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turbulence channel

**Stefan Panić, Hranislav Milošević Bojan Prlinčević
**

Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics Higher Technical Professional School in Zvecan

Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia Zvecan, Serbia

Emails: stefanpnc@yahoo.com mhrane@gmail.com Email: prlincevic@hotmail.com

**Vera Petrović Olga Taseiko
**

The School of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Institute of Computational Technologies of SB RAS

Applied Studies Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Belgrade, Serbia Email: taseiko@gmail.com

Email: vera.petrovic@viser.edu.rs

Abstract—In this paper we will analyze free space optics license-free. Main advantages of FSO transmission are caused

(FSO) transmission of halftoned image over Double Generalized by short dimension of wavelengths used for optical

Gamma (DGG) turbulence channel. First, we will present transmission. However, FSO transmission manifests some

halftoning method, and algorithm for FSO transmission

simulation. Further, we will observe standard performance undesired characteristics that occur during transmission, such

criterions of reconstruceted image, such are Bit Error Rate are: acquisition and pointing are subjected to difficulties,

(BER) and Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) versus various harmful effects arise due to influence of atmospheric

properties of observed FSO link: link distance, shaping and factors (i.e. haze, fog, rain, Sun, turbulence). Major

severity parameters of irradiance and Rytov variance. Presented performance impairment in FSO links, which degrades the link

analysis is very general and encompasses a large number of FSO performance is atmospheric turbulence-induced fading [9].

transmission scenarios, since Double Gamma-Gamma turbulence

Time varying spatial fluctuations of the optical beam appear as

channel model as general turbulence channel model can be

reduced to various turbulence channel models as it special cases. an outcome of atmosphere refractive index variations. These

variations are caused by atmospheric turbulence, and are

Keywords— Free-space optical communication, Double displayed as irradiance fluctuations of the received signals.

Generalized Gamma Channel, Image processing, Halftone image. Such phenomena is known as FSO fading or scintillation.

Mixed RF/FSO cooperative systems were observed in [20-21].

I. INTRODUCTION Various attempts have been made in order to obtain for

**M ultimedia content is very present in everyday
**

communication, since distribution of multimedia

content such as newspapers and books and is very present in all

accurate mathematical and numerical modeling of FSO

propagation. Double Weibull distribution turbulence model is

mostly used for modeling of scintillation of signal with

forms of digital communication. Some of produced images are different intensities of turbulences. This model fits turbulence

produced over the halftoning and they contain only two colors, measurements within systems with large aperture on the

black and white. When this halftone image is viewed from a receiving side [10]. Log-Normal distribution turbulence model

certain distance, it appears as the original image [1]. Halftoning [11] on the other hand, corresponds to the regimes of weak

methods developed in past years can be categorized into atmospheric turbulence [3], [12]. Best fit for turbulence

ordered dithering [2], error diffusion [3], [4], dot diffusion [5], scenarios that occurs in terrestrial communication over sparsely

[6] and direct binary search [7], [8]. populated areas and suburbs is Ricean turbulence model[13].

Usage of high-data-rate free-space optical (FSO) Gamma-Gamma turbulence model is simplified model of

transmission systems has grown recently, since FSO scintillation that can be often used for various propagation

transmission obtains many advantages over radio frequency scenarious [14]. Moreover, general turbulence distribution

(RF) transmission. Some of the advantages are: narrow beam model Double Generalized Gamma (DGG) turbulence model,

of emission of power, resistance to EMI interference, for was recently proposed [13], [15]. This model is very general

Frenzel zone is not neccessary, full duplex transmission is since it encompasses many existing turbulence channel models

enabled, practical realization is simple, and transmission is as its special cases, because it provides an excellent fit to the

measured magnitudes of plane and spherical FSO waves. By

Parameters g presents conclusion of the paper. variable I represents accounted normalized FSO link designing proccess for obtaining required values of irradiance. Section IV with constant q representing an electron charge. [18]: In this we will analyze properties of FSO transmission of halftoned image through DGG channel.k A )(2 . q (x) stands for the Meijers G-function defined in T [19]. nTh . � distributed random process with variance expressed as [17]. nsh . models. and active component shot be modeled through random irradiance fluctuations distributed as Double Generalized Gamma process. the turbulence-induced amplitude fluctuations and the phase variations of the channel are introduced through χ(r) ehp and ϕ(r). Part of the RL expression us(t)exp(jθ(t)) stands for the complex envelope of the modulation signal. p + q � p �W 2 � p q W1 D(q :1 . Main contribution of the work and R stand for the gain and responsivity. that are neccesary in modulation index. Γ(x) denotes special Gamma function [19].0 � �I g 2 � m q m p . Finally. SYSTEM MODEL FA = k A g + (1 . and fLO yT (t ) = xT (t ) + nT (t ) denoting local oscillator frequency. Based on simulation results and performances analysis is carried out in section III. Now. the moments of small and large-scale irradiance fluctuations.setting the predefined values to the DGG model parameters. Simultaneous influence of turbulence- with nT(t) representing total noise at the receiver obtained as induced amplitude fluctuations and phase aberrations. and D ( j. Rb . γ2. in the exponent of the Information carrying part of signal can be expressed as: expression. Analytically their values could be tracked by using Df = Rb 2 . respectively. while Df denote severity levels of independent irradiances forming observed the effective noise bandwidth. while parameters γ1. m2 are shaping parameters defining the turbulence- induced propagation. � [18]: m. D( p :1 . Equivalent signal phase (2) and effective fluctuation of the channel are represented as θIF and α respectively. where k B stands for the Boltzmann constant while Fn denotes Ω1.m1 ).( p + q )/ 2 I -1 fI (I ) = n(t ) = nTh + nsh (3) G(m1 )G(m2 ) (9) 0. γ2 are defining the temperature and load resistance respectively. Ω2. respectively. xT (t ) = AD 2 us (t ) �Re { I exp( j 2p f IF t + q IF (t ))} (8) 2hfc Total output photocurrent at the receptor can be expressed as: with fIF = fc . m2. � � 1 2 � . while is that it provides approach proposed for estimation of Pt denotes transmitted optical power. p and q are s Th2 = 4k B Fn Df (4) RL positive integer numbers that satisfy relation p/q = γ1/γ2. when simmilar last-mile FSO transmission scenarious of halftoned image are observed. are defining nature of turbulence process. [17]. Turbulence parameters γ1. r ) = us (t ) exp( j 2p f c t + q (t )) �exp[ c ( r ) + jf ( r )] (1) noise variances: with r denoting the position vector on the receive aperture T s n2 = s Th2 + s sh2 = 4k B Fn Df + 2qg 2 FA RPmI t Df (7) plane and fc defining the optical carrier frequency. n where G p . The paper is composed s sh2 = 2qg 2 FA RPmI Df (5) t in the following way: section II describes halftoning method and DGG FSO channel model.fLO denoting the carying signal frequency. ( x + j .m2 ) � p q q Thermal noise is mainly considered to be zero-mean Gaussian �G p + q . amplifier noise figure. could the sum of thermal noise. . as [18]: II.1) / j . a function of bit rate. m1. [18]: g 2 pp m2 -1/ 2 q m1 -1/ 2 2p 1. Shot noise is mainly considered to be zero-mean Gaussian this model is transformed to other above mentioned turbulence distributed random process with variance expressed as [17]. total noise variance could be expressed as the sum of Er (t .1 g ) (6) Received FSO signal from the aperture plane can be expressed as: with k A denoting the ionization factor. turbulence. while FA denotes the excess noise factor expressed quality of service (QoS). Parameter m denotes boundary values of FSO link parameters. x ) @x / j . expressed as [15]: noise. �. Parameters T and RL define namely m1.

.propagation distance and Cn2 refraction index. (13) Now.. while Px stands for the output signal power. with H being vector that introduces the influence of turbulence and is DGG distributed.Values of DGG model parameters along FSO link are directly been provided and images were reconstructed. Grey decoding with hard decisioning has .. Step 4: At reception. Step 5: Qualities of reconstructed images are analyzed. M N -the size of the image.23Cn2 k 7/ 6 L11/ 6 (10) MSE = i = 1. σ2Rytov..1. scintillation index. 1 are imported from the base and halftoned with error diffusion method (fig. and the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Bit Error Rate (BER) are propagation distance) with relations presented in [14].M . n- g = = = number of bits. instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the M �N reception can be expressed as: i = 1. defined SNR level. j = 1. the Rytov variance (σ2Rytov) can MSE be presented as: �( x . �� (x � ijl ij l)� � 2 �� ( yij )l � � � 2 BER = . Step 3: The BPSK-signal. X. tied to the atmospheric parameters (the ratio of Fresnel zone. III. Now signal is transmitted trough turbulence channel: Y=H*X+N. while vector N introduces level of total noise in the channel through defined SNR level. first Grey decoding with hard a) b) decisioning has been provided on Y. while k=2π/λ and λ denotes the FSO wavelenght.1 PSNR = 10 log10 . j = 1. Rytov variance. yij -pixel of original image and transmitted image.N M �N where L . Assuming a plane wave with 2n ... b) Girl. defined as: defining parameters Ω1 and Ω2 are related to atmospheric conditions as explained in [14].N . Step 2: BPSK modulation was performed over obtained binary c) d) representation of images. Images used in the paper: a) Lena.. is transmitted trough turbulence Fig 1. Procedure is repeted for different values of the Rytov variance. c) Baboon and d) Peppers channel: Y=H*X+N. Algorithm for simulation of FSO halftoned image transmission is accomplished as follows: Form halftoned digital image A* is created vector with with binary elements D dimension 24×M×N. Px Px where: xij. and reconstructed halftoned A* image is obtained from vector D . Images presented on fig. 2 are halftoned images obtained by using error diffusion method [4]. l = 1. and denotes 2s n 2 2(s Th + s sh2 ) 2 EXOR operator over each of n pair of bits from xij and yij.M . As the quality measure for the image transmission Peak k = 2π/λ. SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FSO transmission of the halftoned images over the DGG distributed turbulence channel has been simulated through following further procedure: Step 1: Source images from fig. 3.yij ) (12) 2 ij ij s Rytov 2 = 1. while vector Reconstructed image after transmission through DGG FSO N introduces level of total noise in the channel through channel are presented at fig. At reception. ehp The values of the Rytov variance σ 2Rytov are obtained for AD 2 I s (11) 2hf c FSO wavelenght of = 1550 nm and different values of = I 2 T refraction index Cn2 and propagation distance L for each 2(4k B Fn Df + 2qg 2 FA RPmI t Df ) RL source image from fig. where inner scale effects considered. On vector D is applied Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation X = 2 � D -1 . where Is=|us(t)|2 denotes the average intensity of the optical field.n. 2).. with H being vector that introduces the influence of turbulence and is DGG distributed. wavenumber. the refractive index structure constant.. Power used.

m2 = 2. m2 = 2. 4 and fig. γ2 = 2.0 57.0. aperture γ1 = 2.0 and m2 = 3. carrier signal wavelength.16 measurement PSNR to be higher and BER to be smaller. m1 = 2.0. γ2. m1 = 1. 4 and fig. m1 = 1.0. 5 and in Table I. m1 = 2. Quality measurement BER for transmitted halftoned image Lena.0. m1 = 2. m2 = 2. and b) γ1 = 2. γ2 = 2.0 60. σ2Rytov =5. m2). 5.47 γ1 = 2.85. m2 = 2. Quality measure values for observed images are given on fig. and varied values of propagation distance and refraction index. Transmitted halftoned image Lena with apameter values: a) γ1 = 2.0. QUALITY MEASURE PSNR parameters (optical link distance. Table I).0.0. of BER smaller then 10-6 for DGG channel parameter value γ1 = 2. m1.0.85. γ2 = 2.0.92 . m2 = 3.0.0. γ1 = 2. γ2 = 2. m2 = 1. m1 = 3. σ2Rytov =2.0. γ2 = 0. m2). m1 = 2.5. for constant values of turbulence shaping and severity parameters (γ1.0. m1. After analyzing PSNR and BER values obtained for the halftoned image.0. γ2 = 2. γ2 = 2. m1 = 2.0 34. γ2 = 2.5 66.87 diameters at the transmitter / receiver) in a way that quality γ1 = 2. a) Fig 3.0.5. Further performance improvement could be obtained by designing FSO link TABLE I. transmitted through DGG turbulence channel (presented on fig. transmitted signal power.0. and in Fig 4.0 33.19 γ1 = 0.0. we can see that the transmitted image is reached very for constant values of propagation distance and refraction index and varied good quality with PSNR values for PSNR = 66. m2 = 1. Parameters PSNR optical bandwidth.0.19 and values values of turbulence shaping and severity parameters (γ1. Quality measurement BER for transmitted halftoned image Lena. γ2. b) Fig 2.

Zhou. P. Image Process. Q. Engineering 40. 97-100. 14151–14162. C. Belgrade. T. Au.M. vol.no. J. D. Amniesi. Sandaliadis. "Table of Integrals. G. for Free-Space Optical Systems”. and E. G. 8. ERK 2016. Fort. Soleimani-Nasab and M. vol. P. A. Academic Press. 13 (11) (2006) 688–690. 2010 Lett. A. “Inverse-Halftoning for Error Diffusion Based on Statistical and thermal noises on the performance of binary phase-shift keying Mechanics of the Spin System”. pp. Kashani. Lee. J. Gradshteyn. Telecommunications. S. 41. M. pp. 181-206. 22(3) (2013) 1199–1208. 2013. 2000. pp. Karagiannidis. Ryzhik. proposed method FSO link parameters could be efficiently 2001. Matthaiou. Image Process. Farr. “Efficient halftoning based on multiple and apertures. Signal Kotsopoulos and M. 1554–1562.S. from deep space. “New class tiling design for dot-diffused halftoning”. June 2013. L. 22(11) (2013) 4522–4531. J. (TELFOR). I. Guo. Pham. 1-4. [9] M. O. San Jose. Goyal. pp. Dios. J. 85-100. W. V. 487 . IEEE Trans. turbulence channels. Sigman. invited chapter in This research was partly supported by the Ministry of "Numerical Simulations of Physical and Engineering Processes. Farias. pp. pp. "Performance of synchronous optical receivers using atmospheric compensation techniques" Optics Express. Phillips. F. Spalevic. [13] A. Issue 45. A. Andrews. Kamandar. “A novel statistical model for turbulence-induced fading in free-space optical systems. "A unifying statistical model for atmospheric optical scintillation". FSO channel parameter atmospheric turbulence”." IET Communications.A.F. Prlincevic. Y.492. [21] B. pp. Opt. Belgrade. look-up tables”. Chatzidiamantis.L. 2002.M. vol. Colombia. Soleimani-Nasab and M. Paris. Education. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT [14] A. pp. analysis of mixed DGG and generalized Nakagami-m dual-hop FSO/RF transmission systems. "Pulse reach demanded PSNR and BER quality of halftoned image at position modulated ground receiver design for optical communications the reception. C. D. "Effect of avalanche photodiode [4] Y." 2016 24th Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR). Optics & Laser Technol. that quality measures PSNR and BER reach very good quality [11] M. Freitas. Signal Processing: Image Double Generalized Gamma turbulence channels". Phillips. Thang. 2016. "FSO transmission of double watermarked image over watermarking via optimization”. "Performance IEEE Trans. [16] S. 2016.“Hiding color watermarks in [17] N. A. L. 2001. Al-Habash." 2011. 1-4. C. Liu. Uysal. “Exponentiated Weibull model for the irradiance turbulence channel has been considered through the prism of probability density function of a laser beam propagating through received PSNR and BER values. grant no. [5] J. Panic. L. No.C. Barrios. Biswas. . 4635. Staelin. 1554– 1562. J. 1804–1816.IV. Gao. Guo. vol. "Outage analysis of mixed RF/FSO cooperative systems with multiple antennas [8] J. Image Process. Proceeding. [6] Y. et al. SPIE. Garrido-Balsells. Belmonte and J. (2007). [2] P. Sept. IEEE Trans. Kavehrad. "Mathematical model of PSNR and satisfactory values of BER. "Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating .F. C. no. Allebach. 2016. III44006 [15] M. Serbia. “Clustered-dot halftoning with direct binary search”. 738–744. γ2 . m1 and m2 are determined for which is obtained 13–20. International Conference on Neurel subcarrier-intensity modulation/free-space optical systems over Information Procesing. S. Li. M. Vilnrotter. K. 17th International Conference on [3] X. Tang and X. Luong. ISSN:0091-3286. J. 18. Andrews and R. USA. M. 663-672. FSO transmission of the halftoned image over the DGG [10] R." Proc. M. R.. Image Process.C. Capitalizing on for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media". IEEE Trans. Juardo-Navas. A. Shacham. H. M. 22(2) (2013) 473–487. Fan. Liu. Vol. J. Fischer. E. Kahn. Guo. 8. “Edge-directed error diffusion halftoning”. pp. [1] Y. T. “New Results on Turbulence Modeling Processing:ImageCommunication48(2016)1–11. Saika. R. IEEE Signal Process. Asharafzadeh. E. Y. 2008. 2016. 2013. K. REFERENCES Cartagena. 16. 40. NY. Chang. [20] B. halftone images using maximum-similarity binarypatterns”. pp. “Halftone image Radojkovic. B.” in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks. 224-235. “Improved dot diffusion by diffused matrix and class matrix co-optimization”. Liu. Science and Technical Development of Republic of pp. 18(8) (2009) [19] I. values γ1 ." 2016 24th Telecommunications Forum [7] P. determined in the FSO link designing process. in order to [12] A. CONCLUSION through turbulent media" Optical Engineering. M. Asharafzadeh. [18] D. Kamandar. M. O. pp. pp. 1–5. Series and Products". Al-Habash. 7. Gupta. IEEE Conference Communication.Araújo.

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