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Smart and Sustainable

.Urban Mobility

As the avenues and streets of a city are nothing less than its arteries and veins, we may
well ask what doctor would venture to promise bodily health if he knew that the blood
circulation was steadily growing more congested!
—Hugh Ferriss, The Metropolis of Tomorrow

apid motorization impacts the natural and the built environment-noise, pollution, affic
accidents and community severance. In Delhi 72 per cent of emissions (suspended rticulate
matter) are from motorized vehicles. Of these the private vehicles, which are per cent of
total motorized transport, carry 31 per cent of vehicular trips and are ponsible for 90 per
cent of emissions. Violent and agressive traffic and transport pacts the health and safety of
the people. Urban transport services are hardly essible to all, especially the elderly,
children, women and disabled.
The fast-growth of private vehicles is seen as a most intractable source, of carbon !ssions.
Environmental footprints of private motor vehicles also include the amount of ources
(including embedded energy) used in their production, amount of waste duced by their
disposal, and continued use of fossil fuels. The electric car is being moted through the
government subsidies. However, the production of thermal ~rgy is still a large producer of
carbon emissions. Recent empirical data indicates that lution loads are marginally
reducing, mainly due to vehicular technology in terms of 'ssion norms (such as Bharat
Stage II and Bharat Stage III/Euro norms)., arid the use of G. However, the potential gains
of stringent emission control and public transit tern are yet to be fully realized which faces
several barriers, such as increasing ume of vehicles and idling due to congestion on roads.
Besides engine norms and fuel 'ey, it is necessary to reduce the vehicle kilometres travelled
(VKT) and trip length by vel demand management, land use and transport synergy, car
pooling and rating public-private modes of urban transport.

108 SMART CITIES

Rapid, aggressive and noisy traffic constantly disturbs the peace of the residents, sick and
students. It is common to observe that the vehicles not slowing down, not restraining horn
blowing near the residences, schools, hospitals, temples, mosques, etc. With less than 1 per
cent of the world's vehicle population, India accounts for 6 per cent of world's road accidents
and 10 per cent of world's road fatalities. More than 1.41 lakh people die in road accidents and
more than half million fatal road accidents happen every year. The victims are mostly
pedestrians or cyclists for whom there is hardly any dedicated space on the roads, though 30
to 40 per cent of citizens walk or cycle to work.
Planning of transport in synergy with land use can effectively address the issues of urban
mobility. It aims to reduce the need to travel and encourages walkability together with
maximizing the efficiency and ridership in public transport system in the following ways:
•-Wailk to work (W2W), "local hubs" within 10 minutes walking and cycling distance
• Integrated planning of urban transport/corridors
• Mixed land use, rationalisation of land use and density
• Multi-modal integration of buses, trams, metro rail, rail corridors and LRT

Fig. 5.1 : The urban hierarchy is worked out on modular basis and accessibility to various functions so that
community, especially children, women and aged can walk to their places of education, recreation, shopping or
work. As the distance increases, the public transport should provide access to the place of destination.

Source: Adapted from Barton H. (2003) Shaping Neighbourhoods, Spon Press, London
• Potential of using subterranean space
• Communication as a viable substitute for transportation

disabled and elderly Low noise and traffic calming P 1. pedestrian. University 6.2 : Le Corbusier's Master Plan for Chandigarh. 1951.000 5. generate . The starting point of planning of Chandigarh was nisation of a transport network based on V-7 hierarchy and sectors (800 x 1200m) with an interconnected green ridors. Wholesale market 7. Area expansion of the city to a population of 500. cycle tracks and pathways. Park extending through residential areas 8. provide diverse housing options. which are designed enhance local identity. walkable and sustainable. Shopping street (V4) 9. SMART AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY 109 Encouraging cycles and non-motorised vehicles (NMV) Safety of the movement for children. Safe and accessible cities are compact. women. Capital complex 2. land use efficiency. Hotels. Museum and stadium 5. restaurants and visitors’ center 4. Central business district 3.

wheelchair. efficient and attractive road network. The urban form plays an important role in the safe urban mobility by accommodating all modes to travel. with dedicated paths for walking and cycling. aiming at a walkable development . including walking. The concept of community module and urban hierarchy is the basis of planning. reliable and non-polluting public travel modes. schools. The starting point of planning of Chandigarh was organisation of a transport network based on V-7 hierarchy of road network and sectors (800 x 1200 m) with an interconnected green corridor.3: Access is directly related with distance. affordable. cycling. 5. public transit and people by a safe. Most of the local facilities are reachable by a convenient 5-minute (400 to 500 meter) walking. clubs and city centres are located along the pedestrian. parks. This has public transit on its periphery from where one can walk dovyn to any place within the sector in 5 to 10 minutes. Le Corbusier in his Chandigarh Plan adopted the sector measuring 800 x 1200 m. Buildings are located directly onto street fronts to ensure passive surveillance of public spaces that increases personal safety. time and mode of travel. with generous footpaths and trees. safe. Neighbourhood facilities. Streets are provided with service roads and pooled parking area at every kilometre (adacent to Metro/Bus stop) that keeps the footpaths and building front free from onstreet parking. Access Fig. shops. As such the places of frequent visit should - be located closest to the place of residence. cycle tracks and pathways.110 SMART CITIES local employment and provide comfortable. cycle and public transport corridors. which is the building blodc of the city.

~sit oriented development. centripetal transport network with gridlocks all er. BUSINESS WSTWGT DISTRICT CEMTOMlStaiB) o 5 MILES Q! SUeOtSTSBCr CtNTHE (ISNW) : The five tier commercial centres in the Master Plan of Delhi were based on the concept of poly-nodal. compact and smart development. The junction of transport nodes constitutes the regional transport and business ode. there had been a centrifugal. efficient public transport and taxies. along with a series of new cities.. The Master Plan of Delhi is based on poly-nodal. Sustainable Urban Transport and Systems. Communities and Neighbourhoods. in actual actice there had been a centrifugal. centripetal ' pattern and gridlocks. poly- ierarchy of Districts. However. pools. leading to congestion in the ntral areas and numerous intersections. Communities and Neighbourhoods. A. poly-nuclear concept in the rganisation of Districts. Khanna Publishers. Often it is not possible to tructure the city completely. Jain. the beads. improving ad capacity and using Intelligent Transport Systems Management can provide utions to the problem. The building of flyovers/grade separators ovide only temporary relief to the perennial congestion. 2012. CEMTRM.K. car. However. SMART AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY 111 Charles Correa developed the plan of New Bombay (Mumbai) along the MRT orridor. in the egion. The growth of large cities had been usually concentric. New Delhi . which he called the string. but mixed land use.

which establishes a close relationship among the residential. . The concepts of Transit Oriented Development (TOD). Each community is defined by the walking catchment or "ped-shed". ■location. tree shade. each focused on a local centre. All these parameters are important in their own right but walkability is a simple ay to encapsulate this philosophy of integrated transport and urban planning. street life. or a 5 to 8 minute walk. which is generally around 500 m. SMART AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN MC A WALKABLE URBAN STRUCTURE Mobility is the lifeline of urban living. Transport Demand Management (TDM) and Corridor Development form the basis of walk to work.al. 5. a city comprises a network of overlapping communities. rce: Barton H. Pedestnan access Catchmentboundanes^ (400 m radius Horn stops) ^ Rafcvaystation ‘A* and u* location vxstaie city centre activities . London .6: Principles of walk to work and public transport planning comprise linear catchment zones.tr or possible | ' ‘A* location ♦ \• ♦ ____♦ Douwe strand aevetcpnem sf f ♦ ’P &Aurtsan. Walkability is about making it possible for the average citizen to be able to lead his/her life by relying largely on walking for day to day activities. This needs an urban design consideration. pedestrian crossings. magnets and cs. within which people can access on foot most of the facilities and services for day-to-day living. public places and on. Spon Press. limted lateral movement and fast and stopping services. A walkable community provides a fundamental building block in creating a sustainable urban form. mixed land use helps in minimising the need to travel. compact and smart urban planning. For Integration of land-use and transport planning. It is necessary that the urban structure and land use pattern make day to day activities accessible by walk and there is a close relationship between residence and place of work. *uch as density. mixed use. loop •0?location ‘A* location vi* « raty ♦. employment and service locations. (2003) Shaping Neighbourhoods. J* ft Bainer ft to 1 vehicular —BMstop&Aocal Betties • movemen 1 t dfttrict centres . As such. et.

land use and walkability are interlinked and need to be planned] together. Atlanta has a metro network of 74 km while Barcelona has 99 km. The difference is mostly explained by Barcelona being more compact while its American rival is spread out. road transportation needs 4 to 5 times the energy that is needed by a train. The energy used by a car to carry a passenger over one kilometer is 3 to 4 times that of a bus.7 : Barcelona : Public Transport Oriented Urban Form Studies show that to transport one ton of cargo per kilometer. it would have 1 to build 2800 new metro stations and 3400 km of new tracks. If Atlanta now tries to give its citizen the same accessibility. Greenhouse gas emission per . The World Development Report (2009) of the World Bank cites the example of Atlanta and Barcelona. The lesson learnt is that public transport. so as to which reduce the need of personal vehicles. These may seem comparable but per capita C02 emission for Atlanta is 10 times that of Barcelona. As a result. 114 SMART CiTIES This means that the organisation of land use. Floor Area Ratio and other controls should be around the public transport system. 1 ] Fig. less than 4 per cent of Atlanta's population 1 lives within reasonable walking distance of a metro station compared to 60 per cent for Barcelona. 5. circulation pattern and decisions regarding density.

SMART AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN 115 Fig.8: Los Angeles : Poor Ridership of Public Transport due to Urban Sprawl Fig. 5.9 : Integrated Transit Corridor . 5.

terms of kilometers travelled. 2 = bad. R.V (1981). It implies that environmentally sustainable transportation a reduction of energy use is essentially a walkable community and a gree transportation. pollution and noise.2. these cover only 1 to 2 per cent of the total kilomet travel. sanitation and mobili should be the basis of planning and growth. Elevated 5 1-2 2 vs Rapid Rail. even if the proportion of trips are as high as 40 to 50 per cent. Tram . 5 = very good Source: Vuchic. along with extensive use of IT and governarice. Surface 4 2 2 Rapid Rail (RR). 2009 Dense and compact urban planning can effectively reduce the vehicle kilometer travelled and trip length which results in lesser accidents. "Urban Public Transportation Systems and Technology". 116 SMART CITIES passenger of public transport (bus..1: Environmental Sustainability of Different Modes of Transport Walking 5 S' 5 Cycling 5 5 IlllllllSi 2 Car 1 2 2 yC:. Surface 5 3 3 Rapid Rail (RR). Density is highly correlated with modal distribution and the intensity of automobile use. Table 5. . cited by Raman Parti and Surjit S Katoch. water. Mixed Traffic 1-2 3 4 Bus. 4 = good. Proceedings of International Conference on Energy and Environment March 19-21. 3 = average. as in Delhi other megacities.(HR). which helps in reduction in use of fossil fuels and conservation natural resources. as shown in Table 5. energy. 5 3 3 Light rail. Reserved Lane 3 3 4 Legend : 1 = very bad. waste management. Walkable community is compact and smart with home bas offices. Efficient Transportation Plannirr and System Integration for Healthy Environment of Large Cities. Sustainable fuels. rail and trams) is about one-twelfth that of a c Although NMTs (including walking) are ideal from the point of view of emissions. New Jersey. Tube 5 5 5 5 Bus. Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs.

These aim to encourage people to reduce car trips by incentives and rt to reduce peak-period driving. rideshare program.000 20. better vehicles and stations.The Centre for Resource Economics.000 15.. frequent services.Frankfurt 20 H (//Zurich Paris-^Jr-Brussels i Munich London West Berlin Copenhagen Tokyo 10 Hi Amsterdam —. improved walking conditions of transit . R Kenworthy. 1999. and priority to high occupant vehicles (buses and car pools). mobility management programs. shared parking ~er charges. : Newman. reduced crowding. including better cycling facilities and flexible g hours. Washington DC. . BRT). USA. Singapore Hongkong Moscow 5000 10. such as. The core of integrated planning is to improve public transit and increase rice efficiency by dedicated corridors (e.000 25. Peter. SMART AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBI 117 Transport-related energy consumption Gigajoules per capita per year 80 • Houston 70 f Phoenix 1 Detroit 60 H Denver • Los Angeles • San Francisco Boston 50 1 Washington • Chicago ► New York 40 PerffiToronto Brisbane 30 H Melbourne Sydney Hamburg Stockholm I .g.000 urban density (inhabitants per square kilometer) 10: Newman and Kenworthy's hyperbola "Urban density and transport-related energy consumption" shows a elation between urban density and intra-urban transport-related energy consumption per capita. Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Indepen. tegrated land use planning considers Transport Demand Management (TDM) ’ons.000 30.

These can significantly improve accessibility and reduc per- capita automobile travel.000 '\ Petrol consumption for transport > 55. E118 L SMART CITIES 1 Table 5. The land use reforms can i implemented at various local level. 1999.000 < 5. site and block level. V l KEEP Ip Slim'! if’! SMOKING |j|i* * DOUBLE Ik w'i BY PASS li AHEAD tl.11: Transport Contributes up to 70 per cent of SPM and other Pollution Transit Oriented Development is a set of planning practices to create more attractive efficient and safe communities. Peter. >1?^^5 '*m *J ««* o Fig. Number of inhabitants and jobs per hectare of net urban surface (omitting green and waC . These reforms i not exclude automobile travel. R Kenworthy. Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Indepe dence.000 | >250 1 Public transport use (tFip/person/an) <15.000 1 . 5.50% 1 PT: 10% PT: 25% NMT: 10% NMT: 25% NMT: 25% | Automobile use (km/pers/yr) > 10. but aim to increase transportation options and givd .500-20. by various design features.2 : City Typology Based on Average Urban Density and Transport person.000 3.surfaces) '■ Source: Newman. The Centre for Resource Economics. Washington DC. and city level. (MJ/persons/an) North American European cities Asian cities ( Representative positions & Australian cities MPT: Motprised Public Transport PT : Public Transport NMT : Non-motorised Transport density./ha 1 Modal distribution MPT: 80% MPT: 50% MPT: 25% 1 PT. USA.

preparation of Noise Monitoring a Control Plan (NMCP). It can significa improve liveability.14: Indian drivers are so fond of blowing horns that amused the architect Patrick Crooke to sketch the a' cartoon. college. hybrid electric vehicles. landscape noise buffers and rubberised road surface. parking. which involves by reduc ! speeds.traffic through residential neighbourhoods. noise and volumes by various measures such as no horn zoning. with increased traffic safety due narrower streets and slower traffic (traffic calming). 5. speed breaker/hump. short. mixed land connected streets. interaction and cohesion. if urbanism coordinated with TDM strategies. pollution and urban sprawl. areas fronting university. accident risk. management and commuter trip reduction programs. Traffic calming may be necessary on cert streets. ro pricing. TRAFFIC CALMING AND NOISE CONTROL The need for traffic calming has become urgent in India. traffic circles intersections. and partial street closures to discourage. and local services tend to drive 20-30 per cent less than residents automobile dependent areas. SMART CITIES Residents in a well-designed neighbourhood with good walkability. raised crosswalks. . *11*1 Fig. such as transit improvements. social and environment benefits. This can prov : a variety of economic. hospita etc. parking costs. Traffic Calming and Noise Control measures involve notifying No Horn Zon Constitution of area-wise Noise Control Circles. car sharing.Vehicle travel reduction may be even greater. such as high security zones. such as reduced traf congestion. schools.

high speed roads. ^Public transport has to be disabled and wheelchair friendly with tactile flooring and floor buses with footboard at level with the platform and proper street lighting for safety and security of pedestrians.r Bridges (FOB) and subways are hardly used as they cause inconvenience and Bcurity to the users. the pedestrians risk their lives crossing the high Insity. variable message signs. which can onsidered in combination or separately depending upon the context. national and te highways. optimum efficiency/ridership. The walking zone mid be barrier free and designed as per the specifications. economic and environmental).). Various options are available. etc. The points where routes |te (nodes) then become the prime locations for local jobs and services and the focus (pedestrian and cycling routes. Linearity is therefore a key feature. SMART AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY RRIER FREE ACCESS housing and mixed use developments should be within easy walking distance of )d public transport services that give access to the main centres of urban activity. Bus Terminals. it is necessary jynergise supply and demand side measures. The quality of bus and train services can be jher where the maximum number of people can reach their destination by the pnum number of routes. traffic volume. egrated fare collection systems. opular solutions like widening of roads. Public sport is to be planned keeping in view the operational characteristics of different Jes and their ■mi yr. > ■STRUCTURAL AND NON-INVASIVE TRANSPORT PLANNING planners can significantly affect the safety and viability of public transport by jing roads. footpaths and land uses. The walkways also ’ to cater to wheelchair users that require avoidance of steps and provision of curb ftps. It is necessary to provide wide and safer pedestrians ridors at grade while the motorised vehicles move up and down. A dedicated bicycle lane has to be built along sry road. Metro faons. The fixed signs. Foot. Tn order to deliver an inclusive. :ess is also influenced by gradients (especially for older people) and psychological iers such as Foot Over bridges (FOB).. safe and barrier free mobility for all. so that pedestrians keep moving freely at the ground level without mingling vehicular traffic. protection systems and communication are important ttents of safe mobility. subways or intimidation by road traffic. This may be possible by raising the carriageways of the road by about 2 to 3 ters.. but as the starting-point for neighbourhood planning. with land ^attached to the public transport network. and also forests and wildlife areas. As a result. maps. costs and feasibility. Public transport accessibility needs to be considered ns an after-thought. in front of village abadi. transport nodes (Railway Stations. . construction of flyovers/grade separators ftega transport terminals are pursued by transport organizations and political frship. who consider these as a matter of prestige and professional achievement. ttainability (social. pedestrian crossings. Such facility should be provided on all major roads.

hospi1 etc. short. Traffic calming may be necessary on cert streets. preparation of Noise Monitoring Control Plan (NMCP). Traffic Calming and Noise Control measures involve notifying No Horn Zon Constitution of area-wise Noise Control Circles. 120 SMART &TK3S Residents in a well-designed neighbourhood with good walkability. interaction and cohesion. traffic circl intersections. TRAFFIC CALMING AND NOISE CONTROL The need for traffic calming has become urgent in India. schools. landscape noise buffers apd rubberised road surface. parking. parking costs.14: Indian drivers are so fond of blowing horns that amused the architect Patrick Crooke to sketch the aboi^ cartoon. r pricing. and local services tend to drive 20-30 per cent less than residen automobile dependent areas. car sharing. areas fronting university. college. management and commuter trip reduction programs. social and environment benefits. such as reduced tr congestion. hybrid electric vehicles.Vehicle travel reduction may be even greater. with increased traffic safety du narrower streets and slower traffic (traffic calming). if urbanis coordinated with TDM strategies. This can pro' a variety of economic. mixed land connected streets. 5. It can signific improve liveability. and partial street closures to discourage. such as transit improvements. pollution and urban sprawl. kuch as high security zones. raised crosswalks. speed breaker/hump.traffic through residential neighbourhoods. . which involves by redu speeds. noise and volumes by various measures such as no horn zoning. Fig. accident risk.

high speed roads. but as the starting-point for neighbourhood planning. The points where routes (nodes) then become the prime locations for local jobs and services and the focus pedestrian and cycling routes. The quality of bus and train services can be her where the maximum number of people can reach their destination by the 'mum number of routes. safe and barrier free mobility for all. national and te highways. footpaths and land uses. The walkways also to cater to wheelchair users that require avoidance of steps and provision of curb ps. . Linearity is therefore a key feature. The walking zone uld be barrier free and designed as per the specifications. so that pedestrians keep moving freely at the ground level without mingling 'th vehicular traffic. stainability (social. cess is also influenced by gradients (especially for older people) and psychological iers such as Foot Over bridges (FOB). SMART AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY 121 RRIER FREE ACCESS I housing and mixed use developments should be within easy walking distance of od public transport services that give access to the main centres of urban activity. it is necessary synergise supply and demand side measures. . transport nodes (Railway Stations. pedestrian crossings. traffic volume. Metro tions. different ies and their optimum efficiency/ridership. and also forests and wildlife areas. etc. Footer Bridges (FOB) and subways are hardly used as they cause inconvenience and security to the users. N-STRUCTURAL AND NON-INVASIVE TRANSPORT PLANNING planners can significantly affect the safety and viability of public transport t»y nging roads. In order to deliver an inclusive. This may be possible by raising the carriageways of the road by about 2 to 3 ters. grated fare collection systems. maps. protection systems and communication are important nents of safe mobility. construction of flyovers/grade separators mega transport terminals are pursued by transport organizations and political ership.). Popular solutions like widening of roads. Public transport accessibility needs to be considered -as an after-thought. subways or intimidation by road traffic. with land attached to the public transport network. The fixed signs. It is necessary to provide wide and safer pedestrians idors at grade while the motorised vehicles move up and down. costs and feasibility. Such facility should be provided on all major roads. who consider these as a matter of prestige and professional achievement. in front of village abadi. economic and environmental). Public sport is to be planned keeping in view the operational characteristics of. the pedestrians risk their lives crossing the high tensity. variable message signs. which can considered in combination or separately depending upon the context. Bus Terminals. As a result. A dedicated bicycle lane has to be built along ery road. Various options are available. Public transport has to be disabled and wheelchair friendly with tactile flooring and floor buses with footboard at level with the platform and proper street lighting for safety and security of pedestrians.

processions. vans. green mobility is crucial for an efficient. poor vehicle safety and fitness standards. manual thelas and rehri. groceri and other short-haul deliveries are increasingly being made by auto-rickshaw. ceremonies. the autos an rickshaws are substantially cheaper. Courier services. FAR and mi land use envisage a compact and smart growth. which include 3 wheelers. As compared to small truck. pollution under che certification. society. Simultaneously transport infrastructure. harassment by traffic and transport officials. etc. The Master Plan for Delhi-2021. lack of insurance. such as milk. etc. including Rapid Railway extending to NCR. dedicated two wheele cycle and pedestrian tracks are to be improved. sustainable a " healthy. it is crucial that the concepts of walk to work. Low carbon. rather than just end of the pipe. which by multiple trips deliver as much as a 5-t truck in a day. non-structural solutions such as promo' public transport and land use integrity need to be adopted.The predisposition among motoring class and transportation officials is to expedite automobile flows.000 transport related shops and repair facility. structural and non-invasive transp approaches. These reach in the narrow lanes and congested areas where public authoriti do not allow trucks/public carriers during day time and also during frequent VV visits. the intermediate and informal transport sector is riddled with numero" challenges. roads. perishables. However. e-governance. which is a part of overall city transport. There is absence of any kind of normative policy framework for informal motorized transport services. like flyovers built enormous cost. provide only a temporary relief and fail to keep pace with the growth traffic. it mand restructuring the city by Transit Oriented Development. Although competitive and affordable. of which one-third are illegal or informal. vegetables. including lack of parking space and road right of way. It is being increasingly realized that the structural solutions. and they usually fail to appreciate the importance of informal transport. transit oriented development and travel dema management are adopted. This mindset together with the pressures from customers and automobile industry add to the marginalization of informal transport. there is a need to integrate them with land reservations. For a synergy between land use and public transport system. etc. these often prove to be short term and sometimes even worsen the situa" Planning interventions and non-invasive. INFORMAL AND NON-MOTORISED TRANSPORT Informal and intermediate modes of transport. Keeping in view the service rendered by informal transport and workshops. As urban transport in Indian cities contributes up to two-thirds of the emissions pollution. It mandates an integrated multi-m public transit system. . fruits. Delhi had about 60. SM«T CITIES However. pickir rickshaws. together with corri development. cater to about 30 to 60 per cent of passengers an goods movement in the cities like Delhi. inter-modal public trans mixed land use. advocates comprehensive strategy comprising preventive. Higher density. polluting engines and preclude service improvements. low fares force the operator using substandard fuels. notified in February 2007. van tricycle.

businesses and dwellings with facilities for bicycles (e. and take up traffic calming with dedicated corridors for pedestrians and cyclists.. By pting standards. protocols and legal provisions. installing a two-speed gear system would enable the rickshaw. Likewise the length of pedestrian- friendly streets can be targeted each year. together with simple technical ovations. and comfort. state of the designer rickshaws have made them prestigious for the users. SMART AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY There is ample scope and need to develop and plan for NMTs and intermediate lie transport (IPT) to improve their safety. le and Pedestrian Planning Increase the proportion of public roads. To meet the ' ements of school children a motor with a battery to run for small distances and a ti-speed gear system can be fixed for smooth and easy pulling. puncture proof or tubeless tyres. To rectify the alances. efficiency. Develop an active campaign to publicise the personal. . such as. Increase on a priority-route basis the proportion of public transit vehicles capable of carrying bicycles. Provide incentives to increase the proportion of institutions.’er to pedal easily. The length of dedicated cycleway can be gradually increased by planned target each year. speed. the geometry of design can be improved. daytime storage). which often cause overturns in the conventional rickshaw. In Agra. together with other aspects of safety. a *r designed seat can provide a more comfortable ride to the commuter. its efficiency can be substantially improved. less polluting and more comfortable.g. Redesigning the handlebars in such a way that the rickshaw-puller not have to strain his wrist and lungs. using lighter and more durable. sturdier metal. community and ecosystems health benefits of cycling and walking. besides being more !ent.

.

16 : Janmarg Bus Rapid Transit System.124 SMART CITIES Fig. Ahmadabad Fig. 5. 5.17 : Janmarg (Ahmedabad BRTS) .

pram and hand trolley users.18 : Streetscaping Source: DIMTS •19: A Pedestrian Passage should also facilitate mobility of wheel chair. • Provide end of trip facilities. shopping centres. storage lockers and shower changing facilities at railway/metro/bus station. . 5. etc. SMART AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY 125 • Create and publicise targets to increase the annual share of work and shopping trips taken by bicycle or by walking. Source: Adapted from Kenworthy and Laube (1999) Fig. offices. like bike racks.

W"' Fig.0 m.22 : Safe corridors for cyclists. norms and practice • Upgrading of traffic control—multi-functional and sophisticated signal con and ITS • Priving license regime • Work Zone Safety It is necessary to provide wide and safer pedestrians corridors at grade while motorised vehicles move up and down. Fig. underpa and overpasses • Safety oriented planning and engineering specifications. Arterial where there is sizable volume of pedestrians. 5.5 to 1. The walkways also need to cater to wheelc users that require avoidance of steps and provision of curb ramps.21 & 5. NMVs. cattle/wildlife. sidewalks. 126 SMART CITIES An Agenda for Safe and Non-violent Mobility Corridor plans and strategy for safe and non-violent mobility should cover the follov • Reduce need to travel by Transit Oriented Development and Travel Dem Management • Improvement of public transport. cycle tracks. Similar provision is required on railway lines for safe passage of pedestrians and animals. 5. pedestrians. in front of village abadi.20 : A 10 to 15 m wide pedestrian underpass is created by raising the vehicular carriageway by 2 to 3 m dipping the pedestrian passage by 0. transport nodes (Railway Stations. wheelchair users and cattle . Such facility should provided on all major roads. It must be provided at regular intervals on all NH. ca' grazing fields. NMTs/cydes. national and state highways. SH. Metro Stations. Bus Terminals. et and also in forests and wildlife areas.

road useris/citizens 7) Accountability. keep right of way and crossings free from parking. Public Participation and Support (i) Organisational resources. repairs. NMTs and cycle lanes (in) Underpasses at grade for pedestrians and cattle at regular intervals 'neering and Implementation (0 Road management plan. first aid. governance and ranee aspects of road safety ladder. The 'National Road Safety Mission' under the d 'State Road Safety Missions' under the CMs of each State may be constituted in to give serious attention to the issues. strategic. encroachments. SMART AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY 127 ning for Pedestrian Zone and Road Safety (i) Identifying accident prone points. alarm and communication system. which it deserves. surveillance. kiosks. signage. drainage and work zone management (ii) Speed breakers (iff) Maintenance to aim zero defect roads (ip) Road markings. s (p) Online complaints and redressal system to be in place (pi) Inter-state/city and inter-departmental coordination in Emergency > (i) Helpline. These include regulatory. No blind corners. zebra lines (P) Provide railings and crash barriers. monitoring framework p) Revisiting Motor Vehicle Act and other legal framework (p) Pedestrians right be deemed as a human right ing in view the importance of road safety. It should move beyond reactive actions to the incremental 1 and transformative. bus stops. orientation points and guide maps ic Regulation/control and Audit (0 ITS. etc. financial strengthening and capacity building ii) Promote active safety campaigns by participation of public. pedestrian movement. taxi stands. trauma centres. . Intelligent signals. volumes and areas (if) Prepare area wise/corridor wise pedestrian and road safety plans with dedicated footpaths. unified CCTV command platform be installed (ii) Streamline drivers licensing procedures. with structured action plan. ambulance service ii) Integrated/common complaint centre tional Capacity Building. training and behavior (in) Check overloading of goods vehicles and joy rides (IP) No free U turn. it needs to taken up as a mission.

spatially segregated uses inducing high dependency on private vehicle and unfavourable conditions for public transport. c c co i <A CD O CD *D . 128 SMART CITIES Transformative Radical C C o CO o "CD Incremental F "CD 3 0 CO c CD > O) >» "E LU c o oO 5CM C0 w f* o O) Reactive *D O o c I- CL o> 2 CD 3 o £ (A Q O) (A O 0 0 t Q. whereas transportati plans are not statutory. 5. • Organizing all systems of transportation from pedestrian pathways to ma~ transit systems such that they integrate well with each other and enable t' harmonious establishment of land use around them. 2006 has identified integrating land use transport planning. Comprehensive Mobility Plans (CMPs) have been mad mandatory under the JNNURM to access central funding for transport related proje with a view to integrate development plans. urban sprawl resulted into loss of high quality agricultural land and open space. trip lengths and travel times are minimized. fragmentation ecosystems. In the past decades. Development plans of Indian cities have a statutory status. Q 08 Cd </) 06 o _CD >. Land transport integration benefits making investment decisions in transport infrastructure and services which in turn linked to economic. It involves two mutual supportive processes: • Organizing the physical form and land use pattern of a city such that the trav demands. C CD o> o E CD O) 2 '■& co 0 CD 3 I. social and environmental outcomes. transportation projects and land u planning. as one of its main objectives. while accessibili' comfort and efficiency are maximized.£> c !5 CD CD CD 3 CL Q_ O CL cc CD CO Fig. in the process generating city form that is sustainable.23 : Transport and Road Safety Ladder Transit Oriented Development National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP). .

roach to Transit Oriented Development highly depends on establishing mixed use zone and strategic densification. • Land-use based financing sources along transport corridors. Pedestrian friendly designated space for all activities. SMART AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY 129 Transit Oriented Development is linking the development. BRTS. facilitates public transit system and ease of access to the transit facility thereby ring people to prefer to walk and use public transportation over personal modes of ■port. in context of scales in planning i. Ring Road) attracting economic activities and leading to induced urban development with less efforts. This attempts to compact the cities and reducing dependency on the new n developments which encourage the shift from non-motorized modes of travel. integrated urban pment. convenient interchange options and spatial provision for various modes of Intermediate Public Transport (IPT) at Multimodal Transit Station for seam less travel. focus job creation investments in transit serviced locations. Besides. higher property tax along transit corridors. reducing distances between places. impact fees. as well as journey times. Create a network of streets that provides choice of routes for all modes. • High Density. The policy includes: • Networks and Connectivity: Disperse high traffic volumes over multiple parallel streets rather than concentrating traffic on few major arterial streets. ‘ I • Direct Business to TOD Locations: Create transit services to regional job centers. development charges. eliminate the need of Intermediate Public Transport by design and engineering. sub-regional. • Last Mile Connectivity: Provide fast. relazaiion and equity. Provide multiple mode choices for last-mile connectivity at various prices and comfort levels. for example. around a transit node. Mixed-Income Development: Compact and mixed use neighborhoods for shorter commutes and equity for all sections of society. TOD can act as an alternative revenue generation source from: Financing of urban transport projects by unlocking land values as higher FSI in influence zone of transit corridors within the framework of the overall planning guidelines to be prepared by respective states. city and area. . • Streetscape Design: Urban places should be designed for enjoyment. Transit Corridors (Metro/Mono-Rail. periodic revision of property guidance value. At a given situation. regional. conversion charges and betterment levy. quality and uniqueness of each space. • Pedestrian access: Provide the shortest direct route to pedestrians and non- motorised modes to station as well as between building blocks. 'res a differential methodology for intervention. • Promote Place Making to Create a Sense of Place: Focus oh prompting liveability.e.

Comprehensive Mobility Plan (CMP) Increasing population of urban centres has resulted in traffic as a major urban prob CMP is the key document providing rationale for the transportation proposals u_ JNNURM. it invariably promotes value added acti‘ including commercial and services. According to guidelines and toolkit for Urban Transport Develop (MOUD).Land use patterns and development trends .130 If properly planned and implemented.Other relevant issues • Analysis of Existing Traffic/Transport Situation . the following are the contents of a CMP: 1. Master Plan and Comprehensive Traffic Transport Studies (CTTS).Existing transport infrastructure .Objective of the CMP .Traffic Survey (Traffic Volume.) . It provides a long term vision of mobility patterns focuses bii integration of land use and transport and improvement of the mobili people. Existing Situation > • Introduction .Public transport systems . reports and proposals .Existing reports and documents . CMP reviews the future land use patterns in the Master Plan from the mob optimization point of view and selects a preferred pattern of land use/trans integration. Origin-Destination. Traffic Movement.Traffic safety and enforcement .Urban goods movement .Scope of the CMP • City Profile .Land use development policies and strategies .General background .Legal framework and standards .Identification of issues • Existing Transport Systems . etc.Socio-economic profile • Review of Land Use System . It draws its rationale from CDP.Existing studies.Environmental and social conditions .Institutional and financial situation .

Pedestrian facilities . SMART AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOWLflY 131 .Hierarchical road network .Secondary road construction/improvement .Trunk and feeder public transport network . (including bicycles. Analysis of social consideration . Analysis of travel characteristics . Identification of Issues . Analysis of vehicular traffic and bottlenecks . Evaluation of urban growth and transport network scenarios .ITS application • Road Network Development Plan .Railway crossings and underpasses • NMV Facility Improvement Plan .MRT development plans .Strategy for NMV/NMT facilities.Vision statement . Development of base-year transport demand model . etc.Road network scenarios .Comparative analysis of urban transport environment Development of urban land use and transport strategy • Development of Vision and Goals .Development of urban growth scenarios • Future Transport Network Scenarios .Bus service improvement plan .Urban growth scenarios in the master plan .Arterial road construction/imporvement .Urban transport development strategies .) . Goals setting • Future Urban Growth Scenarios . rickshaws.Strategies for land use and transport systems development Plans and projects • Public Transport Improvement Plan . Public transport development split scenarios • Development of Urban Land Use and Transport Strategy .Intersections and flyovers .

Palrking regulations .132 ernes • Intermodal Facilities . Bus terminals . Traffic safety regulations . Bus-Rail interchange . Park and ride facilities .Freight terminals • Regulatory and Institutional Measures . Unified metropolitan transport authority .Traffic impact assessment mechanism -r Regulatory changes required for the introduction of TDM measures .