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Strength of materials

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Chapter objectives:

1. Develop a method to find the normal stress in axially

loaded members.

2. Develop a method to find the support reaction when

these reactions cannot be determined strictly from the

equations of equilibrium.

3. Analysis the effects of thermal stress and stress

concentrations.

Chapter outline

1. Elastic deformation of an axially loaded member

2. Statically indeterminate axially loaded member

3. Thermal stress 1

1. Elastic Deformation of an Axially

Loaded Member

The tensile forces supporting the weight of the

Mackinaw bridge as shown in fig. below, act along

the longitudinal axis of each cable.

The compressive forces raising the weight of dump

on a truck act along the axis of hydraulic cylinders.

2

By using Hooks law and the definitions of stress and

strain, we will now develop an equation that can be

used to determine the elastic displacement of a

member subjected to axial loads.

= Displacement of one

Axial strain

point relative to another

L= Distance between

points

A= Cross-sectional area

E= Modulus of elasticity

3

4

Sine convention

Force and displacement are positive if they

cause tension and elongation

cause compression and contraction

5

Example 1:

The A-36 steel bar shown in

figure below is made from

two segments having

cross-sectional area of

A AB = 600mm2 and A BD =

1200mm 2 . Determine the

vertical displacement of end A

and the displacement of B

relative to C.

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Example 2

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Example 3:

Rigid beam AB rests on the two short posts shown in

figure below. AC is made of steel and has a diameter

of 20mm, and BD is made of aluminum and has a

diameter of 40mm. Determine the displacement of

point F on AB if a vertical load of 90 KN is applied

over this point. Take Est= 200 GPa, Eal = 70 GPa.

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14

15

16

2. Statically indeterminate axially

loaded member

17

This type of problem is called statically

indeterminate, since the equilibrium equation

(s) are not sufficient to determine the two

reactions on the bar.

In order to establish an additional equation

needed for solution, it is necessary to consider

how points on the bar displace. Specifically, an

equation that specifies the conditions for

displacement is referred to as a compatibility.

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Example 4:

The steel rod shown in figure below has a diameter of

10 mm. It is fixed to the wall at A, and before it is

loaded, there is a gap of 0.2 mm between the wall at

B` and the rod. Determine the reactions at A and B` if

the rod is subjected to an axial force of P= 20 KN as

shown. Neglect the size of the collar at C.

Take E st =200 GPa

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Example 5

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Quiz

28

The A-36 steel pipe has a 6061-T6 aluminum

core. It is subjected to a tensile force of 200

KN. Determine the average normal stress in

the aluminum and the steel due to this

loading. The pipe has an outer diameter of 80

mm and an inner diameter of 70 mm.

29

Example 6:

The three A-36 steel bars

shown in figure below are

pin connected to a rigid

member. If the applied

load on the member is 15

KN, determine the force

developed in each bar. Bars

AB and EF each have a

cross-sectional area of

50 mm2, and bar CD has a

cross-sectional area of

30 mm2.

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3. Thermal Stress

Changes in temperature cause materials to change

dimensions, generally, when temperature goes up,

materials expand, and when decreased, materials

contract.

34

If the material is homogeneous and isotropic, it has

been found from experiment that the displacement of

a member having a length L can be calculated using

the following formula.

35

Sign convention: expansion is positive (+)

contraction is negative (-)

member can easily be calculated by using the

pervious equation, since the member is free to

expand or contract when it undergoes a

temperature change.

However, in a statically indeterminate member,

these thermal displacements will be constrained

by the supports. So, to determine the thermal

stresses it should be used compatibility which

explained before or the superposition method.

36

Principle of Superposition

It is also possible to solve statically indeterminate

problems by writing the compatibility equation using

the principle of superposition. This method of solution

is often referred to as the flexibility or force method

of analysis.

principle of superposition is to be applied:

displacement that is to be determined. For example,

the equations = P/A and = PL/AE involve a

linear relationship between P, and .

37

2. The loading must not significantly change the

original geometry or configuration of the member.

Consider the following bar,

if we choose the support

at B as redundant and

temporarily remove its effect

on the bar, then the bar will

become statically determinate.

38

39

By using the principle of

superposition, we must add

back the unknown

redundant load FB

amount p, the reaction FB must displace end B of

the bar upward by an amount B, such that no

displacement occurs at B when the two loadings are

superimposed. Thus, 0= p - B

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This equation (0= p B) represents the compatibility

equation for displacements at point B, for which we

have assumed that displacements are positive

downward.

By applying the load-displacement relationship

to each case, we have

P= PLAC /AE and B= FBL/AE,

42

Then, the reaction at A can be determined

from the equation of equilibrium.

43

Example 7:

The A-36 steel rod shown in figure below, has a

diameter of 10 mm. It is fixed to the wall at A, and

before it is loaded there is a gap between the wall at

B` and the rod of 0.2 mm. Determine the reactions at

A and B`. Neglect the size of the collar at C.

Take E st =200 GPa

44

45

Example 8:

The A-36 steel bar shown in the figure is constrained

to just fit between two fixed supports when

T1 = 30C. If the temperature is

raised to T2= 60 C, determine

the average normal thermal

stress developed in the bar.

46

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