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Horizontal Curve Setting

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You are on page 1of 31

By

Azmayeen Rafat Shahriar (1 cr. hr.)

Lecturer

Department of Civil Engineering

Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology

Engineering, BUET

CE103: Syllabus

Curve Setting

Reference Book:

Horizontal Curve 1. Surveying (Vol. 2)- B.C. Punmia

Circular Curve

Transition Curve

Vertical Curve

Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS

Tacheometry

Horizontal curves

1. Simple curve

Continuous arcs of constant radius which achieve the

necessary highway deflection without an entering or

existing transition

2. Compound curve

A series of two or more simple curves possessing a

common tangent at any points of meeting which turn in the

same general direction and have their centers on the same

side of the line. Any two adjacent areas must, of course,

have different radii if they are to be compounded pair

rather than a single curve

03-Sep-16 Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology 3

Horizontal curves (cont.)

3. Spiral curve

A curve whose radius decreases uniformly from infinity at the

tangent to that of the curve it meets

4. Reverse curve

Scurves, are similar to compound curves except that their

centers are on opposite sides of the line and their direction of

turning is opposite to each other

Horizontal curves (cont.)

5. Broken-back curve

A short length of tangent (less than 100 ft) between two

closely spaced simple curves with centers on the same side

03-Sep-16 Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology 5

Factors influencing the location and

configuration of horizontal alignment

a) Physical controls

Topography, watercourses, geophysical conditions, land use, and man-made

features

b) Environment considerations

Effect on adjacent land use, community impacts, ecologically sensitive areas

c) Economics

Construction costs, right-of-way costs, utility impacts, operating and

maintenance costs

d) Safety

Sight distance, consistency of alignment, human factor considerations

e) Highway classification and design policies

Functional classification, level of service, design speed, design standards

03-Sep-16 Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology 6

Design criteria

I. Design speed: principal factor

II. Consistency: consistent and as directional as possible

No circular curves of different radii placed end to end

Long, flat curves for small changes in direction

No sudden changes from flat to sharp curves

No long tangents followed by sharp curves

III. Length of curves

IV. Adjacent curves

Notations in reading alignment drawings

PC: point of curve

PT: point of tangent

TS: tangent to spiral

SC: spiral to circular curve

CS: circular curve to spiral

ST: spiral to tangent

VPC: vertical point of curvaturethe point at which a tangent grade

ends and the vertical curve begins

VPI: vertical point of intersectionthe point where the extension of

two tangent grades intersect

VPT: vertical point of tangencythe point at which the vertical curve

ends and the tangent grade begins

03-Sep-16 Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology 8

Elements of circular curve

Elements of circular curve (cont.)

Degree of Curvature, D : Angle (in Degree) subtended by 100 ft length of

arc in the centre of the arc is defined as degree of curvature

Elements of circular curve (cont.)

Metric Degree of Curvature, D: Angle (in Degree) subtended by 20 m

length of arc in the centre of the arc is defined as metric degree of curvature

Elements of circular curve (cont.)

Surveying instruments

Surveying instruments

Setting out circular curve

1. Linear method

I. By ordinates or offsets from long chord

II. By offsets from the tangents

a. Radial offset

b. Perpendicular offset

III. By offset from successive chords produced

2. Angular method

I. Rankines method of tangential/deflection angle

II. Two theodolite method

1. Linear method

Ordinate from long chord

1. Linear method (cont.)

Radial offset from tangent

1. Linear method (cont.)

Perpendicular offset from tangent

1. Linear method (cont.)

Offset from chords produced

2. Angular method

Rankines method of tangential deflection angle

2. Angular method (cont.)

Two Theodolite method

Typical spiral curves used in horizontal alignments

Euler spiral, Spiros or Cornu spirals

Cubic Spirals

Cubic Parabola

Sinusoidal

[page 180 - Man-made America]

Functions of transition curve

curve, so that curvature changes from zero to a finite value.

required super-elevation.

that gradual change of curvature introduced from curve to curve.

Criteria of transition curve

1. One end of the spiral should be tangential to the straight.

2. The other end should be tangential to the circular curve.

3. Spirals curvature at the intersection point with the circular arc

should be equal to arc curvature.

4. Also at the tangent its curvature should be zero.

5. The rate of change of curvature along the transition should be

same as that of the increase of cant or superelevation.

6. Its length should be such that full cant is attained at the beginning

of circular arc.

Necessity of transition curve

Superelevation or Cant

Ideal transition curve

An ideal transition curve is that which introduces centrifugal force at a gradual rate (by

time t). So,

Ft

Centrifugal force at any radius r is given by

2

=

Assuming that the speed of the vehicle that is negotiating the curve is constant, the

length of the transition negotiated too is directly proportional to the time. So,

lt

1

= =

Thus, the fundamental requirement of a transition curve is that its radius of curvature

at any given point shall vary inversely as the distance from the beginning of the spiral.

Such a curve is called Clothoid or Glovers spiral and is known as an ideal transition.

03-Sep-16 Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology 27

Ideal transition curve (cont.)

Ideal transition curve (cont.)

From the fundamental requirement of an ideal

transition curve

= =

1

=

As 1/r is nothing but the curvature at that point,

curvature equation can be written as:

1

= =

or, =

2

= + , where C = const

2

03-Sep-16 Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology 29

Ideal transition curve (cont.)

Substituting these, we get C = 0

So, the equation of ideal transition curve

is--

2

=

2

, r = R

Spiral Angle, =

2

Ideal transition curve (cont.)

Transfer to cartesian coordinates

= cos

or, = cos

2 4 6

or, = 1 + +

4 2! 4! 8 6!

= (1 2 2 + 4 4 )

40 3456

= sin

or, = sin

3 5 7

or, = + +

3! 4 5! 7! 8

3

= (1 + )

6 562 2 70404 4

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