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CHAPTER 1: THE MEANING OF ART 4 COMMON ESSENTIALS OF ART

1. Must be man-made
Humanities refers to the arts; branches of 2. Must be creative, not imitative
learning concerned with human thought, feelings 3. Must benefit and satisfy man and must
and relations; brings out the good and the noble in make use of art in practical terms
us. 4. Expressed through a certain medium
Visual arts
o Architecture THE SUBJECT OF ART
o Painting
o Sculpture Foundation of the creation of the work of art
Performing arts Varies; anything that is represented in the
o Music artwork
o Dance
o Theater Representational/Objective Arts
o Drama - Easily recognized by most people
o Literature - Painting, sculpture, graphic arts, literature,
and theatre arts
Art important because it is concerned with the Non-representational/Non-objective Arts
communication of certain ideas and feelings by - Have no resemblance to any real subject
means of sensuous medium. - Rather appeal directly to the senses
- In the main building (UST) Ars longga, primarily because of the satisfying
vita brevis Art is long but life is short organization of their elements
Artis (Italian)craftsmanship, skill, mastery
of form, inventiveness, and the association THE FUNCTION OF ART
that exist between form and ideas and
between material and techniques Every art form has a definite function that
Ar (Aryan root)to join or put together satisfies a particular need.
Artizein (Greek)to prepare
Arkiskeinto put together 1. Aesthetic function - man becomes
conscious of the beauty of nature
THE NATURE OF ART 2. Utilitarian function - man now lives in
comfort and happiness; not only enriches
Art is very important in our lives. mans life but also improves nature
Means of expression developed by man. 3. Cultural function - art transmits and
It is liked and enjoyed. preserves skills and knowledge from one
True work of art made by man himself generation to another
creatively. 4. Social function - man learns to love and
True artist interprets it in his own way by help each other
selecting features of the subject.
THE SCOPE OF ART
ART defined in various ways:
1. JV Estolas - ars (Latin) ability of skill JOSEFINA ESTOLAS
2. A. Tan - artis (Italian) craftsmanship, Major arts -
skill, mastery of form, inventiveness, etc.
3. F. Zulueta a product of mans need to AUTHOR SCOPE OF ART
express himself. Manaois 1. Fine arts/independent
4. C. Sanchez communication of certain arts - for aesthetic
ideas and feelings. enjoyment (ex. Music,
5. Plato brings life in harmony with the painting, sculpture, etc.)
beauty of the world. 2. Practical arts/utilitarian
6. John Dewey attitude of spirit, a state of art - intended for
mind practical use. (ex.
7. Panizo & Rustia skillful arrangement of Industrial art,
some common but significant qualities of commercial art, business
nature art, etc.)
CUSODIOSA Visual Arts - we perceive CHAPTER 2: THE ARTISTS MEDIUM
SANCHEZ with our eyes
o Graphic arts - MEDIUM
painting, an artist communicates his idea
drawing, etc
materials which are used to interpret the
o Plastic arts -
organized into
artists feelings or thoughts
3D forms 1. Visual arts - can be seen and occupy
space
JOSEFINA Major arts - painting, a. Dimensional/two-dimensional arts
ESTOLAS architecture, sculpture - painting, drawing, printmaking,
photography
Minor arts - decorative
b. Three-dimensional arts -
arts, popular arts,
sculpture, architecture,
graphic arts, etc.
landscape, etc.
Visual arts
2. Auditory arts - mediums that can be
Performing arts heard and are expressed in time
Literary arts 3. Combined arts - dance, drama, film,
Popular arts opera
Gustatory art of the
cuisine TECHNIQUE
Decorative The manner in which the artist controls
arts/applied arts his medium to achieve the desired
PANIZO & Purpose effect.
RUSTIA - Practical arts
- Liberal arts THE ARTIST & HIS MEDIUM
- Fine arts The artist gives shape to his vision in
- Major arts terms of his medium
- Minor arts employs more than one medium to give
meaning to his creative production
Media and forms the artist must love, respect, and
- Platic arts understand his medium to make it easier
- Phonetic arts for him to expand his knowledge
- Kinetic arts the distinctive character of the medium
- Pure arts determines the way it can be worked on
- Mixed arts and turned into a work of art
each medium has its own characteristics
THE ORIGIN OF ART which determine the physical
appearance
Art dates back to the time when
superstitions and beliefs in the spirits THE ARTIST & HIS TECHNIQUE
are still very common in every culture artists differ from one another in
Indigenous art in the form of dancing, technique even if they use the same
painting, music and poetry medium
Tribalist cultures often wore body technique differs in the various artists
paintings during ceremonies technique is not the end but the means;
Cave paintings and drawings are also craftsman -- technique is the end
associated with religion technique is an important aspect that
The temples of the East and West bear distinguishes an art from a craft
evidences of arts that pertain to gods,
goddesses, etc.
MEDIUMS OF THE VISUAL ARTS MOSAIC
- Art of putting together small pieces of
PAINTING colored stones/glass - TESSERAE
- art of creating meaningful effects on a - Important feature of Byzantine churches
flat surface by the use of pigments - Sta. Cruz Church
STAINED GLASS
1. Watercolor - Common in Gothic cathedrals
a. Difficult to handle because hard - Combining small pieces of colored glass
to produce warm and rich tones held together by bands of lead
b. Invite brilliance and a variety of - Depict the lives of saints
hues TAPESTRY
c. Simple and clear spontaneity - Fabric produced by hand-weaving
d. Gouache colored threads upon a warp
2. Fresco - Used during the Middle Ages and hung
a. Done on a moist plaster surface on the walls of palaces and in cathedrals
with colors ground in water or a on festive occasions to provide warmth
limewater mixture DRAWING
b. Must be done quickly because it - Done on paper using pencil, pen and
is an exacting medium ink, or charcoal
c. Michaelangelos The Creation of - MOST FUNDAMENTAL OF ALL
Adam SKILLS NECESSARY IN ARTS
3. Tempera
a. Mineral pigments mixed with egg 1. Pencil, Pen and Ink, Charcoal
yolk or egg white and ore a. Pencil Leads (Graphite) - graded
b. Egg based emulsion binds the in different degrees of hardness
pigments to the surface or softness
c. Used throughout the Middle Ages b. Ink - one of the oldest mediums
and early Renaissance still in use
4. Pastel i. India Ink
a. A stick of dried paste made of ii. Chinese ink
pigment ground with chalk and c. Charcoal - carbonaceous material
compounded with gum water obtained by heating wood
b. Colors are luminous 2. Bistre
c. Less popular a. Brown pigment extracted from the
5. Encaustic soot of wood
a. Used by the Egyptians for 3. Crayons
painting portraits on mummy a. pigments bound by wax and
cases compressed into painted sticks
b. Applying wax color fixed with heat b. popular among children
6. Oil 4. Silverpoint
a. One of the most expensive art a. Uses a silver stylus to produce a
activities today thin grayish
b. Pigments are mixed with linseed b. Popular during the Renaissance
oil and applied to the canvas PRINTMAKING
c. May use a brush, palette knife, or - Duplication process
even his bare hands when - Usually done in balnk ink on white paper
applying paint on his canvas - Calendar pictures and Christmas cards
7. Acrylic LITHOGRAPHY
a. This synthetic paint is mixed with - A surface printing done from an almost
acrylic emulsion as binder for smooth surface which has been treated
coating the surface of the artwork chemically or mechanically so that some
b. Do not tend to break easily
surface areas will print and others will Psychosocial needs - for recognition, for
not response

SCULPTURE FACTORS IN THE CHOICE AND USE OF


1. Stone ARCHITECTURAL MATERIALS
a. Granite - granular igneous rock 1. Structural property - workability with
composed of feldspar and quartz; tools when used as construction
good for large works with only materials
few designs a. Compressive strength
b. Marble - limestone in a more or b. Tensile strength
less crystalline state c. Porosity
i. Breciated - composed of d. Lightness
angular fragments e. Durability
ii. Serpentine - variegated f. Rigidity
patterns and is often used g. Gracefulness
in large flat planes h. Flexibility of use
c. Basalt - hard and black 2. Physical property - use of the material
d. Limestone - fine and even texture for aesthetic purposes
2. Jade - usually colored green and used a. Texture
widely in Ancient China b. Tonal quality
3. Ivory - main parts of the usks of c. Color
elephants 3. Weakness of the material
4. Metals a. Rotting
a. Bronze - oldest alloys composed b. Corrosion due to moisture
of copper and tin with color c. Susceptibility to infection by
b. Brass - an alloy of copper and wood-boring weevils, termites,
zinc and other pests
c. Gold and silver - used for small d. Discolorization
objects e. Solar radiation
d. Lead - bluish gray metal used for f. Fungus growth
casting and forging 4. Longevity of the material - lifespan of the
5. Plaster - composed of lime, sand, and material
water; made for manikins, models, etc a. 10 years
6. Clay - natural earthy material that is b. 20 years
plastic when wet; terra cotta - baked c. half a centure
earth d. more than a centure
7. Glass - hard, brittle, non-crystalline, 5. other inherent properties
more or less transparent substances a. weight
produced by fusion b. water resistance
8. Wood - easier to carve c. heat resistance
d. acoustic values
ARCHITECTURE e. availability
- An art of designing a building and f. economy
supervising its construction CLASSIFICATION OF ARCHITECTURAL
- To fulfill a mans needs MATERIALS (Salvan, 1999)
Physical needs - selter 1. Materials in Nature
Emotional needs - endowed with rich a. Stone
beauty and interest i. Limestone
Intellectual needs - a building for ii. Granite
science, education, govnmt iii. Marble
iv. Sandstone
b. Wood
2. Materials Manufactured by Man 4. Fauvism
a. Ceramic materials - can be - Important art movement of the 1900s
manufactured in different ways - Tried to paint pictures of comfort, joy,
b. Metals and pleasures
i. Bronze 5. Dadaism
ii. Wrought iron - A protest movement in the arts formed
iii. Copper in 1916 by a group of arts and poets in
iv. Chrome-nickel steel Zurich, Switzerland
v. Aluminum - Tried to shock and provoke the public
vi. Monel metal with outrageous pieces of writing
vii. Nickel silvers 6. Futurism
c. Concrete materials - Developed in Italy about the same time
d. Plastics cubism appeared in France
3. Indigenous Materials - To capture speed and force of modern
a. Sawali - comes from the outer industrial society
covering of bamboo poles 7. Surrealism
b. Coco coir - by-product of coconut - Founded in Paris by Andre Breton
is used to minimize the use of (1924)
cement and as sandwich panels - Uses art as a weapon against the evil
for insulation and restrictions that surrealists see in
c. Bagasse - sugar cane waste society
used for insulation or cement - Tries to reveal a new an higher reality
backing than that of daily life
d. Abaca - leafstalk of a banana 8. Expressionism
plant - Introduced in Germany
e. Bamboo
f. Palm frond stems
g. Mud bricks

METHODS OF ART PRODUCTION AND


PRESENTATION

1. Realism
- Portray the subject as it is
- The artists main function is to describe
as accurately and honestly as possible
what is observed
2. Abstraction
- Used when the artist becomes so
interested in one phase of a scene or a
situation that he does not show the
subject at all as an objective reality
- to move away or separate
o distortion
o elongation
o mangling
o cubism
o abstract expression
3. Symbolism
- a visible sign of something invisible such
as an idea or a quality