that
 must
be
met
to
create
differentiation.
 you
 position
 the
 product
 in
 the
 mind
of
the
prospect.
 and
 the
 brand.
 Saunders
 and
 Piercy
as.
 Positioning
starts
with
a
product.
 ⇒
 A
core
competence
should
provide
wide
access
to
a
variety
of
market.
 ⇒
 A
 core
 competence
 should
 be
 difficult
 for
 the
 competitors
 to
 copy
 or
 duplicate.
or
 even
 a
 person
 .
 According
to
Hooley.
 But
 positioning
 is
 not
 what
 you
 do
 to
 a
 product.
 the
 product
 and
 services.
Gaining
a
competitive
advantage
would
be
positively
differentiating
from
 the
competitors
within
the
industry.

 ⇒
 ⇒
 Superior
–
the
difference
has
to
provide
high
benefit
to
the
customers.
Ries
and
Trout
(2001)
described
 positioning
 as
 a
 creative
 process.

 Second
 stage:
 “positioning
 is
 the
 act
 of
 designing
 a
 company’s
 offering
 and
 image.
customers
buy
products
and
services
 based
 on
 their
 perception
 of
 the
 company.
 Communicable
 –
 being
 able
 to
 communicate
 with
 customers
 is
 an
 important
aspect
of
the
difference.
A
piece
of
merchandise..
1997).
Saunders
and
Piercy.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 ⇒
 A
 core
 competence
 should
 contribute
 heavily
 to
 the
 satisfaction
 or
 benefits
the
customer
derives
from
using
the
product.
a
company.

 ⇒
 Importance
–
the
difference
should
create
a
significant
value
adding
to
a
 significant
number
(majority)
of
customers.
 However.
a
service.
 That
 is.
so
that
they
occupy
a
meaningful
and
distinctive
competitive
position
in
 the
target
customers’
minds”
(Kotler
P.
 the
 final
 test
 would
 be
 to
 identify
 whether
 the
 competencies
 can
 be
 combined
with
other
skills
and
capabilities
to
create
a
value
for
the
customers.
 
 26
 .
 and
 were
 quoted
 by
 Hooley.
 .


 promotion
 and
 product.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 ⇒
 ⇒
 Affordable
–
the
targeted
customers
should
be
able
to
pay
the
difference.
 Third
 stage:
 This
 final
 process
 is
 using
 the
 marketing
 mix
 (4P’s)
 to
 achieve
 competitive
positioning.
2004).

 ⇒
 The
 master
 brand:
 
 A
 good
 example
 used
 in
 the
 literature
 is
 Toyota
 and
 Honda.
and
infrastructures
in
a
business
to
deliver
value
to
 a
customer.
Saunders
J.
 mentioned
 six
 factors
 that
 have
 to
 be
 considered
 in
 order
 to
 slightly
 deviate
 from
 conventional
 marketing
 thinking
 (Hooley
G.
and
Piercy
N.3.
 They
 cited
 this
 claim
 in
 1997
 at
 the
 Academy
 Marketing
 Science
 conference.
hence
it
is
the
basis
for
positioning..
 Jag
 Sheth
 and
 David
 raised
 concerns
 about
 the
 rapid
 pace
 of
 environmental
 change
 influence
 on
 the
 strategy
 formulation.
 ⇒
 Best‐in‐class
 processes:
 this
 is
 primarily
 working
 or
 continuous
 improvement
of
the
services
in
order
to
achieve
world‐class
standards..
 The
 brand
 name
 portrays
 the
 efficiency
 of
 the
 product
 that
 is
 recognized
all
over
the
world.
 ⇒
 Mass
 customisation:
 producing
 a
 product
 that
 is
 primarily
 to
 satisfy
 a
 customer
need
and
at
same
time
achieve
scale
economies.
 Jag
 Sheth
 in
 his
 speech.

 
 27
 .3
 Examining
 marketing
 strategies
 further.

 ⇒
 The
 integrated
 enterprise
 and
 end‐user
 focus:
 this
 is
 about
 channelling
 the
people..
The
 marketing
mix
is
discussed
in
detail
in
section
3.
processes.
 place.
Bishop
(2002)
described
marketing
mix
as
a
marketer’s
 toolbox.
 Profitable
 –
 the
 price
 for
 the
 difference
 should
 be
 adequate
 to
 make
 it
 profitable
for
the
company.
 Bishop
 states
 that
 it
 is
 the
 marketing
 mix
 that
 encourages
customers
to
spend
money.

 ⇒
 Global
 positioning:
 it
 is
 about
 strategists
 focusing
 on
 business
 core
 competencies
and
extending
into
the
global
market.
 The
 marketing
 mix
 famously
 known
 as
 4P’s
 stands
 for
 Price.


 companies
 have
 to
 continuously
 develop
 strategies
 to
 adapt
as
and
at
when
required.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 ⇒
 Breakthrough
 technology:
 A
 good
 example
 is
 the
 3G
 phones
 that
 are
 presently
 in
 use.
 2002).
 customer
 support.
a
product
/
service
is
the
price
plan
 (package).
 where
 there
 is
 a
 continuous
 change
 in
 the
 economic
 environment.
 This
 service
 is
 considered
 awesome.
 as
 two
 people
 separated
by
distance
can
see
each
other
whilst
talking
over
the
phone.
 and
 therefore.
 Accommodating
 these
 factors
 in
 the
 planning
 of
 the
 marketing
 strategy
 would
 lead
any
company
including
Telecommunication
Company
to
differentiate
from
 competitors.3
shows
the
different
levels.
 it
 is
 regarded
 as
 the
 marketer’s
 toolbox.
 Considering
 Nigeria.
In
telecommunication
industry.
 These
 levels
 are
 seen
 as.
Jag
Sheth
and
David
claim
is
deemed
vital
 for
any
company
to
maintain
competitive
advantage.
organization
 and
services.
 Bishop
 also
 added
 that
 it
 is
 used
 strategically
 and
 tactically
 to
 achieve
 the
 marketing
 objectives.
 product.
 people
 and
 physical
 evidence)
 are
 being
 included
 by
 some
 academic
 professionals.
 The
 marketing
 mix.
 “People”
 is
 the
 only
additional
marketing
mix
discussed.
the
product
has
to
be
attractively
 designed
 and
 positioned
 in
 the
 mind
 of
 the
 customers.
 and
 mobile
 phones
 if
 purchased
 with
 the
 price
 plan.
 
 
 28
 .
because
of
the
goal
directed
behaviour
 explained
 in
 the
 marketing
 concept
 facet.
 in
 order
 to
 achieve
 a
 potential
market
share.3.

 Product:
As
discussed
in
the
previous
section.
 promotion
 and
 place.
Nevertheless.
A
product
can
be
anything
including
people.
 the
 overall
 corporate
 objectives
 (J.
Hence.
 additional
 3P’s
 (process.
 The
 diagram
 below
fig
3.
 famously
 known
 as
 the
 4P’s
 are
 price.
Bishop
(2002)
stated
that
a
product
could
be
viewed
on
three
 levels
 because
 the
 marketer
 is
 selling
 a
 bundle
 of
 satisfaction.
 actual
 product
 and
 augmented
 product.
 Their
 application
 and
 influence
 in
 attracting
market
share
is
discussed
below.
 core
 product.
 
 3.
 Bishop.3.3 Designing
Marketing
Mix
 As
 described
 in
 the
 previous
 section.
 although.



 ⇒
 Level
 three
 (Augmented
 product):
 Bishop
 described
 this
 as
 additional
 benefits
or
elements
that
can
be
included
in
the
core
and
actual
product.
 and
product
lifecycle
understanding
and
monitoring.
2005)

 The
 explanation
 of
 the
 different
 levels
 as
 described
 by
 Bishop
 (2002)
 is
 highlighted.
This
is
another
form
of
differentiation
that
 a
firm
can
capitalize
on.g. after-sales service. e. packaging. Actual.
and
Armstrong
G.3:
Three
levels
of
a
product
(adapted
from:
principles
of
marketing. e.g. and delivery.. and brand name 
 Core Fig
3.

 
 29
 . credit.


 Additional
factors
that
relate
to
the
product
mix
of
a
firm
are
brand
management. quality.
 An
 example
 is
 the
 additional
 services
 such
 as
 free
 delivery
 if
 the
 price
 plan
is
bought
online.
 In
 telecommunication.

 ⇒
 Level
 two
 (the
 actual
 product):
 Bishop
 described
 this
 as
 those
 elements
 that
make
the
core
product
physical. installation. warranty. features.
An
example
is
the
quality
of
service
 that
establishes
a
brand
name..
Kotler
 P.
 ⇒
 Level
 one
 (the
 core
 product):
 the
 basic
 benefit
 the
 customer
 buying
 the
 product
 intends
 to
 reap.
 this
 is
 the
 talk‐time
 that
 the
customers
reap
from
a
line
rental.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 Levels
of
a
product
 Augmented Actual Core Augmented.3.



A
good
example
highlighted
by
Bishop
is
the
sale
of
mobile
phones.
 However.
When
 mobile
 phones
 were
 introduced.
 2002).
 Bishop.
 The
product
lifecycle
 Introduction Growth Maturity Decline 
 Fig
 3.
and
protecting
the
brand.
 Brand
also
helps
when
launching
a
new
product.
identify
the
brand
name
and
image.
as
customers
are
likely
to
try
a
 new
 product
 with
 a
 brand
 name
 they
 recognise.3
 (a)
 shows
 the
 product
 lifecycle.
 J.
 Bishop.
 Bishop.
 at
 this
 stage.
 
 A
 product
 lifecycle
 shows
 the
 sales
 of
 a
 product
 over
 time
 (J.3.
 2002).
 deciding
 the
 branding
 strategy
 (corporate.
 and
 cost
 reduced.
 Bishop
 stated
that
it
encourages
customer
loyalty
and
therefore
helps
to
increase
profit.
 However.
 Bishop
 highlighted
 three
 branding
 processes
 as.
 the
 sale
 was
 relatively
 low
 because
 of
 its
 high
 cost.3(a):
 The
 product
 lifecycle
 (adapted
 from:
 effective
 marketing.
the
sale
of
the
mobile
phones
will
reduce
due
to
fewer
people
that
are
left
 without
 one.
 2002).
 the
 sale
 gradually
 increased
 shifting
 from
 businessmen
 to
 everyone.
 only
 new
 product
 introduction
 can
 restart
 the
 cycle
 (J.
 2002)
 
 30
 .
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 Branding
is
a
tool
solely
used
by
marketers
to
differentiate
their
products
from
 their
 competitors
 and
 give
 them
 unique
 identities
 (J.
 as
 gaining
 competitive
 advantage
 would
 require
 monitoring
 a
 product
 through
 its
 entire
 lifecycle.3.
 The
 diagram
 below
 fig
 3.
 it
 is
 predicted
 that
 soon.
 Understanding
 and
 monitoring
 the
 product
 lifecycle
 is
 crucial.
 as
 the
 reliability
 improved.
 and
 poor
 reliability
 and
 hence
 was
 commonly
 used
 by
 businessmen.
 Bishop.
 However.
 family
 or
 individual).


 Bishop
 (2002)
 
 31
 .
Bishop.3
shows
the
marketing
mix
and
product
lifecycle.
 monitoring
 the
 performance
 of
 the
 product
 introduced
 is
 deemed
 as
 important
 as
 the
 introduction
of
the
product.
J.
 
 Marketing
mix
and
product
lifecycle
 
 Product
 Introduction

 Growth
 Basic
product
 Improve
 product
 Maturity
 basic
 Add
 features
 generate
 Decline
 product
 Rationalise
 and
 product
 product
 range
 new
 and
 launch
 new
 product
lines
 Price
 Price
 skimming
 Price
 to
 increase
 Match
 or
 beat
 Lower
price
 or
penetration
 sales
 Find
new
outlets
 the
competition
 Build
 intensive
 distribution
 to
 Build
 image
 brand
 Emphasize
 brand
strength
 Minimal
levels
 more
 Rationalise
 outlet
 Place
 Building
 distribution
 network
 Promotion
 Promote
 encourage
trial
 Table
 3.
Although
there
are
several
forms
of
monitoring.
 Bishop
 designed
 a
 table
 showing
 the
 product
 lifecycle
stages
and
the
marketing
mix
decisions
that
has
to
be
implemented.3.
 This
 continuous
 sale
 would
 require
 monitoring
 of
 the
 product
 to
 determine
 its
 performance
 in
 the
 market.
2002)
 Increasing
 market
 share
 would
 require
 continuous
 sale
 of
 the
 product
 through
 the
 product
 lifecycle.
 Hence.
 This
 has
 prompted
 most
 companies
 to
 spend
 time
 in
 the
 introduction
 stage
 of
 any
 product
 or
 service
 to
 ensure
 it
 satisfies
 the
 customer
 needs.3.
BCG
 (Boston
 Consulting
 Group)
 Matrix
 is
 the
 widely
 recognised
 tool.3:
 The
 Marketing
 Mix
 and
 the
 product
 lifecycle
 (adapted
 from
 effective
marketing.
The
 table
below
table
3.
The
potential
of
the
mobile
market
in
Nigeria
makes
it
vital
for
entrants
to
 spend
 time
 on
 introductory
 stage
 to
 develop
 products
 and
 services
 that
 would
 attract
 and
 retain
 subscribers.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 The
 introduction
 stage
 of
 a
 product
 is
 important
 as
 it
 determines
 if
 it
 will
 be
 successful
 or
 not.

3.


 BCG
Matrix
 High STAR QUESTION
 MARK
 Market growth rate Low
 CASH
 COW
 DOG
 High Low Relative market share 
Fig
3.
 All
 literatures
 reviewed
emphasized
on
the
importance
of
getting
the
price
right
for
a
product
 or
 service.
the
firm
might
not
make
profit
 or
 the
 profit
 margin
 will
 be
 low.3.
Bishop
J.
 Bishop
(2002)
stated
some
influences
on
the
pricing
of
products
and
services.
 Bishop
 (2002)
 emphasizes
 that
 a
 customer
 might
 not
 purchase
 a
 product
if
the
price
is
high
and
if
the
price
is
low.
 This
 tool
 would
 be
 highly
 effective
 in
 assessing
 package
 ranges.
 there
has
to
be
an
influence
in
the
pricing
of
products.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 stated
 that
 BCG
 matrix
 considers
 the
 performance
 (market
 share
 and
 market
 growth
 rate)
 of
 all
 the
 organisations
 products
 and
 can
 be
 displayed
 on
 one
 matrix.3(b)
is
a
diagrammatic
representation
of
the
BCG
matrix.
 as
 the
 rest
 are
 costs.3(b)
The
BCG
Matrix
(adapted
from:
effective
marketing.
as
 stages
 in
 the
 product
 lifecycle.
As
pricing
is
an
important
element
of
the
marketing
mix.
Figure
3.
2002)
 
 Price:
 Dalrymple
 and
 Parsons
 (2000)
 regard
 price
 as
 the
 only
 element
 of
 marketing
 mix
 that
 generates
 revenue.
 and
 determine
 its
 potential
 in
 the
 market
 by
 telecommunication
 companies
 in
 Nigeria.
 The
 high
 price
 set
 by
 businesses
 is
 seen
 as
 a
 strategy
 to
 make
 short‐term
 profit.
 corporate
 and
 marketing
 objective
 of
 the
 
 32
 ..
 but
 such
 strategies
 are
 not
 successful
 in
 winning
a
new
market.


the
disadvantage
is
that
it
would
encourage
new
entrants.
economy
pricing
is
basically
setting
relatively
low
prices.
 The
 latter.
 Price
 skimming
 is
 used
 when
 new
 innovative
 products
 are
 introduced
 and
 the
 price
is
usually
high.
 hence
 short
 term
 decisions.
 whilst
 setting
 prices
 based
 on
 cost
 affects
 the
 sale
 of
 the
 product.
 customer
 perception
 of
 the
 product
 /
 service.
 Ignoring
 the
 effects
 of
 demand.
 Geographical
pricing:

 this
is
because
of
the
variation
in
disposable
income
of
 a
 country.
 Premium
 pricing
 is
 setting
 high
 prices
 and
 hugely
 dependable
 on
 the
 quality
 of
 the
 product.
 the
 product
 portfolio.
 
 33
 .
A
good
example
given
by
Bishop
is
when
mobile
phone
was
 introduced.
 and
 premium
 pricing
 and
 economy
 pricing
for
established
products.
However.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 company.
 Some
 locations
 specifically.
 firms
 use
 pricing
tactics.
 and
the
demand
could
be
low.

 On
 the
 contrary.
 state
 of
 the
 countries
 economy
 and
 distribution
 medium.
The
strategies
claimed
by
Bishop
are
price
skimming
 and
 price
 penetration
 for
 new
 products.
 In
 as
 much
 as
 these
 influences
 affect
 the
 price
 of
 the
 product.
 However.
a
 strategy
is
used
in
pricing.
These
short‐term
tactics
is
seen
as
a
strategy
to
gain
market
share
 by
attracting
customers.
However.
 This
 is
 not
 applicable
in
telecommunication
industry.
 Price
penetration
is
used
for
entrants
to
gain
a
market
share
by
initially
lowering
 the
 price.
 urban
 areas
 experience
 high
 prices
 whilst
 the
 rural
 areas
 have
 lower
 prices
 because
 of
 their
 income.
 Bishop
 claimed
that
depending
on
whether
it
is
a
new
product
or
established
product.
 the
 target
 market.
 competition
 within
 the
 industry.
 The
 low
 price
 increases
 the
 demand
 for
 the
 product
 and
 most
 times
 discourages
competitors.
 premium
 pricing
 and
 economy
 pricing
 is
 used
 for
 established
 products.
 higher
 prices
 could
 be
 attributed
 to
 too
 much
 reliance
 on
 the
 cost
 to
 set
 the
 price
 of
 a
 product.
 examples
 such
 as
 iphone
 and
 Vertu
 mobile
 phones.
They
include
the
following.
Bishop
 described
 them
 as
 long‐term
 decision.



 Discounts:

 discounts
are
used
in
short‐term
to
attract
customers.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 Psychological
pricing:

 Bishop
 (2002)
 described
 it
 as
 a
 tactics
 used
 to
 get
 customers
 to
 respond
 emotionally
 to
 price.
 Trade
discounts:
 specifically
for
distributor
or
retailer
because
they
buy
 in
bulk.
 Loss
leaders:
 This
is
a
strategy
implemented
by
some
companies
to
 accommodate
loss
in
short
term
in
order
to
make
their
 presence
 known
 to
 customers
 and
 profit
 from
 other
 purchases.
 loss
 leaders
 and
 geographical
 pricing
 are
 not
 applicable
 in
 Nigerian
 telecommunication
 industry.
 2002).
 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong
 (2005)
 stated
 that
 a
 management
board
faces
an
uphill
task
in
making
decisions
about
the
marketing
 channels
 (distribution).
 Distribution
 involves
 all
 the
 activities
 that
 are
 required
 to
 get
 a
 product
 to
 a
 customer
 (J.
 while
 all
 but
 geographical
 is
 applicable
 in
 the
 foreign
 markets
 specifically
United
Kingdom.
 Off
Peak
pricing:

 this
 is
 variation
 in
 price
 based
 on
 time
 of
 the
 day.99
instead
of
£10.
 place
 is
 used
 as
 a
 term
 to
 describe
 distribution.
 Bishop.
 example
 using
£9.
off
peak
is
cheaper
than
peak
periods..
 
 Place:
 In
 the
 marketing
 mix.
 For
 example.
 pricing
 tactics
 such
 as
 psychological
 pricing.
 Mostly.
 Promotional
pricing:
 use
of
promotional
prices
to
encourage
sales
and
is
for
 certain
periods.
 and
also
at
the
decline
stage
of
a
product
lifecycle.
2002)


 The
 above
 pricing
 tactics
 is
 different
 from
 countries
 to
 countries
 or
 regions
 to
 regions.
(Bishop
J.00.
 They
 believe
 this
 because
 the
 channel
 decision
 directly
 affects
 every
 other
 marketing
 decision.
 A
 good
 example
 cited
 is
 that
 the
 
 34
 .
 Optional
feature
pricing:

 Bishop
 (2002)
 described
 it
 as
 the
 additional
 features
 for
a
product
that
are
on
offer
of
a
separate
sale.


This
is
because
Motorola
phones
are
easily
sold
compared
to
Vertu
phones.
agent.
 market
 size.
(J.
In
the
mobile
market.
 attributes
 and
 competitions
 has
 to
 be
 incorporated
 strategically
 to
 develop
 a
 channel.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 company’s
 pricing
 depends
 on
 whether
 it
 uses
 mass
 merchandiser
 or
 high
 quality
speciality
stores.
 They
 finally
 emphasized
 that
 management
 must
 design
 its
 channels
 carefully.
 A
 good
 example
 would
 be
 the
 probability
of
seeing
a
Motorola
phone
in
stores.
Bishop
deemed
it
essential
because
the
distribution
system
 should
 be
 effective
 and
 efficient.
 In
 making
 distribution
 decision.
 there
 are
 three
 major
 decisions
 associated
 with
 distribution:

 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 Level
of
market
exposure
required
 Selection
of
suitable
channels
of
distribution
 Channel
management
techniques
 Level
 of
 market
 exposure
 required
 relates
 to
 the
 availability
 of
 a
 product
 to
 prospective
 customers
 (J.
 Bishop.
 
Direct
 channels
 of
 distribution
 provide
 producers
 with
 the
 opportunity
 to
 understand
 their
 customers
 while
 indirect
 selling
 do
 not
 present
 such
 opportunity.
2002)
 Managing
 channels
 of
 distribution
 is
 important
 but
 highly
 important
 if
 you
 are
 using
intermediaries.
compared
to
a
Vertu
phone
is
 high.
Bishop.

 Bishop
 (2002)
 stated
 two
 kinds
 of
 distribution
 channels.
 She
 further
 stated
 “if
 each
 channel
 member
 considers
 itself
 distinct
 then
 the
 channel
 may
 become
 ineffective
 because
 
 35
 .
 Direct
 channel
 involves
 only
 producer
 and
 consumer
 while
 indirect
 channel
 involves
producer.
 training.
 with
an
eye
on
tomorrow’s
likely
selling
environment
as
well
as
today’s.
 or
retailer
and
consumer.
 customer
 needs.
 the
 firm’s
 sales
 force
 and
 advertising
 decisions
 depend
 on
 how
 much
 persuasion.
 direct
 and
 indirect
 channel.

 In
selecting
suitable
channel(s)
of
distribution.
some
elements
such
as
location
of
 customer.
 and
 motivation
 the
 dealers
 need.
the
tariff
plan
is
the
same
except
 for
 the
 Internet
 deals.
 Also.
 2002).
 These
 elements
 would
 determine
 if
 the
 company
 would
 use
 both
 direct
 or
 /
 and
 indirect
 channels
 of
 distribution.


goods
 or
services
by
an
identified
sponsor.
The
elements
 of
the
communication
mix
are
all
directed
towards
attracting
the
target
audience.
 the
 target
 market.
 2002).
 (J.
 product
 lifecycle
 and
 the
 strategy
 of
 the
 company
 (pull
 or
 push
 strategy).
 
 People:
This
is
among
the
extended
marketing
mix.
 Bishop.













 
 However.
 Vertical
 Marketing
System
tool
takes
three
forms.

 
 Promotion:
 This
 is
 more
 than
 advertising
 and
 involves
 any
 form
 of
 communication
that
a
company
established
with
its
customers
(J.
 2002).
As
stated
earlier
it
is
being
 considered
 because
 of
 the
 goal
 directed
 behaviour
 explained
 in
 the
 marketing
 
 36
 .
 Vertical
 Marketing
 Systems
 tool
 is
 implemented.
corporate.
 Sales
promotion:
 involves
 use
 of
 short‐term
 incentives
 in
 order
 to
 encourage
purchase
of
products
or
services.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 individual
 members
 may
 take
 actions
 that
 are
 disadvantageous
 to
 other
 members.
 Bishop.
2002).
 
 Hence
 to
 alleviate
 channel
 conflict.
 As
 described
 by
 Bishop.
all
of
the
communication
mix
is
applicable.
 Public
Relations:
 building
 good
 relations
 with
 the
 company’s
 various
 publics
by
obtaining
favourable
publicity.
Bishop.
the
use
of
the
communication
mix
is
dependent
on
various
actors
such
 as
 products
 being
 sold.
 Bishop
termed
the
forms
of
communication
as
communication
mix.
 Personal
selling:
 involves
personal
presentation
by
the
firm’s
sales
force
in
 order
to
make
sales
and
build
customer
relations.
 Direct
Marketing:

 direct
 interaction
 with
 the
 targeted
 customer
 to
 obtain
 response.
administered
or
contractual.
 Hence
 in
 the
 case
 of
 telecommunication
industry.”
 (J.
 The
elements
of
communication
mix
described
are:
 Advertising:
 any
paid
form
of
non‐personal
presentation
of
ideas.


 anticipated
 results
 and
 contingency
 plan.
 promotional
 means.
 product
 developed.
 another
 importance
 of
 people
 as
 a
 tool
 in
 marketing
 is
 in
 international
 marketing.
 action
 programs.


 
 37
 .
 Sections
 of
 the
 marketing
 plan
 include
 company
 situation.
“People”
in
the
extended
marketing
mix
has
shown
that
it
is
 as
 important.
if
the
objectives
are
met.
 This
 approach
 saves
 time.
 the
 control
 and
 implementation
of
the
marketing
plan
is
deemed
vital
for
business
success.
hence
are
required
to
employ
indigenes
of
the
country.
 and
 place.
 objectives.
the
marketing
mix
is
considered
an
important
tool
 towards
realising
the
objective.
 Effective
 management
 of
 people
 would
 influence
 the
 price.
 and
 provides
 secrecy.3.”
Based
on
Dibb
et
 al
 (2001)
 literature.
 They
 further
 stated
 that
 the
 testing
 of
 the
 marketing
 plan
 is
 done
 using
 computer
 simulations.
 According
 to
 Dalrymple
 and
 Parsons
 (2000).

 
As
 marketing
 management
 is
 an
 interactive
 process.
 environment.
 strategy.
 “for
 technologically
 advanced
 products.
 Considering
 the
 telecommunication
industry.
 International
 marketers
 need
 to
 understand
 the
 environment
they
exist.
The
employees
are
not
the
only
crucial
personnel
for
effective
 marketing.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 concept
 facets.
 the
 need
 to
 have
 a
 face‐to‐face
 explanation
 and
 guidance
 is
 fundamental
to
the
customers’
perceived
level
of
satisfaction.
 target
 market.4 Marketing
planning
and
implementation
 As
reviewed
earlier.
 
 3.
 in
 order
 to
 be
 able
 to
 understand
 the
 environment
 and
 develop
 solutions
 to
 satisfy
the
needs.
the
successful
results
are
fed
back
to
 the
starting
point
and
used
to
set
objectives
for
the
following
planning
period.
marketing
management
is
a
sequential
interactive
process.
However.
 marketing
 plan
 provides
 a
 comprehensive
 statement
 of
 future
 expectations
 from
 each
 brand
 or
 service.
 According
 to
 Dibb
 et
 al
 (2001).

 The
 marketing
 mix
 reviewed
 has
 shown
 its
 importance
 towards
 attracting
 and
 retaining
customers.
 as
 the
 4P’s.
but
agents
who
need
basic
knowledge
of
the
products
and
the
right
 skill
to
deliver
it
to
the
customers.

”
 However.
 Gillian
 and
 M.
tax
rates.
but
the
objective
for
internationalizing
remains
the
same.
hence
reviewing
 international
 marketing
 becomes
 crucial.
 
 
 38
 .
 Gilligan
 and
 Hird
 (1989)
 described
 international
 marketing
 in
 two
 perspectives.
 At
 its
 most
 complex.2.
“At
its
simplest
level.
 are
 likely
 to
 differ
 significantly
 between
 markets.
 just
 as
 the
 uncontrollable
 variables
 (such
 as
 cultural
values.
 There
 are
 various
 explanations
 of
 internationalization
 of
 a
 firm
 or
 international
 marketing
 by
 academic
 professionals.
 the
 controllable
 variables
 such
 as
 price
 and
 cost
 structures.
 a
 primary
 objective
 of
 international
 marketing
 is
 to
 achieve
 a
 degree
 of
 synergy
 in
 the
 overall
 operation
 so
 that
 by
 taking
advantage
of
different
exchange
rates.
 Hird.
 As
 reviewed
 in
 chapter
 3.
and
increasing
commitment
of
resources
to
 foreign
 markets
 on
 the
 other.
 as
 a
 simple
 level
 and
 a
 complex
 level.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 3.
it
involves
the
firm
in
making
one
or
more
marketing‐ mix
 decisions
 across
 national
 boundaries.

 According
 to
 Gillian
 and
 Hird
 (1989).
skills
levels
 and
 market
 opportunities.
 the
 importance
of
understanding
the
environment
at
which
it
exists
or
seek
to
exist
 is
also
applicable
for
international
marketing.
 1989).
 opportunities
 for
 advertising.
labour
rates.
 This
 process
 evolves
 in
 the
 interplay
 between
 the
 development
 of
 knowledge
 about
 foreign
 market
and
operations
on
one
hand.
 They
 further
 differentiated
 international
 marketing
 from
 domestic
 marketing
 by
 claiming
 that
 in
 many
 cases.
 the
 organisation
 as
 a
 whole
 will
 be
 greater
 than
 the
 sum
 of
 its
 parts
 (C.
 it
 involves
 the
 firm
 in
 establishing
 manufacturing
 facilities
 overseas
 and
 making
 what
 are
 perhaps
very
different
mix
decisions
in
a
variety
of
markets”
(C.
Gilligan
and
M.
 1989).
 Hird.
competitors)
differ
between
one
market
and
another.
“Internationalization
 is
 a
 process
 in
 which
 an
 enterprise
 gradually
 increases
 its
 international
 involvement.
 According
 to
 Jan
 and
 vahlne
 (1977).4 International
Marketing
 There
are
two
foreign
telecommunication
companies
in
Nigeria.


 However
 the
 change
 in
 government
 has
 seen
an
influx
of
telecommunication
companies.
 beliefs
 and
 perceptions.
 because
 of
 the
 unstable
 government.4.
Hird.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 3.
For
 foreign
 companies
 entering
 the
 Industry.
 For
 example
 there
 was
 only
 the
 national
 telecommunication
 company
 present
 in
 Nigeria
 prior
 to
 year
 2001.
Gilligan
and
M.
 The
 micro
 level
 focuses
 on
 the
 company’s
 capabilities
 to
 satisfy
 the
 customer
 needs
 and
 compete
 effectively
within.
 Marketers
 that
 understand
 this
 diversity
 in
 culture
 strive
 to
 meet
 the
 needs
 in
 relation
 to
 the
 culture
 of
 the
 people
 and
 in
 return
gain
sales.
the
fact
that
culture
change
over
time
is
an
obstacle.
The
state
of
the
government
 needs
 analysis
 before
 entry
 is
 implemented.
 Cultural
 Environment:
 Some
 countries
 have
 diverse
 cultures.
political
and
 legal
aspect
of
the
foreign
market.
and
 the
 interpretation
 also
 varies.
 attitudes.

 Political
 Environment:
 “The
 politics
 of
 a
 country
 are
 inexorably
 linked
 with
 government
 attitudes
 to
 business
 and
 to
 the
 freedom
 with
 which
 they
 are
 allowed
to
operate”
(C.
 Economic
 Environment:
 the
 economic
 environment
 can
 be
 viewed
 in
 two
 interrelated
 perspectives.
These
legislations
vary
from
country
to
country.
 and
 different
 countries
 have
 different
 cultures.
 Gilligan
 and
 M.
 The
 cultural
 differences
 could
 be
 language.
 it
 is
 vital
 to
 understand
 the
 legislation
 of
 the
 potential
 market
 and
 the
 foreign
 countries
 
 39
 .
 micro
 level
 and
 macro
 level.
 Hence
 to
 reduce
 complexity.
 Hird.
 its
 state
 of
 development
 and
 the
 economic
 outlook
 (C.
because
it
seeks
to
understand
the
economic.
 these
 forces
 within
 the
 environment
 should
be
their
major
consideration
when
developing
the
marketing
techniques.
 in
 which
 marketers
 need
 to
 review
 and
 change
 their
 approach
 to
 adapt
 to
 the
 culture
change.
1989).1 International
marketing
environment
 The
 international
 marketing
 environment
 is
 different
 from
 a
 local
 marketing
 environment.
On
the
contrary
macro
level
focuses
on
the
country’s
economic
 policy.
However.
cultural.
 Legal
 Environment:
 Several
 markets
 are
 bound
 by
 both
 the
 market
 legislation
 and
country’s
legislations.
Gilligan
and
Hird
(1989)
regard
analysing
the
 environment
as
a
necessary
element
in
marketing
programme
development.
1989).


before
going
abroad.
 Implementing
 the
 appropriate
 decisions
 for
 each
 of
 the
 factors
 would
 lead
 to
 sustainability
in
operations
within
the
market.
and
deciding
on
the
global
market
organisation.
deciding
 how
 to
enter
 the
market.
and
international
laws.4.
there
 are
 key
 decisions
 that
 needs
 revising
 and
 careful
 consideration.
However.
 they
 need
to
compete
on
a
worldwide
basis.
 The
 aspects
 of
 the
 legislative
 framework
 mentioned
 by
 Gilligan
 and
 Hird
(1989)
worth
noting
are
the
foreign
legislative
framework.
 
 40
 .2 Deciding
whether
to
go
abroad


 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong
 (2005)
 stated
 that
 for
 global
 industries
 to
 succeed.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 legislation.
parent
country
 legislation.
firms
that
share
this
theory
 also
 have
 several
 distinct
 reasons
 for
 internationalising.
According
to
kotler
and
Armstrong
(2005).
 deciding
 which
 market
to
 enter.
 although
the
reasons
are
worthwhile.
it
is
worth
noting
the
risks
involved
in
such
 action.
 All
 the
 reasons
 lead
 to
 attempt
 in
 gaining
 competitive
 advantage
 within
 the
 industry.
 deciding
 on
 the
global
marketing
programs.
 Counter
 attacking
 the
 risks
 involved
 would
 mean
 the
 firm
 considering
 several
factors.
 Most
 of
 the
 reasons
 as
 described
 by
 several
 literatures
 including
 kotler
 and
 Armstrong’s
 include:
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 ⇒
 The
potential
profit
opportunities
than
the
domestic
market
 Shrinking
of
domestic
market
 Need
for
an
enlarged
customer
base
to
achieve
economies
of
scale
 Reducing
dependency
on
one
market
to
reduce
risk
 Pursuing
international
customer
base
 To
gain
sales
 Any
of
these
reasons
are
enough
to
drive
firms
into
internationalising.

 
 3.
 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong
(2005)
claimed
these
decisions
to
be
deciding
whether
to
go
abroad.
Nevertheless.


 Nevertheless
for
an
organisation
to
enter
a
market
outside
its
local
market.


 Hence.
 cash
 flow
 problem.3 Deciding
which
market(s)
to
enter
 Kotler
 and
 G.
 states
 that
 before
 going
 abroad.
 As
 a
 result.
 the
market
to
enter
would
be
reviewed
as
to
maximise
opportunities
available.
 the
 company
 should
try
to
define
its
international
marketing
objectives
and
policies.
The
first
 decision
 would
 be
 the
 volume
 of
 sales
 it
 intends
 to
 establish
 on
 the
 foreign
 market.
 the
 company
 incurred
 a
 loss
 of
 around
 $40million
 and
 only
 made
 profit
 in
 two
 countries.4.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 the
 company
 must
 weigh
 several
 risks.
 The
 company
 decided
 to
 be
 present
 in
 over
 100
 countries
 in
 the
 world.
 Thus
 showing
 that
 the
 fewer
 the
 countries
 the
 deeper
 the
 market
 penetration.
 
 3.
 
 The
 questions
 highlighted
 by
 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong
 (2005)
include

 ⇒
 Can
 the
 company
 learn
 to
 understand
 the
 preferences
 and
 buyers
 behaviour
of
consumers
in
those
countries?
 ⇒
 ⇒
 Can
it
offer
competitively
attractive
products?
 Will
 it
 be
 able
 to
 adapt
 to
 other
 countries’
 business
 cultures
 and
 to
 deal
 effectively
with
foreign
nationals?
 ⇒
 ⇒
 Do
the
company’s
managers
have
the
necessary
international
experience?
 Has
 the
 management
 considered
 the
 impact
 of
 foreign
 regulations
 and
 political
environments?

 Successfully
 answering
 these
 questions
 and
 implementing
 strategies
 to
 realize
 objective
 would
 lead
 to
 avoiding
 risks
 that
 would
 include.
When
the
decision
is
concluded.
 cultural
 resistance.
 bureaucracy.
 deciding
 on
 the
 types
 of
 countries
 to
 enter.
 An
 example
 cited
 in
 the
 literature
 is
 Bulova
 Watch
 Company.
 This
 is
 quite
 important
 because
 it
 would
 determine
 the
 market
 share
 to
 be
 achieved
 in
 those
 countries.
 and
 answer
 many
 questions
 about
 its
 ability
 to
 operate
 globally.
The
number
of
countries
it
intends
to
market
its
products
also
needs
to
 be
 established.
 credit
 problem.
 stretching
 thinly
 within
 the
 market.
 there
 are
 
 41
 .
 exchange
 rate
 fluctuations.
 Armstrong
 (2005).
 communication
problem
and
political
problems.


Parsons.
and
age
structure
and
 composition
of
population
 ⇒
 Geographic
 characteristics
 –
 physical
 size
 of
 a
 country.
 the
 firm
 or
 marketer
 will
 seek
 the
 market
 that
 offers
 the
 best
 return
 on
 investment
 (ROI).
and
ratio
of
investment
to
GNP
 ⇒
 Technological
 factors
 –
 Level
 of
 technological
 skill.
 remember
 that
 a
 high
 ROI
 is
 less
 attractive
 if
 there
 is
 a
 strong
 chance
 for
 property
 expropriation
 and
 restricted
 profit
 transfers”
 (D.
 Dalrymple
and
L.
 “The
 ROI
 should
 be
 compared
 and
 adjusted
 for
 the
 different
 levels
 of
 risk.

 Indicators
of
market
potential

 ⇒
 Demographic
 characteristics
 –
 size
 of
 population.
degree
of
urbanization.4 Deciding
how
to
enter
the
market
 Deciding
 how
 to
 enter
 the
 market
 is
 an
 important
 aspect
 because
 it
 would
 influence
the
marketing
techniques
and
the
result
with
regards
to
attracting
and
 retaining
 customers.
Craig
and
Keegan
(1982)
that
 could
be
used
to
select
the
type
of
country
to
enter.
 The
 foreign
 telecommunication
 companies
 in
 Nigeria
 
 42
 .
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 indicators
of
market
potential
stated
by
Douglas.
income
distribution.
and
climate
conditions
 ⇒
 Economic
factors
–
GNP
per
capita.4.
lifestyle
patterns.
population
density.
rate
of
growth
of
 GNP.
 and
linguistic
fragmentation
 ⇒
 National
 goal
 and
 plans
 –
 industry
 priorities
 and
 infrastructure
 investment
plans
 
 With
 the
 market
 potential
 indicator.
and
education
level
 ⇒
 Socio‐cultural
factors
–
Dominant
values.
ethnic
groups.
 existing
 production
 technology.
 Dalrymple
 and
 Parsons
 shared
 this
 view
 by
 claiming.
 topographical
 characteristics.
 
 3.
 rate
 of
 population
 growth.
existing
consumption
technology.
2000).



 Joint
Venturing:
Joint
venturing
is
partnering
with
a
foreign
company
to
market
 or
 produce
 the
 products
 and
 services.
control
and
risk.
 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong
 (2005)
 mentioned
 the
 four
 types
 of
 joint
 venturing.
 direct
 exporting
 involves
 the
 company
 handling
 its
 export
 activities.
 “the
 objective
 is
 to
 find
 local
 partners
 to
 share
 the
 risks
 and
 profits
 of
 foreign
market
expansion.
Hird.
and
effects
of
the
decision.
Gilligan
and
M.

 Indirect
 exporting
 involves
 moving
 the
 products
 to
 the
 foreign
 market
 through
 middlemen
 while.
 indirect
 and
 direct
 but
 both
 involve
 manufacturing
 the
 products
 in
 the
 home
 country.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 established
 huge
 presence
 within.


 The
major
problem
is
the
disagreement
that
often
arises
on
how
to
manage
the
 business.
 However
 based
 on
 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong
 (2005)
 literature.
the
marketer
needs
to
carefully
consider
the
distribution
 alternatives
available.
contract
manufacturing.

 Exporting:
 This
 takes
 two
 forms.
 joint
 venture
 and
 direct
 investment
 are
 the
 suggested
three
choices.
 They
 both
 further
 claimed
 that
 since.
and
Anil
Ambani
(Reliance
India)
to
bring
its
services
and
products
to
 India.
 hence
 it
 would
 be
 interesting
 to
 understand
 their
mode
of
entry.
Various
literatures
share
the
same
entry
strategy
although
 the
 terms
 used
 are
 mostly
 different.
 This
 entry
 strategy
 is
 not
 suited
to
Telecommunication
business.
licensing.
 1989).
This
can
be
done
by
buying
an
interest
in
an
existing
 local
business
or
by
starting
up
a
new
venture
with
a
resident
business”.
 exporting.
A
good
 example
 is
 the
 ongoing
 talks
 between
 MTN
 (mobile
 telecommunication
 network).
management
contracting
and
joint
 ownership.
 since
 it
 is
 this
 choice
 that
 subsequently
 influences
 and
 shapes
the
whole
international
marketing
programme”
(C.

 
 43
 .
 the
 operation
 involves
 balancing
 cost.
 Gilligan
and
Hird
(1989)
stated
its
importance
saying
“The
question
of
how
best
 to
enter
foreign
market
is
the
first
and
in
many
ways
the
most
fundamental
to
be
 faced
 by
 the
 marketer.
 According
 to
 Dalrymple
 and
 Parsons
 (2000).



 Direct
 investment:
 
 companies
 that
 started
 with
 exporting
 and
 have
 attracted
 substantial
 market
 share
 mostly
 venture
 into
 direct
 investment.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 Licensing
 involves
 partnering
 with
 a
 licensee
 in
 a
 foreign
 market
 to
 use
 the
 company’s
manufacturing
process.
 This
 is
 the
 type
 of
 entry
 strategy
 implemented
by
the
two
foreign
telecommunication
companies
in
Nigeria.4.
 and
 adapted
 marketing
 mix.
it
could
serve
the
world
more
economically
with
large
scale
 production.
 operated
 by
 Oriental
 Land
 Company
 under
 license
from
Walt
Disney
Company.
Both
extremes
are
 standardized
 marketing
 mix.
 Levitt
 (1983)
 claimed
 that
 if
 global
 corporation
 views
 the
 world
as
a
small
number
of
standardized
markets
rather
than
a
large
number
of
 customized
markets.
However
the
disadvantage
is
that
the
risks
are
high
 and
 are
 only
 borne
 by
 the
 company.
 However.
 Contract
 manufacturing
 involves
 partnering
 with
 a
 local
 manufacturer
 in
 the
 foreign
market
to
produce
the
products.
patent.
A
 good
 example
 is
 Tokyo
 Disneyland.
 
 3.5 Deciding
on
the
global
marketing
program
 Kotler
and
Armstrong
(2005)
mentioned
two
extremes
at
which
a
company
must
 decide
if
at
all
to
adapt
its
marketing
mixes
to
local
conditions.
 On
 the
 contrary.
 Direct
 investment
 involves
 setting
 manufacturing
 facilities
 or
 assembly‐based
 plant
 in
 the
 foreign
 country.
 This
 operation
 leads
 to
 improving
 company
 image
 and
 full
 control
over
the
investment.
 Joint
 ownership
 is
 same
 as
 joint
 venturing
 where
 a
 company
 partners
 with
 a
 foreign
investor
to
share
the
marketing.
 Management
 contracting
 is
 the
 process
 whereby
 a
 local
 firm
 in
 the
 foreign
 country
provides
the
management
services
for
the
company.
and
Anil
Ambani
(Reliance
India)
if
 the
on‐going
talks
become
successful.
 there
 has
 been
 an
 issue
 of
 standardization
 versus
 adaptation
 in
 the
 international
 marketing
 activities.
risk
and
loss
of
a
firm
together.
 Wind
 (1986)
 argues
 that
 no
 practical
 evidence
 
 44
 .
or
trade
secret
for
a
fee.
This
is
 the
likely
option
to
be
implemented
by
MTN.
A
good
example
is
 the
Hilton
Hotel
around
the
world.
trademark.


 But
 they
 must
 not
 replace
 long‐run
 marketing
 thinking
 with
short‐run
financial
thinking”
 However
 company’s
 considering
 the
 marketing
 mix
 for
 their
 international
 businesses
 have
 to
 analyse
 the
 best
 suit.
price
and
place.
Hence.
 legal.
but
rather
matter
of
degree”
 (P.
 For
 some
 businesses
 standardization
 might
be
suit.
and
others
adaptation
might
suit.
Kotler
and
G.

 
 3.
 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong
 (2005)
 claimed
 that
 the
 first
 step
 in
 international
 product
 marketing
 is
 to
 find
 out
 whether
 the
 foreign
 customers
 really
 need/want
 the
 product
 and
 in
 what
 form
 they
 prefer.
They
continued
by
saying
“companies
should
 look
 for
 more
 standardization
 to
 help
 keep
 the
 cost
 and
 prices
 and
 to
 build
 greater
 global
 brand.
 as
 sales
 increases
 and
 the
 company
 moves
 into
 joint
 venturing
 or
 exporting
 in
 more
 than
 one
 country.
It
is
imperative
that
international
 businesses
consider
the
environment
of
their
foreign
business
when
developing
 the
strategy.6 Deciding
on
global
marketing
organisation
 All
businesses
require
organisation
to
realize
objective.
it
is
still
vital
to
 understand
the
consumers
of
the
product
before
implementing
strategies
to
gain
 market
share.
2005).
 According
 to
 them.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 shows
 that
 the
 world
 is
 becoming
 more
 homogenous
 or
 that
 the
 consumers
 universally
are
becoming
more
price
conscious.
 They
 cited
an
example
that
Philips
Shavers
started
making
profit
in
Japan
when
they
 started
making
its
shavers
to
fit
smaller
Japanese
hands.
 export
 department.
 However.4.
 companies
 start
 with
 having
 an
 export
 department
 that
 handles
 the
 export
 activities.
The
same
act
applies
to
 promotion.
however
a
failure
in
this
 part
would
return
disaster.
 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong
 shared
 the
 view
 of
 standardization
 claiming
 that
 “global
 standardization
is
not
an
all
or
nothing
proposition.
 
 International
 division
 could
 be
 implemented
 without
 having
 an
 
 45
 .
which
can
be
affected
by
cultural.
Armstrong.
in
internationally
marketing.
Kotler
and
Armstrong
(2005)
states
that
companies
 organise
 their
 international
 activities
 in
 three
 ways.
 before
 international
 division
 is
 implemented.
This
precisely
applies
to
the
4P’s.
 and
 demographic
 factors.
 international
 division
 and
 global
 organization.


and
 personnel
specialist.
manufacturing.
 Notably.
that
view
the
entire
world
as
a
 single
 borderless
 market.
Finally.
 


















































































































Literature
review
 
 export
 department
 at
 first.
 and
 logistical
 systems”
(P.
as
it
has
marketing.
 According
 to
 Porter
 (1998).
 financial
 flows.
 and
 trend
 that
 would
 exist
 within
 the
 industry.
 as
 the
 environments
 are
 different.
global
organization.
planning.
 the
 quintessence
 of
 formulating
 competitive
 strategy
 is
 relating
 a
 company
 to
 its
 environment.
 it
 could
 be
 disastrous
 for
 the
 same
 industry
 in
 different
environment
to
implement
the
same
strategy
or
follow
the
same
trend.
Kotler
and
G.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 46
 .
 marketing
 policies.
finance.
 so
 would
 the
 strategy.
 Hence.
2005)
 The
 Literatures
 reviewed
 for
 marketing
 and
 the
 associated
 elements
 have
 proved
 useful
 in
 assessing
 the
 techniques
 that
 would
 lead
 to
 retaining
 and
 attracting
 subscribers
 within
 a
 telecommunication
 industry.
 Also.
 the
 marketing
 environment
 is
 the
 most
 important
 element.
 International
 division
 is
 different
 from
 export
 department.
research.
 “The
 top
 management
 and
 staff
 plan
 world
 wide
 manufacturing
 facilities.
Armstrong.
 as
 it
 enables
 the
 company
 develop
 marketing
 strategies
 that
 enable
 it
 achieve
 competitive
 advantage.


 and
 technology
 advancement
 enabled
 the
 
 47
 .
 Also
 the
 differentiators
 for
 the
 United
 Kingdom
 telecommunication
industry
are
included.
 The
 questionnaires
 sent
 to
 the
 five
 companies
 in
 Nigeria
 were
 also
 received. Background

 This
 chapter
 relays
 the
 result
 from
 the
 qualitative
 research
 implemented.
 However.
 Nevertheless.
 the
 Nigerian
 telecommunication
 industry
 was
 partially
 liberalized
 due
 to
the
incompetency
of
Nigerian
Telecommunication
Company
(NITEL)
to
serve
 the
 customers
 effectively.
 It
 uses
 statistical
 representations
 such
 as
 Pie
 charts
 and
 tables
 to
 show
 the
 result.1 Brief
description
(Post
Independence)
 In
 1992.
 in
order
to
understand
the
background
of
the
industry
that
enabled
the
country
 claim
number
one
position
in
telecommunication
markets
ranking
in
Africa.
 
 4.
and
retailers.
The
 information
 on
 the
 industry
 development
 was
 obtained
 from
 the
 Nigerian
 communications
 commission.
 
 The
 result
obtained
includes
a
brief
history
on
the
development
of
the
industry.
 but
 NITEL
 still
 retained
 monopoly
 in
 the
 industry.
 not
 until
 1996
 that
 there
 was
 licensing
 of
 network
 operators.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 Chapter
FOUR:
 








RESEARCH
RESULT
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 This
 chapter
 displays
 the
 data
 collected
 from
 the
 questionnaires
 and
 secondary
 research
 implemented.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 4.
and
 the
 result
 of
 both
 the
 structured
 questionnaire
 and
 secondary
 research
 implemented.
poor
 technology.
A
brief
description
of
the
emergence
of
the
industry
is
explained.
 A
 total
 of
 eighty
 responses
were
received
for
the
questionnaire
designed
for
users.
 and
 regulations.
 Furthermore.
 Subsequently
 the
 responses
 received
 from
 the
 survey
 implemented
 are
 shown.
 the
 research
 results
 for
 UK
 telecommunication
 industry.
 a
 regulator
 of
 the
 industry.
 the
 full
 liberalization
 of
 the
 industry
 in
 year
 2000
 (post
 military
 regime).
 which
 involves
only
T‐mobile
and
Vodafone
network
is
also
included.
 The
 partial
liberalization
approach
only
attracted
slow
growth
because
of
cost.


 the
 company
 introduced
 competitive
 starter
 pack
 price
 and
 low
 tariff
 for
 subscribers
 that
 make
international
calls.
 Also.
and
competition
within
the
industry
 emerged.
two
further
companies
(VISAFONE
AND
ETISALAT)
were
licensed
to
begin
 operation.
ETISALAT
is
yet
to
begin
 operation
 seeking
 to
 “get
 it
 right
 the
 first
 time”.
 and
 hold
 on
 to
 their
 customers.
 three
 major
 mobile
 telecommunication
 companies
 (GSM).
 MTN
 and
 ECONET
 were
 the
 major
 forces
 in
 the
 industry
 controlling
 about
 ninety
 per
 cent
 of
 the
 market
 that
 included
 STARCOMMS.
Their
third
approach
was
partnering
with
Alcatel
as
to
 expand
 coverage.
 In
 present
 day.

 However.
 The
 reasons
 for
 the
 existence
 of
 the
 telecommunication
 companies
 licensed
 in
 
 48
 .
 GLOBACOM
 started
 competing
 effectively
 with
 ECONET
 to
 challenge
 for
 the
 second
 best
 operator
 in
 the
 country.
 and
 it
 fell
 behind
MTN
and
GLOBACOM
in
ranking.
In
 2007.
 Towards
 the
 end
 of
 2004.
 However
 the
 introduction
 of
 GLOBACOM.
While
VISAFONE
has
rolled
out
its
operation.
 The
 entrant
 (GLOBACOM)
 capitalized
 on
 the
 weaknesses
 within
 the
 industry.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 industry
 to
 flourish.
 RELTEL
 and
 NITEL
 (MTEL).
 another
 indigenous
 operator
 in
 2003
 increased
 the
 competition
 within
 the
 industry.
 but
 still
 could
 not
 compete
 with
 global
 system
 mobile
 operators.
among
the
fixed
wireless
telephony
companies
available.
Between
 2001
 and
 2003.
 It
 was
a
 gateway
for
 the
 entrance
 of
further
fixed
 wireless
 and
global
system
mobile
operators
(GSM).000
 lines
 in
 2001
 cannot
 presently
 boast
 a
 mere
5000
lines
because
of
their
poor
awareness
and
management
approach.
 NITEL
 that
 boosted
 400.
 Their
 first
 approach
was
introduction
of
per
second
billing
as
opposed
to
per
minute
billing.
 NITEL
 and
 ECONET
 (ZAIN)
 were
 licensed
 to
 begin
 full
 operation.
STARCOMMS
 was
 unchallenged.
 MTN.
 as
 they
 all
 compete
 to
 attract.
 The
 competitive
 nature
 of
 the
 industry
has
seen
the
country
claim
the
number
one
telecommunication
market
 in
 Africa.
 MTN
 and
 ECONET
are
foreign
operators.
 eight
 known
 telecommunication
 companies
 are
 operational
with
the
five
investigated
commanding
huge
coverage
in
the
country.
 and
 improve
 quality
 of
 service.
 and
 this
 approach
 attracted
 substantial
 subscribers.
while
NITEL
is
an
indigenous
operator.

 In
 year
 2001.
 The
 four
 strategic
 management
 changes
 including
 its
 brand
 name
 by
 ECONET
 affected
 its
 ability
 to
 compete.


 












 
 
 
 






























 
 49
 .
 it
 shows
 their
 approaches
 that
 enable
 them
 achieve
 various
statuses
within
the
industry.
pie
charts
and
words.


 
 4.
 The
 subsequent
 part
 shows
 the
 effect
 of
 these
 marketing
 techniques
 implemented
 on
 the
 subscribers.

 The
 companies
 investigated
 implement
 similar
 strategies
 but
 the
 significant
 differentiators
 are
 represented.
 It
 also
 displays
 the
 subscribers’
 opinion
 of
 the
 company
 and
 the
 package.2 Questionnaires
and
Secondary
Research
Result

 The
data
collected
is
represented
in
tables.
 This
 gives
 a
 clear
 differentiation
 on
 their
 approaches.
 On
 the
 contrary.
 This
 displays
 their
 understanding
 of
 marketing
 within
 the
 environment
 they
 exist.
 This
 displays
 their
 status
 within
 the
 industry.
The
first
part
shows
the
different
marketing
techniques
 implemented
 by
 the
 companies
 investigated
 to
 attract
 and
 retain
 subscribers.
 while
 the
 research
 result
that
reflects
their
approach
towards
sustainability
is
displayed
below.

 The
 data
 collected
 that
 relates
 to
 the
 techniques
 implemented
 by
 these
 companies
 are
 represented
 in
 both
 word
 and
 tables.
 as
 to
 show
 the
 marketing
 techniques
 that
 exist
 within
 the
 industry.
 proves
that
the
company
with
the
better
technique
would
command
the
majority
 of
 the
 market.
This
section
is
 partitioned
in
two
parts.
 
 This
 approach
 was
 adopted
 to
 achieve
 transparency
 in
 communicating
the
result.
 the
 data
 obtained
 that
 shows
 the
 effect
 of
 their
 technique
 on
 the
 subscribers
 is
 represented
 in
 pie
 charts
 and
 tables.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 year
 2000
 and
 beyond
 are
 discussed
 in
 detail
 in
 chapter
 5.
 Also.


 


















































































































Research
result
 
 4.2.
 “Your
best
connection”
on
securing
market
share
 “Everywhere
you
go”
on
expanding
further
in
coverage
 “Go”
empowering
the
populace
 GLOBACOM:

 “Glo
with
pride”
on
entering
the
industry
 
 
 “Rule
your
world”
on
securing
market
share

 “A
wonderful
world”
 ZAIN:

 
 STARCOMMS:
“We
speak
your
language”
 VISAFONE:

 “your
passport
to
reach
the
world”
 Prior
to
displaying
their
distinct
techniques.1:
main
strategies
 
 50
 .
 as
 companies
 use
 it
 as
 a
 communication
medium
to
reach
the
minds
of
the
subscribers.
the
companies
investigated
rely
on
 some
main
strategies
to
attract
and
retain
subscribers.2.

 Companies’ main strategies MTN Better coverage Innovative products services Brand management Quality of service Partnerships and GLO Expansion Tariff competitiveness Innovative products services Quality of service Partnerships and ZAIN Expansion Innovative products services Tariff competitiveness Quality of service and STARCOMMS Cheap tariff Cheap phones Pay phone centers initiative Expansion mobile VISAFONE Cheap tariff Cheap phones Expansion mobile 
 
 
 
 Table
4.
 MTN:

 
 

 “The
better
connection”
on
entering
the
industry.1 Companies’
result
 Reviewing
 their
 slogans
 is
 the
 first
 approach.


 


















































































































Research
result
 
 PRODUCT
&
SERVICES
 MTN Packages Prepaid postpaid enterprise plan (1).1
(a):
research
result
for
companies’
products
and
services
 
 51
 . and (1). and in- available. Installations customer advice. customer care advice. (1). and repairs 6 Months Customer advice care Installations. ZAIN Business bundled (4). (5). TV Music tones Music tones Music tones Music tones WAP WAP WAP Broadband Broadband Toll stores free number Toll stores free number Toll stores free number Toll stores free number Toll stores free number available. postpaid (1). Roaming 130 worldwide. customer care and advice. countries 94 worldwide. Product launch Differentiator s
 Value
 services
 6 months 6 months 9 months added
 Cheap
 cards
 recharge
 Aircraft
roaming
 Broadband
service
 Cheap
phones
 













Table
4. and in- available. and in- available. and VISAFONE Prepaid plan and (3). and in- After services sales Installations customer and care Installations. phone: (6). CTO postpaid (6). calling cards (4).2. and in- available. and STARCOMMS Talkie Prepaid postpaid postpaid VPN plan. and CTO (commercial telephone operator) package. VPN (commercial telephone operator) package. Mobile: prepaid (4). and solution GLO Prepaid (5). countries 110 countries & worldwide onboard aircraft Phones Smart phones. value plan (3) (2). phones telephones mobile mobile and box Smart phones mobile Smart phones mobile Smart phones. phones telephones mobile mobile and box Smart phones. (1). phones telephones mobile mobile and box phones and mobile phones and mobile Online services Media services Internet service Customer service Bill payment M-banking Bill review Voucher purchase Music tones. 6 months and care advice and repair.

students.

 
 52
 .
 the
 customers
 and
 markets
 that
 the
 tailored
 products
 /
 packages
were
designed
for
was
investigated. organizational groups.
 appropriate
 segmentation
 would
 lead
 to
 achieving
competitive
advantage
within
the
industry. unskilled worker.1(b):
companies’
targets
 This
 approach
 is
 referred
 to
 as
 market
 segmentation
 in
 the
 literature
 review
 section.
 Additionally. students.
 the
 factors
 that
 are
 related
 to
 the
 products
 and
 services
offered
are
displayed
coupled
with
each
of
the
companies’
approach
to
 it.1(a). Professionals.
 Their
 products
 are
 varied
 according
 to
 the
 target
 customers.1(b)
shows
the
targeted
 customers.
 As
 explained
 in
 the
 literature
 review. commercial telephone operators
 and ZAIN
 Businessmen.
 Targets
Market
and
Customers
 
 Target
 customers
 MTN
 Businessmen. Professionals.
 Notably.2. students.
Table
4.
 and GLO
 Businessmen.2. unskilled worker organizational groups.2. unskilled worker.
 none
 of
 the
 companies
 utilize
 BCG
 matrix
 to
 assess
 their
 product’s
 potential. Professionals. Professionals. Professionals. students and unskilled worker
 STARCOMMS
 Businessmen. unskilled worker. students. organizational groups commercial telephone operators
 Target
market
 Local International
 Product
 according
 countries
 Product
 according
 cities
 varies
 No
 to
 No
 No
 No
 No
 varies
 Yes
 to
 and Local International
 Yes
 and Local international
 Yes
 
 and Local
 Local
 and 
 

 
 
 
 Table
4.
 and VISAFONE
 Businessmen.
and
markets.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 Referring
 to
 table
 4.


 retailers
 sub‐ Outlets.

A
significant
discovery
is
the
companies’
huge
presence
 in
 the
 East.
 and
 foreign
 markets
 they
 are
 present
 in.
 Sub
 Outlets.
 and
 Africa
 Africa
 Middle
 East.
 retailers
 dealers.2.1
(c):
Research
result
for
Place
 
 The
 elements
 studied
 for
 ‘place’
 are
 coverage
 of
 the
 network.
 Outlets.
 the
 various
 companies’
 presence
 (location).
 roadside
 and
 vendors
 and
 Direct
 Indirect
 
 sub
 roadside
 street
 dealers.
 sub‐ Sub‐dealers.
 dealers.
 West
 and
 South
 regions
 of
 the
 country.
 and
 Major
 cities
 in
 35
 265
 cities
 and
 14
 cities
 within
 Major
 cities
 in
 15
 over
 10.
 The
 result
 obtained
 for
 the
 questions
 about
 ‘place’.
 These
 elements
 were
 developed
 based
 on
 the
 marketing
 decisions
 stated
 by
 J.
 These
 regions
 are
 seen
 as
 potential
areas
to
attract
subscribers.
 street
 street
 vendors

 and
 Direct
 Indirect
 retailers
 dealers.
the
companies
need
to
be
present
to
satisfy
the
 needs
 of
 each
 of
 the
 segments.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 As
the
markets
are
segmented.

 PLACE
 
 Coverage

 MTN
 GLO
 ZAIN
 STARCOMMS
 VISAFONE
 223
 cities.
Their
approach
to
the
elements
displays
intent
on
acquiring
a
 substantial
market
base.
which
is
a
marketing
tool
is
shown
below
in
a
tabular
form.
 Bishop
 (2002)
 in
 the
 literature
review.
 retailers
 roadside
 and
 vendors
 and
 Direct
 Indirect
 and
 retailers
and
road
 and
 side
vendors
 roadside
vendors
 Kinds
 channel
 International
 presence
 of
 Direct
 Indirect
 and
 Direct
 Indirect
 and
 Middle
 East.
 and
 
 Africa
 









































Table
4.
 the
 distribution
 medium
 they
 utilize
 to
 market
 the
 products.
 
 53
 .000
 states
 out
 of
 36
 towns
 within
 the
 36
states
 states
 including
 36
states
 highways
 Major
 cities
 in
 15
 states
covered
 states
 out
 of
 36
 states
 communities
 within
36
states
 Presence
 Not
 in
 all
 289
 Major
 cities
 in
 35
 Not
 in
 all
 265
 14
cities
covered
 cities
covered
 states
covered
 cities
 and
 towns
 covered
 Distribution
 channels
 Outlets.


Referring
to
the
literature
review.
 premium
 pricing.
 and
 pricing
 economy
 and
 pricing
 calls
 in
 Cheap
 economy
 and
 pricing
 tariff
 Free
 calls
 Mobile
phones
 economy
 and
 pricing
 economy
 and
 pricing
 economy
 Off
 pricing
 Discounts
 pricing
 Trade
 discounts
 pricing
 Loss
 pricing
 Optional
 peak
 Free
 weekend
 Free
 calls
 within
 Free
 calls
 within
 the
network
 Mobile
phones
 network
 Mobile
phones
 midnight

 Mobile
phones
 within
network
 Mobile
phones
 Intermediaries
 Intermediaries
 Intermediaries
 Call
 centers
 and
 Intermediaries
 intermediaries
 leaders
 
 
 
 Cheap
 tariff
 and
 Cheap
 tariff
 and
 mobile
phones
 mobile
phones
 Broadband
 services
 Mobile
 value
 Mobile
 value
 Mobile
 value
 Broadband
 services
 feature
pricing
 Promotional
 pricing
 added
services
 added
services
 added
services
 Tariff
 and
 mobile
 Tariff
 and
 mobile
 Tariff
 and
 mobile
 Tariff
 and
 mobile
 Tariff
 and
 mobile
 phones
 phones
 phones
 phones
 phones
 Table
4.
 hence
 retaining
 subscribers.
 premium
 pricing.1
(d):
Research
result
for
price
 
 The
 companies
 were
 presented
 based
 on
 their
 pricing
 strategy
 and
 pricing
 tactics
reviewed
in
the
literature
in
chapter
3.
 a
 company
 can
 enjoy
 continuous
 sales.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 
Subsequently.
 PRICE
 
 Pricing
 strategy
 MTN
 GLO
 ZAIN
 STARCOMMS
 VISAFONE
 Price
 skimming.
 Price
 penetration.
 The
 companies’
 approach
 to
 price
 is
 studied
 and
the
response
from
survey
tabulated
below.
 premium
 pricing.
 companies
 use
 the
 various
 price
 strategies
 depending
 on
 the
 product
 lifecycle.
getting
the
price
right
is
a
strategy
which
is
a
marketing
mix
that
 needs
to
be
approached
with
optimum
care.
 premium
 pricing.

 
 54
 .
 Depending
 on
 the
 price
 strategy.
as
to
attract
and
not
scare
potential
 customers.
 Price
 penetration.
 while
price
tactics
is
used
in
short
term
to
attract
customers.
 premium
 pricing.2.
 Price
 skimming.
 Price
 skimming.

1
(e).
 Internet
 and
Billboards
 in
 Advertisement
 Newspaper.
 Bishop
 (2002)
 termed
 it
 communication
 mix.
 Internet
 Media.
 and
Billboards
 Number
 VISAFONE
 Newspaper.
 Direct
 marketing
 Personal
 selling
 Public
 relations
 Reviews
 Reviews
 Internet
polls
 Questionnaire
 Reviews

 Yes

 Yes
 Yes
 Yes
 Yes
 Corporate
 social
 Corporate
 social
 Corporate
 social
 responsibility.
 
 55
 .
 Media.
 Internet
 Media.2.
 Internet
 Media.
 and
 subscribers
 with
 reward.
 PROMOTION
 
 MTN
 GLO
 Newspaper.
 The
 promotions
 implemented
 by
 these
 companies
 are
presented
below
in
table
4.1(e):
Research
result
for
promotion
 As
 examined
 in
 the
 literature
 review.
 
 The
 various
 companies
 investigated
 implement
 the
 communication
 mix
 in
 various
 forms.2.
 in
 creating
 awareness
 for
 the
 product
 companies
 indulge
 in
 various
 forms
 of
 promotion.
 and
Billboards
 STARCOMMS
 Newspaper.
 Buy
 one
 SIM
 get
 Buy
 cards
 and
 Rewarding
 and
 Answer
 and
 Free
 SIM
 cards
 in
 airtime
 and
 free
 Win
game
play
 selected
cities
 weekend
 calls
 for
 prepaid
 customers
 game
 Reduction
 phone
prices
 another
 SIM
 free.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 Furthermore.
 The
 five
 Telecommunication
 companies’
 approach
 to
 promotion
 was
 studied
 as
 to
 determine
 the
 techniques
 they
 implement
 to
 make
 customers
 aware
 of
 their
 products
 and
 services.
 and
 Governmental
 event
partnering
 responsibility
 responsibility
 
 Corporate
 social
 responsibility
 








































Table
4.
 and
Billboards
 ZAIN
 Newspaper.
 Win
 a
 car.
 companies
 utilize
 several
 means
 to
 communicate
 their
 products
 and
 services
 to
 customers.
 and
Billboards
 Sales
 promotion
 Internet
 Media.
 as
 it
 is
 a
 medium
 to
 communicate
 the
 products
 and
 services
 to
 customers.


However.
 the
 various
 forms
 of
 advertisement
 utilized
 by
 the
 companies
 are
 newspapers.
villages
and
cities
by
the
companies
is
 highly
crucial.
 In
 advertising.
 Also.

 Advertisement
utilized
 
 Newspaper
 (%)
 Media
(%)
 Internet
(%)
 Billboards
 (%)
 MTN
 GLO
 ZAIN
 STARCOMMS
 VISAFONE
 35
 35
 35
 50
 30
 35
 5
 25
 35
 5
 25
 45
 5
 15
 35
 5
 10
 35
 5
 30
 



Table
 4.
as
it
would

leave
a
good
impression
on
the
inhabitants
resulting
 in
 company’s
 sales
 growth.2.
there
is
disparity
on
the
 ratios
of
each
of
the
form
implemented
amongst
the
companies.
The
table
below
 represents
the
results
obtained.
Internet.
hence
it
is
deemed
an
estimation.2.
 As
 a
 third
 world
 country.
 media
(TV
&
Radio).
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 Also
 their
 rate
 of
 involvement
 in
 the
 activities
 defers
 from
 each
 other.1(g)
 shows
 the
corporate
social
responsibility
implemented
by
each
company.
 
 56
 .
 This
 result
 was
 based
 on
 the
 number
 of
 times
 each
 element
 occurred
 during
 the
 research
to
identify
the
forms
implmented.1(f):
 percentage
 ratios
 for
 the
 forms
 of
 advertisement
 implemented
 This
 result
 was
 achieved
 through
 research
 on
 the
 forms
 of
 advertisement
 and
 the
 form
 that
 the
 companies
 deem
 highly
 important
 and
 least
 important.
 Another
 form
 of
 promotion
 widely
 utilized
 by
 the
 companies
 is
 public
 relation.
 The
 table
 below
 table
 4.
The
 unavailability
of
internet
in
most
homes
and
public
places
attributed
to
the
low
 percentage
 of
 the
 internet
 form.
 and
 this
 could
 have
 a
 significant
 effect
 on
 pursuit
 for
 market
 share.
 the
 activities
 (responsibilities)
implemented
in
towns.
and
billboards.
 it
 could
 lead
 to
 favours
 being
 granted
 by
 the
 local
 authorities
 to
 these
 companies.
 The
 widely
 utilized
 public
 relations
 is
 corporate
 social
 responsibility
 activities.


as
people
carry
out
the
 business
 strategies
 and
 implementation.
the
table
 below
shows
the
concentration
of
the
staff
from
management
to
intermediaries
 with
the
executives
majoring
in
marketing
background.
 portfolio.
 The
 result
 was
 obtained
 by
 asking
 the
 question
 “what
 is
 the
 concentration
of
the
staff”.2.
 Entertainment
 sponsorship.
and
their
people.
 This
 makes
 choosing
 the
 right
 people
 and
keeping
them
focused
on
the
objective.
 The
 brand
 name
 would
 be
 positioned
 in
 the
 mind
 of
 the
 inhabitants
 always.
 involving
 employees
 for
 all
 communities
 present.
 night
 and
 
 university
 beauty
 

























Table
4.1(g):
corporate
social
responsibility
implemented
 Corporate
 social
 responsibility
 implemented
 results
 in
 establishing
 a
 brand
 name.
Reviewing
the
companies.
as
important
as
attracting
customers.

 PEOPLE
 People
are
an
important
addition
to
the
marketing
mix.
 Educational
 portfolio.
emphasized
on
employing
the
right
people
in
 an
 organization.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 Public
relations
result

 
 Corporate
 social
 reposnibility
 implemented
 MTN
 Sports
 sponsorship.
 peagents.
 Dibbs
et
al
in
the
literature
review.
 
 57
 .

 Health
 and
 21
 days
 of
 care
 for
 GLO
 Sports
 sponsorship
 ZAIN
 Rebuilding
 community
 schools
 in
 towns
 present
 STARCOMMS
 VISAFONE
 Sponsor
 university
 outs.
and
would
influence
their
buying
attitude.


However.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 Concentration
of
staff

 MTN Executives Internationals and indigenes Middle management Shop floor staff Intermediaries Internationals and indigenes Indigenes Companies individuals and GLO Internationals and indigenes Internationals and indigenes Indigenes Companies individuals and ZAIN Internationals and indigenes Internationals and indigenes Indigenes Companies individuals and STARCOMMS Internationals and Indigenes Internationals and indigenes Indigenes Companies individuals and VISAFONE Internationals and Indigenes Internationals and indigenes Indigenes Companies individuals and Table 4.
 QUESTION:
How
do
you
guard
against
competitors
including
entrants?

 MTN
RESPONSE:
“Improving
the
strength
of
our
BRAND
within
the
industry.”
 GLO
RESPONSE:
“We
focus
on
our
strength.
The
question
and
their
responses
are
below.”
 VISAFONE
RESPONSE:
“no
response.”
 STARCOMMS
RESPONSE:
“continuous
improvement
of
our
services.
and
do
not
look
at
competitors.
 as
 there
is
no
way
to
prove
its
validity.
 the
 marketing
officers
were
asked
through
the
questionnaire
the
trends
they
foresee
 within
the
industry.2.”
 ZAIN
RESPONSE:
“Satisfying
our
customers.
it
is
worth
noting
 that
 the
 responses
 which
 was
 from
 the
 marketing
 officers
 could
 be
 biased.
Below
is
the
reply
 
 
 58
 .”
 
 Furthermore
 to
 understand
 the
 trends
 expected
 within
 the
 industry.1(h): concentration of staff from management to intermediaries 
 Further
question
to
understand
their
approach
towards
eliminating
threats
was
 asked
as
to
understand
their
competitive
approach.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 59
 .
However.
 and
 not
 aware
 of
 the
 strategies
 of
 the
 other
 companies.”
 GLO
RESPONSE:
“Frequent
change
in
promotion
and
marketing
strategies
as
to
 attract
and
retain
subscribers.
as
they
are
solely
focused
on
their
 companies.
 as
 to
 maintain
 a
 competitive
edge.
 as
 good
 network
would
lead
to
sales
and
marketing
potential.
Hence.
 their
 assumption
might
not
materialize.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 QUESTION:
What
are
the
future
trends
in
the
market
and
the
future
changes
that
 could
happen
within
the
industry?
 MTN
 RESPONSE:
 “Fierce
 competition
 that
 would
 lead
 to
 competing
 on
 services
 offered.”
 STARCOMMS
 RESPONSE:
 “Using
 state
 of
 the
 art
 services
 to
 attract
 and
 retain
 subscribers.”
 VISAFONE
RESPONSE:
“Tailoring
services
to
the
subscribers
needs.
the
industry
would
be
better
suited
to
 rapidly
 changing
 to
 the
 changing
 economic
 environment.
 hence
 companies
 would
 accommodate
 more
 services
 as
 to
 attract
 substantial
market
share.”
 ZAIN
 RESPONSE:
 “Injecting
 new
 equipment
 into
 the
 network
 capacity.”
 These
responses
are
the
various
thoughts
of
the
marketing
officers
of
the
various
 companies
investigated
in
Nigeria.

2.
 company
 executives.2:
Sample
of
respondents
 The
data
above
was
presented
to
show
the
respondents
that
were
approached.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 4.
although
vendors
were
also
consulted
 to
 obtain
 their
 views.2.


 
 
 
 
 60
 .
A
sample
of
a
completed
 questionnaire
 by
 the
 users
 and
 retailers
 are
 attached
 in
 the
 appendices.
The
table
below
shows
a
sample
of
respondents.
 and
 skilled
 and
 unskilled
workers.
 and
the
number
of
samples
derived.
 Sixty
 responses
 were
 received
 from
 business
 owners.
 students.
 The
 entire
 responses
 obtained
 in
 the
 survey
 are
 represented
in
pie
charts.
Bishop
(2002)
stated
that
satisfied
customers
 would
 return
 to
 the
 organization
 in
 the
 future
 and
 will
 recommend
 it
 to
 their
 friends
 and
 families.2 Users
and
Retailers
Result
 Referring
to
the
literature
review.
 
 Sample
of
respondents
 
 Students
 Company
 Executives
 Business
 owners
 Skilled
workers
 Unskilled
 workers
 North
Region
 South
Region
 East
Region
 West
Region
 6
 0
 5
 3
 0
 6
 5
 3
 4
 0
 6
 6
 2
 3
 7
 0
 0
 3
 1
 0
 












































Table
4.
 leading
 to
 company’s
 profitability.
 The
 main
retailers
consulted
were
sub
dealers.
and
tables
below.
The
remaining
twenty
responses
were
both
 multi‐retailers
and
mono‐retailers
in
the
above
regions.




















































































































Research
result


Market
share
based
on
respondents
 The
 result
 representation
 starts
 with
 analyzing
 the
 percentage
 of
 the
 respondents
utilize
the
networks
investigated,
in
order
to
ascertain
the
company
 that
controls
the
majority
of
the
market.































 




































Fig
4.2.2:
Percentage
marketshare
based
on
respondents


The
pie
chart
represents
the
percentage
market
share
based
on
the
respondents
 (both
 users
 and
 retailers)
 of
 the
 questioners.
 The
 percentage
 was
 mathematically
 calcuated
 to
 present
 accurate
 data.
 The
 above
 result
 could
 be
 argued
 because
 only
 a
 portion
 of
 the
 whole
 population
 was
 approached.
 However,
the
technique
of
sending
the
questionnaire
to
the
vaious
regions
of
the
 country,
to
obtain
diverisfied
sample
counters
the
claim.
 
 Package
utilized
by
respondents
 As
the
market
share
has
been
determined,
packages
that
the
subscribers
utilize
 based
on
the
reponse
obtained
from
the
questionnaires
is
presented
below.

 


61





















































































































Research
result



































 


Fig
4.2.2(a):
Percentage
of
the
package
utilized
based
on
respondents
 According
to
the
literature
review,
it
is
important
to
understand
the
customers
in
 order
 to
 develop
 attractive
 products.
 The
 result
 obtained
 shows
 that
 the
 populace
 widely
 utilize
 the
 pay
 as
 you
 go
 package
 in
 comparison
 to
 the
 pay
 monthly
 package.
 The
 pay
 monthly
 includes
 mobile
 VPN
 (virtual
 private
 network)
which
is
widely
used
within
organizations
while
the
CTO
(commercial
 telephone
 operators)
 packages
 was
 grouped
 as
 pay
 as
 you
 go
 package.
 The
 disadvantage
is
that
pay
as
you
go
does
not
commit
the
customers
to
long
term,
 hence
leading
to
short
term
profit.
This
is
discussed
later
in
detail
in
chapter
5.


 
 Customer
perception
 The
 open
 ended
 question
 designed
 to
 ascertain
 customer
 satisfaction
 yielded
 reponses
 about
 Quality
 of
 service,
 price,
 coverage,
 poor
 customer
 service
 and
 cross
 network
 call
 difficulty.
 This
 could
 be
 referred
 to
 as
 the
 customer
 perception
 of
 both
 the
 product
 and
 the
 companies.
 The
 response
 obtained
 is
 tabulated
below
 
 
 
 
 
 62





















































































































Research
result

MTN
 of
 80%
 GLO
 75.5%
 ZAIN
 70%
 STARCOMMS
 75%



Quality


VISAFONE
 78%


service
(QoS)
 Price
 coverage
 Customer
 service
 
Cross
 network
 90%
 call

access
 75%
 75%
 80%
 80%
 High
 80%
 40%
 High
 85%
 40%
 High
 60%
 40%
 Low
 20%
 40%
 Low
 25%
 40%


Table
 4.2.2(a):
 Responses
 on
 Quality
 of
 service,
 price,
 coverage,
 customer
 service
and
cross
network
call
access
 Quality
of
service
(QoS)
is
diverse,
as
some
locations
experience
better
coverage
 compared
to
others.
This
is
attributed
to
their
poor
coverage
of
the
geographical
 landscape.
 During
 survey,
 the
 southern,
 western
 and
 eastern
 regions
 were
 discovered
to
boost
better
reliability
in
service,
although
overall
improvement
is
 required
according
to
the
respondents.
Notably,
the
fixed
wireless
offers
better
 reliability
 in
 these
 regions,
 but
 outside
 these
 regions
 they
 are
 worse
 than
 the
 mobile
 telephony.
 
 The
 complaint
 about
 price
 is
 the
 fact
 they
 do
 not
 get
 their
 value
 for
 money
 on
 the
 products
 with
 high
 prices.
 Respondents
 expressed
 the
 need
 for
 improved
 customer
 service
 for
 all
 the
 companies
 investigated.
 Moreover,
 cross
 network
 call
 which
 is
 accessible
 in
 developed
 countries
 specifically
 in
 UK
 within
 networks
 is
 a
 disappointment
 according
 to
 the
 respondents.
 
 Customer
satisfaction
 Furthermore,
 as
 understanding
 marketing
 means
 understanding
 wants,
 and
 value
and
satisfaction
by
the
makers
of
the
product
and
services.
The
packages
 offered
 by
 the
 companies
 were
 investigated
 to
 measure
 if
 it
 satisfies
 the
 best
 value
 for
 the
 money
 spent
 by
 the
 customers.
 This
 also
 exposes
 the
 extent
 of


63



 mobile
 value
 added
 services
 and
 reliability
 enjoyed
 compared
 to
 other
 networks.
 and
 the
 result
obtained
for
the
various
companies
are
displayed
below.
 
 64
 .
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 satisfaction
 the
 customers
 enjoy
 in
 using
 the
 packages
 purchased.2
(b):
MTN
customer
satisfaction
 






















 This
result
shows
that
approximately
sixty
per
cent
of
the
respondents
that
use
 the
 network
 consider
 the
 package(s)
 worth
 the
 money
 spent.
However.2
 (c)
 below
 displays
the
result.
 this
 was
 not
 the
 case
 with
 the
 GLOBACOM
subscribers.
 MTN
respondents
 

 Fig
4.
expressing
their
dissatisfaction.
 it
 is
 deemed
 a
 better
 option
 for
 making
 international
 calls.2.
 Fig
 4.
as
their
view
on
the
package
used
is
different.
“Does
the
 package
 prove
 value
 for
 money
 spent”
 was
 asked
 to
 the
 respondents.
 GLOBACOM
respondents
 Half
of
the
respondents
that
use
the
GLOBACOM
network
are
not
satisfied
with
 the
 package
 available
 to
 them.2.
 However.
 Their
 reason
 includes
 the
 coverage.
compared
to
MTN.
 A
 major
 discovery
 on
 the
 customer
 satisfaction
 is
 that
 almost
 all
 the
 respondents
 are
 subscribed
to
more
than
one
network.
 This
 dissatisfaction
 prompted
 their
 subscription
 to
multiple
networks
in
a
bid
to
satisfy
their
needs.

2.
each
representing
the
networks
utilized.

 
 65
 .
 






























 
 
 
 Fig
4.
as
respondents
of
this
network
completed
 more
than
one
questionnaire.
 the
number
portability
limitation
prevented
them
from
disposing
the
SIM
cards.2.
 This
was
discovered
during
research.2
(c):
GLO
customer
satisfaction
 
 ZAIN
respondents
 




















 ZAIN
customers
that
have
witnessed
four
management
changes
including
brand
 name.2(d)
 shows
 their
 rate
 of
 satisfaction
of
the
subcribers.2
(d):
ZAIN
customer
satisfaction
 
 
 The
 acrimonius
 feeling
 of
 the
 subscribers
 could
 be
 seen
 by
 the
 rate
 of
 satisfaction
 expressed.
 were
 less
 satisfied
 with
 the
 product.
 Fig
 4.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 

 Fig
4.
However.
 The
 most
 significant
 discovery
 is
 that
 all
 users
 of
 this
 network
are
also
contracted
to
other
networks
as
well.
insearch
of
satisfaction.2.


 Also.
 
 66
 .2.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 The
fixed
telephony
network
(CDMA)
subscribers
seem
to
have
an
opposite
view
 compare
to
the
global
system
network
subscribers.2.

 STARCOMMS
respondents
 




























 
 






Fig
4.

 
 VISAFONE
respondents
 Subsribers
 of
 the
 entrant
 (VISAFONE).
in
general
majority
 of
the
subscribers
deem
the
product
best
value
for
the
money
spent.
 seem
 satisfied
 at
 the
 moment
 although
 they
voiced
concern
of
future
deterioration
when
the
package
is
fully
accepted.2
(e):
STARCOMMS
customer
satisfaction
 

 The
 regions
 that
 experience
 excellent
 quality
 of
 service
 (QoS)
 rate
 the
 satisfaction
derived
highly
while
the
regions
with
poor
quality
of
service
seem
a
 bit
 dissatisfied
 with
 the
 product.
 The
result
obtained
for
the
satisfaction
of
the
subscribers
is
below
fig
4.
The
figure
below
justifies
the
 above
claim.
However.
 their
 fast
 broadband
 service
 makes
 the
 product
worthwhile
according
to
the
respondents.2
(f).

2.2(g):
Percentage
sales
result
for
multi­retailers
 
 67
 .2(f):
VISAFONE
customer
satisfaction
 

 The
 result
 shown
 above
 was
 obtained
 from
 the
 few
 respondents
 that
 have
 started
using
the
network.
 as
 they
 supplement
 the
 package
 with
 either
 MTN
 or
 GLOBACOMM
 packages.2.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 


































 
 






















Fig
4.
 The
 respondents
were
from
the
different
regions
of
the
country.
The
present
concern
is
the
limited
cities
the
network
 providers
 are
 present.
 
 Percentage
sales

 Investigating
 the
 percentage
 sale
 of
 the
 products
 and
 services
 offered
 by
 these
 companies
 was
 achieved
 through
 the
 response
 from
 multi
 retailers.
The
result
obtained
 from
the
investigation
is
displayed
below.
 This
 is
 a
 major
 concern
 for
 the
 fixed
 wireless
 telephony
 subscribers.
























 












 



















 Fig
4.


The
multi
retailers
response
were
derived
from
the
 four
 regions
 of
 the
 country
 to
 obtain
 diversified
 sample
 that
 would
 lead
 to
 accurate
 analysis.
 Hundred
 per
 cent
 satisfaction
 for
 the
 customers
 
 would
 reflect
 a
 hundred
 per
 cent
 sale
 of
 the
 products
 by
 the
 companies.2(g)
 does
 not
 show
 a
 hundred
 per
 cent
 sales
 for
 neither
 of
 the
 companies.2.
 







 
 
 
 68
 .



 































 
 
 






Fig
4.
 hence
 the
 percentage
complaint
for
each
of
the
companies
is
reviewed.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 The
 result
 displayed
 above
 represents
 the
 percentage
 sales
 of
 the
 products
 by
 the
multi
retailers
consulted.
 The
 chart
 shows
 that
 the
 CDMA
 group
 is
 the
 highly
 accepted
 product
 which
 could
 be
 attributed
 to
 their
 value
 for
 money
 spent.2.
 The
 sales
 figure
 shows
 the
 status
 of
 each
 of
 the
 companies
 investigated.
 Fig
 4.2(h):
percentage
complaint
according
to
multi­retailers
 This
was
reviewed
to
obtain
the
customers
view
on
the
most
accepted
product
 and
 the
 least
 accepted
 product.

 
 Percentage
complaint
 The
complaint
includes
all
aspects
of
the
companies
activities
that
are
related
to
 the
customers.


and
Asia
 Africa
 Distribution
channel
 Intermediaries
 Customer
service
 Outlets.
 Price
 Price
 skimming.
 Asia
 and
 Europe.
video
and
internet
 Price
 penetration.
 premium
 pricing.
internet
and
retailers
 Companies
 80%
 Outlets.
 bill
 payment
 and
 review.
The
industry
base
their
attraction
and
retention
technique
on
offering
 innovative
products
and
services.
music.
culture
and
 policies.
video
and
internet
 penetration.
The
result
displayed
below
are
the
most
significant
differentiators.
music.
 TV.
America.
The
difference
could
be
 attributed
to
the
environment
they
exist.
internet
and
retailers
 Companies
 80%
 

 
 




Table
4.
 America.
 their
 approach
 to
 marketing
 is
 entirely
 different.
and
competitive
tarriff.
 and
economy
pricing
 Reliability
(QoS)
 Cross
network
call
access
 Number
portability
 International
presence
 99%
 100%
 Yes
 and
economy
pricing
 99%
 100%
 yes
 Europe.

 
 
 Packages
 Vodafone
network
 T­mobile
network
 Pay
 as
 you
 go
 (4
 plans)
 and
 Pay
 as
 you
 go
 (3
 plans)
 and
 pay
monthly
(24
plans)
 pay
monthly
(45
plans)
 Nationwide
 Coverage
 Online
services
 Nationwide

 Purchase.
 skimming.
 premium
 pricing.
which
includes
technology.
 bill
 payment
 and
 Purchase.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 4.
 Price
 Media
services
 Price
strategies
 TV.3 UK
industry

 Reviewing
 the
 industry
 in
 United
 Kingdom
 with
 specific
 attention
 to
 T‐mobile
 network
 and
 Vodafone
 network.3:
UK
industry
Significant
differentiators
 
 69
 .
 review.


as
it
is
cheaper
than
the
12
 months
contract.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 The
data
above
are
deemed
significant
because
they
are
in
direct
contrast
with
 the
industry
in
Nigeria.
The
number
of
plans
offered
for
either
package
is
designed
to
 meet
 the
 various
 needs
 of
 the
 customers.
although
some
areas
still
witness
 network
failure
on
intervals.
pay
monthly
is
widely
in
use
than
the
pay
as
you
go
 packages.
price
penetration
is
implemented.
 The
 packages
 offered
 specifically
 for
 pay
 monthly
 depends
 on
 the
 duration
 of
 the
 contract
 (12
 months
 and
 18
 months
 available).
hence
 offering
state
of
the
art
services
is
a
strategy
to
attract
substantial
market
share.
 hence
 makes
 it
 more
 competitive
 than
 the
 Nigerian
 industry.

 Number
portability

 The
 retaining
 of
 numbers
 (number
 portability)
 when
 switching
 to
 a
 new
 network
 is
 possible
 in
 the
 industry.

 Packages

 Unlike
the
Nigerian
industry.
This
makes
it
possible
for
competition
to
be
beyond
 network
coverage.
 at
 the
 end
 of
 the
 contract
 (upgrade
 period)
 or
 at
 the
 beginning
 of
 the
 contract.
 International
presence
 The
international
presence
is
a
strategy
to
make
foreign
markets
aware
of
their
 product.
 Online
and
Media
services
 Subsribers
constantly
look
for
more
innovative
solutions
to
their
problem.
 With
 the
 18
 months
contract.
 Coverage
 The
coverage
within
the
country
is
satisfactory.
 However.
 incentives
 are
 offered
 to
 subscribers.

 
 
 70
 .
 
 it
 is
 also
 a
 marketing
 startegy
 to
 attract
 and
 encourage
 subscribers
that
retain
their
mobile
numbers.

3
(a):
Example
of
phone
manufacturers
contracted
to
the
industry
 This
 result
 shows
 that
 the
 competition
 within
 the
 industry
 has
 shifted
 to
 tariff
 competitiveness
 and
 mobile
 value
 added
 services
 offered.
The
 table
 below
 shows
 the
 telecommunication
 companies.
They
contract
with
phone
manufacturers
to
be
the
sole
 provider
of
some
of
the
sophisticated
mobile
phones
available
in
the
market.
 making
it
easy
to
manage.
 and
 some
 of
 the
 contracted
phone
manufacturers.
 Hence.
 


















































































































Research
result
 
 Distribution
channel
 The
 industry
 utilise
 outlets.
 Another
 marketing
 strategy
 implemented
 by
 these
 companies
 is
 on
 the
 phones
 they
offer
with
the
tarriff.
 there
 are
 no
 significant
weaknesses
that
could
be
exploited
within
the
industry.
 internet
 and
 retailers
 as
 their
 distribution
 channel.
 
 
 Phone
 manufacturers
 Vodafone
 T
mobile
 Orange
 O2
 Sharp
 MDA
 phones
 smart
 SPV
 phones
 smart
 (Apple)
 iphone

 

Table
4.

 
 
 
 
 71
 .


 the
 gaps
 within
 the
 industry.
but
cannot
boast
a
mere
five
thousand
lines
presently.
 
 
 
 72
 .
 It
 also
 includes
 future
 trends
 and.


 In
Nigerian
telecommunication
industry.
 However.
Securing
a
huge
market
share
includes
attracting
and
retaining
customers.
 and
 managing
 the
 marketing
 activities
 effectively.
 Two
 operators
 (MTN
 and
 ZAIN)
 within
 the
 industry
 are
 foreign. Background

 The
 literatures
 reviewed
 have
 given
 a
 comprehensive
 understanding
 of
 the
 marketing
 techniques
 that
 would
 have
 an
 influence
 in
 securing
 a
 huge
 market
 share.
 NITEL
 network
 operator
 is
 a
 good
 example
 of
 repercussion
 that
 occurs
 as
 a
 result
 of
 failure
 to
 retain
 and
 attract
 subscribers.
 coupled
 with
 reference
 to
 the
 UK
 telecommunication
 industry
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 5.
 thus
 resulting
 in
 influx
 of
 telecommunication
 operators.
 Nigeria
 is
 experiencing
 a
 massive
 growth
 in
 mobile
 market.
This
 makes
the
industry
quite
competitive
in
a
bid
to
retain
their
subscribers.
 


















































































































Discussion
 
 Chapter
FIVE:
 
 
 
 
 
 DISCUSSION
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 This
 chapter
 explains
 the
 data
 obtained
 with
 the
 aid
 of
 the
 literature
 reviewed.
 The
 influx
 has
 seen
 the
 industry
 become
 quite
 competitive
 that
 only
 effective
 marketing
 is
 the
 key
 to
 survival.
 while
 the
 remaining
 operators
 are
 indigenous
 operators.

 The
 result
 obtained
 through
 research
 displays
 the
 various
 techniques
 implemented
 within
 the
 Nigerian
 Telecommunication
 industry.
attracting
subscribers
is
easy
as
cheap
 phones
 and
 low
 tariff
 can
 enable
 the
 realization.
 The
 two
 main
 factors.
 retaining
 them
 is
 quite
difficult
because
of
the
pay
as
you
go
package
that
is
widely
utilized.
 enables
 companies
 develop
 robust
 techniques
 that
ensure
business
survival.
 towards
 answering
 the
 research
 questions.
 The
 operator
 boasted
 four
 hundred
 thousand
 lines
 in
 2001
 when
 it
 was
 introduced.
 understanding
 the
 environment.


 On
 the
 contrary.
 The
various
companies
investigated
implement
similar
strategies
specifically
in
 promotion.
 


















































































































Discussion
 
 5.

 
 
 73
 .
the
speed
of
introduction
and
adapting
to
 the
changing
economic
environment
is
really
crucial
within
the
industry
to
retain
 and
attract
subscribers.
However.
 their
 main
 interest
 is
 quality
 of
 service
 coupled
 with
 tariff.
Anderson.
 Also.
 operators
 within
 the
 industry
 imitate
 and
 duplicate
 a
 significant
 strategy
 once
 introduced.
mobile
telephony
operators
attract
and
retain
subscribers.
The
imitation
and
duplication
has
prompted
some
of
the
 companies
 to
 implement
 differentiation.
De
Palma.1 Nigerian
Telecommunications
Industry
 5.

Hence.1.
 A
 good
 example
 is
 per
 second
 billing
 introduced
 by
 GLOBACOM
 on
 entering
 the
 industry.
and
Thisse
(1992)
claimed
 that
 introducing
 product
 differentiation
 leads
 to
 much
 more
 realistic
 and
 economically
 appealing
 results.
 if
 they
 include
 coverage
 expansion
 to
 their
 competitive
tariff
presently
on
offer.
 Within
 three
 months
 of
 introduction.1 Fixed
wireless
Vs
mobile
telephony
operators
 Studying
 the
 result
 from
 the
 research.
 The
 industry
 is
 open
 to
 duplication
 and
 imitation.
the
fixed
wireless
operators
have
an
opportunity
to
control
 a
 significant
 market
 share.
 Hence
Mobile
telephony
(GSM)
operators
control
the
telecommunication
market
 presently.
fixed
wireless
operators
utilize
low
 tariff.
 all
 other
 operators
 switched
to
per
second
billing.
 the
 market
 share
 and
 the
 highest
 percentage
selling
result
displays
the
companies’
status
within
the
industry.
 in
 order
 to
 gain
 a
 competitive
 advantage
within
the
industry.
 Thus
 appropriate
 differentiation
 influences
 the
 status
of
the
companies
within
the
industry.
 and
 their
 mobile
 value
 added
 services.
Studying
both
operators.
This
 status
 can
 change
 with
 time.
 the
 satisfactory
 result
 obtained
 showed
 it
 is
 the
 most
 accepted
product.
 Broadband
 services
 and
 cheap
 phones
 to
 attract
 their
 customers.
 However
 their
 distinct
 techniques
 implemented
 influences
 their
 status
 within
 the
 industry.
This
claim
is
valid
because
according
to
the
 respondents
 of
 the
 questionnaire.
 and
 would
 depend
 on
 the
 strategies
 implemented
 by
the
companies.
as
a
result
 of
 their
 better
 coverage
 of
 the
 country.


 they
 rolled
 out
 fixed
 wireless
 telephony
 as
 a
 substitute
 for
 their
customers
that
deem
CDMA
(code
division
multiple
access)
service
a
better
 value
 for
 money.
 The
coverage
has
attracted
motorist.2 Techniques
implemented
and
effects
 Reviewing
the
various
companies
and
their
status.
 Nigerians
 have
 a
 culture
 of
 expressing
 themselves
 vocally
 either
on
the
phone
or
otherwise.
Hence.
 Example
 of
 such
 service
 is
 mobile
 value
 added
 services
 and
 Quality
 of
 service.
 and
 Yakaboylu (2005)
 claimed
“in
order
to
retain
the
loyalty
of
your
customers
in
today's
competitive
 environment.
 and
 governmental
 event
 hosting.
 their
 thirst
 for
 innovative
 products
 is
 much
 bigger
 than
 the
 thirst
 from
 the
 developed
 world.

 Their
first
approach
of
covering
a
wide
geographical
landscape
from
the
outset
 better
 than
 other
 operators
 attracted
 subscribers
 to
 the
 network.
the
techniques
implemented
 by
 MTN
 are
 a
 major
 influence
 behind
 their
 status
 as
 the
 number
 one
 mobile
 operator
 in
 Nigeria.
 it
 could
 be
 said
 they
 understood
 the
 macro‐environment.
 This
 is
 an
 approach
 to
 retain
 their
 subscribers.
 Emphasizing
 on
 the
 strength
 of
 brand
 management.
 its
 improved
services
compared
to
other
mobile
telephony
operators
are
an
added
 value.
 as
 the
 various
 company
 battles
 to
 retain
 and
 attract
 customers.
you
have
to
create
an
experience
that
is
relevant
and
differentiates
 your
brand
from
others.
 Being
 an
 indigenous
 operator.
 Within
 this
 context.
 as
 a
 developing
 country.
 price
 would
 be
 their
 least
 concern
 when
 purchasing
 a
 sophisticated
 product.
the
management
 of
 their
 brand
 has
 been
 remarkable.
Furthermore.
 MTN
 entering
 the
 industry
 understood
 the
 environment
 and
focused
their
strategy
on
fulfilling
these
needs.”

 GLOBACOM
entry
into
the
industry
increased
the
competitive
nature
of
industry.
and
the
duration
normally
last
long.
 Also.
 Recently.
 Also.
 and
 attract
 a
 market
share
within
the
fixed
wireless
operators.
the
 signal
availability
would
be
a
major
influence
in
purchasing
a
price
plan.
 This
 they
 have
 achieved
 through
 various
 corporate
 social
 responsibilities.
as
they
 sought
 to
 achieve
 their
 need.
 and
it
enabled
them
acquire
a
substantial
market
after
MTN
despite
entering
the
 industry
in
2003.
Its
partnership
with
Alcatel
has
enabled
it
expand
its
coverage
 within
months
and
offer
a
significant
quality
of
service
on
entering
the
industry.
 Budtz.
 


















































































































Discussion
 
 5.1.
 Fog.
as
it
is
the
only
company
with
better
high
 
 74
 .


 Brooks
 (1980)
 stated.
 its
 approach
to
designing
a
package
specifically
for
commercial
telephone
operators
 (CTO)
 has
 seen
 the
 package
 being
 widely
 utilized
 by
 the
 sector
 (CTO).
their
approach
is
based
on
resolving
the
 complaint
 about
 price.
This
has
seen
the
company
claim
 majority
 of
 subscribers
 within
 the
 region.
 they
 may
 well
 be
 seen
 threatening
to
the
status
quo
in
his
own
department.”
This
made
it
evident
that
 the
 four
 management
 changes
 implemented
 by
 ECONET
 did
 affect
 its
 status
 negatively
 within
 the
 industry.
 Hence
 subscribers
 can
 make
 calls
 whilst
 on
 board
 thirty
 thousand
feet
above
sea
level.
they
are
still
ahead
of
the
fixed
wireless
operators
with
regards
to
the
 market
 share.
 Also
 in
 order
 to
 compete
 against
 the
 mobile
 telephony
 operators.
 Its
 tariff
 competitiveness
 and
 innovative
services
shown
with
its
introduction
of
per
second
billing
was
a
major
 breakthrough
into
the
industry.

 The
 constant
 managerial
 change
 by
 ECONET
 (ZAIN)
 has
 seen
 them
 fall
 behind
 MTN
 and
 GLOBACOM.
 The
 only
 reason
 they
 have
 struggled
 would
 be
 their
lack
of
understanding
of
the
environment
they
entered.
 
 Also.
The
remaining
changes
might
take
a
few
months
 or
 may
 be
 years
 but
 this
 has
 been
 the
 first
 approach.
 ZAIN
 GROUP
 intends
 on
 changing
 their
 marketing
 strategy
 and
 approach
 to
 compete
 effectively.
 
 75
 .
 they
 recently
 introduced
 roaming
 services
 on
 aircraft.
 Their
 first
 approach
 has
 been
 improving
 the
 mobile
 value
 added
 services.
This
was
a
success.
 However
 despite
 their
 instability.
 This
 approach
has
enabled
them
reach
the
poor
rural
areas
through
the
commercial
 telephone
operators.
Moreover.
 Another
 strategic
 approach
 by
 the
 company
 is
 partnering
 with
 SPDC
 (Shell
 Petroleum
 Development
 Corporation)
 in
 the
 south
 region
 (Oil
 region)
to
provide
significant
quality
of
service.
 “While
 change
 proposals
 may
 be
 seen
 as
 vital
 for
 the
 success
 of
 the
 department.
 


















































































































Discussion
 
 way
 coverage.

 Reviewing
the
two
remaining
operators.
 This
 can
 only
 be
 attributed
 to
 their
 coverage
 of
 the
 potential
 regions.
They
have
attracted
substantial
market
share
with
the
reduction
of
tariff.
 they
 offer
 mobile
 telephones
 for
 the
 subscribers’
 use
 when
 on
 the
 move.
as
the
problem
of
paying
for
 unused
 seconds
 encountered
 in
 per
 minute
 billing
 was
 eliminated.
 Example.
they
have
gained
immensely
from
the
instability
 of
ECONET
(ZAIN).
However
the
new
 management.



 STARCOMMS
 has
 been
 able
 to
 stay
 ahead
 of
 their
 competitors
 in
 the
 fixed
 wireless
 due
 to
 the
 fact
 that
 they
 develop
 their
 strategy
 around
 their
 core
 competence.
 


















































































































Discussion
 
 and
 the
 price
 of
 mobile
 phones.
and
with
that
they
have
been
able
to
attract
and
retain
both
subscribers
 of
 the
 broadband
 service
 and
 fixed
 wireless
 service.
 they
 stated
 it
 can
 be
 used
 to
 create
 a
 competitive
 advantage.
 However.
 as
 MTN
 has
 started
rolling
out
fixed
wireless
telephony.
and
could
influence
their
buying
behavior.
 This
 is
 a
 price
 penetration
 approach.
 Their
 price
 reduction
 might
 not
 have
 much
 influence.
 but
 the
 approach
 of
 communicating
 with
 the
 university
 students
coupled
with
the
cheap
tariff
and
phones
could
enable
them
command
 huge
market
share
among
the
university
students.
Bishop
(2002).
 the
 cheap
 phones
 are
 designed
 for
 subscribers
 that
 regard
price
as
a
barrier
to
satisfying
their
needs.
 as
 other
 operators
 are
 either
 reducing
 price
 or
 introducing
 fixed
 wireless
 telephony.
 However.
 Core
 competence
 can
 be
 used
 to
 create
 a
 differentiation.
 mobile
 phones
 price
 reduction.
as
it
establishes
their
brand
in
the
mind
of
 the
students.
In‐addition.
Presently.
Their
promotion
of
sponsoring
 university
events
is
quite
significant.
in
the
literature
review
 described
price
penetration
as
a
pricing
strategy
implemented
by
entrant
to
gain
 a
 market
 share
 by
 first
 lowering
 the
 price
 of
 products.
 Saunders
and
Piercy.
their
market
share
is
the
least
compared
 to
 the
 four
 operators
 investigated.
and
value
added
services.
 and
 can
 be
 sustained
for
a
long
period. Hooley.
 Their
 approach
 gives
 the
 subscribers
 an
 easy
 decision
 when
 choosing
 the
 fixed
 wireless.
 The
 company
 contracts
 to
 mobile
 phone
 manufacturers
 in
 China.
 These
 are
 tariff
 reduction.
 their
 limited
 coverage
 is
 still
 a
 weakness.
 as
 described
in
the
literature
review
section.
The
university
students
 occupy
a
huge
portion
of
the
country’s
population.
 and
 presently
 they
 face
 huge
 task.
 
 Hence.
 and
 attracting
 university
 students.
(2004)
emphasized
it
in
the
literature
review.
 VISAFONE
on
entering
the
industry
in
2007
implemented
three
main
strategies.
 and
 with
 this
 technique
 have
 been
 able
 to
 offer
 cheap
 phones
 coupled
 with
 low
 tariff.

 
 76
 .
The
operator
offers
the
best
broadband
service
in
the
 country.
so
would
have
an
impact
on
 the
company’s
market
share.
 their
 ability
to
compete
effectively
with
the
mobile
telephony
operators
would
depend
 on
the
coverage.


However
considering
these
weaknesses.
and
 control
the
entire
market.
 ETISALAT
Executive
on
an
interview
claimed
they
have
held
back
operation.
 when
 these
 needs
 are
 not
 met.
Studying
 the
industry
in
UK.
This
questions
their
understanding
of
the
environment
 prior
 to
 entry.
 referred
 to
 distribution
 channel
 management
 claiming
 that
 a
 channel
 will
 become
 ineffective.
 forgetting
 that
 the
 subscribers
 are
 flexible
 in
 movement.
 but
 their
 retention
 would
 be
 tested
 if
 a
 potential
 entrant
 such
 as
 ETISALAT
 capitalizes
 on
 their
 weaknesses.
 Reviewing
the
coverage.
 This
 gives
 them
 an
 alternative
 of
 covering
 potential
 regions
 and
 competing
 for
 subscribers
 therein.
it
could
be
asked
 whether
a
company
within
the
industry
cannot
capitalize
on
the
weaknesses.

 The
 inappropriate
 management
 of
 the
 distribution
 channels
 has
 seen
 the
 industry
 lack
 in
 excellent
 customer
 service.
if
a
channel
member
considers
itself
distinct.
 Bishop
 (2002).
 and
 continuously
 keeping
 pace
 with
 the
 environmental
change.
 This
 could
 only
 be
 attributed
 to
 the
 added
 cost
 incurred
 in
 implementing
 services
in
such
regions.3 Gaps
within
the
industry
 At
 present
 these
 companies
 attract
 subscribers.
 Nigerians
 have
 a
 culture
 of
 expressing
 themselves.
 Presently.
as
 they
want
to
cover
all
areas
of
the
country.
 Also
the
amount
of
money
they
spend
in
licensing
and
initial
set
up
makes
them
 seek
short‐term
profit.
and
the
fact
that
the
industry
rely
so
much
on
the
 Pay
As
You
Go
package
for
sales.
makes
it
easy.
Ignorant
attitude
from
 operators
 or
 their
 distribution
 channels
 could
 sway
 subscribers
 or
 potential
 subscribers
to
a
new
network.1.
these
companies
focus
in
regions
with
profit
potential.
 


















































































































Discussion
 
 5.
 A
 good
 example
 is
 the
 cost
 incurred
 in
 running
 generators
 for
 their
 base
 stations
 as
 a
 result
 of
 the
 unreliability
 of
 electricity
 in
 the
 country.
there
are
no
such
weaknesses
rather
companies
are
devising
 new
 marketing
 strategies.
but
still
lacks
quality
of
service
and
coverage.
and
offer
the
subscribers
an
excellent
 value
 for
 their
 money.
 VISAFONE
 has
 capitalized
 on
 some
 of
 their
 weaknesses
such
as
price.
 hence
 the
poor
quality
of
service
from
operators
hinders
the
satisfaction
of
this
need.
 According
 to
 Kotler
 and
 Armstrong
 (2005).
 
 77
 .

 As
 stated
 previously.


 This
 has
 restricted
 some
 from
 changing
 networks
 and
 increased
 the
 possibility
 for
 subscription
 of
 multiple
 networks.
 Presently
 the
 fixed
 wireless
 operators
provide
the
best
value
for
money.
 subscribers
 have
 not
 been
 able
 enjoy
 number
 portability.
Comparing
the
services
offered
by
these
companies.
 new
 packages
 similar
 to
 mobile
 VPN
 (Virtual
 Private
 Network)
 would
 be
 introduced
 as
 to
 attract
 all
 societal
 groups
 or
 group
 of
 friends.

 As
 technology
 advances.
Subscribers’
measure
price
by
the
level
of
 satisfaction
 gained
 from
 the
 package
 purchased.
 maybe
 in
 the
 future
 with
 more
 advanced
technology
within
the
country.
rapid
technology
advancement.
 as
 subscribers
 would
 easily
 change
 network
if
not
satisfied
and
still
retain
their
phone
number.
 The
rapid
change
would
include
factors
such
as.
 The
 competition
 within
 the
 industry
 would
 intensify
 if
 number
 portability
 becomes
 applicable.
 MTN
could
be
regarded
as
the
operator
that
offers
the
most
innovative
services.
 This
 has
 immensely
 influenced
 their
 status
 within
 the
 industry.1.
A
good
example
is
Pay
monthly
package
on
T‐mobile
network
 that
 has
 45
 plans
 tailored
 to
 individual
 needs.
 the
 tariff
 for
 the
 pay
 as
 you
 go
 package
 would
 become
more
competitive.
 If
 it
 happens.
 Presently.
would
be
attributed
to
the
rapid
change
in
the
economic
environment.
 Also.
 number
 portability.
 Finally.4 Future
trend
within
the
Industry
 The
competition
within
the
industry
could
shift
from
price
and
quality
of
service
 to
 products
 and
 services
 being
 offered
 to
 the
 individual
 subscribers.
 so
 would
 the
 technology
 in
 products
 and
 services
 offered
by
these
companies.
 
 These
 gaps
 within
 the
 industry
 have
 resulted
 in
 subscribers
 contracting
to
more
than
one
network
to
achieve
their
needs.

 
 78
 .
 new
 policies
 and
 entrants
 that
 are
 ready
 to
 challenge
 the
 conventional
processes.
 with
 policies
 being
 uplifted
 and
 more
 entrants
 willing
 to
 challenge
 the
 conventional
 processes.
the
pay
monthly
could
be
encouraged
 among
subscribers.

 
 5.
pushing
companies
to
tailor
their
products
to
satisfy
 individual
needs.

 In‐addition.
but
still
lack
quality
of
service
and
 coverage.
 


















































































































Discussion
 
 customers
would
seek
for
alternatives.


This
 enables
the
companies
to
manage
their
distribution
channel.
making
it
effective
 
 79
 .2 The
United
Kingdom
Telecommunication
industry
 Within
the
UK
industry.
 This
 was
 a
 success
 as
 within
 hours
 they
 were
 sold
 out
 together
 with
 various
 price
 plans.
last
month
O2
unveiled
the
new
 iphone
 3G
 on
 their
 list
 of
 mobile
 phones
 available
 for
 subscribers.
 These
 individual
 needs
 include
 sophisticated
 services.
the
industry
relies
on
outlets.
 although
 it
 might
 not
 be
 a
 success
 because
 of
 the
 substandard
technology
in
the
country.
 they
 offer
 free
 phones
 as
 an
 attraction
 to
 retain
 the
 customers.
unlike
the
Nigerian
industry
that
utilize
more
than
four
channels.
The
 competition
 within
 the
 industry
 is
 deemed
 more
 intense
 than
 the
 Nigerian
 industry
 because
 of
 the
 number
 portability.
 contracting
 with
 high
 profile
 mobile
 phone
 manufacturers
 for
 state‐of‐the
art
mobile
phones
is
another
technique
currently
implemented
in
UK
 industry
to
attract
customers.
 These
 are
 services
 offered
as
a
result
of
the
state
of
the
art
technology
present
in
the
country.
 


















































































































Discussion
 
 5.

 Notably.
This
enables
them
retain
their
customers
for
at
least
 twelve
 to
 eighteen
 months.
 expressing
 their
 long‐term
 capital
 gain
 approach.
This
technique
attracts
subscribers
that
are
loyal
 to
a
particular
kind
of
mobile
phones.
 The
 result
 in
 chapter
 4
 has
 shown
 that
they
tailor
their
product
to
satisfy
the
various
needs
of
the
customers.
 and
 offering
 best
 value
 price
 plan.
A
good
example
is
their
encouragement
of
 pay
monthly
subscription
by
offering
better
value
for
money
on
the
package
than
 on
Pay
as
you
go
package.
 
 This
 is
 a
 standard
 technique
 that
 the
 telecommunication
 industry
 in
 Nigeria
 lacks.
the
gaps
in
the
Nigerian
telecommunication
industry
are
 strengths.
 This
 has
 shifted
 competitive
 advantage
 strategy
 within
 the
 industry
 towards
company
striving
to
satisfy
the
individual
needs
of
the
customers.
Internet
and
retailers
for
its
distribution
 channel.
 in
 the
 literature
 review
 claimed
 that
 the
 adoption
 of
 retail
 strategy
of
tailoring
the
products
to
individual
needs
would
eliminate
the
threat
 of
 driving
 profit
 margin
 to
 unacceptable
 low.

 Pareek
 (2007).
 Moreover
 at
 the
 end
 of
 the
 contract.

 Furthermore.
and
 their
focus
on
long‐term
capital
gain.
 The
 ease
 of
 sales
 was
 as
 a
 result
 of
 their
 appropriate
 management
 of
 the
 distribution
channel.
Example.




















































































































Discussion


and
efficient.
Hence,
in
various
locations
only
the
outlets
and
retailers
could
be
 seen.
 The
 Internet
 service
 enables
 subscribers
 to
 purchase
 the
 services
 they
 want
 without
 visiting
 the
 outlets
 or
 retailers.
 This
 is
 a
 major
 difference
 in
 the
 Nigerian
 industry,
 and
 it
 would
 be
 achieved
 with
 the
 influence
 of
 advanced
 technology.

 In
 the
 literature
 review,
 Bishop
 (2002)
 emphasized
 on
 the
 product
 lifecycle
 stages
and
the
marketing
mix
decisions
that
have
to
be
implemented.
Using
the
 diagram
as
a
reference,
these
companies
implement
the
marketing
mix
decision
 through
the
project
lifecycle.
Example,
on
introduction
of
MDA
smart
phones
by
 T‐mobile
 in
 2006,
 price
 skimming
 was
 utilized.
 However,
 as
 the
 phone
 depreciated,
they
reduced
the
price
of
the
phone
coupled
with
the
price
plan,
as
 to
encourage
subscribers.
This
strategy
enables
them
to
achieve
continuous
sales
 regardless
of
the
product
lifecycle.
 Finally,
 reviewing
 the
 UK
 industry
 is
 not
 for
 comparison
 rather
 to
 show
 opportunities
 within
 the
 Nigerian
 industry
 that
 could
 be
 exploited
 to
 gain
 competitive
 advantage.
 Significantly,
 it
 expresses
 the
 importance
 of
 understanding
the
marketing
environment,
and
the
customers.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


80







































































































































Conclusion



Chapter
SIX:
 


 
 





CONCLUSION


 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Having
reviewed
the
literatures
on
marketing,
collected
data,
and
discussed
the
 data
obtained
with
relation
to
the
objective,
this
chapter
states
if
the
objective
was
 achieved.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


6. Conclusion

The
 competition
 within
 an
 industry
 aids
 in
 its
 development
 specifically
 in
 a
 potentially
 viable
 market.
 The
 Nigerian
 mobile
 market
 is
 seen
 as
 potentially
 viable
because
of
its
population
and
its
income
per
capita.
Hence
the
competition
 within
 the
 industry
 as
 they
 battle
 to
 retain
 and
 attract
 subscribers
 enabled
 its
 rapid
 development.
 The
 research
 conducted
 has
 shown
 the
 various
 marketing
 techniques
 implemented
 by
 the
 companies
 investigated,
 in
 their
 pursuit
 for
 competitive
 advantage.
 Gaining
 a
 competitive
 advantage
 within
 the
 industry
 would
 mean
 retention
 and
 attraction
 of
 subscribers,
 as
 the
 number
 of
 subscribers
 determines
 your
 status.
 Reviewing
 the
 results,
 the
 companies
 that
 have
a
better
understanding
of
the
environment,
has
been
able
to
develop
better
 techniques
 to
 attract
 and
 retain
 the
 customers,
 for
 example
 MTN.
 However
 the
 techniques
 implemented
 for
 both
 retention
 and
 attraction
 by
 the
 companies
 is
 still
deemed
feeble.

 According
 to
 the
 literatures
 reviewed,
 companies
 within
 an
 industry
 should
 be
 more
worried
about
potential
entrants.
“New
entrants
to
an
industry
bring
new
 capacity,
 the
 desire
 to
 gain
 market
 share,
 and
 often,
 substantial
 resources”
 (Porter
 M,
 1998).
 This
 is
 a
 concern
 within
 the
 Nigerian
 telecommunication
 industry
because
they
have
gaps
that
could
be
exploited.
This
is
the
main
reason
 their
 techniques
 are
 deemed
 feeble.
 A
 potential
 entrant
 (ETISALAT)
 could
 capitalize
on
these
gaps,
as
discussed
in
chapter
5.
The
popularity
of
ETISALAT
 in
 the
 Middle
 East,
 as
 a
 major
 competitor
 within
 telecommunication
 industries
 makes
it
a
major
threat
to
MTN,
and
GLOBACOM.
This
is
also
undoubted
by
the
 speech
presented
by
the
ETISALAT
executive
on
the
reason
they
are
yet
to
roll
 out
 operation
 within
 the
 country.
 As
 quoted
 in
 chapter
 5,
 they
 want
 to
 give
 subscribers
an
excellent
value
for
their
money.
When
this
happens,
the
loyalty
of
 
 81







































































































































Conclusion



the
 subscribers
 within
 the
 country
 would
 be
 tested,
 and
 they
 would
 eventually
 sway
 to
 the
 company
 that
 offers
 more
 benefits
 for
 money.
 The
 UK
 industry
 reviewed
 has
 shown
 that
 it
 would
 be
 quite
 difficult
 for
 a
 potential
 entrant
 to
 seize
a
market
share
because
they
have
developed
their
techniques
around
the
 marketing
environment,
and
the
subscribers.

 Finally,
the
UK
industry
is
a
good
example
of
understanding
the
environment
and
 developing
robust
techniques
to
continually
satisfy
the
needs
of
the
customers.
 The
 Nigerian
 telecommunication
 industry
 needs
 to
 study
 the
 environment,
 and
 continuously
 develop
 robust
 techniques
 to
 attract
 and
 retain
 subscribers.
 In‐ addition
to
developing,
they
have
to
be
monitored,
and
managed,
to
be
in
tandem
 with
 the
 changing
 economic
 environment.
 The
 example
 with
 NITEL
 is
 a
 lesson
 for
 other
 companies,
 as
 they
 might
 not
 be
 able
 to
 compete
 when
 potential
 entrants
 challenge
 the
 conventional
 processes.
 Nevertheless,
 the
 marketing
 environment
 is
 different
 for
 every
 country,
 and
 it
 would
 influence
 the
 trend
 within
 the
 industry.
 Imitating
 or
following
the
 trends
 of
 an
 industry
in
 another
 country
 would
 be
 detrimental,
 and
 could
 slow
 the
 growth
 of
 the
 imitating
 industry.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


82



 
 7.
if
an
extensive
work
will
be
carried
on
the
research.
hence
the
percentage
error
is
above
5
–
8%.
there
has
to
be
suggestions
for
further
work.


 
 7.
 These
 two
 criteria
 influenced
 my
 decision
 on
 the
 following
recommendations. Background
 For
any
research
implemented.
and
the
subsequent
criterion
is
 industry
 growth
 stage.1 Inclusion
of
Interview
to
the
survey
techniques
 Based
 on
 the
 limitation
 highlighted
 in
 the
 research
 methodology
 about
 the
 marketing
 officers.
 































































































Recommendations
for
further
work
 
 Chapter
SEVEN:

 RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR
FURTHER
WORK
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 This
chapter
explains
the
areas
that
would
require
strengthening.
As
a
 suggestion
 for
 further
 work.
 The
 first
 criterion
 is
 the
 limitations
 encountered
as
a
result
of
the
research
method.
 as
 to
 obtain
 a
 minimum
 or
 no
 percentage
 error.
the
number
of
questions
has
to
be
increased
to
include
their
brand
 management.
Also.
and
new
ideas
to
 be
considered.2 Increasing
the
Sample
size

 The
table
below
shows
the
percentage
error
that
is
likely
to
occur
with
regards
 to
 the
 sample
 size
 implemented.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 7.
 the
 inclusion
 of
 interview
 would
 be
 a
 supplement.
In
considering
the
suggestions
for
further
 work.
 two
 main
 criteria
 were
 considered.
 a
 sample
 size
 ranging
 from
 two
 thousand
 to
 three
 thousand
 should
 be
 implemented.
 In
 the
 research
 a
 sample
 size
 of
 eighty
 respondents
was
implemented.
 and
 their
 marketing
 environment.
 
 83
 .
as
 to
enable
better
research
in
the
future.
 The
 response
 from
 both
 interview
 and
 questionnaire
 would
 be
 compared
 as
 to
 confirm
validity
of
the
facts
received.
 relationship
 with
 the
 distribution
 channels.


 Adapted
 from:
 [Tull
 D.
 Their
 entry
 would
 be
 interesting
because
as
a
foreign
mobile
telephony
operator
(GSM).
it
has
to
battle
 with
 MTN
 (foreign).
 
 7.4 Investigating
potential
entrant
 Marketing
 techniques
 within
 an
 industry
 is
 dynamic
 as
 they
 always
 structure
 their
 strategies
 to
 respond
 to
 the
 changing
 economic
 environment.

 
 7.500 Allowance for sampling Error (95% confidence) 5 .
 so
 much
 has
 been
 said
 about
 the
 company
 and
 how
 they
 intend
 on
 
 84
 .
 possess
 an
 in‐depth
 knowledge
of
the
development
of
the
industry
and
likely
trends
that
would
occur
 within
the
industry.3 Contacting
the
Nigerian
Communications
Commission
(NCC)
 The
 Nigerian
 communications
 commission
 oversees
 the
 operations
 of
 the
 industry
 investigated.
Marketing
research.
 but
 the
 fact
 that
 some
 of
 the
 publications
 were
 not
 up
 to
 date
 was
 a
 limitation.
 However.
 and
 Hawkins
 D.
 































































































Recommendations
for
further
work
 
 Sample size 200 400 600 800 1.
 The
 organisation
 sets
 up
 policies.
 A
 future
entrant
 into
 the
 Nigerian
 Telecommunication
 industry
 is
 ETISALAT.
 (1993).
the
journals
published
by
this
organisation
 were
 reviewed.
measurement
&
methods].
 Contacting
 them
 would
 lead
 to
 obtaining
 updated
 in‐depth
 information
of
the
industry.8% 4 – 6% 3 – 5% 3 – 4% 2 – 4% 2 – 3% Table
 7.
 as
 to
 observe
 the
 influence
 of
 the
 entrants
 on
 the
 industry.000 1.
In
the
research.
and
future
policies
that
could
impact
the
marketing
 strategies
of
the
companies.
 GLO
 (indigenous)
 and
 ZAIN
 (foreign)
 for
 market
 share.
 This
 makes
 the
 investigation
 on
 the
 techniques
 implemented
 by
 the
 entrants
 crucial.2:
 sample
 size
 determination.


Hence.
it
would
be
crucial
as
a
 further
research
to
study
their
techniques.
 
 
 85
 .
 































































































Recommendations
for
further
work
 
 claiming
the
number
one
position
in
the
country.
and
how
the
companies
already
in
the
 industry
react.

De Palma A. (1995).. Marketing: concepts and strategies Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ 
 86
 . J.. Marketing. theory and practice London: Macmillan Business Beath J. 52. Baker. D.. Anderson S. Cambridge: University Press Bishop J. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Alashban.. Public opinion quarterly. Puget Sound Business Journal. et al (2002). (2002). J. Organizational change: The management dilemma London: Macmillan Press. Mc Dowell S... (1995). 10... 3.
 































































































Reference
 
 8. The Business and Marketing Environment. M.. London: Routledge Clark S. Brown S. and Thisse J. (1992). New York: John Wiley and Sons Dawson J. REFERENCES
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(2004). J. Saunders. Jan.R. (1992).T. (2007). Berlin. 363–80. Budtz C. January 69–83 Douglas S. T (2006). C and Hird. P. N. and Martin H. the globalization of markets. Story telling: branding in practice. T (1993). Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall International. Business Intelligence in Telecommunications Florida: Auerbach Publications 87
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Reference
 
 ⇒ Dickson. M (1989). P. J. (2005). 13. p 26-32 Fog K. (1983). J. BMW zooms ahead of Mercedes Benz in worldwide sales for the first time. principles of marketing New Jersey: Prentice Hall Levitt. International marketing: strategy and management. approaches to assembling international marketing opportunities for small and medium-sized business. Craig C. (1977).C.. and Pandian. (1982). Pareek. and Yakaboylu B.. J. Start-up: a practical guide to starting and running a new business. planning. T. sociology: themes and perspective London: Collins Educational. P.. (1992). January 20. K. Marketing Management: Analysis.” journal of international business studies. London: Croom Helm Hancock B. towards a general theory of competitive rationality. and Aeppel. Harris. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Hooley. (1997). G. (2005). 92 – 102 Mahoney. Marketing strategy and competitive positioning. (1998) Trent Focus for research and development in primary health care. pg6. Michael H. and Piercy. 1. 23 – 32. E. and Armstrong. implementation and control. J. (2004). Harlow: Prentice Hall.. Kotler. “the internationalization process of the firm: A model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. Columbia journal of world business.. and Vahlne. Miller. D.R. the wall street journal. W. Keegan. Strategic Management Journal. 8. Harvard business review. Journal of Marketing. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Gilligan. p..

79–91 Ries.
 































































































Reference
 
 ⇒ Prahalad. and Gilligan. (1993). Warwick Manufacturing Group University of Warwick. measurement & methods. Tull D. (2005). (1998). Porter M. Harvard Business Review. 3. Positioning: The battle for your mind New York: McGraw. R. Ontario: Maxwell Macmillan Inc Wilson. Marketing research. and Trout. A. 68 (3). competitive strategy: techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. Strategic Marketing Management Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann Wind.. G. and Hawkins D.K. The core competence of the corporation. p 23 – 26 ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ 
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(1991) Economic theory of product differentiation. De Palma A. Marketing.. Anderson S. (2000). (1997). Cambridge: University Press Belk R. New York: John Wiley and Sons Dawson J. (1995). Effective Marketing: principles and practice Milton Keynes: Lightning source UK ltd Braun T. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. 1988. page 22 Anderson B. journal of international marketing... Organizational change: The management dilemma London: Macmillan Press. July 21 Clifton R. (1979). A... and Race P. (1992). Reasons for business failure come in three broad groups. J. (1995). Baker. BIBLIOGRAPHY:
 
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 89
 . 500 tips for research students London: Routledge Clark S. (2004). text and cases. The Business and Marketing Environment.. and Parsons. and Thisse J. Brown S.. et al (2002). (2006). 3. Mc Dowell S. the effects of the race of the interviewer on race-related attitudes of black respondents in SRC/CPS national Election studies. 10. 52. 289-324. Silver B. M. and Abramson P.. The philosophy of branding London: Kogan page Brooks E.
 






























































































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Strategic Management Journal. 8.R. Marketing Management: Analysis. J. Research methods in social relations. January 69–83 Douglas S..” journal of international business studies. London: Croom Helm Hancock B. Story telling: branding in practice. 56. towards a general theory of competitive rationality. M (1989)... Marketing: concepts and strategies Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company Dickson. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Kotler. Journal of Marketing. and Pandian.. (1977). Smith E. and Piercy. et al (2001).. Harvard business review. 23 – 32. Columbia journal of world business. Saunders. and Yakaboylu B. G. International marketing: strategy and management. Craig C. W.. approaches to assembling international marketing opportunities for small and medium-sized business. (1997). p 26-32 Fog K. J. Judd C. 1. “the internationalization process of the firm: A model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. and Kidder L. E. (1983). J. 13. planning.. Keegan.. Berlin. P. T. pg6. J. and Green M. 92 – 102 Mahoney. The resource based view of the Firm within the conversation of strategic management. C and Hird. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall International. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College publishers Keegan W. Budtz C. Global Marketing.. (1982). (2004). (2005). P. Harlow: Prentice Hall. P. an introduction to qualitative research. Marketing strategy and competitive positioning. G. principles of marketing New Jersey: Prentice Hall Levitt. (1998) Trent Focus for research and development in primary health care. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Gilligan. Start-up: a practical guide to starting and running a new business. (2005). (1992). Harris.
 






























































































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available from: http://www.Hill. Tull D. and Martin H. available from: http://www. C. measurement & methods. Pareek. (2005). p 23 – 26 Obadina T. D. The core competence of the corporation. 79–91 Ries.ncc. Positioning: The battle for your mind New York: McGraw. Michael H. BMW zooms ahead of Mercedes Benz in worldwide sales for the first time. (1986). (1998). the myth of globalization. 2008] Trends in Telecommunication market in Nigeria 2004. Harvard Business Review. journal of consumer marketing. the wall street journal. available form: http://www. Africa Recovery volume 12. Nigeria unveils new privatization plan..ng [accessed on 10th March 2008] TELL Nigeria Magazine. Business Intelligence in Telecommunications Florida: Auerbach Publications Prahalad. Mobile week with GSM.com [accessed on 4th April 2008] Telecom: Nigeria hits 49. available from www. (1998). and Trout. 3. international marketing WMG.K.. R. Marketing research. 2008] 
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 Miller. New York: Free Press Strategic marketing notes (2007). (2004).gov. no 3 page 4. Y. (1993). A. p.com/nview.. competitive strategy: techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. An overview of the telecommunication industry in Nigeria and the trends ahead. and Aeppel.vanguardngr.tellng. Strategic Marketing Management Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann Wind. Porter M. sociology: themes and perspectives London: Collins Educational. (2004). January 20. (1990). G.championnewspapers.6m active subscriber base. (2001). Ontario: Maxwell Macmillan Inc Wilson. http://www.thisdayonline.com [accessed on 4th March 2008] Ndukwe E. 68 (3). available from. NCC publications Champion Newspaper Nigeria. and Hawkins D.com/index. J.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id =110&Itemid=88 [accessed on 5th June.php?id=116559 [accessed on 12th August. (2007). and Gilligan. C. K.

available from: http://community. house committee differ.einnews.zdnet.uk/business/telecoms [accessed on 12th June 2008] Nigeria Telecommunications news. MTN Nigeria. available from: http://www. 2008] Telecommunications industry.com. available from: http://www.php?id=107523 [accessed on 13th August 2008] Nama C. available from: http://www.starcomms.com/ [accessed on 1st March 2008] MTN Nigeria.co. available from: http://annualreport.vodafone.uk/dispatch/Portal/appmanager/vodafone/wrp?_nfpb=true& _pageLabel=templateBlank&pageID=VIRTUAL_HOME [accessed on 30th July.guardian.thisdayonline.com/en/ [accessed on 6th March 2008] GLOBACOM Nigeria.zain. available from: http://www. 2008] 
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 .com/ [accessed on 2nd March 2008] ZAIN Nigeria. available from: http://www. available from: http://www.htm [accessed on 13th August 2008] Product reviews. http://www. 2008] T-Mobile UK.co.com/nview.php?id=118921 [accessed on 13th August 2008] MTN Nigeria gets on high horse with humble apology.t-mobile.co.co.com/rev_mtn_nigeria.uk/blog/0.mouthshut.telecompaper.html [accessed on 10th June. available from: http://online. available from: http://www.thisdayonline. (1999).com/news/article..com/ [accessed on 5th March 2008] VISAFONE Nigeria.com/nview.gloworld.com/product-reviews/Globacom-925051522. available from: http://www.mtn.
 






























































































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 GSM quality: Minister.uk/ [accessed on 30th July 2008] STARCOMMS Nigeria. available from. Brief status of the telecommunication industry in Nigeria GLOBACOM rolls out in more rural areas.ng/ [accessed on 6th March 2008] MTN expands fixed wireless in Nigeria.1000000567.aspx?cid=630237 [accessed on 12th August 2008] Reviews of operations.00.ng.com/nigeria/newsfeed-nigeria-telecommunications [12th March. available from: http://www.10007065o-209737b.visafone. available from: http://www. available from: http://www. GLOBACOM.htm [accessed on 17th July 2008] Vodafone UK.mtnonline.

10007530o2000483498b. available from: http://www. available from: http://www.com/article/367413/Starcomms_to_Offer_Smart_Center_for_Pay_Pho ne_Call_Centers [accessed on June 1st 2008] VISAFONE goes on the offensive. available from: http://community. available from: http://nigerianbulletin. available from: http://www. available from: http://nigerianbulletin.com/nigeria-business-finance-news/global-aspirations-leadingemerging-markets-mobile-operator-zain-re-brands-celtel-africaoperations/01082008/1759/ [accessed on 4th August 2008] VISAFONE introduces mobile office handset in Nigeria.m2ng.htm [accessed on 1st August 2008] GLOBACOM unveils 3G plus mobile telephony.thisdayonline. telecommunications..1000000567. available from: http://www1.uk/blog/0. 2008] 
 93
 .com/category/nigeria-business-finance-news/nigeria-telecomsgsm/ [accessed on 15th March 2008] MTN launches fixed lines in Ibadan.
 






























































































Bibliography
 
 Nweke R.jhtml_A&_DAV=/co m/en/appxml/articlepaperlibrary/globacomaimingtobethe1africanoperatortcm1721110 261635.com/nigeria-business-finance-news/mtn-launches-fixed-linesin-ibadan/06082008/1790/ [accessed on 15th July 2008] VISAFONE Nigeria distributes over 200 protective helmets as CSR programme.php?id=21 [accessed on 1st July 2008] Okoegwale E.000 base stations.com/newsdetail. available from: http://nigerianbulletin.cio. available from: http://www.jsessionid=HOQCPRYPPMY4NLAWFRUE1D3 MCYWGI3GC?_DARGS=/common/atr/include/sidebar_TOC.php?id=97621 [accessed on 28th April. SPDC partnership clocks one year.jhtml [accessed on 25th March 2008] STARCOMMS to offer Smart centers for pay phone call centers.com/nigeria-business-finance-news/visafonedistribute-over-200-protective-helmets-as-csr-programme/20082008/1910/ [accessed on 28th August 2008] GLO.cio.co.alcatellucent.com/nview.. sets up price wars. (2008).com/nigeria-business-finance-news/glo-spdc-partnershipclocks-one-year/14082008/1863/ [accessed on 16th August 2008] CELTEL Nigeria and Africa change to ZAIN.com/category/nigeria-business-finance-news/nigeria-telecomsgsm/page/4/ [accessed on 15th July 2008] GLOBACOM aiming to be number one operator in Africa.00. available from: http://nigerianbulletin. available from: http://nigerianbulletin.zdnet. MTN Nigeria to boost network with 1.jhtml. late entrant strategies for VISAFONE and ETISALAT. (2008).com/com/en/apphtml/atrarticle/2006q3globacomaimingtobethe1africanoperator 18enhtmltcm1721110011635.com/article/206102/MTN_Nigeria_to_Boost_Network_with_Base_St ations [accessed on June 12th 2008] Nigeria bulletin. available from: http://nigerianbulletin.


 






























































































Appendices
 
 10. 
















































APPENDICES
 
 GLOSSARY CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access CIM: Chartered Institute of Marketing GSM: Global System Mobile NCC: Nigerian Communications Commission QOS: Quality of Service CTO: Commercial Telephone Operators VPN: Virtual Private Network SIM: Subscriber Identity Module PAYG: Pay As You Go ROI: Return on investment 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 94
 .


 
 
 2)
 How
many
Pay
as
you
go
packages
/tariff
do
you
offer?
 a) 1
 b) 2
 c) 3
 d) 4
 e) 5+
 
 3)
 How
many
pay
monthly
packages
do
you
offer?
 a) 1

 b) 2
 c) 3
 d) 4
 e) 5+
 
 95
 .
 
 Section
1:
 1)
 Product
 What
packages
do
you
offer?
 a) Pay
monthly
 b) Pay
as
you
go
 c) All
of
the
above
 d) None
of
the
above.
 






























































































Appendices
 
 QUESTIONNAIRE
FOR
COMPANIES
 
 Company
name:………………………………………………………………………
 Location:…………………………………………………………………………………
 This
questionnaire
is
designed
to
survey
the
impact
of
marketing
in
the
Nigerian
 Telecommunication
Industry
in
comparison
with
the
industry
in
UK.
(specify).
…………………………………………………….
Please
tick
 appropriately
the
answer
that
is
best
suitable.


 






























































































Appendices
 
 4)
 What
period
of
the
year
do
you
experience
most
sales?
 a) January
–
April
 b) June
–
September
 c) October
–
December
 d) All
of
the
above
 e) N/A
 
 5)
 Who
are
your
target
customers
for
the
pay
monthly
package?
 a) Students
 b) Businessmen
 c) All
teens
 d) All
Adults
 e) All
of
the
above
 
 6)
 Who
are
your
target
customers
for
the
pay
as
you
go
package?
 a) Students
 b) Businessmen
 c) All
teens
 d) All
Adults
 e) All
of
the
above
 
 7)
 Who
is/
are
your
target
markets
for
both
packages?
 a) Local
market
 b) National
market
 c) International
 d) A
and
B
 e) All
of
the
above
 
 
 
 96
 
 .


 






























































































Appendices
 
 8)
 a)
 
 9)
 Do
you
offer
after‐sales
services?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 What
kind(s)
of
after‐sales
do
you
offer?
 a) Repairs
 b) Installation
 c) Customer
care
advice
 d) Returns
 e) All
of
the
above
 
 10)
 What
percentile
quantifies
the
after‐sales
service
reliability?

 a) 100%
 b) 80%
 c) 60%
 d) 40%
 e) 20%
–
0%
 
 11)
 a)
 
 12)
 What
is
the
percentage
complaint
received
each
year?
 Is
your
product/
package
user
friendly?

 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 a) 100%
 b) 80%
 c) 60%
 d) 40%
 e) 20%
 
 
 
 
 97
 .

......
please
specify
the
tool
used
to
assess
the
product
portfolio
 potential……………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………........................................
 






























































































Appendices
 
 13)
 How
often
are
new
products
/
packages
launched?
 a) 6
months
 b) 1
year
 c) 2
years
 d) 3
years
 e) 4+
years
 
 14)
 a)
 
 15)
 If
yes...................................................
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 
 Section2:
 1)
 Place
 How
many
distribution
mediums
do
you
utilize?
 a) 1
 b) 2
 c) 3
 
 98
 .....
what
form
do
you
utilize?
 Do
you
seek
to
obtain
customers
view
of
the
packages?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 a) Questionnaire
 b) Reviews
 c) Sales
figures
 d) Internet
polls
 e) All
of
the
above
 
 16)
 Do
you
implement
BCG
matrix
in
order
to
determine
the
potential
of
the
 product
portfolio?
 a)
 
 17)
 If
No.....


 






























































































Appendices
 
 d) 4
 e) 5+
 2)
 What
is
the
main
distribution
medium?
 a) Sub
dealers
 b) Outlets
 c) On‐line
(internet)
 d) Retailers
 e) Telephone
sales
 
 3)
 How
many
cities
are
you
present
in?
 a) 1
 b) 1‐10
 c) 1‐20
 d) 1‐30
 e) 30+
 
 4)
 How
many
countries
are
you
present
in?
 a) 1
 b) 2
 c) 3
 d) 4
 e) 5+
 
 
 5)
 a)
 
 6)
 a)
 
 Does
the
product
/services
differ
according
to
the
cities
present
in?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 99
 Do
you
have
after‐sales
services
in
all
cities
and
countries
present?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 .


what
forms
of
advertising?
 a) Newspaper
 b) Media
 c) On‐line
(internet)
 d) Billboards
 e) All
of
the
above
 
 4)
 a)
 
 5)
 a)
 
 6)
 a)
 
 Does
the
form
of
promotion
depend
on
the
product
lifecycle?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 100
 Does
the
form
of
promotion
depend
on
the
target
market?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 Does
the
forms
of
promotion
depend
on
the
services
/
products
offered?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 If
sales
promotion
is
utilized.
is
it
seasonal?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 .
 






























































































Appendices
 
 7)
 a)
 
 Does
the
product
/
services
differ
according
to
the
countries
present
in?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 Section
3:
 1)
 Promotion
 What
are
the
forms
of
promotions
currently
utilized?
 a) Sales
promotion
 b) Advertising
 c) Personal
selling
 d) Direct
Marketing
 e) All
of
the
above
 
 2)
 a)
 
 3)
 If
advertising
is
utilized.


is
it
seasonal
or
non‐seasonal?
 Seasonal
 
 
 
 b)
 Non‐seasonal
 Do
you
offer
trade
discount
for
sub‐dealers?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 Do
you
use
optional
feature
pricing
for
subscribers
/
sub‐dealers?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 Is
low
tariff
implemented
as
a
strategy
to
gain
market
share
in
a
new
 market?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 People
 What
is
the
concentration
of
the
executives
and
middle
management?
 Indigenes
 Internationals
 Indigenes
and
Internationals
 Who
are
your
intermediaries?
 Companies
 Individuals
 Companies
and
individuals
 
 101
 .
 






























































































Appendices
 
 Section
4:
 1)
 a)
 
 2)
 a)
 
 3)
 a)
 
 4)
 a)
 
 5)
 a)
 
 Section
5:
 1)
 a)
 b)
 c)
 
 2)
 a)
 b)
 c)
 
 
 Price
 Do
you
use
off
peak
pricing
for
subscribers?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 If
yes.


and
the
changes
that
could
 happen?

 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 






























































































Appendices
 
 OPEN
QUESTIONS
 6)
 How
do
you
guard
against
competitors
or
entrants?
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 (Please
use
additional
sheet
if
necessary)
 
 
 

























Thanks
for
taking
time
to
answer
the
questions
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 102
 .
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
 7)
 What
are
the
future
trends
in
the
market...
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….


 






























































































Appendices
 
 Questionnaire
for
the
Retailers
(Sub­dealers)
{multi
product
sellers}
 Name:
 Location:
 Network
provider(s):
 Date:
 This
questionnaire
is
designed
to
survey
the
impact
of
marketing
in
the
Nigerian
 Telecommunication
Industry
in
comparison
with
the
industry
in
UK.
 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 
 
 103
 .
 
 Section
1:
 1)
 Product

 What
products
do
you
offer?
(Please
circle
appropriate)
 a) MTN
package
 b) ZAIN
package
 c) GLOBACOM
package
 d) VISAFONE
package
 e) STARCOMMS
package
 
 2)
 Which
product
sells
most?
…………………………………………………………………
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 
 3)
 Which
product
sells
the
least?
………………………………………………………………
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 
 4)
 Which
product
receives
the
most
complaint?
……………………………………….
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Please
tick
 appropriately
the
answer
that
is
best
suitable.
 
 5)
 Which
product
receives
the
best
compliment?
…………………………………….


are
you
present
in
more
than
one
city?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 .
 
 
 
 Which
package
sells
the
most?
 Pay
as
you
go

 
 
 
 b)
 Pay
monthly
 Do
you
offer
customer
assistant
to
customers?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 D
you
have
in‐depth
knowledge
about
the
products?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 If
yes
please
specify
the
product(s)………………………………………………………………….
 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
please
state
which
product?
………………………………………………………….
 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
do
you
utilize
distribution
medium?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 104
 Place
 As
a
sub‐dealer.
 
 Section2:
 1)
 a)
 
 2)
 a)
 
 As
a
sub‐dealer..
 
 10)
 a)
 If
yes.
is
it
for
all
the
products
or
selected?
 All
products
 
 
 
 b)
 Selected
 If
selected.
 






























































































Appendices
 
 6)
 a)
 b)
 c)
 d)
 
 7)
 a)
 
 8)
 a)
 
 9)
 a)
 
 What
packages
do
you
offer?
(Circle
appropriate)
 Pay
as
you
go

 Pay
monthly
 All
of
the
above
 None
of
the
above
(specify)………………………………………………………………..


for
all
the
products
on
offer?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 .
do
you
use
promotions
to
create
awareness?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 If
yes.
 






























































































Appendices
 
 
 3)
 What
kind
of
distribution
medium
do
you
utilize?
 a) Online
(internet)
 b) Outlets
(in
shop)
 c) Telephone
 d) Door‐to‐Door
sales

 e) All
of
the
above
 
 Section
3:
 1)
 a)
 Promotion
 As
a
sub
dealer.
what
kind
of
promotion?
 a) Advertising
 b) Direct
Marketing
 c) Sales
Promotion
 d) Personal
Selling
 e) All
of
the
above
 
 2)
 a)
 
 3)
 a)
 
 4)
 Which
products
offer
discount
when
you
buy
in
bulk?
(Circle
all
if
applicable)
 a) MTN
 b) ZAIN
 c) GLOBACOM
 d) VISAFONE
 
 105
 Do
you
get
discount
when
you
buy
in
bulk?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 Is
the
promotion.


which
is
cheapest?
 a) MTN
 b) ZAIN
 c) GLOBACOM
 d) VISAFONE
 e) STARCOMMS
 
 2)
 Which
product
is
the
most
expensive?
 a) MTN
 b) CELTEL
 c) GLOBACOM
 d) VISAFONE
 
 106
 .
 






























































































Appendices
 
 e) STARCOMMS
 
 5)
 Which
product
offers
the
least
discount?
 a) MTN
 b) ZAIN
 c) GLOBACOM
 d) VISAFONE
 e) STARCOMMS
 
 6)
 Which
product
offers
the
best
discount?
 a) MTN
 b) ZAIN
 c) GLOBACOM
 d) VISAFONE
 e) STARCOMMS
 
 Section
4:
 1)
 Price
 Among
the
products
on
offer.


 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
including
any
 future
changes
in
the
industry?
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 






























































































Appendices
 
 e) STARCOMMS
 
 3)
 a)
 
 OPEN
QUESTION
SECTION
 
 What
is
your
perception
of
the
Global
system
network
providers..
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 (Please
use
additional
sheet
if
required)
 
 Thanks
for
taking
time
to
fill
the
questionnaire
 
 Do
customers
complain
about
the
price
of
the
product?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 
 107
 ....
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
what
would
you
like
to
see
change
within
the
industry?
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 
 As
a
multi
retailer..


Please
tick
 appropriately
the
answer
that
is
best
suitable.
 






























































































Appendices
 
 Questionnaire
for
the
Retailers
(Sub­dealers)
{single
product
sellers}
 Name:
 Location:
 Network
provider:
 Date:
 This
questionnaire
is
designed
to
survey
the
impact
of
marketing
in
the
Nigerian
 Telecommunication
Industry
with
some
reference
to
the
UK
industry.
 
 Section
1:
 1)
 Product

 What
product
do
you
offer?
 a) MTN
package
 b) GLOBACOM
package
 c) ZAIN
package
 d) VISAFONE
package
 e) STARCOMMS
package
 
 2)
 
 
 3)
 What
is
the
seasonality
of
sales?
 a) January
–
April
 b) June
–
September
 c) October
–
December
 d) All
of
the
above
 e) None
of
the
above
 
 4)
 What
packages
do
you
offer?
 a) Pay
as
you
go
 
 108
 Do
you
have
in‐depth
knowledge
about
the
product?
 a)
 Yes
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 .


what
kind
of
distribution
medium?
 a) Online
(internet)
 b) Outlets
(in
shops)
 c) Telephone
 d) Door‐to‐Door
sales
 
 109
 Place
 Do
you
offer
customer
assistant
to
customers?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 As
a
sub‐dealer.
do
you
utilize
distribution
medium?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 .
 






























































































Appendices
 
 b) Pay
monthly
 c) All
of
the
above
 d) None
of
the
above
 5)
 What
is
the
percentage
complaint
received
in
a
month?
 a) 100%
 b) 80%
 c) 60%
 d) 40%
 e) 20%
 
 6)
 a)
 
 7)
 What
is
your
customer
perception
of
the
product
/
company?
 a) Excellent
 b) Very
good
 c) Good
 d) Bad
 e) Worst
 
 Section
2:
 1)
 a)
 
 2)
 If
yes.


do
you
use
promotions
to
create
awareness?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 .
 






























































































Appendices
 
 e) All
of
the
above
 
 
 3)
 What
is
the
main
distribution
medium?
 a) Online
(internet)
 b) Outlets
(in
shops)
 c) Telephone
 d) Door‐to‐Door
sales
 e) All
of
the
above
 
 4)
 a)
 
 5)
 a)
 
 Section
3:
 1)
 a)
 
 2)
 If
yes.
what
kind
of
promotion?
 a) Advertising
 b) Direct
Marketing
 c) Personal
Selling
 d) Sales
promotion
 e) All
of
the
above
 
 3)
 a)
 
 Is
the
promotion
for
all
the
packages
on
offer?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 110
 Promotion
 Are
present
in
more
than
one
location
in
a
city?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 Are
you
present
in
more
than
one
city?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 As
a
sub
dealer.


 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 
 As
a
retailer.
does
the
awareness
program
 vary?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 Do
customers
complain
about
the
price
of
the
product?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 .....
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 (Please
use
additional
sheet
if
required)
 
 Thanks
for
taking
time
to
fill
the
questionnaire
 
 111
 Price
 Do
you
get
discount
when
you
buy
in
bulk?
 Yes
 
 
 
 
 b)
 No
 If
you
are
present
in
more
than
one
city.
including
 any
future
changes
in
the
industry?
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
what
would
you
like
to
see
change
in
the
industry?
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 






























































































Appendices
 
 
 4)
 a)
 5)
 a)
 
 Section
4:
 1)
 a)
 
 OPEN
QUESTION
SECTION
 What
is
your
perception
of
the
telecommunication
network
providers.
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….


 






























































































Appendices
 
 
 112
 .

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