TESTING THE

AUTOSYNCHRONIZING RELAY,
USING DOBLE's TEST EQUIPMENT
& PROTEST ASYNCH MACRO

* The Beckwith M-0193B Synchrocloser was
used to prepare this information.

CONTENTS

1. Description of the Relay (Fig. 1, 1a, 2, 3)
2. Test Configurations (Fig. 4)
3. Options of Testing (Fig. 4, 6)
4. Testing
4.1. Relay’s Settings
4.2. Anti-Motoring
4.3. Anti-Pumping
4.4. CB Closing Angle
5. More Details of Automatic Testing (Fig. 5, 6)
6. Conclusion (Fig. 5, 6)
7. F6150 Control Panel Manual Testing

1a.1.1. 2.Autosynchronizing relay is intended to control closing of a circuit breaker (CB). . DESCRIPTION OF THE RELAY (see Fig. 3) 1. connecting two electrical systems together. Typical applications are connecting an incoming generator to a station bus/system.

1Hz 20 26 27 TB 2 28 A CLOSE CB B COMMAND PT-POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER .00Hz BUS SYSTEM PT-BUS SYNCROCLOSER M-193B “CLOSE” CB TB 1 * BUS 1 2 UNIT POWER 3 TRANSFORMER 4 GENER.AUTOSYNCHRONIZER CONNECTIONS (Fig. PT-GENERATOR * 11 CLOSING TIME GENERATOR 180 ms 60. 1) POWER 60.

when the CB closes his main contacts and the generator & the system are synchronous. . when the two sources are: * Close to synchronism within the ALLOWED CB Closing Angle * In phase.2.1. The allowed CB Closing Angle is the calculated angle to insure the Generator & Power System safety & stability. the closing angle is 0 degree. CB closing is allowed only. Theoretically.

02 Hz x 360 º =139 ms 4.47 º b Advanced CB 1. Advanced CBClosing Angle = 180ms/27.00Hz Closing Time 180 + 27. Synchronizing Time= + 1/0.8ms = 6.47º 5.39 + 1 º V Bus = 60. Synchronizing Time= 4.47 + 1.02 Hz x 180 º = 25 sec.29º .29º b 180 ms Allowed Closing Area Closing Angle 180 ms 6. CB Closing Time = 180 ms 2.1 Hz 180 + 139 ms 59.1 Hz x 180 º = 5 sec.8 ms V Gen V Gen Closing Time V Gen 59.9 Hz 60.00Hz Advanced CB V Gen = 60. Advanced CBClosing Angle = 180ms/139ms = 1. + 1/0. Allowed Closing Angle= 1 º 1.00Hz Advanced CB V Gen = 60.0 º a 1.8ms + 139ms V Gen V Gen 1.1 Hz x 360 º =27. Allowed Time Tolerance 3. CB Closing Time = 180 ms 3.98 Hz V Gen Allowed Allowed 60. AUTOSYNCHRONIZER MACRO (Fig. 360 º 360 º 5.00Hz a V Bus = 60. 1a) Advanced CB Closing Angle 6. Allowed Time Tolerance = 1/0. Allowed Closing Angle= 1 º 2.02 Hz CB Closing CB Closing Command Command Angle Angle Window Window + 1º + 1º Allowed Allowed CB Closing CB Closing Command Command Time Time Window Synch Time = 5 sec Window Synch Time = 25 sec + 27.8 ms = 1/0.

the closing angle is different from 0 deg.But because of relay & test instrument accuracy limits. Actual Closing Angle = = 0 degree "+" or "-" CB Closing Angle Error (CAE) .

!! ---------------------------------------------------------- That is why the Allowed Closing Angle can be considered as the CB Closing Angle Tolerance. . the sources are only within the allowable closing command window for a short time.---------------------------------------------------------- !! .CAE should be less than the Allowed Closing Angle . This time depends on the slip frequency (see Fig 1a. 2. Because the two sources (before synchronization) are normally running at slightly different frequencies. 3).

1. . The relay initiates closing of the CB in advance of anticipated synchronization by time. That is why the CB closes his contacts within the allowed CLOSING AREA. Relay sends the closing command within the allowed COMMAND WINDOW.3. equal to the closing time of the CB (CONSTANT time) plus or minus time tolerance. depending on the slip frequency.

29 0.29 1.29 SLIP FREQUENCY = 0. AUTOSYNCHRONIZING MACRO (Fig.02 HZ .29  1 139 V BUS Advanced CB V GEN Closing Angle 139 ms 139 ms Allowed CB Closing Area 0  1 V GEN 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 2.29 1.02  360 = 139 ms Advanced CB Closing Command • Advanced CB Closing Angle Window 180 V GEN   1. 2) Relay Selling's & Test Conditions • Allowed CB Closing Angle = 1 • CB Closing Time = 180 ms V GEN V GEN 180 ms • Allowed Time Tolerance: TE (Time Error) = 1/0.

47 6. AUTOSYNCHRONIZING MACRO (Fig.8 V BUS Advanced CB ms ms V GEN Closing Angle Allowed CB Closing Area 0+1 V GEN x x 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -7.1  360 = 27.1 Hz .8 ms 180 • Advanced CB Closing Angle   6.8 27.47  + 1  27.47 6. 3) V GEN Relay Sellings & Test Conditions VGEN Advanced CB V BUS • Allowed CB Closing Angle = 1 Closing Command 180 ms Window • CB Closing Time = 180 ms • Allowed Time Tolerance: TE (Time Error) = 1/0.8 V GEN 27.47 Slip frequency = 0.47 5.

* The relay is configured to respond with a close signal in advance of synchronism. * The voltage sources are set to slip against each other to simulate running and incoming supply. * The sense input of the test instrument is used to detect relay operation.4). * The two voltage sources are used to supply the relay under the test. 2. . TEST CONFIGURATIONS (see Fig.

" 100 ms 12. Closed B 25. " x3 19. " 80 ms 11. " 200 ms 17. Not Used TO 120 VOLT A. 15. Gen/Line Potential Input Hot VB TB 1 5. When Frequency Difference OK 26. TB 2 27 22. 4) TEST INSTRUMENT TB1 Function VA 1. " Multiplier x 4 18. Bus Potential Input Hot INPUT SYNCROCLOSER 2. Breaker Closing Time: 0 ms 2 7. Relay Contacts. Relay Contacts.AUTOSYNCHRONIZER TEST CONFIGURATION (Fig. 120V ac Power Hot 28. TB2 A Breaker Close Contact B . " 160 ms POSITION OF C. " 20 ms 3 8. Closed AUXILIARY SUPPLY 28 23. Breaker Closing Time: Common 26 21.B. " 60 ms 10. " x2 20.C. Multiplier and Enable Common 1 6. " 120 ms ASSUMED INITIAL TEST 11 13. When Voltage Conditions OK A 24. Gen/Line Potential Input Neutral 4. 120V ac Power Neutral 27. " 140 ms 14. Bus Potential Input Neutral M-193B 3. " 40 ms 4 9. " 180 ms ADVANCE TIME LINK 20 16.

3. OPTIONS OF TESTING (see Fig.4) * Two voltage sources of F6150 * Two voltage sources of 2 x F2250 * Two voltage sources of 2 x F2100 * Two voltage sources of F2500 or F2700. .

using separate relay's output contacts and LRAMP macros. 4. 6) 4. 5. * The Upper voltage limit * The Low voltage limit * The maximum frequency difference (Slip Frequency) * The voltage difference * The CB Closing Time . TESTING (see Fig. .1. The CB Advanced Closing Time was tested. Relay's Settings.4. All voltage and frequency settings were preliminary tested. using relay's output closing contacts and ASYNCH macro.

96 Hz (Slip frequency 0. Anti . . 59.Motoring.4.2. Relay’s Close command was blocked (no operation). This relay's function is blocking closing of the CB. It prevents the power flow into the generator after the CB is closed.04 Hz). than the bus frequency. This feature was tested by applying the generator voltage VB=120V @ 0 deg.when the generator frequency is slower.

to avoid not controlled CB closing operation. the offset time is 10.Pumping. Anti . This relay's function is permitting ONLY ONE CB closing operation during ONLY 0. After this relay should be reset by removing relay's power supply for 10 sec. . 4.3. The bus voltage is used for relay's power supply. when the ASYNCH macro is used.5 sec. – . That is why during testing.5 sec.

CB Closing Angle. .4. During testing we are looking for the Actual CB Closing Angle for Comparison to the Allowed Closing Angle = 0 deg. But ASYNCH Macro is not making Angle measurements. It is using the CB closing time measurement as a tool to get the angle values.4. That is why we are: Testing the Actual CB Advanced Closing Time and Compare it to the Expected CB Closing Time.

!! The difference should be less. which is the ALLOWED Closing Angle. . than the Allowed Time Tolerance !!! It is possible to recalculate this Time Tolerance from the Angle Tolerance. using the Test slip frequency.

msec. • Time Tolerance = VARIABLE (Depends on Slip Frequency).Time Tolerance. This is the measured & reported as Actual: ADVANCED CB CLOSING TIME = = CB Closing Time +/. . when relay sends the close command * stops. when the synchronism is expected.During the testing the test instrument's timer * starts. • Where: • CB Closing Time = CONSTANT (CB Characteristic).

1 deg.02 Hz.00 Hz * the F2 generator = 60. the Time Error is 30 msec. the Test slip frequency is F1-F2= -0. * the Angle Tolerance is +/.02 Hz * the CB closing time is 180 msec (Expected Time) * the Expected Closing Angle is 0 deg. AND the reported Actual Advanced CB Closing Time is 210 msec.If: * the F1 system = 60. .

The angle tolerance is CONSTANT (+/. depending on the slip frequency: Time Tolerance (1 deg. For 1 degree Angle Tolerance the Time Tolerance is. but the time tolerance depends on the Slip Frequency. .) = =1 deg. Hz x 360 deg.).1 deg.The key question now is .what is the ALLOWED Time Tolerance? It is possible to recalculate the CB Closing Time Tolerance from the CB ALLOWED Closing Angle Tolerance. / Slip Frequency.

Hz Time Tolerance.4 0.02 138.Here are some: Time Tolerances for different Slip Frequencies for 1 degree Allowed Closing Angle: Slip Frequency. msec 0.8 .04 69.8 0.10 27.

8 msec.02) x 360}/1000 = -0. TI = 20 msec. Relay output unit's pickup time delay. where: Tm = Measured CB Advanced Time ("ACTUAL").00-60. because the Error is 30 msec. CAE = {[210-(200-20)] x(60.That is why. . and it is less than 138. Ts = Relay's setting of CB Closing Time. the test result is PASS.216 degree. The Expected and reported as Actual times are processed & recalculated in the macro to get the Closing Angle Error. using next formula: CAE = {[Tm-(Ts-TI)] x (F1-F2) x 360} /1000.

If the Allowed Closing Angle is 10 degrees. to the relay's Allowed Closing Angle=1 deg. Because the Actual CAE (-0.Now we are able to compare the CB Actual Closing Angle=-0.388 sec . the test result is PASS.8 x 10 =1. than for 1 degree: 138.216 deg.1 deg).216 deg) is less than Allowed ( +/. the Allowed Time Tolerance is 10 times more.

5 Ref. This data was taken under lab conditions with a constant frequency difference. “Syncrocloser Unit M-0193B Application Guide. 100 ms. 400 ms and 800 ms breaker closing times.” AVERAGE CLOSING PHASE ERROR IN DEGREES FREQUENCY DIFFERENCE IN HERTZ ZERO PHASE PREDICTION: This figure illustrates the average closing phase error as a function of frequency difference for 80 ms. . 200 ms. AUTOSYNCHRONIZER TEST RESULTS Fig.

AUTOSYNCHRONIZING MACRO (Fig.40 0.25 0.” 1 Phase Error (Degrees) 0.35 0.05 0.5 0 CB Closing Time = 80 ms -0. “Syncrocloser Unit M-0193B Application Guide.15 0.10 0. Fast Breaker Closing Angle Error Comparison (using all three methods and F6150 and Asynch Macro) . 6) Doble F6150 and Asynch Macro Voltage Differential Doble Test Set F2000 Phase Angle Transducer Ref.45 0.20 0.475 Slip Frequency (Hz).30 0.5 0 0.

CONCLUSION 1. “Syncrocloser Unit M-0193B Application Guide.” 2. Ref. .The new ASYNCH Macro is the convenient tool to test: * Generator SYNCHCLOSER units * Line & Feeder Recloser SYNCHCHECK units. 5.During testing the reported Closing Angle Error test results were less than Expected & shown in Relay Instruction Book Information (see Fig. where the voltage phase angle & slip frequency are used. 6).