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Pergamon Titles of Related Interest

RAUDKIVI
Loose Boundary Hydraulics

TANIDA
Atlas of Visualization

JAPAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS


Visualized Flow

TANAKA & CRUSE


Boundary Element Methods in Applied Mechanics

USCOLD (US Committee on Large Dams)


Development of Dam Engineering in the United States

WILLIAMS & ELDER


Fluid Physics for Oceanographers and Physicists

Pergamon Related Journals


(free specimen copy gladly sent on request)

Computers and Fluids


International Journal of Engineering Science
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences
International Journal of Solids and Structures
Journal of Terramechanics
Minerals Engineering
Ocean Engineering
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology
RIVER MECHANICS

M. Selim Yalin
M.A.S.C.E., M.I.C.E., M.E.I.C., M.J.S.C.E.
Emeritus Professor of Civil Engineering,
Queen's University, Kingston, Canada

PERGAMON PRESS
OXFORD NEW YORK SEOUL TOKYO
U.K. P e r g a m o n P r e s s L t d , H e a d i n g t o n Hill H a l l ,
O x f o r d 0 X 3 OBW, England

U.S.A. P e r g a m o n P r e s s , Inc, 6 6 0 W h i t e P l a i n s R o a d ,
T a r r y t o w n , N e w Y o r k 1 0 5 9 1 - 5 1 5 3 , U.S.A.

OREA Pergamon Press Korea, K P O Box 315, Seoul 110-603,


Korea

JAPAN Pergamon Press Japan, Tsunashima Building Annex,


3-20-12 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, J a p a n

Copyright 1992 Pergamon Press L t d

All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be


reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in
any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic,
magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording
or otherwise, without permission in writing from the
publishers.

First e d i t i o n 1 9 9 2

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


A c a t a l o g u e r e c o r d f o r t h i s b o o k is a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e
British L i b r a r y

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


A c a t a l o g u e r e c o r d f o r t h i s b o o k is a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e
L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s

ISBN 0 08 040190 2

Printed in Great Britain by BPCC Wheatons Ltd, Exeter


PREFACE

T h i s b o o k c o n c e r n s t h e p r o c e s s e s a n d p h e n o m e n a t a k i n g p l a c e in a
r i v e r f l o w i n g in a l l u v i u m . It is i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y for g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a n d
r e s e a r c h e r s in h y d r a u l i c e n g i n e e r i n g , g e o m o r p h o l o g y , p h y s i c a l g e o g r a p h y a n d
o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e b e h a v i o u r a n d e v o l u t i o n of r i v e r s ; h o w e v e r ,
it m a y h a v e s o m e a p p e a l a l s o t o p r a c t i s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s .
M a n y fluvial p r o c e s s e s h a v e n o t yet b e e n e x p l a i n e d in a g e n e r a l l y a c -
c e p t e d m a n n e r , a n d t h e r e f o r e it w o u l d b e o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o d i s c u s s t h e i r
m e c h a n i s m s a n d f o r m u l a t i o n s for t h e s i m p l e s t c a s e s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of
possible b u t u n n e c e s s a r y complexities w o u l d o n l y o b s c u r e the issue. C o n -
s i d e r i n g t h i s , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y of " i d e a l r i v e r s " a n d a s s o c i a t e d p r o c e s s e s is
c a r r i e d o u t for t h e m i n i m u m n u m b e r of p h e n o m e n o n - d e f i n i n g p a r a m e t e r s :
t h e flow r a t e is a l w a y s c o n s t a n t , t h e a l l u v i u m c o h e s i o n l e s s a n d h o m o g e n e o u s .
A s is w e l l k n o w n , at c e r t a i n s t a g e s of s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t t h e initially
flat flow b o u n d a r i e s b e c o m e u n d u l a t e d : t h e y b e c o m e c o v e r e d b y b e d f o r m s
( s a n d w a v e s ) . A f t e r t h e d i s c o v e r y of t u r b u l e n t b u r s t s , it b e c a m e e v i d e n t t h a t
if a n t i d u n e s , w h i c h a r e d u e to s t a n d i n g s u r f a c e w a v e s , a r e e x c l u d e d , t h e n all
t h e r e m a i n i n g b e d f o r m s g e n e r a t e d b y a r e c t i l i n e a r flow a r e c a u s e d b y
t u r b u l e n c e (as h a s b e e n a n t i c i p a t e d for a l o n g t i m e b y m a n y r e s e a r c h e r s ) .
M o r e specifically, d u n e s a n d b a r s a r e c a u s e d b y t h e s e q u e n c e s of v e r t i c a l a n d
h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s r e s p e c t i v e l y , r i p p l e s b e i n g d u e t o t h e v i s c o u s s t r u c t u r e s of
t h e flow at t h e b e d . C h a p t e r 2 d e a l s e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of
t u r b u l e n c e in t h e light of t h e r e c e n t a d v a n c e s in t h a t field: t h e e m p h a s i s is
o n turbulent structures a n d their scales. C h a p t e r 3 c o n c e r n s t h e b e d forms
themselves.
T h e c u r r e n t p r e v a i l i n g v i e w is t h a t a n a l l u v i a l s t r e a m e v o l v e s b e c a u s e
o n e of its e n e r g y - r e l a t e d p r o p e r t i e s t e n d s t o a c q u i r e its e x t r e m e v a l u e : t h e
e v o l u t i o n t e r m i n a t e s ( t h e r e g i m e s t a t e is a c h i e v e d ) w h e n t h e e x t r e m e v a l u e
is r e a c h e d . T h e p r e s e n t t e x t a d h e r e s to this v i e w ( C h a p t e r 4 ) . In fact, t h e
r e g i m e t r e n d is u s e d n o t o n l y to d e t e r m i n e t h e w i d t h , d e p t h a n d s l o p e of a n
a l l u v i a l s t r e a m , b u t a l s o t o e x p l a i n , a n d w h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e t o f o r m u l a t e , its
b e h a v i o u r in p l a n . Q u e s t i o n s s u c h as, " W i l l a n initially s t r a i g h t s t r e a m r e m a i n
as it is, o r will it b r a i d o r m e a n d e r ; a n d in t h e l a t t e r c a s e , to w h a t e x t e n t ? "
a r e a n s w e r e d in this b o o k w i t h t h e a i d of t h e r e g i m e c o n c e p t . In C h a p t e r 5
it is s h o w n t h a t t h e a n s w e r t o s u c h q u e s t i o n s d e p e n d s l a r g e l y o n h o w t h e
initial o r v a l l e y s l o p e of a s t r e a m c o m p a r e s w i t h its r e g i m e s l o p e .
V e r y o f t e n in fluvial h y d r a u l i c s o n e d e a l s w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l c u r v e s
w h o s e e q u a t i o n s c a n n o t b e d e d u c e d t h e o r e t i c a l l y . A n d yet, for c o m p u t a t i o n a l
p u r p o s e s , it w o u l d b e d e s i r a b l e to r e p r e s e n t a n e x p e r i m e n t a l p o i n t p a t t e r n

ix
by a best-fit e q u a t i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g this, certain " c o m p u t i n g e q u a t i o n s " (in
u
short, c o m p - e q s . " ) are suggested in C h a p t e r s 1, 3 a n d 4 - these e q u a t i o n s
h a v e n o c l a i m other than that their graphs pass t h r o u g h the midst of the
r e s p e c t i v e data-point patterns.
Letter s y m b o l s , particularly t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l o n e s , are often u s e d in the
present text w i t h o u t definition. T o c o m p e n s a t e for this, a List of S y m b o l s is
i n c l u d e d at t h e b e g i n n i n g of the b o o k .
T h i s text c o n t a i n s m a n y i d e a s of m y o w n w h i c h h a v e not b e e n p u b -
lished before. T h u s , for i m p e r f e c t i o n s in any s t a t e m e n t , f o r m u l a or diagram
p r e s e n t e d w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e , I a l o n e a m responsible.
It is m y pleasant duty to express m y thanks to D r . D . W. B a c o n , former
D e a n of t h e F a c u l t y of A p p l i e d S c i e n c e , Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y , for his g e n e r o u s
financial a n d m o r a l support.
I a m also i n d e b t e d to Prof. E. A . W a l k e r a n d D r . K. R. Hall for re-
v i e w i n g t h e English of m y original text.
M y d e e p e s t gratitude g o e s to m y graduate student A . M. Ferreira da
Silva, M . S c . ( L N E C - L i s b o n ) , for her c o m p e t e n t a n d enthusiastic h e l p in the
p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e scientific c o n t e n t of this b o o k .

M. S. Y a l i n

Kingston, Ontario

X
LIST OF RELEVANT SYMBOLS

1. G e n e r a l

g acceleration d u e to gravity
t time
x d i r e c t i o n of r e c t i l i n e a r flow
y direction vertically p e r p e n d i c u l a r to x
z direction horizontally perpendicular to x
y e l e v a t i o n of b e d s u r f a c e
U dimensional function determining a quantity A
$.4, 4>A, dimensionless functions determining a quantity A

approximately equal to, c o m p a r a b l e with


p r o p o r t i o n a l to ( p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y factor m a y not b e constant)
V nabla-operator ("del")

Subscripts:
av signifies a v e r a g e v a l u e of a q u a n t i t y
cr signifies t h e v a l u e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e i n i t i a t i o n of s e d i m e n t
transport (to t h e "critical stage")
signifies r e g i m e v a l u e of a q u a n t i t y

R
2. Physical Properties of Fluid a n d G r a n u l a r M a t e r i a l

d e n s i t y of fluid
specific w e i g h t of fluid
k i n e m a t i c viscosity
P
grain density
1 = Pg specific w e i g h t of g r a i n s in fluid
v t y p i c a l g r a i n s i z e ( u s u a l l y D 5 0)
Ps t e r m i n a l ( s e t t l i n g ) v e l o c i t y of g r a i n s
%
D
w
3. Flow

B flow w i d t h at t h e free s u r f a c e
B flow w i d t h at t h e b e d
Bc w i d t h of t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l flow r e g i o n

XI
h flow d e p t h
S slope
Q flow r a t e
q flow r a t e p e r u n i t w i d t h (specific flow r a t e )
V a v e r a g e flow v e l o c i t y
U i n s t a n t a n e o u s local flow v e l o c i t y in t h e d i r e c t i o n /
(i = z)
f
f l u c t u a t i n g c o m p o n e n t of Ui
Ui
t i m e a v e r a g e c o m p o n e n t of Ut
U(
a b b r e v i a t i o n s for Ux a n d ux r e s p e c t i v e l y
U and u
Umax m a x i m u m v a l u e of u (at t h e free s u r f a c e , if B/h is l a r g e )
t y p i c a l v a l u e of u at t h e b e d
Bs roughness function
K w 0.4 V o n K a r m a n constant
r s h e a r stress
v i s c o u s a n d t u r b u l e n t c o m p o n e n t s of r
To s h e a r stress i n t e r a c t i n g b e t w e e n t h e flow a n d t h e b e d s u r f a c e
(r0)f, (t0)a p u r e friction a n d f o r m - d r a g c o m p o n e n t s of r 0

v, = 'Sjrjp shear velocity


c = v/v* d i m e n s i o n l e s s C h e z y friction factor
Cf , c & p u r e friction a n d f o r m - d r a g c o m p o n e n t s of c
c flat b e d v a l u e of c
K g r a n u l a r r o u g h n e s s of b e d s u r f a c e
K g r a n u l a r r o u g h n e s s of b a n k s
t o t a l r o u g h n e s s of t h e b e d ( c o v e r e d by b e d f o r m s )

4. M e c h a n i c s of S e d i m e n t Transport

t h e v a l u e of y s e p a r a t i n g b e d - l o a d a n d s u s p e n d e d - l o a d r e g i o n s
specific v o l u m e t r i c b e d - l o a d r a t e ( w i t h i n e)
qss specific v o l u m e t r i c s u s p e n d e d - l o a d r a t e ( w i t h i n (h e))
(is = q$b + q$s t o t a l specific v o l u m e t r i c t r a n s p o r t r a t e p a s t t h e b e d
ql = qSb + qJ t o t a l specific v o l u m e t r i c t r a n s p o r t r a t e p a s t t h e b a n k s
Qs v o l u m e t r i c t r a n s p o r t r a t e ( t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e c r o s s - s e c t i o n of
t h e flow)
Ps v o l u m e t r i c d e p o s i t i o n r a t e p e r u n i t a r e a (from a n e x t e r n a l
source)
c l o c a l v o l u m e t r i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s u s p e n d e d p a r t i c l e s
c, t h e v a l u e of C at y = e
vb v e r t i c a l d i s p l a c e m e n t v e l o c i t y of a p o i n t of t h e b e d s u r f a c e
ub m i g r a t i o n v e l o c i t y of b e d f o r m s
A d e v e l o p e d bed form length
A d e v e l o p e d bed form height
S = A/A d e v e l o p e d bed form steepness

Xll
A,-, A I 9 Si signify t h e q u a n t i t i e s a b o v e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e b e d f o r m /
(/= a ( a l t e r n a t e b a r s ) ; = b ( b a r s ) ; = d ( d u n e s ) ; = g ( a n t i d u n e s ) ; = r ( r i p p l e s ) )

A, b e d f o r m l e n g t h at a t i m e t
A, b e d f o r m h e i g h t at a t i m e t
Ti d u r a t i o n of d e v e l o p m e n t of a b e d f o r m /

5. T u r b u l e n c e

i) V e r t i c a l t u r b u l e n c e :

L burst length
L' burst width
T burst period
e burst-forming eddy
E m a c r o t u r b u l e n t e d d y (e at / = T)
largest t u r b u l e n t e d d y (of " p r e - b u r s t - e r a " )
/ e d d y size ( d i a m e t e r )

ii) H o r i z o n t a l t u r b u l e n c e :

S u b s c r i p t H: m a r k s t h e h o r i z o n t a l c o u n t e r p a r t s of t h e q u a n t i t i e s a b o v e

t h i c k n e s s of t h e " f r e e " ( n o t r u b b i n g t h e b e d ) e d d y eH
e m ax t h i c k n e s s of t h e " f r e e " EH (of t h e f r e e eH at t = TH)
N n u m b e r of b u r s t - r o w s ( n o t t o b e c o n f u s e d w i t h d i m e n s i o n l e s s
specific flow r a t e N)
2
(B/h)/c d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e d e t e r m i n i n g iV
n
Th ~ {duldz) h o r i z o n t a l s h e a r stress

6. M e a n d e r i n g a n d B r a i d i n g

Channel-fitted cylindrical coordinates:


/ d i r e c t i o n a l o n g c h a n n e l c e n t e r l i n e in p l a n ; / = 0 at i n f l e c t i o n
point
r radial direction
y v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n (y = 0 at t h e f l o w b e d )

N a t u r a l c o o r d i n a t e s of a s t r e a m l i n e :
s flow d i r e c t i o n
n d i r e c t i o n n o r m a l to s

x g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n of flow ( i n a s i n u o u s c h a n n e l )

xiii
Z d i r e c t i o n h o r i z o n t a l l y p e r p e n d i c u l a r to x
Am m e a n d e r wave length
Am meander amplitude
m e a n d e r l e n g t h ( a l o n g /)
o Lrn /A m sinuosity
R r a d i u s of c h a n n e l c u r v a t u r e in p l a n
e d e f l e c t i o n a n g l e at a s e c t i o n / (Fig. 5.2)
d e f l e c t i o n a n g l e at / = 0
B e s s e l f u n c t i o n of first k i n d a n d z e r o - t h o r d e r
s v
valley slope
d e v i a t i o n a n g l e (of s t r e a m l i n e s f r o m c u r v i l i n e a r p a r a l l e l i s m )
u m
m i g r a t i o n v e l o c i t y of a m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m ( a l o n g x)
v m
e x p a n s i o n v e l o c i t y of m e a n d e r l o o p s ( a l o n g r)
m e a n d e r i n g a n d b r a i d i n g r e g i o n s in t h e (B/h; /z/D)-plane
k n u m b e r of c o n s e c u t i v e " s p l i t s " of a b r a i d i n g s t r e a m

Subscripts:
a signifies v a l u e of a q u a n t i t y at t h e a p e x s e c t i o n (of a s i n u o u s
channel)
1 signifies q u a n t i t i e s at t h e free s u r f a c e
2 signifies q u a n t i t i e s n e a r t h e b e d

7. D i m e n s i o n l e s s Combinations

Fr Froude number

Re flow R e y n o l d s n u m b e r

Re. roughness Reynolds number

X- g r a i n size R e y n o l d s n u m b e r

Y-- mobility n u m b e r

Z = d i m e n s i o n l e s s flow d e p t h

W density ratio

material n u m b e r

xiv
V= relative flow intensity

" E i n s t e i n ' s d i m e n s i o n l e s s transport rate

N d i m e n s i o n l e s s specific f l o w rate ( n o t to b e c o n f u s e d w i t h
n u m b e r N of burst-rows)

XV
CHAPTER 1

FUNDAMENTALS

1.1 W i d t h - t o - D e p t h Ratio of a River

F o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m p l e of Ref. [11], w e b e g i n t h i s text b y p o i n t i n g o u t


t h a t a n a t u r a l r i v e r is, as a r u l e , a v e r y w i d e o b j e c t : t h e w i d t h - t o - d e p t h r a t i o
Blh of a l a r g e a l l u v i a l s t r e a m ( l o w e r r e a c h e s of a r i v e r ) is u s u a l l y a t h r e e -
digit n u m b e r . T h e ( u n d i s t o r t e d ) c r o s s - s e c t i o n of a n a t u r a l r i v e r is t h u s m o r e
l i k e l y t o b e as in F i g . 1.1a ( w h e r e B/hw 100), t h a n as in F i g s . 1.1b a n d c,
w h i c h a r e t h e t y p i c a l t e x t b o o k s k e t c h e s . T h e p o r t r a y a l of a r i v e r w i t h t h e a i d
of v e r t i c a l l y e x a g g e r a t e d c r o s s - s e c t i o n s as in Figs. 1.1b a n d c, d u r i n g t h e
t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a n d l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s , l e d to t h e e m e r g e n c e

Fig. 1.1

of t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y e x a g g e r a t e d n o t i o n s a n d f o r m u l a t i o n s . T h u s t h e e x -
p r e s s i o n of t h e h y d r a u l i c r a d i u s is often u n n e c e s s a r i l y e n c u m b e r e d , t h e
i m p o r t a n c e of b a n k friction is o v e r e s t i m a t e d , t h e r o l e of t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l
c i r c u l a t i o n (T) a n d / o r of t h e t r a n s v e r s e free s u r f a c e s l o p e Sr o n t h e f o r m a t i o n
of m e a n d e r s is o v e r s t r e s s e d , e t c . W i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of Blh t h e c r o s s -
s e c t i o n a l c i r c u l a t i o n t e n d s to l o s e its m e a n i n g , w h i l e Sr i n e v i t a b l y a p p r o a c h e s
z e r o - yet it is e x a c t l y t h e r i v e r s h a v i n g l a r g e Blh w h i c h e x h i b i t p r o m i n e n t
meandering.
T h e m a t h e m a t i c a l t r e a t m e n t of a p h e n o m e n o n a l w a y s r e q u i r e s t h e r e -
m o v a l of " n a t u r a l a r b i t r a r i n e s s " , t h e r e p l a c e m e n t of n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s b y
t h e i r i d e a l i z e d c o u n t e r p a r t s - a n d r i v e r m e c h a n i c s is n o exception.
A c c o r d i n g l y , w e will a s s u m e t h a t t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n of a s t r a i g h t s t r e t c h of a n
ideal river h a s t h e f o r m of a s y m m e t r i c a l t r a p e z o i d as s h o w n in F i g . 1.2: t h e

l
b e d b2b2 is h o r i z o n t a l , the b a n k s bxb2 a n d b[b2' are curvilinear. A t bx and
and b[ the b a n k s are i n c l i n e d by t h e a n g l e of r e p o s e <f> (of the c o h e s i o n l e s s
a l l u v i u m ) ; at b2 a n d b2 they are t a n g e n t to t h e b e d . If B/h is sufficiently large,

Fig. 1.2

then the c r o s s - s e c t i o n p o s s e s s e s a central region w h e r e the flow c a n b e re-


garded a n d treated as t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l . Let X a n d X' b e the lines f o r m e d by
the p o i n t s w h e r e t h e curvature of t h e i s o v e l s practically vanishes, i T h e w i d t h
Bc of t h e central r e g i o n must thus b e i d e n t i f i e d w k h t h e distance b3 bU w h i c h
is s o m e w h a t smaller than t h e b e d w i d t h b2b2 = B. A c c o r d i n g to [ 3 6 ] ,

Bc = b Q - 2m (1.1)

where m varies depending on the cross-section geometry and boundary


2
roughness. In t h e present b o o k w e w i l l b e d e a l i n g e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h c h a n n e l s
c o r r e s p o n d i n g to large v a l u e s of B/h (larger than w l O , say). For s u c h " w i d e "
c h a n n e l s , the distinction b e t w e e n v a r i o u s w i d t h s ( , , Bc) becomes inconse-
quential. T h u s , w h e n n e e d e d , a c h a n n e l f l o w c a n b e specified by a single
width (as in the c a s e of r e g i m e c h a n n e l s s t u d i e d in C h a p t e r 4, Part I), the
w i d t h Bc c a n b e r e p l a c e d by B ( C h a p t e r 4, part II), the total Q a n d Qs can
be identified with t h o s e of t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l flow past t h e b e d , etc.3
It is fortunate that m o s t of t h e natural alluvial streams are w i d e , for this
m a k e s it p o s s i b l e t o treat t h e m o n t h e s i m p l e s t t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l basis ( w h i c h
is, in fact, t h e o n l y reliable basis at p r e s e n t ) .

1
The flow boundary bxb2bibx is itself an isovel (u = 0); hence X and V are normal to the
bed at b2 and b{.
2
The functional relation determining m will be discussed at the end of 2.3.5.
3
The last mentioned identification is also enhanced by the fact that the specific rates q and
qs progressively decrease along b,bx (q vanishes at bx, q5 before bx is reached).

2
1.2 D i m e n s i o n a l M e t h o d s

1.2.1 Characteristic parameters

D i m e n s i o n a l m e t h o d s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y useful in t h e s t u d y of t h o s e
p h e n o m e n a a n d p r o c e s s e s w h o s e p h y s i c a l m e c h a n i s m is n o t q u i t e k n o w n a n d
w h o s e d e f i n i t i o n i n v o l v e s a l a r g e n u m b e r of q u a n t i t i e s . T h e fluvial p r o c e s s e s
o b v i o u s l y b e l o n g t o t h i s c a t e g o r y : h e n c e , e x t e n s i v e u s e of t h e d i m e n s i o n a l
m e t h o d s is m a d e in t h e p r e s e n t text.
A p h y s i c a l p h e n o m e n o n of a s p e c i f i e d g e o m e t r y is d e f i n e d b y a l i m i t e d
4
n u m b e r (n) of i n d e p e n d e n t q u a n t i t i e s

ax, a 2 , a 3 , ..., an , (1.2)

w h i c h a r e r e f e r r e d to as t h e characteristic parameters (of t h a t p h e n o m e n o n ) .


A n y q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o p e r t y A of a p h e n o m e n o n m u s t b e a c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n
of its c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a r a m e t e r s aL(i = 1, 2, . . . , n)\

A = fA(a^a2,a3,..., an) (1.3)

( w h e r e A ^ a,-).

1- C h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a r a m e t e r s a{ a r e not t h e v a r i a b l e s of a p h e n o m e n o n ( a l -
t h o u g h t h e y m a y a p p e a r as s u c h in ( 1 . 3 ) ) : t h e y a r e m e r e l y the
" i n g r e d i e n t s " n e e d e d to f o r m t h e a c t u a l ( d i m e n s i o n l e s s ) v a r i a b l e s . T h e
" t a s k " of t h e p a r a m e t e r s a, is to d e f i n e ( o r d e t e r m i n e ) a p h e n o m e n o n , a n d
t h e r e f o r e a n y q u a n t i t y w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s to its d e f i n i t i o n - c o n s t a n t o r
variable, positive or negative, dimensional or dimensionless must b e
5
i n c l u d e d in t h e set ( 1 . 2 ) . T h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e of e a c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
p a r a m e t e r at r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t in t h e c o u r s e of a g i v e n e x p e r i m e n t , a n d t h e
fact t h a t at c a n b e a v a r i a b l e q u a n t i t y m e a n s t h a t its n u m e r i c a l v a l u e m a y
vary from o n e e x p e r i m e n t to another.

If A is a quantity which varies as a function of position (xk) and/or time (i), then
A = FA(ay,a2,a3 an,xk,t)

which, for xk - constk and t = const,, reduces into (1.3). In o t h e r words, if A varies in
space and/or time, then (1.3) is to be interpreted as the expression of A which c o r r e s p o n d s
to a specified location and/or time.

2- C h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a r a m e t e r s a{ a r e n o t r e q u i r e d to b e of a n y p a r t i c u l a r
p h y s i c a l n a t u r e : w h a t m a t t e r s is t h e i r n u m b e r (n) and independence

4
n quantities are " i n d e p e n d e n t " if none of t h e m is expressible as a function of (some of)
the remaining n - 1 quantities.
5
It is thus clear that it is misleading to refer to the characteristic p a r a m e t e r s a, as the
"dimensional variables" - as is often d o n e in the literature. More information on
characteristic p a r a m e t e r s can be found in [36], [37], [32].

3
(physical laws h a v e m o r e a m a t h e m a t i c a l than physical basis). For exam-
p l e , a s t e a d y s t a t e flow in a c i r c u l a r p i p e is d e f i n e d by five i n d e p e n d e n t
parameters: they can be [ g , D , p, / i ] , [Q, v, {KID), p, i/], [ j w , v . ,
D , p , /c,], ... , a n d so o n .

1.2.2 Dimensionless variables and functions


A r e l a t i o n s u c h as (1.3) r e f l e c t s a l a w of t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d w h i c h is
s u p p o s e d t o exist i n d e p e n d e n t l y of t h e h u m a n m i n d . B u t if s o , t h e n t h e v a l u e s
s u p p l i e d by (1.3) s h o u l d n o t d e p e n d o n t h e activity of o u r m i n d . Y e t if A is
a d i m e n s i o n a l q u a n t i t y , t h e n its n u m e r i c a l v a l u e g i v e n b y (1.3) will o b v i o u s l y
v a r y d e p e n d i n g o n t h e u n i t s we c h o o s e to e v a l u a t e a{. H e n c e t h e r e l a t i o n
(1.3), as it s t a n d s , c a n n o t b e t h e p r o p e r ( o r t h e u l t i m a t e ) f o r m of t h e ex-
p r e s s i o n of a n a t u r a l l a w . T h e p r o p e r f o r m m u s t b e dimensionless - for o n l y
t h e v a l u e s of t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s q u a n t i t i e s r e m a i n t h e s a m e in all systems of
units.
T h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s v e r s i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n (1.3) c a n b e e x p r e s s e d as

IiA = <t>A(Xx,X2,X,,...,XN), (1.4)

where N = n - 3 q u a n t i t i e s X} a r e t h e dimensionless variables of t h e


phenomenon a n d II^ is t h e dimensionless counterpart of A. A c c o r d i n g to t h e
"Tr-theorem" of t h e t h e o r y of d i m e n s i o n s , ^ X} a n d YLA a r e d e t e r m i n e d , w i t h
t h e a i d of at a n d A , as

Xj = >54^ 3 (;= 1,2,..., AO (1.5)


and
A yA
I I A = a'l a 2 afA. (1.6)

T h e " r e p e a t e r s " au a2 a n d a3 in t h e p o w e r p r o d u c t s a b o v e c a n b e any t h r e e


p a r a m e t e r s h a v i n g independent dimensions J T h e e x p o n e n t s m} c a n b e se-
l e c t e d at r a n d o m : t h e e x p o n e n t s x h y} a n d z} m u s t b e d e t e r m i n e d ( d e p e n d i n g
o n t h e s e l e c t e d m}) so t h a t t h e p o w e r p r o d u c t s Xj b e c o m e d i m e n s i o n l e s s .
S i m i l a r l y , t h e e x p o n e n t s xA, yA a n d zA m u s t b e d e t e r m i n e d ( d e p e n d i n g o n t h e
d i m e n s i o n of A) so t h a t I I A is d i m e n s i o n l e s s . If A is d i m e n s i o n l e s s , t h e n
xA - yA = zA = 0, a n d I I ^ is e q u a l to A itself; if o n e of aj+3 is d i m e n s i o n l e s s ,
t h e n Xj = + 3.
T h e following three points are relevant:

1- T h e f o r m of t h e f u n c t i o n <t>A in (1.4) is n o t specified. H e n c e from (1.4) it


d o e s n o t follow, a n d it is in fact false, t h a t all N d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e s
Xj m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y b e p r e s e n t in t h e e x p r e s s i o n of e v e r y d i m e n s i o n l e s s

6
T h e derivation of the 7 r - t h e o r e m is given e.g. in [22], [14], [5].
7
T h r e e quantities ax, a2, have i n d e p e n d e n t dimensions if n o n e of t h e m has the dimension
expressible by the d i m e n s i o n s of t h e r e m a i n i n g two ( m o r e o n the topic in [22], [36], [37]).

4
p r o p e r t y n ^ . T h e n p a r a m e t e r s a{ a n d t h u s t h e N d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e s
Xj, w h i c h a r e n e c e s s a r y a n d sufficient for t h e e x p r e s s i o n of all p r o p e r t i e s
(A a n d 11^) of a p h e n o m e n o n , s h o u l d b e r e g a r d e d m e r e l y a s s u f f i c i e n t a s
far as t h e e x p r e s s i o n of a n y s i n g l e p r o p e r t y is c o n c e r n e d . T h u s , o n e c a n
h a v e e.g. n 4 l = ^ ( ^ 3 , X^ XN- 0 , UAl = <j>A2(Xx), = const, ... , e t c .
( a l o n g s i d e I I A4 = <j>Ai(Xu A%, X3, ..., Xw) , s a y ) . T h e a n a l o g o u s is v a l i d for
IA in (1.3).

2- T h e r e l a t i o n s (1.3) a n d (1.4) c o r r e s p o n d t o a p h e n o m e n o n of a s p e c i f i e d
g e o m e t r y . T h i s m e a n s t h a t if t h e g e o m e t r y of a p h e n o m e n o n v a r i e s , t h e n
t h e f o r m of t h e f u n c t i o n s fA a n d <t>A m u s t b e e x p e c t e d t o v a r y a s w e l l (for
all A a n d UA). O n e c a n say t h a t t h e f o r m of a f u n c t i o n fA o r <t>A is itself
a f u n c t i o n of t h e g e o m e t r y . ( R e c a l l , for e x a m p l e , t h a t t h e d r a g c o e f f i c i e n t s
of a s p h e r e a n d of a c y l i n d e r a r e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s
( c u r v e s ) of t h e s a m e d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e , viz X = DUoc lis).

3- N o t e f r o m (1.5) t h a t , in g e n e r a l (i.e. w h e n xj9 y n z} ^ 0 ) , t h e r e p e a t e r s


i , a2 a n d a 3 a p p e a r in t h e e x p r e s s i o n of e v e r y d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e , yet
e a c h of t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r a m e t e r s a p p e a r s in t h e e x p r e s s i o n of o n l y o n e
(a4 in Xu a5 in X2, ... , e t c . ) . H e n c e , it is s a i d t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e
p a r a m e t e r g 4 ( o n I I A) is r e f l e c t e d b y t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e A T i , t h e
i n f l u e n c e of a5 b y X2, ... , e t c . N o n e of t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e s Xj
reflects t h e i n f l u e n c e of a r e p e a t e r ; a n d if t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e influ-
e n c e of a u say, by a s p e c i a l v a r i a b l e is d e s i r e d , t h e n ax s h o u l d n o t b e
s e l e c t e d as o n e of t h e r e p e a t e r s .

1.3 T w o - P h a s e Motion a n d its D i m e n s i o n l e s s Variables

1.3.1 Basic formulation

T h e s i m u l t a n e o u s m o t i o n of l i q u i d a n d s o l i d p h a s e s (of t h e t r a n s p o r t i n g
flow a n d t h e t r a n s p o r t e d s e d i m e n t ) c o n s t i t u t e s a m e c h a n i c a l t o t a l i t y w h i c h
c a n b e r e f e r r e d t o as t h e two-phase motion (or the transport p h e n o m e n o n )
[36]. If t h e g e o m e t r y of g r a n u l a r m a t e r i a l d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e s h a p e of
g r a i n s a n d of t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s g r a i n - s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n c u r v e is s p e c i f i e d ,
then the stationary a n d uniform (or q u a s i - u n i f o r m ) 8 t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l t w o -
p h a s e m o t i o n ( i n t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n Bc of a " w i d e " r i v e r ) c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d
[36], [37], [38] b y t h e f o l l o w i n g s e v e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a r a m e t e r s :

p , 1/, p 5 , D, h,v*,is (1.7)

T h e flow is quasi-uniform if its non-uniformities (along a distance A, say) a r e uniformly


distributed in the flow direction x, that is, if any of its properties A varies as a periodic
function: A = f(x,y, z) = f(x + kA,y, z), where k is a n integer (see [36], C h a p t e r 1).

5
9
( s e e List of S y m b o l s ) . I d e n t i f y i n g t h e r e p e a t e r s au a2 a n d a} w i t h p , D a n d
u * , o n e d e t e r m i n e s , o n t h e b a s i s of ( 1 . 5 ) , t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e s

Xy = X =

X, = Y =

(1.8)
x} = z =

x4= w--

T h e grain size Reynolds number X reflects t h e i n f l u e n c e of v: t h e mobility


number Y ( w h i c h is t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e of s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t ) t a k e s
i n t o a c c o u n t t h e r o l e of 1,; t h e v a r i a b l e s Z a n d W reflect t h e r o l e s of h a n d
ps, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e g r a i n m a s s , a n d t h u s ps, is of i m p o r t a n c e o n l y w i t h r e -
g a r d to t h e ( a c c e l e r a t e d ) m o t i o n of a n i n d i v i d u a l g r a i n [36], [37], [38]. In t h e
p r e s e n t b o o k w e will b e c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h e g r a i n m o t i o n en masse, a n d
t h e r e f o r e a n y d i m e n s i o n l e s s p r o p e r t y UA of t h e t w o - p h a s e m o t i o n will b e
t r e a t e d as a f u n c t i o n of ( t o t h e m o s t ) X, Y a n d Z o n l y :
x yA A
UA = p *D vl A = <(>A(X, Y, Z) . (1.9)

1.3.2 Equivalent forms

It is n o t n e c e s s a r y to e x p r e s s a p r o p e r t y 11^ literally in t e r m s of X
( = A ^ ) , Y ( = X2) a n d Z ( = X}): a n y Xj c a n b e r e p l a c e d by a q u a n t i t y
w h i c h is k n o w n to b e a f u n c t i o n of t h a t Xj a n d of o n e ( o r b o t h ) of t h e r e -
m a i n i n g t w o v a r i a b l e s . T o i l l u s t r a t e this p o i n t , c o n s i d e r t h e i n i t i a t i o n of
s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t ( t h e " c r i t i c a l s t a g e " of a m o b i l e b e d ) w h i c h , as is w e l l
k n o w n , is d e t e r m i n e d b y a c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e critical v a l u e s of X
a n d Y:

YC, = 9(XC,). (1.10)


7
T h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c u r v e (Shields curve) i m p l y i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n is s h o w n in
2
Fig. 1.3. N o t e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h a t t h e r a t i o Xc r/Ycr does not d e p e n d on
2
v*cr, a n d t h e r e f o r e it is e q u a l t o t h e r a t i o X /Y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a n y s t a g e
of t h e t w o - p h a s e m o t i o n :

9 T h e consideration of v* = ^/gSh and h in the set of characteristic parameters (1.7) is


equivalent to that of gS and h. This m e a n s that in the case of a uniform or quasi-uniform
two-phase m o t i o n (specified by (1.7)) the p a r a m e t e r s g and S co-operate in the form of a
single p a r a m e t e r gS. This p a r a m e t e r is the gravity c o m p o n e n t which generates the flow and
thus the whole p h e n o m e n o n [36], [37]. If the flow is quasi-uniform, then the variable
(within A) properties may be d e t e r m i n e d , a m o n g others, by g and 5 separately, but their
averaged (along x) values are d e t e r m i n e d by the p r o d u c t gS.

6
(1.11)

~T SOURCE 1 MATERIALS 11 I SOURCE I MATERIALS


<d Casey, H.J. [1] Sand + water 0 Shields, A. [14] Amber + water
Gilbert, G.K. [2] - - - - lignite + water
+ Grass, A.J. [3] - - $ - granite + water
Iwagaki, Y. [4] - - $ - - - Barite + water
10 | 1 Karahan, E. [6] - - + U.S.W.E.S. [15] sand + water ] =
-0-Kramer, H. [7] - - V a n o n i . V A . [16] - - ~
v Mantz, P.A. [8] - e - " glass beads r+ ~ w
e Meyer-Peter, E.i ifj1 yQ . _
Muller, R. I t White, C M . [17] sand + oil _
A Neill, C R . [11] - - o White, S.J. [18] sand + water
^ < - - glass beadsn- # . . sand + oil
= ^ Yalin, M.S.
m
J [ 3 5] s a dn + g j y c e re o | |
ZZIH itJ - - sand + water _
1 1 L
V , _
cr (Ret.9numbers are those used in [35])

1 -0 1 E EE E / I _ ^

z 3
10 1 10 10 10
Xcr "

Fig. 1.3 (from Ref. [35])

Substituting Xcr = y/?Ycr in ( 1 . 1 0 ) , o n e o b t a i n s

Kr = *(V^T) i-e- ^ = #(0. (1.12)

T h e modified Shields' curve ( 1 . 1 2 ) ( w h i c h c a n b e u n a m b i g u o u s l y d e t e r m i n e d


from the original S h i e l d s ' c u r v e ( 1 . 1 0 ) ( s e e [36])) c o n t a i n s v*cr in Ycr o n l y ;
h e n c e , it can supply v*cr w i t h o u t "trial-and-error".
Using X = in ( 1 . 9 ) , o n e d e t e r m i n e s

II* = m V y , Y, Z) = +Al(& Y, Z ) , (1.13)

w h i c h indicates that any II* c a n e q u a l l y w e l l b e treated as a f u n c t i o n of ,


Y a n d Z ; or, to that matter, as a f u n c t i o n (<t>Al) of X, a n d Z .
D i v i d i n g the Y-number by Y c r, w e i n t r o d u c e its n o r m a l i z e d counterpart

(1.14)

w h i c h is referred to as the relative flow intensity. Substituting Y = i?() in


( 1 . 1 3 ) , o n e obtains

7
n = + (t,'i*().z)
A Ai = 4> (Lv.z)
Aj
(1.15)

w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t a n y 11^ c a n b e e x p r e s s e d a l s o as a f u n c t i o n of , rj a n d
Z . F u r t h e r equivalent forms a r e also possible.

1.3.3 (B/h)-ratio as the dimensionless variable

It w a s tacitly a s s u m e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a b o v e t h a t t h e
flow-specifying p a r a m e t e r s h a n d v* ( o r , w h i c h is t h e s a m e , h a n d S) c a n
b e a s s i g n e d a n y p h y s i c a l l y p o s s i b l e v a l u e s . Y e t , in t h e c a s e of a n a t u r a l r i v e r ,
h a n d S e m e r g e as a r e s u l t of t h e c h a n n e l f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s , a n d t h e r e f o r e
h a n d 5 ( a n d a l s o B) a r e t h e m s e l v e s c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s of t h e " c h a n n e l
f o r m i n g " Q ( a n d of t h e p a r a m e t e r s r e f l e c t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l n a t u r e of t h e l i q u i d
10
a n d solid p h a s e s i n v o l v e d ) .
A l t h o u g h t h e flow w i d t h B d e t e r m i n e s t h e e x t e n t of t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n
5 C , it d o e s n o t affect t h e ( t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l ) t r a n s p o r t p h e n o m e n o n w i t h i n Bc
d i r e c t l y ; h e n c e , B h a s n o t b e e n i n c l u d e d in t h e list of p a r a m e t e r s (1.7). T h e
p o s s i b l e i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of B c a n b e e x p l a i n e d as f o l l o w s . If t h e r a t i o B/h
is s m a l l e r t h a n a c e r t a i n v a l u e w h i c h d e p e n d s o n Z = hID - i n s h o r t if
B/h < ipe(Z) - t h e n (as will b e e x p l a i n e d in C h a p t e r 3) t h e b e d is e i t h e r
flat o r it is c o v e r e d by t h e b e d f o r m s (viz d u n e s , a n t i d u n e s a n d / o r r i p p l e s )
w h o s e l e n g t h a n d s t e e p n e s s d o n o t d e p e n d o n B/h. In t h i s c a s e , B/h h a s n o
i n f l u e n c e o n t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l t r a n s p o r t p h e n o m e n o n w i t h i n Bc at all. If,
o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , B/h > ip<(Z), t h e n t h e b e d m a y b e c o v e r e d by t h e b e d
f o r m s (viz a l t e r n a t e o r m u l t i p l e b a r s ) w h o s e s i z e a n d c o n f i g u r a t i o n do d e p e n d
o n B/h. In this c a s e , B/h has a n ( i n d i r e c t ) i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p h e n o m e n o n in
Bc: it ( d i r e c t l y ) affects t h e g e o m e t r y of b e d f o r m s w h i c h ( d i r e c t l y ) affects t h e
two-phase motion.
In C h a p t e r 3 it will b e s h o w n t h a t w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of B/h from
V^c(Z) o n w a r d s , t h e l i n e a r s c a l e of b a r s p r o g r e s s i v e l y c h a n g e s f r o m B t o h so
as t o b e c o m e e q u a l t o h in t h e l i m i t (B/h) oo. C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , t h e
i n f l u e n c e of B/h o n t h e p h e n o m e n o n in Bc m u s t also p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e c r e a s e ,
so as to v a n i s h c o m p l e t e l y w h e n (B/h) oo; i.e. w h e n t h e flow b e c o m e s t r u l y
two-dimensional.

1.4 M e c h a n i c a l Properties of F l o w

1.4.1 Shear stress and velocity distributions

C o n s i d e r a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l t u r b u l e n t o p e n - c h a n n e l flow in t h e c e n t r a l
r e g i o n Bc. W e a s s u m e t h a t t h i s flow is s t a t i o n a r y a n d u n i f o r m : t h e b e d is flat,
a n d K< h.

10
T h e determination of these functions is o n e of the topics of C h a p t e r 4.

8
T h e t i m e average shear stress distribution a l o n g y (Fig. 1.4a) is g i v e n
by the linear relation

(1.16)

where
r Q = pvl = lS h. (1.17)

Fig. 1.4

For the t i m e a v e r a g e v e l o c i t i e s u (Fig. 1.4b), w e h a v e

(1.18)

w h i c h c a n b e e x p r e s s e d also as

(1.19)

T h e v a l u e s of A, and Bs are interrelated by

A5= e (1-20)

If the fluid is "clear" ( n o s e d i m e n t in s u s p e n s i o n ) , then** / c 0 . 4 , the


roughness function Bs = <f>B(Re*) ( w h e r e Re* = v*k;lv) b e i n g g i v e n by the
e x p e r i m e n t a l curve in Fig. 1.5. N o t e that

if Re* > 70, t h e n Bs = 8.5 (rough t u r b u l e n t r e g i m e ) (1.21)

and

if Re* < w 5, t h e n Bs = In Re* + 5.5 ( h y d r o - s m o o t h r e g i m e ) . (1.22)

11
T h e graph representing the variation of the V o n K a r m a n " c o n s t a n t " K is given e.g. in Fig.
5.23 of Ref. [36J. An extensive account of t h e influence of s e d i m e n t concentration o n the
distribution of flow velocities can be found in the recent w o r k , Ref. [15].

9
T h e s t r a i g h t l i n e s Sx a n d S2 in F i g . 1.5 a r e t h e g r a p h s of ( 1 . 2 1 ) a n d (1.22)
r e s p e c t i v e l y . If 5 < Re* < 7 0 ( t r a n s i t i o n a l r e g i m e ) , t h e n t h e v a l u e of Bs
12
must b e t a k e n from Fig. 1.5.

01
I 1
1
Bs 1
|
85
9 t* s, /Sr.
1
1 i
1 i
8 1 i
i i
I 1 i
*Srr ooth I
i Q)omp etely rougr
in 0
22 22

1
1 i1 li
)2 04 06 08 V0 T2 V4 V6 VS 2V 2* 24 Z6 2% 3X> 3 2

log R e .

Fig. 1.5 (after Ref. [21])

T h e r e l a t i o n (1.18) ( a n d t h u s (1.19)) c a n b e u s e d , for all p r a c t i c a l p u r -


p o s e s , t h r o u g h o u t t h e r a n g e ymm < y ^ h ( s e e e.g. [ 2 1 ] , [36]), w h e r e ymm is
e i t h e r k, o r 1 1 . 6 W u * , w h i c h e v e r is t h e l a r g e r . 13 A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e maximum
v e l o c i t y at y = h c a n b e g i v e n b y

(1.23)

U s i n g t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e a v e r a g e flow v e l o c i t y , viz t h e e x p r e s s i o n

h
u d (1.24)
ymin)" = f y >

in conjunction with (1.18) (or (1.19)) and (1.23), and considering that
y m i ^n h, o n e d e t e r m i n e s

(1.25)

( w h e r e 2.5 l / / c ) .

12
T h e r o u g h n e s s function Bs - <f>Bs(Re*) can be characterized by the comp-eq.
0A21[ R le
Bs = 8.5 + [ 2 . 5 l n ( / f e * ) - 3]e' ^ ^ \

T h e solid curve in Fig. 1.5 is the g r a p h of this equation.


13
1^ >min
=
11.6 vlv* > /c 5, t h e n the w-distribution of the viscous flow within the layer
ks < y < (\\.6ulv*) is given by t h e linear form u/v* = (vJv)y (see [36]).

10
F r o m ( 1 . 2 5 ) , (1.23) a n d ( 1 . 1 8 ) , it f o l l o w s t h a t v is e q u a l to t h a t u w h i c h is
l
at t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s l e v e l y l h - e~ & 0.368 ( F i g . 1.4b). H e n c e , t h e a v e r a g e
flow v e l o c i t y v c a n b e e x p r e s s e d a l s o ( u s i n g K = 0.4) as

(1.26)

KB 1
( w h e r e bs = e * ~ ) .

If t h e flow is r o u g h t u r b u l e n t , t h e n i c f t - l w (0.4)(8.5) - 1 = 2.4 ( s e e ( 1 . 2 1 ) ) ,


a n d (1.26) y i e l d s

(1.27)

T h i s r e l a t i o n is often a p p r o x i m a t e d b y t h e p o w e r f o r m

(1.28)

If t h e flow is h y d r a u l i c a l l y s m o o t h , t h e n KBs - 1 In Re* + 1.2 ( s e e ( 1 . 2 2 ) ) ,


a n d (1.26) gives

(1.29)

( A m o r e d e t a i l e d d e r i v a t i o n of t h e e x p r e s s i o n s a b o v e c a n b e f o u n d e.g. in
[ 1 3 ] , [ 1 7 ] , [ 2 1 ] , [36]).

1.4.2 Friction factor

i- Flat bed surface (having granular roughness k,)

F r i c t i o n f a c t o r is a q u a n t i t y w h i c h r e l a t e s t h e flow v e l o c i t y v t o the
s h e a r v e l o c i t y u*. T h e r a t i o

(1.30)

r e f e r r e d to as t h e dimensionless Chezy coefficient, is t h e s i m p l e s t ( a n d m o s t


s o u n d ) friction factor. S u b s t i t u t i n g u* = \ / r 0 / p = *\/gSh in ( 1 . 3 0 ) , o n e o b -
t a i n s i m m e d i a t e l y t h e p r o p e r ^ v e r s i o n of t h e C h e z y r e s i s t a n c e e q u a t i o n for
t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l flows:

14
T h e " i m p r o p e r " feature of the original Chezy formula v = C\/SR (where R = h, if the
flow is two-dimensional) is d u e to its dimensional coefficient C (which has the disadvantage
of having different numerical values in different systems of units). Moreover, the original
Chezy formula does not indicate how v is d e t e r m i n e d by g which generates it: clearly
C = c V i " . and t h u s u~Vg~- T h e analogous is valid for the M a n n i n g formula t> =
m m
= (kln)R S where the total coefficient (kin) is dimensional (though n is dimensionless).
C o m p a r i n g M a n n i n g ' s formula with v - cygSR (which is the generalized version of
m
(1.31)), o n e d e t e r m i n e s t h e interrelation between (kin) and c, viz (kin) = c (\fglR ). The

11
v = c^/gSh. (1.31)

O b s e r v e t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s (1.26) to (1.29) a r e , in effect, t h e e x p r e s s i o n s of


t h e friction f a c t o r c. A s t a t i o n a r y a n d u n i f o r m t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l o p e n - c h a n n e l
flow p a s t a flat b e d h a v i n g g r a n u l a r r o u g h n e s s K is c o m p l e t e l y d e t e r m i n e d
by the characteristic p a r a m e t e r s
5 1
p, v, ks, h,v*, (1-32)

a n d t h u s by t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e s Re* = v*k,lv a n d h/K. H e n c e c,


w h i c h is a d i m e n s i o n l e s s p r o p e r t y ( I I v) of this flow, m u s t b e a c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n
of Re* a n d h/k^:
c= \(Re*,hlks). (1.33)

N o t e t h a t e a c h of t h e r e l a t i o n s (1.26) t o (1.29) is d e t e r m i n e d i n d e e d b y Re*


a n d / o r hlks o n l y (for Bs = <j>Bs(Re*)). C o n s i d e r t h e l i m i t i n g c a s e s . If t h e f l o w
1
is r o u g h t u r b u l e n t , t h e n it d o e s n o t d e p e n d o n v (~ Re* ) a n y l o n g e r a n d c
b e c o m e s a f u n c t i o n of hlks a l o n e ( E q s . (1.27) a n d ( 1 . 2 8 ) ) . If t h e flow is
h y d r a u l i c a l l y s m o o t h , t h e n it d o e s n o t d e p e n d o n fc,, a n d c b e c o m e s a f u n c -
t i o n of t h e p r o d u c t (h/ks)Re* = v*hlv w h i c h d o e s n o t c o n t a i n K ( E q . ( 1 . 2 9 ) ) .

ii- Undulated bed surface (having granular roughness K)


1- S u p p o s e n o w t h a t t h e b e d is u n d u l a t e d ; i.e. t h a t it is c o v e r e d b y a s e r i e s
of t r i a n g u l a r b e d f o r m s as s h o w n in F i g . 1.6a. W e a s s u m e t h a t t h e s e b e d

Fig. 1.6

dimensionless Darcy-Weisbach friction factor / does not involve any " h i d d e n p a r a m e t e r s "
2
such as g or R, and it is related to c by / = 8 / c .
15
Note that (1.32) is but the subset of (1.7) where the grains are " i m m o b i l i z e d " by r e m o v i n g
ps and 7s, while D is converted into the "yard-stick" (ks) m e a s u r i n g t h e size of the g r a n u l a r
bed roughness.

12
f o r m s e x t e n d in t h e d i r e c t i o n z, p e r p e n d i c u l a r to t h e d r a w i n g , indefinitely
( t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l b e d f o r m s ) : t h e i r l e n g t h a n d h e i g h t a r e A a n d A. C l e a r l y ,
A and A are the additional characteristic parameters, and (1.33) becomes
generalized into
6 1
c = <I> c(/?e*, h/ks,A/A,A/h). (1.34)

In Refs. [39] a n d [6] t h e f o l l o w i n g c - r e l a t i o n h a s b e e n d e r i v e d ( i n d e p e n d e n t l y ,


a n d by using different methods):

(1.35)

Here cf is a f u n c t i o n of (only) Re* and/or h/k,, and therefore (1.35) is


c o n s i s t e n t w i t h (1.34).i? T h e v a l i d i t y of (1.35) h a s b e e n verified by field a n d
l a b o r a t o r y d a t a (Ref. [34]). 18
In s o m e cases, m o r e than one mode of b e d forms can be present
s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ; for e x a m p l e , w e c a n h a v e r i p p l e s s u p e r i m p o s e d o n d u n e s , as
d e p i c t e d s c h e m a t i c a l l y in F i g . 1.6b. S i n c e e n e r g y losses a r e a d d i t i v e , t h e losses
d u e to t h e b e d f o r m s 1 a n d 2 c a n b e a d d e d [ 3 0 ] , [ 3 1 ] , [33], a n d t h e r e l a t i o n
(1.35) c a n b e g e n e r a l i z e d i n t o

(1.36)

S o m e t i m e s t h i s f o r m u l a is e x p r e s s e d as

4r = Af + Ax + A2 (1.37)
c"
or

16
If ks is still a repeater (as in t h e previous p a r a g r a p h ) , then the 7r-theorem supplies A/ks and
A/ks (in addition to Re* and hlks). H o w e v e r , since the consideration of A/ks, A/ks and
hlk5 is obviously equivalent to that of (A/ks)/(A/ks)y (Alks)i(hiks) and hlks, the replacement
of Alks a n d A/ks by the physically m o r e meaningful A/A and Aih is permissible.
17 2
T h e c o m b i n a t i o n (A/A) A//i was used also in Ref. [24].
18 2
T h e relation (1.35) gives c~ as a linear function of the dimensionless complex
2
[(A/A) A//i] = (A/A)(A//i). H o w e v e r , if A/A is finite and A//i is " s m a l l " (ripples (only) o n
the bed of a d e e p flow), t h e n the bed forms (ripples) manifest themselves as an ordinary
bed roughness, with Ks ~ A (<h). Clearly, for such cases c should turn into the logarithmic
2 _1
function of t h e complex [ ( A / A ) A / / i ] (as suggested first in Ref. [24]); and experiment
shows that this is indeed so (see e.g. [34]). It has been found in [34] that the transition from
2 2
(1.35) to the logarithmic f o r m takes place for [(A/A) A//i] < 1 0 ~ .

13
(1.38)

where

(1.39)

2
a r e t h e pure friction a n d form-drag c o m p o n e n t s of lie respectively.

2- L e t c a n d v b e t h e v a l u e s of c a n d v w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o a flat bed.
O b s e r v e , e.g. f r o m ( 1 . 3 6 ) , t h a t if t h e b e d is flat ( ( A / A ) * = 0 ) , t h e n

cf= c ( = c), (1.40)

w h e r e c is g i v e n b y t h e r e l a t i o n s (1.26) t o ( 1 . 2 9 ) . A t t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e of
k n o w l e d g e it w o u l d b e r e a s o n a b l e to e v a l u a t e cf b y u s i n g t h e e x p r e s s i o n s of
c, viz (1.26) to ( 1 . 2 9 ) , e v e n if t h e b e d is not flat. T h i s m e t h o d of e v a l u a t i o n
of cf is c o m m o n l y u s e d t o d a y , a n d it will b e u s e d in t h e p r e s e n t b o o k .
If ( A / A ) / > 0, t h e n (as is c l e a r f r o m (1.36)) c < cf ( = c ) . H e n c e if c
is s u b s t i t u t e d in (1.26) to ( 1 . 2 8 ) , t h e n t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s will n o l o n g e r b e
satisfied b y /c,: t h e y will b e satisfied b y a d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h , K$ say, w h i c h is
r e f e r r e d t o as t h e total bed roughness. Clearly

Ks>ks, (1.41)

w h e r e Ks = K w h e n ( A / A ) / = 0.
F r o m (1.36) a n d ( 1 . 4 0 ) , o n e d e t e r m i n e s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n for the
r a t i o c/Cf w h i c h will b e d e n o t e d by X c:

(1.42)

H e r e c can be evaluated (with the aid of (1.26) to (1.29)) b y u s i n g t h e s p a c e


a v e r a g e flow d e p t h h ( F i g . 1.6a). T h e r e l a t i o n s (1.36) to ( 1 . 4 2 ) c a n b e u s e d
for t h e c a s e of a m o b i l e b e d if /c $, A,- a n d A,- a r e k n o w n . W e will d e a l w i t h
t h e m o b i l e b e d v a l u e of K in S e c t i o n 1.6; t h e e x p r e s s i o n s of A, a n d A, will
b e d e t e r m i n e d in C h a p t e r 3.

3 - C o n s i d e r n o w t h e s h e a r stresses. M u l t i p l y i n g b o t h s i d e s of ( 1 . 3 8 ) with
2 2 2
pv a n d t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t v = c r 0/ p , o n e o b t a i n s
+ L 4 3
^0 = ('<))/ (^o)a' ( )

where

(1.44)

a r e t h e pure friction a n d form-drag c o m p o n e n t s of t h e total shear stress r0


( = ihS) r e s p e c t i v e l y . F r o m (1.44) it is c l e a r t h a t

14
(1.45)

Using (1.45), (1.38) a n d (1.43), o n e d e t e r m i n e s ^ t h e following relation:

(1.46)

( w h e r e X c = c/cf is g i v e n b y ( 1 . 4 2 ) ) , w h i c h is useful in d e t e r m i n i n g the


transport rate past an u n d u l a t e d bed (next section).

T h e friction factor relation (1.35) has been derived (in both [39] a n d [6]) from two-
dimensional considerations. T h u s the m o r e regular the bed forms are, t h e better is the
a g r e e m e n t of (1.35) (and (1.36)) with the m e a s u r e m e n t s . T h e r e is no reason to expect that
2
the dimensionless c o m p l e x (1/2)[(A/A) A/Vi] should still remain as it stands if t h e bed forms
are n o longer regular (if they are three-dimensional). And from c o m p a r i s o n with t h e data it
follows that in t h e latter case the complex m e n t i o n e d should be somewhat modified (Section
3.6).

1.5 S e d i m e n t Transport

1.5.1 Two modes of sediment transport, transport rates

If Y > Ycr ( o r rj > 1), t h e n t h e g r a i n s f o r m i n g t h e u p p e r m o s t l a y e r [36]


of t h e m o v a b l e b e d a r e in m o t i o n - flow is t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e s e d i m e n t . T h e
20
d e t a c h m e n t of g r a i n s is d u e t o ( r 0 ) / ; their d o w n s t r e a m motion d u e to the
l o c a l flow v e l o c i t i e s u. A s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m e n t i o n e d , t h e m o t i o n of
s e d i m e n t is u s u a l l y a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e w a v e - l i k e d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e b e d
s u r f a c e . If rj is w i t h i n 1 < rj < 1 0 , say, t h e n m o s t of t h e g r a i n s a r e t r a n s -
p o r t e d in t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of t h e b e d : a n d t h e g r a i n m o t i o n is b y " j u m p s "
( p a t h s Pb in F i g . 1.7). T h i s (first) m o d e of t r a n s p o r t is r e f e r r e d t o as t h e
bed-load. T h e t h i c k n e s s e of t h e b e d - l o a d l a y e r c a n b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e
h e i g h t Sb of t h e d e t e r m i n i s t i c g r a i n p a t h s Pb. W i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of 77, s o m e
of t h e m o v i n g g r a i n s " d i f f u s e " , d u e to t u r b u l e n c e , i n t o t h e b o d y of flow a n d
f o r m t h e suspended-load. T h e g r a i n s f o r m i n g this ( s e c o n d ) m o d e of t r a n s p o r t
m o v e a l o n g t h e p r o b a b i l i s t i c g r a i n p a t h s Ps. S u s p e n d e d - l o a d is n o t a
"substitute for", but an "addition to" the bed-load (whenever suspended-

2 2
w Express (1.38) a n d (1.43) as (cf/c) = 1 + (c//c A) and r 0 / ( r 0 ) / = 1 + ( r 0) A /(r0)f respec-
tively, a n d consider (1.45).
20
T h e d e t a c h m e n t of a grain from t h e u p p e r m o s t layer is, of course, d u e to t h e
h y d r o d y n a m i c force F acting on it [36]. However, the magnitude of F (and t h u s of its
c o m p o n e n t s F y a n d F x ) is directly proportional
2
to (r0)f:
2 2
Fy~Fx~F= *(Xf) pD (v.) f = [<t>(Xf)D ](T0)f1 w h e r e Xf = (v.)fDlv.

15
Fig. 1.7

load is present, b e d - l o a d is also p r e s e n t ) - a l t h o u g h t h e p e r c e n t a g e of grains


transported in s u s p e n s i o n progressively i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of 77.
T h e specific ( v o l u m e t r i c ) transport rate qs c a n thus b e g i v e n as the s u m
of the bed-load rate qsb a n d the suspended-load rate qss:
+ L 4 7
4s = fe ( >

w h e r e the d i m e n s i o n of any qsi is

[q5l] = [length] [velocity]. (1.48)

The most favourable dimensionless form of a qsi is the Einstein's


combination

(1.49)

T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n d o e s not i n v o l v e f l o w p a r a m e t e r s (v* a n d / o r h), and


therefore, for a g i v e n granular material a n d fluid, it r e m a i n s related to qsi by
the s a m e (constant) p r o p o r t i o n for all f l o w stages.
F r o m the definition of the transport rate (as t h e v o l u m e of s o l i d s pass-
ing through a f l o w s e c t i o n per unit t i m e ) , it f o l l o w s that t h e s u m ( 1 . 4 7 ) i m -
plies

k h
f UsCdy= CusCdy + [ UsCdy, (1.50)

w h e r e C is the (x; / ) - a v e r a g e d i m e n s i o n l e s s v o l u m e t r i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n of sol-


ids at a l e v e l y , a n d Us is their (x; / ) - a v e r a g e m i g r a t i o n v e l o c i t y . 2 1
T h e present state of k n o w l e d g e d o e s not permit an e x a c t e v a l u a t i o n of
the integral form ( 1 . 5 0 ) , and therefore t h e existing transport f o r m u l a e ( w h i c h
h a v e a theoretical origin) usually s t e m from s o m e less r i g o r o u s p r e m i s e s . Most

21
Since the bed-load grains are moving within ks < y < c, the lower limit of t h e integrals in
(1.50) should be ks rather than 0. However, we will continue to use 0, for in the present
context ks loses its meaning when the bed is n o longer flat. M o r e o v e r , t h e grain m o t i o n
within ks < y < e is the same as that within 0 < y < e.

16
of t h e p r o m i n e n t t r a n s p o r t f o r m u l a e a r e of c o m p a r a b l e a c c u r a c y . T h e s e
f o r m u l a e will n o t b e r e v i e w e d h e r e , as t h e y h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y
d i s c u s s e d in m a n y p r e v i o u s w o r k s ( s e e e.g. [ 8 ] , [ 9 ] , [ 1 9 ] , [36]).

1.5.2 Bed-load

C o n s i d e r t h e first t e r m o n t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e of ( 1 . 5 0 ) . T h i s t e r m ,
w h i c h i m p l i e s q5b, c a n b e e x p r e s s e d ( b y t h e a v e r a g e v a l u e t h e o r e m ) as

(1.51)

w h e r e Use c a n b e v i e w e d a s t h e m i g r a t i o n v e l o c i t y of t h e " g r a i n c l o u d " w i t h i n


0 < y < e ( w h e r e e <^ h).

i- Flat bed ( ( r 0) / / r 0 = X; = 1)

S i n c e Use is g e n e r a t e d b y t h e flow v e l o c i t i e s u, it m u s t b e p r o p o r t i o n a l
t o a t y p i c a l flow v e l o c i t y of t h e b e d - l o a d l a y e r . T h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e t y p i c a l
u in t h e l a y e r m e n t i o n e d is u - u h at t h e r o u g h n e s s level y - K ( F i g . 1.7).
Thus, o n e can write

US = OLxub ( w h e r e ub = v*Bs). (1-52)

T h e p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y f a c t o r ax in this e x p r e s s i o n is o n e of t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s
p r o p e r t i e s of t h e t w o - p h a s e m o t i o n a n d t h e r e f o r e , in g e n e r a l , it m u s t b e e x -
p e c t e d t o b e a c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n of ( s o m e of) t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e s , 77
a n d Z , say (if t h e v e r s i o n (1.15) is a d o p t e d ) . T h e b e d - l o a d d o e s n o t d e p e n d
o n h ~ Z ( s e e e.g. [36]): for a g i v e n g r a n u l a r m a t e r i a l a n d fluid, it is d e t e r -
m i n e d b y r0 rj a l o n e . H e n c e , a{ m u s t b e a f u n c t i o n ( t o t h e m o s t ) of a n d

<*i = * i t f , 7 ) . (1.53)

T h e e x p r e s s i o n i n b r a c k e t s o n t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e of (1.51) is t h e w e i g h t
Gse of t h e g r a i n c l o u d m o v i n g w i t h i n 0 < y < e o v e r e a c h u n i t a r e a of t h e
b e d s u r f a c e . S i n c e t h e d e t a c h m e n t of g r a i n s is d u e t o t h e s h e a r a c t i o n , G 56
m u s t b e a n i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of r 0 o r , t o b e m o r e e x a c t , of [r 0 - ( r 0) c r] (for
GS=0 w h e n [r 0 - ( r 0) c r] < 0 ) . B u t t h e d i m e n s i o n s of Gse a n d [r 0 - (^o)cr]
a r e i d e n t i c a l , a n d t h e r e f o r e Gst m u s t i n c r e a s e in p r o p o r t i o n t o [r 0 ( r 0) c r] .
i.e.
r r 5 4
~
G
s* = < * 2L o ( o)J> ( ! - )

w h e r e , as in t h e c a s e of a { ,

<*2 = <t>2(Z>v). (1.55)

S u b s t i t u t i n g ( 1 . 5 2 ) a n d (1.54) i n ( 1 . 5 1 ) , o n e d e t e r m i n e s

17
a
1sb = ( l l )
a u T
[ 0 ~ ( o)cJ^
r (1.56)
b

w h i c h is c o m p l e t e l y a n a l o g o u s t o B a g n o l d ' s [1] b e d - l o a d formula

(1.57)

F r o m Ref. [1], it follows t h a t 0 - axa2 is, i n fact, a f u n c t i o n of o n l y . T h e


g r a p h of t h e f u n c t i o n 0 is g i v e n in Ref. [1] ( a n d it is r e p r o d u c e d also
in F i g . 5.5 of Ref. [36]).22 N o t e f r o m t h i s g r a p h t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n 0 = <j>3()
t e n d s t o b e a c o n s t a n t (00.5) if Re* > 7 0 , i.e. if t h e flow is r o u g h
turbulent.
B a g n o l d ' s r e l a t i o n (1.57) is o n e of t h e s i m p l e s t a m o n g t h e p r o m i n e n t
b e d - l o a d f o r m u l a e . A n d yet it is e x a c t l y t h i s r e l a t i o n w h i c h n a t u r a l l y e m e r g e s
f r o m t h e f u n d a m e n t a l f o r m ( 1 . 5 1 ) . C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s , in t h e p r e s e n t text qsb
will i n v a r i a b l y b e i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h t h e a i d of ( 1 . 5 7 ) . U s i n g ( 1 . 4 9 ) , o n e c a n
e x p r e s s (1.57) in t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s f o r m as
l/2 l
% = (Bs0) Y( Y - Ycr) or <D, = [(Bs0) Y] v % - 1) , (1.58)

w h e r e (Bs0) = (8.5)(0.5) = 4.25 a n d F c r 0 . 0 5 , if t h e flow is r o u g h t u r b u l e n t .

ii- Undulated bed ( ( r 0 ) / / r 0 = \ \ < 1)

L e t (ub)A b e t h e flow v e l o c i t y at t h e l e v e l y = 0, w h i c h is t h e a v e r a g e
l e v e l of a n u n d u l a t e d b e d ( F i g 1.6a). W e i d e n t i f y (ub)& w i t h t h e a v e r a g e v a l u e
of u a l o n g t h e s t r e a m l i n e s at t h e g r a i n l e v e l n = K ( w h i c h c a n b e r e g a r d e d
as t h e l o w e r b o u n d a r y of t h e m a i n flow).23
F r o m (1.31) it is c l e a r t h a t if t h e flat b e d b e c o m e s u n d u l a t e d , a n d t h u s
if c c h a n g e s t o c , r 0 = iSh r e m a i n i n g c o n s t a n t , t h e n v c h a n g e s t o v so t h a t
vlv = clc = X c. C l e a r l y , t h i s r e d u c t i o n of t h e a v e r a g e flow v e l o c i t y v m u s t
b e a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e r e d u c t i o n of all flow v e l o c i t i e s u - i n c l u d i n g t h e
r e d u c t i o n of ub i n t o (ub)&. S i n c e t h e r e d u c t i o n of v a r i o u s u c a n n o t differ f r o m
e a c h o t h e r significantly, o n e c a n a p p r o x i m a t e t h e r e d u c t i o n of ub by t h a t of
v:

(1.59)

It f o l l o w s t h a t t h e t h e u n d u l a t e d - b e d v e r s i o n of a n o r i g i n a l l y flat-bed
^ - f o r m u l a can be o b t a i n e d by applying t h e following rule: "Multiply each
To ~ Y w i t h a n d e a c h v e l o c i t y w i t h X c; l e a v e ( r 0 ) c r a n d / o r v*cr as t h e y a r e "
(for ( r 0) cr a n d / o r v*cr " d o n o t b e l o n g " t o t h e g i v e n ( u n d u l a t e d ) s t a g e ) . F o r
e x a m p l e , t h e u n d u l a t e d - b e d c o u n t e r p a r t of B a g n o l d ' s f o r m u l a (1.57) c a n t h u s
b e e x p r e s s e d as

22
In Fig. 5.5 of Ref. [36], e 6 / t a n ^ 0 m e a n s &.
23
This identification ensures the continuity in the transition l i m ( A - > 0) (ub)A = ub.

18
2
q s b* 0 ( u B\ C) [ ( T { )\ C) - ( T o) c r} h s. (1.60)

(Observe t h a t if (r 0 \l) > ( r 0) c r, t h e n t h e r e d u c t i o n of ^ is b y t h e factor


^ Xj).

1.5.3 Suspended-load

C o n s i d e r n o w t h e s e c o n d t e r m o n t h e r i g h t of ( 1 . 5 0 ) . T h i s t e r m , w h i c h
i m p l i e s qss, c a n b e e x p r e s s e d as

H H
qss = f UsCdy= [ uCdy, (1.61)

for w e a s s u m e t h a t t h e s u s p e n d e d p a r t i c l e s a r e c o n v e y e d d o w n s t r e a m with
t h e l o c a l f l o w v e l o c i t i e s u:

Us = u. (1.62)

U n l i k e t h e b e d - l o a d l a y e r e, t h e s u s p e n d e d - l o a d r e g i o n (h-e) is, in g e n e r a l ,
n o t " t h i n " : a n d t h e C - d i s t r i b u t i o n a l o n g it, w h i c h v a r i e s m a r k e d l y w i t h t h e
r e l a t i v e flow i n t e n s i t y 77, c a n n o t b e s t a n d a r d i z e d . H e n c e qss c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d
o n l y b y t h e f a c t u a l i n t e g r a t i o n of ( 1 . 6 1 ) .
T h e r e is a g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t t h a t t h e C - d i s t r i b u t i o n a l o n g y c a n b e
expressed best by the Rouse-Einstein form

(1.63)

(with m = 2.5w/v*),

a n d it is o n l y t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of e a n d C c w h i c h is still u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
F o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of u a l o n g y t h e r e l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d in 1.4.1 c a n b e u s e d ,
as l o n g as t h e s u s p e n d e d - l o a d is n o t t o o h e a v y . 2 4

i- Flat bed

In t h i s c a s e , t h e l o w e r l i m i t (y = e) of t h e s u s p e n d e d - l o a d r e g i o n c a n
b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e t h i c k n e s s of t h e b e d - l o a d l a y e r , i.e. w i t h t h e j u m p
h e i g h t 6b of t h e b e d - l o a d g r a i n s . N o t e t h a t t h e b e d - l o a d r a t e c a n b e e x p r e s s e d
also in t h e form
U
1sb= se(C,)ave. (1.64)

24
T h e influence of C o n the ^-distribution increases continuously with the i n c r e m e n t of C,
and t h e r e f o r e t h e answer to " H o w heavy is too heavy!" d e p e n d s largely o n t h e d e g r e e of
accuracy r e q u i r e d from the intended c o m p u t a t i o n s of u. T h e generalized ^-distributions
which take into a c c o u n t the presence of suspended-load can be found e.g. in Refs. [4], [10],
[16], [18] (see also [3]): most of t h e m yield the clear fluid relations in 1.4.1 in the limit
C - + 0.

19
Here Use is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o ub ( s e e ( 1 . 5 2 ) ) , w h i l e t h e a v e r a g e concentration
(Q)av of t h e g r a i n c l o u d m o v i n g w i t h i n 0 < y < e is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o C c at
y = e. C o n s i d e r i n g this a n d e q u a t i n g (1.64) with (1.57), o n e d e t e r m i n e s


Q ~ [r0 ~ ( r 0 ) ] 1% i.e. C ~ ( F - Ycr) , (1.65)

and consequently

c e ~ * ( O f a - l).

It is n o t likely t h a t / a n d (Q)av are related to wd a n d Q by constant


proportionalities: t h e ratios UsJub a n d ( G ) a v, / C 6 m u s t b e e x p e c t e d t o v a r y
w i t h Oq - 1). C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e l a t i o n a b o v e m e a n s , in fact,

Ce = - 1). (1.66)

It follows t h a t ID a n d C a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t : t h e p r o d u c t of t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s
m u s t satisfy ( 1 . 6 6 ) .
A d o p t i n g for t h e j u m p h e i g h t Sb t h e e x p r e s s i o n of L . C . V a n Rijn [ 2 5 ] ,
[26] w i t h X c = 1, o n e c a n e x p r e s s e ( = 6b) as

7 0 5
= 0.3- (77 - l) . (1.67)

F u r t h e r m o r e , L . C . V a n Rijn gives

(1.68)

w h e r e Xc. = 1 in t h e c a s e of a flat b e d . O b s e r v e t h a t (1.68) is in l i n e w i t h


(1.66). H e n c e if t h e b e d is flat, t h e n e a n d C e c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d f r o m (1.67)
a n d (1.68) r e s p e c t i v e l y . S u b s t i t u t i n g ( 1 . 6 7 ) in ( 1 . 6 8 ) , a n d t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t
-1
X c = 1, o n e o b t a i n s C = 0 . 0 5 ( t 7 1), w h i c h is r e a l i s t i c a s l o n g a s rj is n o t
t o o l a r g e . ( T h e r a t e of c h a n g e dCJdq s h o u l d d e c r e a s e w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of
v).
ii- Undulated bed

In this c a s e , w e u s u a l l y h a v e A > 8b ~ D a n d it w o u l d b e o n l y r e a s o n a b l e
( f o l l o w i n g Refs. [ 2 5 ] , [26]) t o i d e n t i f y t h e s u s p e n d e d - l o a d r e g i o n w i t h t h e
r e g i o n a b o v e t h e b e d f o r m c r e s t s , i.e. w i t h ( A / 2 ) < y < h ( F i g . 1.6a). H e n c e
if t h e b e d is u n d u l a t e d , t h e n
e = A/2, (1.69)

20
C c still b e i n g g i v e n by (1.68) ( w i t h \ c < 1). T h e a v e r a g e b e d l e v e l y = 0 is
a l s o t h e y - o r i g i n of t h e C- a n d ^-distributions. T h e latter distribution must
25
b e e v a l u a t e d by Ks (>k).

[ S o m e of t h e r e c e n t e x p r e s s i o n s for Ce a n d e a r e p r e s e n t e d in R e f s . [3]
a n d [7]. M o s t of t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e b a s i s of exper-
iments performed within certain ranges, and therefore they may not remain
v a l i d if t h e y a r e " p u s h e d t o t h e l i m i t s " . F o r e x a m p l e , C e c a n n o t i n c r e a s e in-
d e f i n i t e l y w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g v a l u e s of rj ( o r v*/w), a n d yet in m a n y works
C is g i v e n as a c o n t i n u o u s l y i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of 77. T h e Q-expressions of
R e f s . [23] a n d [7], w h i c h a r e of t h e f o r m

(1.70)

a r e free f r o m this p a r t i c u l a r i m p e r f e c t i o n , 2 6 as t h e y p o s s e s s ( c o r r e c t l y ) the


asymptotic p r o p e r t y , l i m ( x - K oc)C = a/8 = const. On the other hand, the
f o r m p r o p o s e d in [23] d o e s n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e i n f l u e n c e of , w h i l e
t h a t in [7] reflects t h e i n f l u e n c e of b o t h a n d X c ( u * / w ) b y a s i n g l e c o m b i -
n a t i o n (x) - n o e x p l a n a t i o n is o f f e r e d in [7] for s u c h a " s i m i l a r i t y c o l l a p s e " .
2
The consideration of x~vl in [7], instead of (TJ\ C - 1), is hardly an
i m p r o v e m e n t ; for it i m p l i e s t h a t C is d i f f e r e n t from z e r o for a n y v* > 0.
A l t h o u g h t h e l a r g e e x p o n e n t of v* (viz 5) e n s u r e s t h a t t h e g r o w t h of C e w i t h
v* ( f r o m z e r o o n w a r d s ) is v e r y f e e b l e for s m a l l u * , n o n e t h e l e s s t h e f o r m in
[7] i m p l i e s t h a t t h e s u s p e n d e d - l o a d o r i g i n a t e s before the bed-load (which re-
q u i r e s v* > v*cr for its e x i s t e n c e ) ] .

1.6 G r a n u l a r Skin R o u g h n e s s

F r o m l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s c a r r i e d o u t w i t h t u r b u l e n t flows p a s t a flat
( s c r a p e d ) m o v a b l e b e d w i t h s t a t i o n a r y g r a i n s (Y < Ycr) [ 1 2 ] , [ 2 0 ] , [ 2 ] , it fol-
l o w s t h a t t h e v a l u e of t h e g r a n u l a r s k i n r o u g h n e s s ks c a n b e g i v e n b y

ks^2D, (1.71)

25
Knowing Aj, A f , h and ks, o n e can d e t e r m i n e Kst.g. as follows: D e t e r m i n e c ( = v/v*) from
(1.26). T h e n c o m p u t e Xc (from (1.42)) and thus c = c X c. Finally, solve K5 from (1.27) or
(1.28) w h e r e v/v* is to be identified with c and ks with # 5 .
0 9 5
*> In Ref. [23], x = (77 X? - 1); in Ref. [7], x = [X c(u*/w) f - ] (Eqs. (38) and (43) in [7]). T h e
3/2 n
quantity Rp of Ref. [7] implies . Using n = 0.6, proposed in [7], in R p (Eq. (37) in [7])
6 3/2 09
o n e d e t e r m i n e s Rp = ( >( ) = which appears in the expression of x.

21
27
w h e r e D c a n b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h D 5 0.
A t t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t t h e p e r c e n t a g e of g r a i n s (of
t h e u p p e r m o s t l a y e r ) w h i c h a r e in m o t i o n is s m a l l , a n d t h e r e f o r e (1.71)
s h o u l d still b e v a l i d u p t o a c e r t a i n Y ( > Y c r) , e v e n if t h e g r a i n s a r e m o v i n g .
T h i s " c e r t a i n Y " c a n b e i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t s of K . C . W i l s o n [27],
[28], [29]. W h e n c o n d u c t i n g his s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t e x p e r i m e n t s in p r e s s u r i z e d
c o n d u i t s , K . C . W i l s o n w a s a b l e t o w o r k w i t h Y-values t h a t a r e b y a n o r d e r
of m a g n i t u d e l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e c o m m o n l y e n c o u n t e r e d in c o m p a r a b l e o p e n -
c h a n n e l s . T h e v a l u e s of KID c o m p u t e d (via c = vlv*) f r o m his e x p e r i m e n t s
a r e p l o t t e d v e r s u s Y in F i g . 1.8. N o t e f r o m this g r a p h t h a t KID t e n d s to
i n c r e a s e in p r o p o r t i o n t o Y (as KlD 5Y) w h e n Y is l a r g e , a n d it t e n d s to
b e c o m e 2 (as t o justify ( 1 . 7 1 ) ) w h e n Y is s m a l l . ( D w a s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h D 5 0
of t h e r e a s o n a b l y u n i f o r m m a t e r i a l s u s e d ) .

F i g . 1.8 (after Ref. [28])

F r o m Fig. 1.8, o n e a l s o infers t h a t ( 1 . 7 1 ) c a n b e u s e d u p t o Y 1 (i.e


u p to T ? 2 0 ) , say. If Y> 1 , then KID c a n b e t a k e n f r o m Fig. 1.8. The
c u r v e / in F i g . 1.8 is t h e g r a p h of t h e f o l l o w i n g m a t h e m a t i c a l fit^s

2 (if Y < 1)

2 3 2
= 5 Y + ( Y - 4 ) [0.043 Y - 0.289 Y - 0.203 Y + 0.125] } (1.72)
(if 1 < Y < 4)

= 5 Y (if Y > 4) .

27
T h e claim that D must necessarily be identified with D 90 is unjustifiable, for the ratio
( D 90 - D50)/D90 of the (reasonably u n i f o r m ) materials subjected to experiments was much
smaller than the relative scatter of e x p e r i m e n t a l points used to d e t e r m i n e (1.71).
28
T h e curve / and the second equation in (1.72) are d u e to t h e a u t h o r .

22
1.7 Transport C o n t i n u i t y E q u a t i o n

In p h y s i c s , a n a c t i v e s u r f a c e u s u a l l y e i t h e r a b s o r b s o r e m i t s s o m e t h i n g
(light, h e a t , e l e c t r o n s , e t c . ) : a m o b i l e b e d s u r f a c e d o e s b o t h at t h e s a m e t i m e .
D u r i n g t h e t r a n s p o r t of s e d i m e n t s o m e p a r t i c l e s a r e l a n d i n g o n a n a r e a (SA)
of t h e b e d s u r f a c e , w h i l e s o m e o t h e r s a r e d e t a c h i n g f r o m it ( / , a n d in Fig.
1.9a). A n d , in fact, t h e b e d level is in e q u i l i b r i u m o n l y w h e n t h e n u m b e r

F i g . 1.9

of i n c o m i n g a n d o u t g o i n g p a r t i c l e s ( p e r u n i t a r e a a n d p e r u n i t t i m e ) are
e q u a l . In s o m e c a s e s , t h e p a r t i c l e s l a n d i n g o n a n a r e a SA m a y n o t b e only
t h o s e w h i c h f o r m t h e t r a n s p o r t r a t e qs\ t h e p a r t i c l e s f r o m a n e x t e r n a l s o u r c e
( F i g . 1.9b) m a y also b e l a n d i n g o n SA. T h e v o l u m e t r i c d e p o s i t i o n r a t e of t h e
" e x t e r n a l " p a r t i c l e s ( p e r u n i t a r e a a n d p e r u n i t t i m e ) will b e d e n o t e d b y ps.
N o t e t h a t t h e d i m e n s i o n of ps, viz

[ v l u ml e
iPs ] = r = [velocity], (1.73)
[area] [time]

is different from the dimension of qs ( s e e ( 1 . 4 8 ) ) . W e will a s s u m e i n the


d e r i v a t i o n s b e l o w t h a t qs c o n s i s t s of t h e b e d - l o a d o n l y (qs = qsb).

1.7.1 Two-dimensional conditions

L e t u s s u p p o s e t h a t t h e a r e a SA is s i t u a t e d i n d e e d o n t h e u p s t r e a m s l o p e
of a b e d f o r m , as s h o w n in F i g . 1.9b. T h e b e d f o r m itself is m o v i n g (mi-
g r a t i n g ) in t h e flow d i r e c t i o n x , its s t e e p n e s s i n c r e a s i n g a t t h e s a m e time.
Let Ub b e the migration velocity of the bed form and Vb = dybldt the
29
g r o w t h - s p e e d of its o r d i n a t e s . In this c a s e t h e a r e a SA ( w h i c h is a s s u m e d

29
T h e growth-speed Vb = dybldt is thus the s a m e as the substantive derivative DA/Dt of
c o n t i n u u m mechanics, for Vb implies the time rate of growth of the o r d i n a t e yb as it moves
(along x) with the bed form.

23
t o b e " s m a l l " in c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e b e d f o r m l e n g t h A) is d i s p l a c e d upwards
p e r u n i t t i m e by t h e a m o u n t

(1.74)

T h i s u p w a r d d i s p l a c e m e n t of SA is d u e t o t h e m o t i o n of s e d i m e n t , a n d t h u s
it m u s t b e e q u a l t o

(1.75)

Hence,

(1.76)

w h i c h is t h e t r a n s p o r t c o n t i n u i t y e q u a t i o n . 3 0

1.7,2 Three-dimensional conditions

i- In t h i s c a s e , t h e b e d - l o a d is a field v e c t o r (qs = qs(x, z , / ) ) a n d (1.76) b e -


comes

(1.77)

which corresponds to a m i g r a t i n g bed form determined by the ordinates


yb = fy(x, Z , t).

ii- C o n s i d e r n o w t h e b e g i n n i n g of a b e d d e f o r m a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t (U b = 0 ;
ps = 0 ) : at t = 0 t h e b e d s u r f a c e is flat (yb = fy(x9 z , 0) = 0 ) . W e a s s u m e t h a t
t h e ( b e d - l o a d t r a n s p o r t i n g ) i n i t i a l flow is, in g e n e r a l , c o n v e c t i v e in p l a n ; i.e.
it is c o n v e r g i n g o r d i v e r g i n g ( b e c a u s e of t h e p l a n s h a p e of its c u r v i l i n e a r
b a n k s , s a y ) . C l e a r l y , in t h i s c a s e (1.77) r e d u c e s i n t o

(1.78)

for dybldt = dybldt w h e n Ub = 0 (as c a n b e i n f e r r e d f r o m f o o t n o t e 30). T h e


d i r e c t i o n of b e d - l o a d at a l o c a t i o n ( p o i n t P ( x , z ) ) o n t h e b e d p l a n e is t h e

30
Since

( = vb).

the relation (1.76) can be expressed also as

which reduces into the familiar Exner-Polya equation if ps = 0 .

24
s a m e as t h e d i r e c t i o n of flow at t h e b e d t h e r e . C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s , a n d u s i n g
B a g n o l d ' s f o r m u l a ( 1 . 5 7 ) , o n e c a n e x p r e s s t h e b e d - l o a d v e c t o r as
q,= u^(i7) (1.79)

where
ub = ub(x,z,t) and j(n) = 0DYcr(V - 1) . (1.80)

W e focus o u r a t t e n t i o n o n t h e c o n d i t i o n s at t = 0 , o r " j u s t a f t e r " t = 0 ( w h e n


t h e p o s s i b l e b e d d e f o r m a t i o n (yb) c a n still b e r e g a r d e d as i n f i n i t e s i m a l ) .
S i n c e r\ is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o r 0 , w h i l e r 0 ( i n a g i v e n e x p e r i m e n t ) is u n i -
q u e l y d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e m a g n i t u d e ub of ub ( i . e . s i n c e r 0 ~ ul), t h e
f u n c t i o n <t>(r]) c a n b e t a k e n as a f u n c t i o n of ub\ as <j>(ub), say. C o n s e q u e n t l y ,
t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of (1.79) c a n b e r e p l a c e d b y t h a t of

qs=ub<Kub). (1.81)

N o w V u b = 0 ( c o n t i n u i t y of fluid m o t i o n ) , a n d t h e r e f o r e
V q s = V[ub<Kub)] = ( V u , )<f>(ub) + ubV<(>(ub) (1.82)

i.e.

V q , = nb7<f>(ub) (1.83)
w h i c h y i e l d s , in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h ( 1 . 7 8 ) ,

- ubV4>(ub). (1.84)

T h i s r e l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t if t h e flow is a b s o l u t e l y u n i f o r m ( t h e s a m e
ub = const for a n y P(x, z) o n t h e b e d p l a n e ) , t h e n t h e (flat) b e d c a n n o t
u n d e r g o a n y d e f o r m a t i o n (V0(w f r) = 0 , a n d t h u s Vb = dyb/dt= 0 ) . If, h o w -
e v e r , t h e flow is c o n v e c t i v e (ub^ const), t h e n t h e initial b e d m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y
d e f o r m w i t h t h e p a s s a g e of t i m e ( V 0 ( ^ ) ^ O , a n d t h u s Vb = dyb/dt^0).
If s is t h e n a t u r a l l o n g i t u d i n a l c o o r d i n a t e of a s t r e a m l i n e , a n d is is t h e
u n i t v e c t o r a l o n g it, t h e n

(1.85)

U s i n g ( 1 . 8 5 ) , o n e c a n e x p r e s s (1.84) as

(1.86)

o r as

(1.87)

w h e r e a = d<t>(ub)/dub is a l w a y s p o s i t i v e a n d finite [for <t>(rj) is a n i n c r e a s i n g


f u n c t i o n of 77 ( > 1) ( s e e ( 1 . 8 0 ) ) , a n d rj is a n i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of ub (viz

25
2
r / ~ u b)]. T h e r e l a t i o n ( 1 . 8 7 ) i n d i c a t e s e v e n m o r e e x p l i c i t l y t h a n (1.84) that
t h e b e d of a c o n v e c t i v e flow must d e f o r m ( C h a p t e r 5 ) . 3 i

1.8 Data-Plots

U s u a l l y , it is n o t t h e s h o r t a g e of d a t a b u t t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d
utilization w h i c h form the concern. Consider the dimensionless function

U=9(Xl,X2,...9Xn). (1.88)

If n = 1, 2, 3 , e t c . , t h e n (1.88) i m p l i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y a c u r v e , a family of c u r v e s ,
a family of t h e f a m i l y of c u r v e s , e t c . H e n c e , n o m a t t e r w h a t t h e n u m b e r n
m i g h t b e , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e f u n c t i o n (1.88) m e a n s , in
effect, t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a c u r v e o r c u r v e s , e a c h b e i n g a
f u n c t i o n of o n e v a r i a b l e :
ny. = * ( * , . ) . (i.89)
Each particular river-region or experimental flume can provide only a limited
r a n g e , A A} say, of t h e v a r i a b l e Xj. M o r e o v e r , t h e s c a t t e r in fluvial h y d r a u l i c s
p l o t s is r a t h e r g r o s s , a n d its a v e r a g e m a g n i t u d e often is c o m p a r a b l e w i t h s u c h
a AXj. B u t t h i s m e a n s t h a t it is h a r d l y likely t h a t a p o i n t - s e t o b t a i n e d f r o m
m e a s u r e m e n t s in a s i n g l e f l u m e o r a r i v e r - r e g i o n c a n r e v e a l t h e ( w h o l e ) c u r v e
(1.89) s o u g h t . ( A n d i n s o m e c a s e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d b y a n i n d i v i d u a l
p o i n t - s e t c a n e v e n b e m i s l e a d i n g . T a k e e.g. t h e p l o t s h o w n in F i g . 2.8a. H e r e
t h e set of " w h i t e " c i r c l e s s u g g e s t s t h a t n ; = vTlh strongly decreases with
Xj=vhlv ( l i n e / ) . Y e t , f r o m t h e t o t a l p o i n t p a t t e r n it is c l e a r t h a t I I ; is
p r a c t i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t of Xj).
F r o m t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d , it s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t a r e l i a b l e w a y of
d e t e r m i n i n g ( o r v e r i f y i n g ) a n e x p e r i m e n t a l r e l a t i o n in fluvial h y d r a u l i c s
s h o u l d b e b y u s i n g all t h e field a n d l a b o r a t o r y d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e -
s e a r c h e r . T h e fact t h a t t h e s m a l l - a n d l a r g e - s c a l e s t r e a m s e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n t
b e h a v i o u r is n o t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e d e t e r m i n e d b y d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s , b u t b e -
c a u s e t h e i r ( s a m e ) v a r i a b l e s h a v e d i f f e r e n t n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s , X" a n d XJ say.
T h e l a r g e r t h e d i f f e r e n c e Xj - X", t h e b e t t e r for t h e d i s c o v e r y of t h e r e -
l a t i o n (1.89) ( a n d t h e w o r s e for t h e p h y s i c a l m o d e l l i n g ( w h i c h rests o n
Xj = Xj') of t h e p h e n o m e n o n it r e p r e s e n t s ) .

31
If qs does not consist of the bed-load only (qss^ 0), then the left-hand sides of (1.76) and
(1.77) have also t h e t e r m

implying the time rate of i n c r e m e n t of the volume of suspended solids over the unit bed
area.

26
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38. Yalin, M.S.: Similarity in sediment transport by currents. Hydraulics Research Paper No.
6, Hydraulics Research Station, L o n d o n , 1965.
39. Yalin, M.S.: On the average velocity of flow over a mobile bed. La Houille Blanche, No.
1, Jan/Feb. 1964.

28
CHAPTER 2

TURBULENCE

2.1 B u r s t i n g Processes

2.1.1 General description

M u c h of t h e r e c e n t r e s e a r c h o n t u r b u l e n c e is d e v o t e d t o t h e s t u d y of
b u r s t i n g p r o c e s s e s a n d c o h e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s . S o far, h o w e v e r , a g r e e m e n t a p -
p e a r s to h a v e b e e n r e a c h e d o n l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r
g e n e r a l p a t t e r n : t h e i r d e t a i l e d m e c h a n i s m is still u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S o m e
a u t h o r s [49], [63], [30] f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n o n t h e t r a n s v e r s e v o r t e x w h i c h
o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a b u r s t ; o t h e r s [ 5 1 ] , [27], [5] e m p h a s i z e t h e
r o l e of t h e v i s c o u s s u b l a y e r a n d v a r i o u s " s t r u c t u r e s " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h it.
H o w e v e r , in " h i s e x c e l l e n t a n d v e r y e x t e n s i v e s t u d y " [9], A.J. G r a s s [17] h a s
d e m o n s t r a t e d , e x p e r i m e n t a l l y , t h a t b u r s t s o c c u r i r r e s p e c t i v e of w h e t h e r o r n o t
t h e v i s c o u s i n f l u e n c e at t h e flow b o u n d a r i e s is p r e s e n t , i.e. t h a t t h e y o c c u r
in a n y r e g i m e of t u r b u l e n t s h e a r flow ( s e e a l s o [ 4 0 ] , [12]). C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s ,
b u r s t s a r e e x p l a i n e d in t h i s c h a p t e r w i t h o u t a n y r e f e r e n c e to t h e r e g i m e of
t u r b u l e n t flow. T h e s e ( s c h e m a t i c a l ) e x p l a n a t i o n s rest o n e x p e r i m e n t a l o b s e r -
v a t i o n s a n d m e a s u r e m e n t s r e p o r t e d b y v a r i o u s s o u r c e s ( e s p e c i a l l y [ 5 4 ] , [49]
a n d [30]).
T u r b u l e n c e is d u e t o a m u l t i t u d e of eddies (fluid v o l u m e s w i t h a s e n s e
of r o t a t i o n ) h a v i n g v a r i o u s sizes /. T h e s e e d d i e s a r e s u p e r i m p o s e d o n e a c h
o t h e r a n d , u l t i m a t e l y , o n t h e m e a n flow ( s e e e.g. [ 3 5 ] , [32]). T h e s i z e of t h e
s m a l l e s t , o r microturbulent, e d d i e s is a s s u m e d t o b e ( m i n j / / u . ( K o l m o g o r o v
s c a l e ) , t h e size of t h e l a r g e s t , o r macr o turbulent ^ eddies being nearly equal
2
to t h e flow t h i c k n e s s h: /max^ h. Hence,

1
T h e "large-scale t u r b u l e n c e " is f o r m e d by eddies whose size / scales with the flow thickness
h. A m o n g these eddies, only those whose size is (nearly) equal to h will be t e r m e d in this
text as m a c r o t u r b u l e n t eddies. (In the literature " m a c r o t u r b u l e n c e " and "large-scale
t u r b u l e n c e " often are used as s y n o n y m s of each o t h e r ) .
2
This book deals exclusively with the flows having a free surface. Hence in the following,
unless stated otherwise, the t u r b u l e n t shear flow will invariably be interpreted as an
o p e n - c h a n n e l flow (of the thickness ( d e p t h ) h).

29
(2.1)

T h e fluctuating v e l o c i t i e s of all e d d i e s a r e of c o m p a r a b l e m a g n i t u d e ,
a n d j u s t b e c a u s e of this t h e i r t y p i c a l t i m e s , o r p e r i o d s , a r e different: t h e l a r g e r
a n e d d y , t h e l a r g e r is its p e r i o d . E d d i e s a r e n o t p e r m a n e n t - t h e y a r e
" b o r n " , they "live" and they " d i e " .
" A n i m p o r t a n t p a r t in a n y t u r b u l e n t flow is p l a y e d b y t h e l a r g e s t
e d d i e s , w h o s e size is of t h e o r d e r of d i m e n s i o n (h) of t h e r e g i o n in w h i c h
t h e flow t a k e s p l a c e " [32]. M o s t of t h e " p r e - b u r s t - e r a " t r e a t i s e s o n t u r b u l e n c e
b e g i n w i t h a s t a t e m e n t s u c h as "first t h e l a r g e s t e d d i e s o c c u r " . T h e n t h e y
p r o c e e d t o d e s c r i b e ( a d e q u a t e l y ) t h e p r o c e s s of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e s e e d d i e s :
t h e a s s o c i a t e d e n e r g y c a s c a d e , t h e m e c h a n i s m of e n e r g y d i s s i p a t i o n , e t c . ( s e e
e.g. [ 3 2 ] , [35], [55]). N o t h i n g is said, h o w e v e r , in t h e s e w o r k s , w h i c h f o r m t h e
" e d d y - c a s c a d e t h e o r y " , as to h o w t h e largest e d d i e s c o m e i n t o b e i n g in t h e
first p l a c e . A n d it is o n l y after t h e d i s c o v e r y of b u r s t i n g p r o c e s s e s t h a t s o m e
i n f o r m a t i o n o n this s c o r e h a s b e e n g a i n e d . I n d e e d , r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s
t h a t t h e largest e d d i e s d o n o t o r i g i n a t e in t h e i r full size &h. R a t h e r , t h e y a r e
g e n e r a t e d n e a r t h e flow b o u n d a r i e s ( t h a t is, " n e a r t h e b e d " in t h e c a s e of
a n o p e n - c h a n n e l f l o w ) , w i t h a size m u c h s m a l l e r t h a n h: t h e n e a r e r t h e " b i r t h
p l a c e " of a n e d d y t o t h e b e d , t h e s m a l l e r is its i n i t i a l size in c o m p a r i s o n t o
h. I m m e d i a t e l y after its b i r t h , t h e p r o s p e c t i v e m a c r o t u r b u l e n t e d d y , ex s a y ,
is e j e c t e d u p w a r d s a n d , as it m o v e s a w a y f r o m t h e b e d , it is c o n v e y e d
d o w n s t r e a m b y t h e flow. D u r i n g this m o t i o n , t h e u p w a r d - v e l o c i t y of ex
p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e c r e a s e s , w h e r e a s its size / i n c r e a s e s ( d u e t o c o a l e s c e n c e a n d
e n g u l f m e n t ) . E v e n t u a l l y , t h e size of t h e e d d y e{ b e c o m e s n e a r l y e q u a l t o h:
i.e. it b e c o m e s a m a c r o t u r b u l e n t e d d y (Ex). H o w e v e r , s o o n after t h a t , t h e
( l a r g e a n d u n s t a b l e ) e d d y \ hits t h e b e d a n d is d e s t r o y e d (break-up phase).
O w i n g t o r e a s o n s w h i c h will b e clarifed l a t e r , t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e e d d y
E{ p r o m p t s t h e g e n e r a t i o n of a n e w ( s e c o n d ) e d d y e2. H a v i n g p a s s e d t h r o u g h
t h e s a m e s t a g e s , t h i s s e c o n d e d d y c a u s e s , in t u r n , t h e g e n e r a t i o n of t h e t h i r d
e d d y e 3 , a n d so o n . Bursting process, o r s i m p l y burst, is t h e t e r m w h i c h
s t a n d s for t h e a b o v e o u t l i n e d s e q u e n c e of e v e n t s , w h i c h o c c u r s b e t w e e n t h e
3
b i r t h s of t w o c o n s e c u t i v e e d d i e s (et a n d e ; + i ) . A b u r s t - f o r m i n g e d d y et a n d
t h e flow c o m p l e x a r o u n d it c o n s t i t u t e a coherent structure, which evolves
as it is c o n v e y e d d o w n s t r e a m in t h e c o u r s e of a b u r s t c y c l e . It s h o u l d b e
e m p h a t i c a l l y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e e d d y e, as w e l l as t h e c o h e r e n t s t r u c t u r e
a r o u n d it a r e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l : t h e i r ( c o n t i n u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g d u r i n g t h e b u r s t
c y c l e ) e x t e n t in t h e s p a n w i s e d i r e c t i o n z is l i m i t e d n o m a t t e r h o w l a r g e
4
t h e w i d t h - t o - d e p t h r a t i o (B/h) of t h e flow m i g h t b e .

3
M o r e refined definitions of bursts can be found e.g. in [2], [4], [12].
4
A l t h o u g h bursts are distributed randomly in space and time, the burst itself signifies a
certain sequence of events. O w i n g to this reason, t u r b u l e n c e is not regarded today as a
completely r a n d o m p h e n o m e n o n as has been assumed previously. (See the classical ex-

30
T h e c u r r e n t k n o w l e d g e i n t h e field s u g g e s t s t h a t a c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e of
t u r b u l e n c e a n d its e n e r g y s t r u c t u r e m u s t b e e x p e c t e d t o e m e r g e f r o m t h e
c o m p l e m e n t a r y s t u d y of b o t h :
B u r s t i n g p r o c e s s e s ( w h i c h c o n v e y i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of
t h e l a r g e s t e d d i e s E a n d t h u s o n t h e g e n e r a t i o n of t u r b u l e n c e - e n e r g y ) ,

and
Eddy-cascade processes (which convey information on the disintegration
of t h e l a r g e s t e d d i e s E a n d t h u s o n t h e d e c a y a n d d i s s i p a t i o n of
turbulence-energy).

2.1.2 Sequence of events during a burst cycle

i- L e t us n o w t a k e a c l o s e r l o o k at a b u r s t c y c l e . R e c e n t r e s e a r c h ( [ 4 9 ] , [50],
[38], e t c . ) g i v e s r e a s o n t o p o s t u l a t e t h a t a t u r b u l e n t s h e a r flow c o n t a i n s in its
b o d y a s e r i e s of l a r g e - s c a l e high-speed a n d low-speed r e g i o n s , Rh a n d Rt say,
w h i c h e x t e n d a l m o s t t h r o u g h o u t t h e flow d e p t h h, a n d w h i c h s l o w l y d e f o r m
as t h e y a r e c o n v e y e d d o w n s t r e a m [ 4 9 ] . F r o m Refs. [12] a n d [ 3 8 ] , o n e infers
t h a t t h e s e r e g i o n s a r e l i k e l y t o b e d i s t r i b u t e d as s h o w n in t h e h i g h l y i d e a l i z e d
Fig. 2.1 ( w h i c h is in l i n e w i t h F i g . 7 i n Ref. [37]). H e r e , t h e l a r g e - s c a l e
l e n g t h s L a n d L' a r e of s e v e r a l flow d e p t h s , t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m Rt to Rh, in

\I L' plan

long, section

F i g . 2.1

the flow direction, b e i n g m o r e g r a d u a l t h a n from Rh to R{ [49] ( a s i m p l i e d


by t h e s h a d i n g ) .
F i g . 2.2a s h o w s , s c h e m a t i c a l l y , t h e v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n d i a g r a m s ( a l o n g
y) at a fixed l o c a t i o n (x; z ) . D u r i n g t h e p a s s a g e of Rh w e h a v e (for a n y y)
Ui < u\ d u r i n g t h e p a s s a g e of Rh, Uh> u. [ T h e a r e a s c o n f i n e d b y t h e Uh-
a n d / r d i a g r a m s a r e n o t e q u a l , a n d t h e c o n t i n u i t y of flow r a t e is satisfied b y

pressions of t u r b u l e n c e e.g. in [35], [32], [55]; their u p d a t e d versions in [19], [20], [42], [44],
[45]).

31
a a
y
, Ui u u h b

z ? ^ s ~ 7
7777777777777777777 ^
F i g . 2.2

t h e c h e s s b o a r d - l i k e a r r a n g e m e n t of Rh a n d R( in p l a n ] . T h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m
a ( / / - d i a g r a m to a Uh-diagram o c c u r s by m e a n s of t h e i n f l e c t i o n a l ( / - d i a g r a m s
([3], [49], [16], e t c . ) , t h e largest v a l u e s of t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s s h e a r stress r
b e i n g at t h e i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t s P ( w h e r e t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s dU/dyis t h e largest):
t h e p o i n t s P a r e m o s t l y in t h e l o w e r p a r t of t h e flow. C o n s i d e r a fluid e l e -
m e n t A s u b j e c t e d to t h e a c t i o n of t h e s h e a r stress r at P ( F i g . 2 . 2 b ) . If t h e
v a l u e of r is sufficiently l a r g e t h e n , i n s t e a d of d e f o r m i n g i n t o a h i g h l y s t r a i n e d
parallelogram B , the overstressed element A " c h o o s e s " to roll-up into an
e d d y e [49], [24] ( H e l m h o l t z i n s t a b i l i t y ) . T h u s , t h e stress in t h e fluid is r e -
l i e v e d a n d a b u r s t - f o r m i n g e d d y is b o r n . T h e s u b s e q u e n t " b i o g r a p h y " of e
is d e p i c t e d in Figs. 2.3 a n d 2.4. T h e e v e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e d d y e a r e
n o t affected, in p r i n c i p l e , by its e x t e n t in t h e s p a n w i s e d i r e c t i o n a n d t h e r e -
f o r e , for t h e s a k e of s i m p l i c i t y , t h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d b e l o w in t h e t w o -
dimensional manner.
A l t h o u g h t h e e d d y e is f o r m e d by b o t h l o w - a n d h i g h - s p e e d fluids ( F i g .
2 . 3 a ) , it t r a v e l s a l o n g a t r a j e c t o r y s in t h e l o w - s p e e d fluid r e g i o n [ 4 9 ] , its size
c o n t i n u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g in t h e p r o c e s s ( F i g . 2 . 3 b ) . T h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of e a l o n g
s m e a n s t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of a fluid m a s s in t h a t d i r e c t i o n . T h i s n e c e s s a r i l y
g e n e r a t e s a c i r c u l a t o r y m o t i o n e in t h e l o w - s p e e d r e g i o n ; t h e h i g h - s p e e d fluid
o v e r t a k e s t h e e d d y e t h r o u g h t h e g a p b e t w e e n t h i s e d d y a n d t h e free s u r f a c e
( F i g . 2.3b). O b s e r v e t h a t t h e ( e n c i r c l e d ) p a r t of t h e l o w - s p e e d fluid f o r m s a n
ejection ( f r o m m t o e).s T h e p a r t of Rt t o t h e left of e j e c t i o n c o n t a i n s t h e
c i r c u l a t o r y m o t i o n e" i n d u c e d by it.6 T h e c o n t i n u a l u p w a r d d i s p l a c e m e n t of
e a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t d e c r e m e n t of t h e g a p b e t w e e n e a n d t h e f r e e s u r f a c e ,
o n t h e o n e h a n d w e a k e n s t h e e j e c t i o n flow, w h i l e , o n t h e o t h e r , m a k e s t h e
p a s s a g e of t h e o v e r t a k i n g h i g h - s p e e d fluid ( t h r o u g h t h e g a p ) m o r e a n d m o r e
difficult. A t a c e r t a i n s t a g e , t h e " o b s t r u c t i o n " ( u n d e r e) d u e t o t h e e j e c t i o n
flow a n d t h e c i r c u l a t o r y m o t i o n e" will b e so w e a k , w h i l e t h e i m p e d i m e n t

5
If the flow contacting the bed is viscous (Re+< 70), t h e n s o m e fluid of this flow, at m ,
may be lifted by ejection.
6
T h e interface between e" and Rh separates fluids moving in opposite directions. H e n c e , it
is a high-shear z o n e which is likely to be the source of the "typical e d d i e s " (of Falco [14]),
which are "riding" on the b o u n d a r y between Rh and Rt. See the sketch of these eddies in
Fig. 31 of Ref. [38].

32
d u e t o t h e r e d u c t i o n of t h e g a p ( a b o v e e) will b e so s t r o n g , t h a t t h e h i g h -
s p e e d fluid will s u d d e n l y c h a n g e its c o n f i g u r a t i o n so as t o o v e r t a k e t h e e d d y
e b y p a s s i n g under it. T h i s s u d d e n l y a r i s e n a n d c o n v e c t i v e l y a c c e l e r a t e d flow

F i g . 2.3

of t h e h i g h - s p e e d fluid is r e f e r r e d t o as sweep (it " s w e e p s " d o w n s t r e a m t h e


w e a k e n e d e j e c t i o n a n d all t h a t is a r o u n d it) ( F i g . 2 . 3 c ) . H a v i n g p a s s e d t h e
e d d y e, t h e s w e e p f l o w w i d e n s ( d e c e l e r a t e s ) a n d i n t e r a c t s w i t h t h e o p p o s i n g
c i r c u l a t o r y m o t i o n e . T h u s t h e flow a r o u n d e is n e u t r a l i z e d . A f t e r this s t a g e ,
t h e e v e r - e n l a r g i n g e d d y e is c o n v e y e d d o w n s t r e a m in t h e b o d y of a n a l m o s t
n e u t r a l flow ( w h i c h o v e r t a k e s t h e e d d y o n l y t h r o u g h t h e g a p at t h e free
s u r f a c e [54] ( F i g . 2 . 4 a ) ) . E v e n t u a l l y , t h e e d d y e a c q u i r e s a size n e a r l y t h e

V > ^ o \ > break-up

F i g . 2.4

s a m e as t h e flow d e p t h h: it becomes a m a c r o t u r b u l e n t e d d y E. O w i n g to

33
its p r o x i m i t y t o t h e free s u r f a c e , t h e e d d y E i n t e r a c t s w i t h it ( F i g . 2 . 4 b ) . A s
a r e s u l t of this i n t e r a c t i o n , w h i c h is v i v i d l y d e s c r i b e d in [54] ( s e e a l s o [22]),
the eddy E a l m o s t loses its c o h e r e n c e , a n d it is d e f l e c t e d toward the bed.
T h e i m p a c t of , o r of w h a t is left of it, w i t h t h e b e d c o m p l e t e s its d i s i n t e -
g r a t i o n ( b r e a k - u p p h a s e in F i g . 2 . 4 c ) . 7
According to t h e eddy-cascade theory ([32], [35]), a macroturbulent
e d d y E first d i s i n t e g r a t e s i n t o a set of s m a l l e r e d d i e s w h i c h , i n t u r n , d i s i n t e -
g r a t e i n t o e v e n s m a l l e r o n e s , a n d so o n . T h i s p r o c e s s of s u c c e s s i v e disinte-
g r a t i o n c o n t i n u e s u n t i l t h e size of e d d i e s is r e d u c e d to t h e microturbulent
s c a l e Z m ni i / / t ; . . T h e k i n e t i c e n e r g y of E is t r a n s m i t t e d b y t h e " c a s c a d e " of
eddy generations, almost without c h a n g e , t o t h e ( l a s t ) l e v e l of microturbu-
l e n c e , w h e r e it is d i s s i p a t e d d u e t o v i s c o u s f r i c t i o n . T h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of E
means the termination of stress-relief in the fluid at that location. This
p r o m p t s t h e i n i t i a t i o n of a n e w s t r e s s - b u i l d - u p t h e r e [ 2 3 ] , [ 2 4 ] , w h i c h mani-
fests itself by t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e n e w h i g h - a n d l o w - s p e e d fluid r e g i o n s Rh
and R[ in t h e l o c a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y o c c u p i e d b y E. T h e e m e r g e n c e of Rh and
Rt l e a d s , in t u r n , to t h e g e n e r a t i o n of a n e w e d d y e , a n d t h e c y c l e d e p i c t e d
in Figs. 2.3 a n d 2.4 starts all o v e r a g a i n .
T h e o c c u r r e n c e of b u r s t s in all p a r t s of t h e flow m e a n s t h e incessant
c o n v e r s i o n of t h e e n e r g y of t h e m e a n flow i n t o t h e k i n e t i c turbulence-energy,
w h i c h is e v e n t u a l l y d i s s i p a t e d b y m i c r o t u r b u l e n c e . T h i s is h o w t u r b u l e n c e is
" g o i n g o n " . T h e e n e r g y of t h e m e a n f l o w , w h i c h is lost for t h e generation
of b u r s t s a n d t h u s for t h e m a i n t a i n a n c e of t u r b u l e n c e , is r e p l e n i s h e d b y t h e
c o n t i n u a l loss of p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y of t h e fluid m a s s f o r m i n g o p e n - c h a n n e l flow
(by the continual displacement of this mass down - s t r e a m ) . T h e potential
energy first becomes converted into the strain energy concentrating
(intermittently) at t h e l o c a t i o n s of i n f l e c t i o n points P ( F i g . 2.2). W i t h the
rolling-up of t h e b u r s t - f o r m i n g eddies e, this strain energy turns into the
kinetic energy of eddies and of the accompanying phenomena (e\ e"',
e j e c t i o n , s w e e p , e t c . ) : 7 0 t o 8 0 % of t h e k i n e t i c t u r b u l e n c e - e n e r g y is g e n e r a t e d
at t h e e a r l y stages of a b u r s t c y c l e [ 6 4 ] . 8 It f o l l o w s t h a t t h e g e n e r a t i o n of
t u r b u l e n c e m a n i f e s t s itself in t h e f o r m of a n o r g a n i z e d ( t r a c e a b l e ) g r o w t h of
e d d i e s ; its d i s s i p a t i o n , by t h e d i s o r g a n i z e d s p r e a d of t h e " d e b r i s " [12] p r o -
d u c e d b y t h e b r e a k - u p ' s . F o l l o w i n g A . A . T o w n s e n d , o n e c a n say t h a t t u r b u -

7
F r o m these explanations, o n e should n o t infer that, for t h e o c c u r r e n c e of b r e a k - u p ' s , a
turbulent flow must necessarily have a free surface. B r e a k - u p ' s a r e present in b o u n d a r y
layer flows as well as in the flows in closed conduits. T h e existence of flow boundaries
alone (onto which a continually growing eddy e will eventually i m p i n g e ) is sufficient to
ensure the occurrence of b r e a k - u p ' s , and thus of bursts having a finite length.
8
T h e quantitative formulation a n d evaluation of turbulence-energy p r o d u c t i o n by bursts can
be found in [27], [34], [41].

34
l e n c e c o n s i s t s of ( a n o r g a n i z e d ) " u n i v e r s a l " m o t i o n a n d (a d i s o r g a n i z e d )
" i r r e l e v a n t " m o t i o n . 9 A s a r e s u l t of t h i s , " t h e l a r g e c o h e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s ... a r e
c o n c e a l e d in a t r e m e n d o u s c l a t t e r of n o i s e " [12].

ii- O n l y s o m e " s e c t i o n s " of c o h e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s c a n b e o b s e r v e d b y m e a n s


of c o n t e m p o r a r y m e t h o d s , a n d n o t t h e i r t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l t o t a l i t y ( m o r e o n
t h e t o p i c in Ref. [16]). O w i n g t o t h i s r e a s o n , t h e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l f o r m of
c o h e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s a n d t h e i r e v o l u t i o n in t h e c o u r s e of a b u r s t c y c l e is, for
t h e p r e s e n t , a t o p i c t o t h e o r i z e u p o n . N o n e of t h e c o n c e p t u a l s c h e m e s p r o -
d u c e d t o d a t e for t h e " t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l m e c h a n i c s " of b u r s t s ( s e e e.g. [8],
[15], [38], [43]) e n j o y s g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e . T h u s , w h e t h e r t h e e d d y e is in fact
t h e ( l o n g i t u d i n a l ) s e c t i o n of a c i g a r - l i k e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l e d d y h a v i n g its
axis in t h e z - d i r e c t i o n , o r of a c u r v i l i n e a r " h a i r p i n " - v o r t e x , as s h o w n in F i g .
2 . 5 , e t c . , r e m a i n s a m a t t e r of a c a d e m i c s p e c u l a t i o n .

movement of burst
pressure w a v e s

F i g . 2.5 ( f r o m Ref. [21])

Consider e.g. t h e s c h e m e in Fig. 2.5. It implies that both ejections and sweeps originate
from the same circulatory fluid m o t i o n a r o u n d the stretched vortex, that the sweep overtakes
the vortex (and t h u s e) by passing over it, and that the path of the sweep does not cross the
path of ejection. Yet, from e x p e r i m e n t a l observations it follows (see e.g. [49]) that ejections
and sweeps originate from different fluid zones (Rt and Rh), that the sweep overtakes e by
passing u n d e r it, a n d that it "sweeps the weakened ejection d o w n s t r e a m " by moving across
its path.

Some a u t h o r s m a i n t a i n that the energy dissipation is, in fact, the only role m i c r o t u r b u l e n c e
plays in the physics of t u r b u l e n c e [12], [34].

35
2.2 T u r b u l e n c e Scales

2.2.1 Burst length

i- F r o m t h e c o n t e n t of t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n it s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t t h e
l a r g e - s c a l e l e n g t h L in F i g . 2.1 c a n b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h a t ( a v e r a g e ) d i s t a n c e
in t h e flow d i r e c t i o n x w h i c h is n e e d e d for t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of a b u r s t c y c l e ,
t h e l a r g e - s c a l e l e n g t h 11 b e i n g t h e ( a v e r a g e ) m a x i m u m e x t e n t of t h e c o h e r e n t
s t r u c t u r e in t h e s p a n w i s e d i r e c t i o n z. In t h e f o l l o w i n g , L a n d 11 will b e r e -
f e r r e d to as burst length a n d burst width r e s p e c t i v e l y .
T h e g r o w t h r a t e s of t u r b u l e n t e d d i e s in t h e flow d i r e c t i o n ( x ) e x h i b i t
a r e m a r k a b l e s i m i l a r i t y . C o n s i d e r , for e x a m p l e , t h e p h o t o g r a p h s in Fig. 2.6.
T h e y s h o w t h e g r o w t h of e d d i e s in t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t u r b u l e n t flows: Fig. 2.6a
- o p e n - c h a n n e l flow of w a t e r ; F i g . 2.6b m i x i n g l a y e r of t w o l i q u i d s ; Fig.
2.6c - c i r c u l a r jet flow of a g a s . Y e t , in all t h e s e c a s e s t h e size / of e d d i e s
a p p e a r s to i n c r e a s e a l o n g x in a l m o s t t h e s a m e m a n n e r , w h i c h c a n b e
a p p r o x i m a t e d by t h e s i m p l e p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y

(2.2)

( w h e r e 1/6 is t a n 0).

H e n c e , it w o u l d b e o n l y n a t u r a l t o e x p e c t t h a t t h e s i z e ( / ) of a b u r s t -
f o r m i n g e d d y e g r o w s , as it m o v e s a l o n g its t r a j e c t o r y s ( F i g . 2.7), a l s o as
i m p l i e d by (2.2), i.e. as

(2.3)

S i n c e t h e t r a j e c t o r y s is flat, w e c a n w r i t e

/ = /max = h when s x = L (2.4)

w h i c h y i e l d s , in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h ( 2 . 3 ) ,

L 6/z. (2.5)

T h i s r e l a t i o n is in l i n e w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l m e a s u r e m e n t s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t
t h e b u r s t l e n g t h L is a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o six flow d e p t h s h [29], [30], [31].
A s s u m i n g , w i t h a n a c c u r a c y sufficient for all p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , t h a t t h e
b u r s t - f o r m i n g e d d y e is c o n v e y e d d o w n s t r e a m w i t h t h e a v e r a g e flow v e l o c i t y
u , o n e c a n identify t h e a v e r a g e p e r i o d T of a b u r s t c y c l e w i t h t h e r a t i o
L / u , a n d o n e c a n e x p r e s s (2.5) as

(2.6)

T h e m e a s u r e m e n t of t h e a v e r a g e b u r s t p e r i o d T a t a l o c a t i o n of flow is by
far e a s i e r t h a n t h a t of t h e b u r s t l e n g t h L , a n d t h e r e f o r e in t h e c u r r e n t r e -
s e a r c h t h e v a l u e of L is u s u a l l y d e t e r m i n e d b y m e a s u r i n g T (i.e. as L =

36
= vT). M o s t of t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s of 7 w e r e c o n d u c t e d for b o u n d a r y - l a y e r
flows, w h e r e Woo a n d 8 f i g u r a t e i n s t e a d of v a n d h ( s e e e.g. [ 5 2 ] , [7]). H o w -
e v e r , t h e v a l u e s of u^T/S a n d vT/h a r e c o m p a r a b l e , a n d " n o w it a p p e a r s
1
t o b e fairly w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t T s c a l e s w i t h o u t e r variables, *) a n d t h e
g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d n u m b e r is u^TIS 6 " ( C a n t w e l l 1981 [9]).

ii- It w o u l d b e r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t t h e " g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d " v a l u e


vT/h= L/h&6 should nonetheless b e affected by t h e relative roughness
ks/h a n d / o r t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r Re* = v*kslv, a t l e a s t w h e n t h e y a r e suffi-
ciently small; a n d s o m e attempts to reveal t h e influence of these
d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e s h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n m a d e . C o n s i d e r , for e x a m p l e , F i g s .
11
2.8a a n d b w h i c h s h o w t h e m e a s u r e d v a l u e s of vT/h = Llh p l o t t e d versus
t h e flow R e y n o l d s n u m b e r ! 2 vhlv. F i g . 2 . 8 a c o n t a i n s l a b o r a t o r y d a t a of
b o u n d a r y - l a y e r flows p a s t a s m o o t h b e d . F i g . 2 . 8 b c o n t a i n s field d a t a c o r r e -
s p o n d i n g t o v a r i o u s t y p e s of b e d r o u g h n e s s ; it i n c l u d e s t h e r e s u l t s of
m e a s u r e m e n t s c a r r i e d o u t in t h e M i s s o u r i r i v e r a n d v a r i o u s c a n a l s ( s e e [25]
for m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e d a t a ) . N o i n f l u e n c e of vhlv o r k^/h is d e t e c t a b l e
f r o m t h e s e g r a p h s : t h e g r o s s s c a t t e r of e x p e r i m e n t a l p o i n t s a r o u n d Llh&5
t o 6 is r a n d o m . H o w e v e r , it w o u l d b e i m p r u d e n t t o c o n c l u d e o n t h e b a s i s
of Figs. 2.8 a l o n e t h a t Llh is n o t a f f e c t e d b y ks/h a n d / o r v*kslv\ first, b e c a u s e
t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s m a y b e o n l y f e e b l e ( a n d t h u s u n d e t e c t a b l e
owing to the gross scatter); a n d second, b e c a u s e the data plotted may not
c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e i r sufficiently s m a l l v a l u e s .

10
" o u t e r variables" are and <5; " i n n e r variables" v+, i/ and ks (see e.g. [52], [1]).
11
Figs. 2.8a and b are a d o p t e d from Jackson 1976 [25]. T h e original coordinates (of Figs. 3
and 13 in Ref. [25]) are altered to c o r r e s p o n d to t h e p r e s e n t text by identifying 6 and ,
with h and v respectively. T h e m o m e n t u m thickness 6 was evaluated as (7/72) 6
0.097/z OAh. T h e E u l e r i a n integral time scale TE was t a k e n (in accordance with Ref.
[25]) as 0.367.
12
Since vhlv = c(hlks)Re+ where c = $c(Re*, hlks) (see (1.33)), the consideration of vhlv
and kslh is equivalent to that of Re* = v*kslv and kjh.

38
1 0
1 7- ' 1 a

Il^-
> #, hot-wire air data; x , hot-film water data; O* visual water data.
' Data sources are Rao et al. (1971,figure9) and Blinco & Simons (1975,figure8).
1 J I I
2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10
vh/v

1 _0 j = - T I 1 I I 1 I I a U
i[ 6 A #
=.= 0 n i . ^ *. x -
-_ ^ o% ^ . x
>
l Z D i f f e r e n t s y m b o l s represent d i f f e r e n t k s/ h ~

x
=_J 1 1 I 1 1 I I -
4 5 6 7
10 10 10 10
0.1 vh/v a-

F i g . 2.8 (after Ref. [25])

2.2.2 Burst length and friction factor

A s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y of b u r s t s w a s c a r r i e d o u t in l a b o r a t o r y f l u m e s b y
A . B . K l a v e n a n d Z . D . K o p a l i a n i [29] ( s e e a l s o [18]), a n d f r o m t h e i r w o r k it
follows t h a t Llh is affected b y Re* a n d / o r Iq/h. A c c o r d i n g t o Ref. [ 2 9 ] , t h e
i n f l u e n c e of Re* a n d / o r k^lh ( o n Llh) is b y m e a n s of t h e f r i c t i o n f a c t o r c:
t h e r a t i o Llh is a f u n c t i o n of c w h i c h is a f u n c t i o n of Re* a n d kslh. (It m a y
b e n o t e d h e r e t h a t in m o s t of t h e p r a c t i c a l c a s e s t h e f l o w is r o u g h t u r b u l e n t
a n d c v a r i e s w i t h k,lh o n l y ) . T h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n is p r o p o s e d in Ref. [29]:

2/3
(2.7)

A l t h o u g h t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Llh as a f u n c t i o n of c a p p e a r s t o b e s o u n d ,
it is d o u b t f u l t h a t this f u n c t i o n s h o u l d h a v e a p o w e r f o r m ( a s i m p l i e d b y
( 2 . 7 ) ) . I n d e e d , s i n c e c a l w a y s varies w i t h k,/h a n d / o r Re*, a p o w e r f u n c t i o n
of c c a n n e v e r y i e l d Llh 6 = const. T o p u t it d i f f e r e n t l y , if Llh is a
f u n c t i o n of c , t h e n it m u s t b e a n a s y m p t o t i c f u n c t i o n ( w h i c h is c a p a b l e of
b e c o m i n g Llh& const for sufficiently l a r g e c ) .

T h e following is an a t t e m p t to derive an asymptotic variation of Llh with c.


Consider t h e time-growth r a t e dlldt of an eddy m o v i n g a l o n g its p a t h s. O w i n g to
dimensional reasons, the "velocity" dlldt must necessarily be p r o p o r t i o n a l to a typical flow
velocity, W say, the proportionality factor being a function of t h e dimensionless position
C = ylh

(2.8)

39
One would expect that W is either the local flow velocity u (Fig. 2.9), Or its increment Au

F i g . 2.9

(across t h e eddy size / ) , or their linear c o m b i n a t i o n . Taking the latter, viz


W = au + 0Auy (2.9)
and considering
dl
u, (2.10)

one obtains from (2.8)

(2.11)

A d o p t i n g roughly a<j>(Q 1/6, identifying u with v, and considering that Au/'u =


= (duldy)llu - (v*/Ky)l/uzz v*/u can be a p p r o x i m a t e d by v . / i ; = 1/c, o n e obtains from (2.11)
l
the following expression of Llh (dlldx)~

where the value of (01a) is not k n o w n at present. Observe that (2.12) is a non-decreasing
13
function of c which becomes Llh 6 for sufficiently large c.

2.2.3 "Lesser bursts"

A s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m e n t i o n e d , m o s t of t h e t u r b u l e n c e - e n e r g y (in fact
70 t o 8 0 % of it) is g e n e r a t e d at t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of a b u r s t c y c l e [64]; t h e rest
of it is p r o d u c e d b y t h e r o l l - u p ' s of s o m e a d d i t i o n a l e d d i e s , e{ say, at t h e l a t e r
stages.
S i n c e e a c h e d d y e{ m a i n t a i n s its c o h e r e n c e for a finite i n t e r v a l of t i m e
Ti9 it t r a v e l s d u r i n g t h a t t i m e ( i n t h e flow d i r e c t i o n ) a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e L{,
w h i c h is r e f e r r e d t o as t h e coherence length (of t h a t e d d y ) . It f o l l o w s t h a t t h e
b u r s t s of t h e l e n g t h L & 6h a n d t h e p e r i o d T LI v s t u d i e d so far a r e , in fact,
o n l y t h e l a r g e s t b u r s t s of a t u r b u l e n t flow. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e m , a t u r b u l e n t
flow c o n t a i n s a l s o a m u l t i t u d e of " l e s s e r b u r s t s " of t h e l e n g t h s a n d t h e p e r i -
o d s w h i c h satisfy
Lt < L 6h ; 7. < 7 . (2.13)

In t h e p r e s e n t b o o k , w e w i l l d e a l m a i n l y w i t h t h e l a r g e s t , o r u s u a l , b u r s t s of
t h e l e n g t h L&6h; a n d t h e r e f o r e , unless stated o t h e r w i s e , w e will c o n t i n u e
to use the t e r m " b u r s t " to designate t h e m only.

13
Note that it is not / but dlldx which is affected by c via u.

40
2.2.4 Burst width
T h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t of a b u r s t , in t h e c o n v e c t e d (y; z)-
plane, cannot be observed or m e a s u r e d directly: the current e x p e r i m e n t a l
m e t h o d s a r e n o t s u i t a b l e for t h a t . H e n c e t h e p r e s e n t k n o w l e d g e o n t h e
c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t of a b u r s t is b a s e d o n d e d u c t i o n s a n d i n f e r e n c e s .
H o w e v e r , o n e a s p e c t of this d e v e l o p m e n t a p p e a r s t o b e c e r t a i n : t h e c o h e r e n t
s t r u c t u r e g r o w s b y m e a n s of c o u n t e r - r o t a t i n g a n d e x p a n d i n g c i r c u l a t o r y
m o t i o n s , as s h o w n s c h e m a t i c a l l y (by t h e p h a s e s 1 to 4) in F i g . 2.10.

F i g . 2.10

If t h e p r e s s u r e at t h e s t a g n a t i o n p o i n t 5 , w h e r e t h e u p w a r d - d i r e c t e d
flow i m p i n g e s t h e free s u r f a c e , is sufficiently h i g h , t h e n t h e free s u r f a c e m a y
swell (Fig. 2.10). T h i s local a n d t e m p o r a r y s w e l l i n g , c a u s e d b y t h e u p w a r d -
d i r e c t e d ( l o c a l a n d t e m p o r a r y ) b u r s t - c u r r e n t s , is r e f e r r e d t o as a boil. (The
c o n d i t i o n s e n h a n c i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e of b o i l s will b e c o n s i d e r e d in C h a p t e r
3 ) . It h a s b e e n f o u n d by R. K i n o s h i t a [ 2 8 ] , w i t h t h e a i d of a e r i a l p h o t o -
s u r v e y s c a r r i e d o u t in n a t u r a l r i v e r s , a n d a l s o b y J . M . C o l e m a n [11] t h a t t h e
a v e r a g e s p a c i n g b e t w e e n b o i l s , in t h e z - d i r e c t i o n , is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2h ( s e e
a l s o [38], [39]). T h e fact t h a t a b o i l is b u t a n " o u t c o m e " of a b u r s t , a n d
c o n s e q u e n t l y t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n of a b o i l s p e c i f i e s t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e c e n t e r
l i n e of a b u r s t , h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d , o n t h e basis of e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a ,
b y R . G . J a c k s o n [25]. H e n c e , it w o u l d b e o n l y r e a s o n a b l e to i d e n t i f y t h e
l a r g e - s c a l e l e n g t h 11 (in Fig. 2.1) w i t h &2h:

U^2h and thus L ' y L . (2.14)

F r o m r e c e n t s t u d i e s o n c e l l u l a r s e c o n d a r y c u r r e n t s ( [ 3 6 ] , [39], [ 4 6 ] , [ 4 7 ] ,
[48], [59]), it follows t h a t t h e w i d t h of t w o a d j a c e n t c o u n t e r - r o t a t i n g c e l l s of
t h e s e c u r r e n t s is e q u a l to 2/z, i.e. t h a t it is e q u a l to t h e ( i n d e p e n d e n t l y
d e t e r m i n e d ) b u r s t w i d t h ll. T h e v e r t i c a l s e q u e n c e s in F i g . 2.11 s h o w s c h e -
m a t i c a l l y t h e c o n s e c u t i v e p h a s e s (1 t o 4) of c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t of
b u r s t s . T h e s e s e q u e n c e s , w h i c h a r e shifted b e c a u s e of t h e c h e s s b o a r d - l i k e p l a n
a r r a n g e m e n t in F i g . 2 . 1 , c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d e i t h e r as t h o s e a l o n g t h e flow
d i r e c t i o n x (at a n i n s t a n t / ) , or as t h o s e in t i m e t (at a s e c t i o n x). O b s e r v e

41
t h a t it is n o t o n l y t h e b u r s t - a n d t h e s e c o n d a r y c u r r e n t - " c h a n n e l s " (I a n d II)
themselves, but also t h e s e n s e of r o t a t i o n of t h e i r fluids w h i c h a r e in
coincidence. This suggests that bursts a n d cellular secondary currents (which
c a n o c c u r o n l y in t u r b u l e n t flows) a r e l i k e l y t o b e i n t e r r e l a t e d . In fact, t h e

y
1
I <
ii
' ^

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o O o O
vy//;///g/////. /////////////, V/)//, *
h2
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00

at a t
1 1
_i

00
oo o
\

x or x
t at an
_J
1 1

00
o 00

h0
1
I

00
o
H

1 1

00
oo

F i g . 2.11

s e c o n d a r y c u r r e n t s a p p e a r as if t h e y w e r e s o m e r e g u l a r c o u n t e r p a r t s ( p e r h a p s
s p a c e - t i m e a v e r a g e s ) of t h e b u r s t - i n d u c e d c u r r e n t s . T h e possibility of a n
i n t e r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n b u r s t s a n d c e l l u l a r s e c o n d a r y c u r r e n t s is n o t m e n t i o n e d
in t h e w o r k s r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e ; o n l y in Ref. [28] is a h i n t o n s u c h a possibility
given.

2,2.5 Viscous structures at the flow bed

C o n s i d e r t h e flow in t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e b e d . R e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s
t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e of t u r b u l e n c e c a n b e d e t e c t e d right d o w n to t h e b e d s u r -
face. T h e r e is n o ( c l a s s i c a l ) v i s c o u s s u b l a y e r 8L in t h e c l e a r - c u t s e n s e d e p i c t e d
in Fig. 2.12a, w h e r e rt a n d rv a r e t u r b u l e n t a n d v i s c o u s c o m p o n e n t s of t h e
t o t a l s h e a r stress r = r, + r: t h e i n f l u e n c e of v v a n i s h e s a l o n g y in a
c o n t i n u o u s m a n n e r as s h o w n s c h e m a t i c a l l y in Figs. 2.12b a n d c. C o n s i d e r i n g
this, t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s b e l o w a r e given without a p p e a l i n g to t h e viscous sub-
layer concept.

42
r
~~TV

KL T

T h e v i s c o u s flow in t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of t h e b e d is d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e
p a r a m e t e r s p, v, v*, K, a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s c o u n t e r p a r t I I A of a n y
q u a n t i t y A r e l a t e d to this flow is d e t e r m i n e d b y

= <f>A(Re*) (Re* = v*kslv) (2.15)

In p a r t i c u l a r , if A is a " l e n g t h " , X say, t h e n

fk - = * x ( K e . ) . (2.16)
s

If Re* < 5 ( h y d r a u l i c a l l y s m o o t h r e g i m e ) , t h e n t h e flow c o n t a c t i n g t h e b e d


s u r f a c e is c o m p l e t e l y v i s c o u s a n d its p r o p e r t i e s c a n n o l o n g e r b e d e p e n d e n t
o n k^. H e n c e w h e n Re* < 5 , t h e n ks m u s t v a n i s h f r o m t h e e x p r e s s i o n
( 2 . 1 6 ) , a n d this c a n b e a c h i e v e d o n l y if <f>x(Re*) is of t h e f o r m
(const)
URe*) = _ . (2.17)
Re,n

U s i n g ( 2 . 1 7 ) in ( 2 . 1 6 ) , o n e o b t a i n s

X = (const) . (2.18)

It follows t h a t if t h e flow c o n t a c t i n g t h e b e d is c o m p l e t e l y v i s c o u s , t h e n a n y
of its l e n g t h s X is " m e a s u r e d " in t e r m s of t h e v i s c o u s l e n g t h u n i t vlv* o n l y .
E x p e r i m e n t s h o w s t h a t t u r b u l e n c e d i s t u r b s t h e v i s c o u s flow at t h e b e d
as to p r o d u c e (in t h e (x; z ) - p l a n e c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a l e v e l y ( > ks), h o w e v e r
s m a l l ) a s e r i e s of a d j a c e n t h i g h - a n d l o w - s p e e d z o n e s ( " s p o t s " ) w h i c h v a r y
s l o w l y w i t h t h e p a s s a g e of t i m e . A s a m p l e of t h e s e q u a s i - p e r i o d i c ( a l o n g x
a n d z ) z o n e s is s h o w n in Fig. 2 . 1 3 . H e r e t h e y a r e d e p i c t e d b y t h e u-const
c o n t o u r s (at y= I5i//v*) c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e i n s t a n t s . I n t h i s
+ +
g r a p h , x a n d z i m p l y xv*lv a n d zv*lv r e s p e c t i v e l y . It h a s b e e n f o u n d [9],
[6], [5], [3] t h a t t h e a v e r a g e l e n g t h of e a c h z o n e in t h e x - d i r e c t i o n is
c o m p a r a b l e w i t h 1000 vlv*, t h e a v e r a g e l o n g i t u d i n a l p e r i o d , o r t h e a v e r a g e
"wave length", being thus

X x 2000 (2.19)

43
+IOO7

0i

-100^
+100-?

0-:
+
z
-100^
+ 100T
i

0-
r

-300 0 +300
x+ ^ A

Fig. 2 . 1 3
( f r o m Ref. [26]; s e e also [3], [33], [53], [58])

C l e a r l y , t h e d i s t u r b a n c e of t h e v e l o c i t y field m u s t b e a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e
c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i s t u r b a n c e of s t r e a m l i n e s . H e n c e , t h e s t r e a m l i n e s of t h e
v i s c o u s flow a t t h e b e d a r e u n d u l a t e d - a l s o w i t h t h e a v e r a g e w a v e length
\ x ( F i g . 2.14). T h e a b o v e d e s c r i b e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n s will b e r e f e r r e d t o hence-
viscosity decreases
turbulence decreases

Fig. 2 . 1 4

f o r t h a s viscous flow structures, o r undulations ( a t t h e b e d of a t u r b u l e n t


f l o w ) . It s h o u l d t h u s b e c l e a r t h a t t h e v i s c o u s flow a t t h e b o u n d a r i e s of a
h y d r a u l i c a l l y s m o o t h t u r b u l e n t flow is n o t t h e s a m e as t h a t of a l a m i n a r flow:
it is d i s t u r b e d r i g h t d o w n t o y = k,.
N o i n f o r m a t i o n o n \ x , t h a t is, o n t h e f o r m of its f u n c t i o n <f>x(Re*) is
a v a i l a b l e if t h e i n f l u e n c e of k, is n o l o n g e r n e g l i g i b l e ( t r a n s i t i o n a l r e g i m e :
5 < Re* < 7 0 ) . If Re* > 7 0 ( r o u g h r e g i m e ) , t h e n t h e r e is n o v i s c o u s
flow a t t h e b e d .

44
2.2.6 Sequence of bursts and its consequences

C o n s i d e r F i g . 2.15a w h i c h s h o w s t h e ( h i g h l y i d e a l i z e d ) s e q u e n c e of t h e
largest b u r s t s 0 U 02, ... , a l o n g x. H e r e 1 a n d 4 s y m b o l i z e t h e s t a t e s of t h e
b u r s t - f o r m i n g e d d y e j u s t after its b i r t h at t = 0, a n d j u s t b e f o r e its d i s i n t e -
g r a t i o n at t = T. W e a s s u m e t h a t t h e b u r s t s e q u e n c e 0 l 9 0 2 , ... , is regular,
i.e. t h a t it consists of i d e n t i c a l b u r s t s " f i r e d " ( f r o m t h e i r v i r t u a l o r i g i n s O)
in c o n c e r t w i t h t h e s a m e t i m e i n t e r v a l 7 . T h e v a r i a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s in t h e
lateral direction z has n o bearing o n the point i n t e n d e d to m a k e , a n d there-
4
fore t h e b u r s t s e q u e n c e in F i g . 2.15 will b e t r e a t e d as t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l . *

F i g . 2.15

S i n c e t h e m o t i o n of a b u r s t - f o r m i n g e d d y e is a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e in-
d u c e d flows a r o u n d it ( e \ e", ... , e t c . in Fig. 2.3), t h e d o w n s t r e a m m o t i o n
of e is, in effect, t h e d o w n s t r e a m m o t i o n of a d i s t u r b e d fluid r e g i o n ( w h i c h
i n c l u d e s e).
L e t P(x0, y0) b e a fixed p o i n t at t h e flow b e d , a n d y; (j = 1 , 2 , . . . , n)
t h e m u l t i t u d e of p o i n t s o n t h e v e r t i c a l l i n e p a s s i n g t h r o u g h P(x0, yo)
( y ; G [ 0 ; h]; Fig. 2.15). S u p p o s e n o w t h a t a " p r e - b u r s t - e r a " observer measures
t h e t i m e - v a r i a t i o n of flow v e l o c i t i e s U-t (i = x, y, z) at t h e p o i n t s )>, a n d o b -
t a i n s 3n d i a g r a m s , w h i c h c u m u l a t i v e l y i m p l y

Uu= Fl(t,yj) = ftj(t). (2.20)

T h e burst sequence is conceivable, for, as has been m e n t i o n e d earlier, the disintegration


of Et p r o m p t s the " b i r t h " of et + \x the c o m m e n c e m e n t of t h e sequence can be ensured by
a "local discontinuity" ( m o r e o n the topic in C h a p t e r 3).

45
H e will s o o n n o t i c e t h a t t h e s e different 3n d i a g r a m s have one common
p r o p e r t y t h e y a r e all r e p e t i t i v e w i t h t h e p e r i o d T:

Uij = fu(t) = fu(t + KT) (K integer).


T h e o b s e r v e r , w h o is n o t a w a r e of t h e e x i s t e n c e of b u r s t s , will justifiably
a t t r i b u t e t h i s r e p e t i t i v e n e s s , w h i c h is d e t e c t a b l e for all p o i n t s yj9 t o t h e p a s -
s a g e of t h e a d j a c e n t " l a r g e s t e d d i e s " 1 , 2 , ... (Fig. 2.15b) w h o s e d i m e n s i o n s
a l o n g y a n d x a r e / i a n d &6h ( = vT) respectively.
T h i s o b s e r v e r - s t o r y is a s y m b o l i c s u m m a r y of w h a t h a s r e a l l y h a p p e n e d
in t h e p a s t . C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s , a largest e d d y () r e f e r r e d t o in a p r e - b u r s t - e r a
p u b l i c a t i o n w i l l b e i n t e r p r e t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g m e r e l y as a n " e n v e l o p e "
c o n t a i n i n g a b u r s t - p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e l i n e a r d i m e n s i o n s of t h a t e d d y a r e
tth a n d ? s 6 / i , a n d its p e r i o d is 6h/v.
Since the eddies e and are conveyed downstream with the same speed
( u ) , a n d s i n c e t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e c o n s e c u t i v e e d d i e s e u e2, ... , is
t h e b u r s t l e n g t h L ( w h i c h is also t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l e x t e n t of ) , t h e " m o v i n g
e n v e l o p e " c o n t a i n s o n l y o n e e d d y e at a t i m e . T h e e d d y e c o n t a i n e d in
for t h e d u r a t i o n T e v o l v e s d u r i n g t h a t d u r a t i o n ( t h e s t a t e s 1 , 2 , . . . in F i g .
2 . 1 5 a ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n of fluid in e v o l v e s also as a f u n c t i o n
of te [0 ; T]. F i g . 2.15c ( d u e to A . B . K l a v e n [30]) s h o w s , in a c o n v e c t i v e
f r a m e of r e f e r e n c e , t h e fluid c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t w o a d j a c e n t ' s at a n i n s t a n t .
F i g . 2.15c is f r o m a f r a m e of a cine-film t a k e n by a c a m e r a m o v i n g d o w n -
s t r e a m w i t h t h e v e l o c i t y v [31].
T h e l a r g e s t t u r b u l e n t e d d i e s (of t h e a r e a hL) s h o u l d n o t b e c o n -
2
fused w i t h t h e m a c r o t u r b u l e n t e d d i e s E (of t h e a r e a ~ h ), w h i c h a r e m e r e l y
e at t = T.
T h e a r e a " s w e p t " by t h e b u r s t - f o r m i n g e d d y e in t h e c o u r s e of a b u r s t
c y c l e ( s h a d e d a r e a in F i g . 2.15a) will b e r e f e r r e d to as burst module.

2.3 Horizontal Turbulence

2.3.1 General description

T h e t u r b u l e n c e d e a l t w i t h so far c a n b e r e f e r r e d to as vertical turbu-


lence, for it is f o r m e d b y t h e e d d i e s w h o s e a x e s of r o t a t i o n a r e p e r p e n d i c u l a r
to t h e v e r t i c a l (x; y ) - p l a n e s ( t o t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s of f l o w ) . Yet a n
o p e n - c h a n n e l flow h a s t u r b u l e n t e d d i e s also in p l a n ( s e e F i g . 2 . 1 6 ) , ^ a n d o n e
c a n say ( f o l l o w i n g Y o k o s i [66]) t h a t t h e s e e d d i e s , w h o s e a x e s a r e p e r p e n -
d i c u l a r t o t h e ( n e a r l y ) h o r i z o n t a l ( x ; z ) - p l a n e , f o r m horizontal turbulence.^

15
T h e p h o t o g r a p h in Fig. 2.16 shows the (horizontal) turbulent eddies at t h e free surface
of a flume flow (see also [62]).
16
T h e c o n c e p t of horizontal turbulence has already been used in some m o n o g r a p h s on fluvial
hydraulics (see e.g. [18] and [56]).

46
T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h o r i z o n t a l t u r b u l e n c e a r e m a r k e d in t h e p r e s e n t text
b y t h e s u b s c r i p t H.

F i g . 2.16 ( f r o m Ref. [61])

T o t h e a u t h o r ' s k n o w l e d g e , t h e b u r s t s of h o r i z o n t a l t u r b u l e n c e h a v e
n o t yet b e e n s t u d i e d for t h e i r o w n s a k e in o p e n - c h a n n e l s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
the related observations and m e a s u r e m e n t s indicate that horizontal turbulence
t o o h a s its c o h e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s a n d b u r s t s , a n d t h a t t h e y a r e a n a l o g o u s to
t h o s e of t h e v e r t i c a l t u r b u l e n c e . T h e d i f f e r e n c e a p p e a r s t o b e m a i n l y d u e to
t h e l e n g t h - s c a l e : all " l e n g t h s " of t h e l a r g e - s c a l e v e r t i c a l t u r b u l e n c e a r e p r o -
p o r t i o n a l to t h e flow d e p t h h\ t h o s e of t h e l a r g e - s c a l e h o r i z o n t a l t u r b u l e n c e ,
t o t h e flow w i d t h B.^ H o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s a r e p r o d u c e d by t h e h o r i z o n t a l
b u r s t - f o r m i n g e d d i e s eH, w h i c h a r e l i k e l y t o o r i g i n a t e at t h e b a n k s ( w h e r e t h e
h o r i z o n t a l s h e a r s t r e s s e s rH a r e t h e l a r g e s t ) , a n d w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t l y m o v e
a w a y f r o m t h e m as t h e y a r e c o n v e y e d d o w n s t r e a m . D u r i n g t h e i r m o t i o n , t h e
( h o r i z o n t a l ) size lH of t h e e d d i e s eH i n c r e a s e s . If t h e ( B / / z ) - r a t i o of t h e flow
is n o t t o o l a r g e , t h e n t h e e d d i e s eH m a y g r o w u n t i l t h e y a c q u i r e t h e i r full
m a c r o t u r b u l e n t s i z e ( / / / ) m ax = B t h e n , t h e y b r e a k - u p . T h e size ( / H ) m ax = B
is a c q u i r e d b y a n e d d y eH after it h a s t r a v e l l e d t h e d i s t a n c e LH &aB, which
is t h e l e n g t h of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s . O w i n g to t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y of t h e d i v e r g e n c e
a n g l e 0 ( s e e 2.2.1), t h e v a l u e of a m u s t b e e x p e c t e d to b e c o m p a r a b l e , o r e v e n
e q u a l , to 6 . [ T h e p h o t o g r a p h in F i g . 2.17 s h o w s t h e p l a n v i e w of a c o h e r e n t
s t r u c t u r e in a n o p e n - c h a n n e l flow: t h e o v e r a l l s h a p e of t h i s h o r i z o n t a l s t r u c -
t u r e is s i m i l a r t o t h e b u r s t m o d u l e s s h o w n in e a r l i e r i l l u s t r a t i o n s . S e e a l s o t h e
e x p e r i m e n t a l l y d e t e r m i n e d p a t t e r n s of h o r i z o n t a l t u r b u l e n c e in Ref. [60]].
F r o m t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s c a r r i e d o u t b y S. Y o k o s i [66] in t h e Uji R i v e r
( J a p a n ) a n d l a b o r a t o r y f l u m e s , it f o l l o w s t h a t a t u r b u l e n t o p e n - c h a n n e l flow

No difference can be expected because of the (vertical o r h o r i z o n t a l ) orientation of the


axes of turbulent eddies, for the s t r u c t u r e of t u r b u l e n c e d o e s not d e p e n d on gravity.

47
F i g . 2.17
( c o u r t e s y of Prof. H . O h n a r i , T o k u y a m a C o l l e g e of T e c h n o l o g y )

( h a v i n g B > h) c o n t a i n s in p l a n a s e q u e n c e of a d j a c e n t l a r g e s t e d d i e s w h i c h
m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s in t h e f o r m of ( c o m p a r a t i v e l y t h i n ) h o r i z o n t a l "disks".
T h e t h i c k n e s s of t h e s e d i s k s is e q u a l to t h e flow d e p t h h, t h e i r p l a n d i m e n -
s i o n s a l o n g z a n d x b e i n g &B a n d aB r e s p e c t i v e l y ( w h e r e a is c o m p a r a b l e
with 6 ) . Adopting mutatis mutandi t h e c o n t e n t of 2.2.6 for a horizontal
" f l o w r i b b o n " ( a n d t h u s r e p l a c i n g h, L , T, ... e t c . b y B , LH, TH, ... e t c . ) , o n e
r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e " l a r g e s t e d d i e s " r e p o r t e d in t h e p r e - b u r s t - e r a w o r k of S.
Y o k o s i [66] a r e b u t t h e e d d i e s H ( h o r i z o n t a l c o u n t e r p a r t s of ) , c o n t a i n i n g
horizontal bursts (of the average length LH aB and the period
TH = LHI v). W e g o n o w to t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a = LH/B.

2.3.2 Length of horizontal bursts

i- If t h e o s c i l l o g r a m of t h e t i m e - v a r i a t i o n ( d u e to t u r b u l e n c e ) of a v e l o c i t y
Ui is a v e r a g e d o v e r t h e c o n s e c u t i v e e q u a l t i m e i n t e r v a l s A r , t h e n t h e
" s m o o t h e d " o s c i l l o g r a m will c o n t a i n o n l y t h o s e -fluctuations whose period
is l a r g e r t h a n At. T h u s , by s e l e c t i n g a sufficiently l a r g e At, o n e c a n r e v e a l
t h o s e l o n g e s t p e r i o d s , o r l o w e s t f r e q u e n c i e s , of ( ^ - f l u c t u a t i o n s , w h i c h a r e
c a u s e d by t h e p a s s a g e of t h e l a r g e s t e d d i e s ZH.
F i g . 2.18a s h o w s t h e o r i g i n a l o s c i l l o g r a m of t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l flow
v e l o c i t y U ( = Ux) r e c o r d e d b y S. Y o k o s i [66] in t h e Uji R i v e r . 18 T h e c u r v e s
in F i g s . 2 . 1 8 b , c a n d d a r e t h e s m o o t h e d v e r s i o n s of t h i s o s c i l l o g r a m , w h i c h
c o r r e s p o n d t o At - 6s, 60s a n d 3 0 0 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e l o n g e s t p e r i o d TH, d u e
t o t h e p a s s a g e of t h e largest e d d i e s is e x h i b i t e d b y t h e c u r v e d. U s i n g this

18 Straight river region: h - 2m, B = 100m, 5 = 0.00026. T h e m e a s u r e m e n t s were carried


o u t at ylh - 0.8 of the flow center line. T i m e average longitudinal velocity at yih = 0.8
was u = 1.28mIs.

48
At = 60S C
At = 300s d

F i g . 2.18 ( f r o m Ref. [66])

d i a g r a m , o r r a t h e r its e x t e n d e d v e r s i o n s h o w n in F i g . 2.19, S. Y o k o s i d e t e r -
1
m i n e d TH 1 4 m / n , w h i c h t o g e t h e r w i t h B = 1 0 0 m a n d v = l . l O m / s , ^ y i e l d s

T h i s s a m p l e v a l u e of t h e r a t i o LHIB is l a r g e r t h a n t h e e x p e c t e d v a l u e ^ 6 ,
b u t it is c e r t a i n l y c o m p a r a b l e w i t h it.
uU(cm/s)

125-

/
V
1
lOmin H
^" "fc
' 1
120 F i g . 2.19 ( f r o m Ref. [66])

A n a l o g o u s m e a s u r e m e n t s of t h e t i m e - f l u c t u a t i o n s of U w e r e c a r r i e d o u t
a l s o in s o m e r i v e r s of C e n t r a l A s i a [ 1 3 ] , [ 1 8 ] ; a n d F i g . 2.20 s h o w s ( t h e o n l y
a v a i l a b l e ) l o w - f r e q u e n c y o s c i l l o g r a m s (At 1 2 0 s ) of t h e S y r - D a r y a R i v e r at
A k - A j a r . H e r e t h e c u r v e s 1, 2 a n d 3 w e r e r e c o r d e d at ylh = 0.8, 0.4 a n d

19 Average flow velocity v is in coincidence with the time-average velocity u at ylh = 0.368
1
(see 1.4.1). H e n c e , u = \.2Smls recorded by S. Yokosi at ylh = 0.8 is, in fact, m u c h nearer
to umax t h a n to v. Identifying u with umax , i.e. a d o p t i n g umax 1.28ra/5, and taking into
account that (umax - v ) = 2.5 u . (see (1.25)), where

v, = VgSh = V(9.81)(0.00026)(2) 0.01 mis ,

one d e t e r m i n e s v = umax ~ 2.5 l.lOm/s.

49
iyj>:
U(cm/s)

N1
n i i h h ^t(min) v
0 10 20 30 AO 50 '
F i g . 2.20 (from Ref. [18])

2
0.2 r e s p e c t i v e l y . O T h e a v e r a g e i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n t h e p e a k s is 1 3 m m . I d e n -
tifying this v a l u e w i t h TH, a n d u s i n g B = 1 0 0 m a n d v = 0 . 9 r a / s , o n e d e t e r -
mines

B e i n g a p r o p e r t y of t u r b u l e n c e , t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s b u r s t l e n g t h LHIB has a
s t r o n g r a n d o m c o m p o n e n t , a n d t h e r e f o r e a l i m i t e d n u m b e r of its s a m p l e s ,
s u c h as 9 a n d &7 a b o v e , c a n n o t s u p p l y a r e l i a b l e v a l u e for a. A n a d e q u a t e
d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a m u s t rest o n a l a r g e n u m b e r of s a m p l e s ; yet o n l y v e r y f e w
m e a s u r e m e n t s , as t h o s e o u t l i n e d a b o v e , h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d t o d a t e . A
d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h t o t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a is e x p l a i n e d b e l o w .

ii- A v e r y l a r g e n u m b e r of m e a s u r e m e n t s w a s c a r r i e d o u t for t h e w a v e l e n g t h
Aa of t h e a l l u v i a l b e d f o r m s k n o w n as a l t e r n a t e b a r s ( C h a p t e r 3 ) . U s i n g t h e s e
d a t a , it h a s b e e n f o u n d t h a t Aa a n d B a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d by t h e s i m p l e
proportionality
Aa 6B (2.21)

( s e e Figs. 3.29a a n d b ) .
N o w , a l t e r n a t e b a r s c a n n o t b e c a u s e d b y v e r t i c a l t u r b u l e n c e , for all of
its l a r g e - s c a l e l e n g t h s a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o h a n d t h e y c a n n o t p o s s i b l y b e
" i m p r i n t e d " o n t h e m o b i l e b e d s u r f a c e as t h e b e d f o r m s w h o s e l e n g t h is
p r o p o r t i o n a l t o B ( a n d is i n d e p e n d e n t of h). H e n c e , a l t e r n a t e b a r s c a n b e
d u e only t o h o r i z o n t a l t u r b u l e n c e , all of w h o s e l a r g e - s c a l e l e n g t h s in p l a n
a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o B. T h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y of t h e s a m p l e s a 9 a n d ^ 7 w i t h
Aa/B 6 is a n a d d i t i o n a l i n d i c a t i o n t h a t A a s h o u l d b e t h e " i m p r i n t " of t h e
l e n g t h LH of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s . T h u s ,

(2.22)

20
Straight river region: h - 1.1m, B = 100m and v = 0.9mls (which is the time average of
the curve 2 corresponding to y Ih = 0.4 ( 0.368)).

50
In a n a l o g y t o t h e r e l a t i v e l e n g t h Llh of v e r t i c a l b u r s t s , t h e v a l u e
a = LH/B&6 m a y a l s o b e a f f e c t e d b y k,lh a n d / o r Re* ( o r b y c ) w h e n t h e y
a r e sufficiently s m a l l . H o w e v e r , t h e s c a t t e r of t h e a l t e r n a t e b a r d a t a is t o o
g r o s s t o r e v e a l this p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e a n d , for t h e p r e s e n t , o n e h a s n o a l t e r -
n a t i v e b u t t o c o n s i d e r (2.22) as a p p l i c a b l e t o all k,lh a n d Re*.

2.3.3 Basic configuration of horizontal bursts

S i n c e in t h e c a s e of a n o p e n - c h a n n e l flow ( h a v i n g B > h) t h e largest


v a l u e of u (at a n y z) is at t h e free s u r f a c e , w h i l e t h e largest duldz (at a n y
y) is at t h e b a n k s , t h e a b s o l u t e m a x i m u m of duldz m u s t b e at t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n
of b a n k s w i t h t h e free s u r f a c e . H e n c e , t h e h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s m u s t b e e x p e c t e d
to o r i g i n a t e at s o m e p o i n t s ( 0 / ) l o c a t e d in t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of t h e u p p e r
c o r n e r s of t h e flow c r o s s - s e c t i o n . [In Ref. [63], M . A . V e l i k a n o v v i v i d l y d e -
s c r i b e s h o w t h e s e v e r a l - m e t e r s - d i a m e t e r free s u r f a c e e d d i e s a r e i n t e r m i t t e n t l y
d e t a c h i n g f r o m t h e b a n k s of t h e A m u - D a r y a a n d a r e s u b s e q u e n t l y c o n v e y e d
downstream].
A l t e r n a t e b a r s a r e a n t i - s y m m e t r i c a l in p l a n w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e x - a x i s ,
a n d so m u s t b e t h e s e q u e n c e s 0 l n 02, ... , a n d 0{', 02, ... , of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s
(issued from the right- a n d left-banks) w h i c h generate t h e m . T h e anti-
s y m m e t r i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t of 0X a n d 01, w h i c h a r e a s s u m e d t o b e " r e g u l a r " in
21
t h e s e n s e of 2.2.6, is s h o w n in F i g . 2 . 2 1 .

2.3.4 Configuration criteria; "N-row" horizontal bursts

i- C o n s i d e r a s t e a d y a n d u n i f o r m r o u g h t u r b u l e n t flow in a r e c t a n g u l a r
o p e n - c h a n n e l : t h e b e d is r i g i d a n d flat; its r o u g h n e s s is K. T h i s flow, a n d t h u s
t h e s t r u c t u r e of its l a r g e - s c a l e t u r b u l e n c e , is c o m p l e t e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e
p a r a m e t e r s p, Q ( o r u , u * , e t c . ) , h, B a n d fc, ([32], [35], [55]), a n d t h u s b y
the dimensionless variables
22

and (2.23)

H e n c e , for a n y n A of t h e s t r u c t u r e of t u r b u l e n c e m e n t i o n e d w e h a v e

21
A detailed d e m o n s t r a t i o n of the validity of anti-symmetrical a r r a n g e m e n t of horizontal
bursts can be found in Ref. [57]. This a r r a n g e m e n t is consistent with the "chessboard-row"
sequence of largest horizontal eddies ( H) in Ref. [18], where it is envisaged that the
adjacent consecutive H rotate in o p p o s i t e directions as they are conveyed downstream. In
Ref. [18] it is also m e n t i o n e d that certain a t t e m p t s to associate alternate bars with the se-
quence of H have already been m a d e in " s o m e theoretical w o r k s " (not specified in [18]).
22
T h e following is to be noted: 1) If Re* < 7 0 , then Re* is an additional variable. 2) The
bed need not be literally rigid; if the mobile bed is covered by ripples, then ks (~ D) can
be interpreted as " r i p p l e r o u g h n e s s " K5 ( ~ A , ) . 3) If B/h is large and the disk-like eddies
eH are r u b b i n g the bed, t h e n ks affects the horizontal bursts directly; and not only via w,
as it affects vertical bursts (2.2.2).

51
Fig. 2.21

(2.24)

S i n c e a c e r t a i n s t a t e o r c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t h e l a r g e - s c a l e t u r b u l e n c e c a n b e
specified by a c e r t a i n c o n s t a n t v a l u e of o n e of its d i m e n s i o n l e s s p r o p e r t i e s
n A, t h e o c c u r r e n c e of t h a t state o r c o n f i g u r a t i o n m u s t b e p r e d i c t a b l e b y a
c r i t e r i o n w h i c h is a n i n t e r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n Blh a n d kslh. I n d e e d , if
I I A = constA, t h e n (2.24) b e c o m e s

= constA ,

w h i c h yields

(2.25)

It follows t h a t a c r i t e r i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e l a r g e - s c a l e t u r b u l e n c e
c a n b e r e p r e s e n t e d by a c u r v e in t h e {Blh; /i//c s)-plane.

ii- L e t e m ax b e t h e t h i c k n e s s of t h e free ( n o t c o n t a c t i n g t h e b e d ) d i s k - l i k e
b u r s t - f o r m i n g e d d i e s eH at t h e e n d of a b u r s t c y c l e , i.e. w h e n lH =
=
( / / O m a x == B ( F i g s . 2.22a a n d b ) . T h e c r i t e r i o n for w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e e d d i e s

a r e " r u b b i n g " t h e b e d s u r f a c e c a n b e r e f l e c t e d b y t h e v a l u e s of t h e r a t i o
^max/ft ( w h i c h is o n e of t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s p r o p e r t i e s (UA) of t h e s t r u c t u r e of
turbulence).

- If (emax/h) < 1, t h e n t h e e d d i e s e H , w h i c h a r e a s s u m e d t o b e " b o r n "


n e a r t h e free s u r f a c e , are not r u b b i n g t h e b e d at a n y s t a g e of t h e b u r s t
c y c l e ( F i g . 2 . 2 2 b ) . C l e a r l y , in this c a s e t h e c h a n n e l b e d c a n n o t b e
affected b y t h e e d d i e s eH, a n d t h e l a r g e - s c a l e h o r i z o n t a l t u r b u l e n c e
d o e s n o t h a v e t h e p o t e n t i a l t o p r o d u c e its b e d f o r m s .

- If (emax/h) > 1, t h e n t h e e d d i e s eH a r e r u b b i n g t h e b e d ( F i g . 2 . 2 2 c ) .
In this c a s e t h e c h a n n e l b e d c a n b e affected b y t h e e d d i e s eH, a n d
t h e l a r g e - s c a l e h o r i z o n t a l t u r b u l e n c e h a s t h e p o t e n t i a l t o p r o d u c e its
bed forms (which are the alternate or multiple bars ( C h a p t e r 3)).

52
not rubbing the bed

h<en

^rubbing the bed


F i g . 2.22

H e n c e t h e l i n e ( c u r v e ) s e p a r a t i n g t h e r e g i o n s , in t h e (B/h; /z/^)-plane,
w h e r e t h e h o r i z o n t a l t u r b u l e n c e c a n a n d c a n n o t p r o d u c e its b e d f o r m s is
d e t e r m i n e d b y a r e l a t i o n w h i c h c a n b e e x p r e s s e d as

(2.26)

i.e.

(2.27)

iii- C o n s i d e r t h e a r r a n g e m e n t of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s in F i g . 2 . 2 1 ; it is p r e s e n t
in all o p e n - c h a n n e l flows h a v i n g sufficiently l a r g e r e l a t i v e d e p t h h/B. If t h e
burst-forming eddies eH a n d eH' a r e n o t r u b b i n g t h e b e d (i.e. if
( e m a /x / i ) < 1), t h e n t h e s c h e m e in F i g . 2.21 is c e r t a i n l y v a l i d . T h i s , h o w e v e r ,
d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t it m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y b e i n v a l i d if t h e e d d i e s eH a n d e H' are
r u b b i n g t h e b e d ( i . e . if (emax/h) > 1). F o r t h e b e d friction-effect ( w h i c h in-
c r e a s e s w i t h Klh a n d B/h) m a y n o t b e as s t r o n g as t o p r e v e n t t h e s e e d d i e s
f r o m r e a c h i n g t h e o p p o s i t e b a n k s (at w h i c h t i m e t h e y a c q u i r e t h e i r full s i z e
=
(if)max B). If, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e b e d friction-effect is sufficiently
s t r o n g , t h e n it m a y p r e v e n t t h e e d d i e s eH a n d from reaching the opposite
b a n k s ; a n d in t h i s c a s e t h e y will m e e t e a c h o t h e r in t h e m i d s t of t h e flow,
as s h o w n s c h e m a t i c a l l y in F i g . 2.23a. H e n c e , w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of t h e b e d
friction-effect, t h e b a s i c s i n g l e - r o w c o n f i g u r a t i o n of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s (in F i g .
2.21) d e g e n e r a t e s i n t o t h e d o u b l e - r o w c o n f i g u r a t i o n (in F i g . 2 . 2 3 a ) , w h e r e t h e
l a r g e s t size of h o r i z o n t a l e d d i e s is B/2. B u t this m e a n s t h a t t h e u p p e r limit
of v a l i d i t y of t h e a r r a n g e m e n t in F i g . 2 . 2 1 , w h i c h h a s t h e p o t e n t i a l t o g e n e r a t e
a l t e r n a t e b a r s , c a n b e r e f l e c t e d b y ( / w ) m ax = B a n d t h u s b y

53
(2.28)

i.e.

(2.29)

C l e a r l y , t h e c u r v e (2.29) is s i t u a t e d in t h e (Blh; /z//c,)-plane a b o v e t h e c u r v e


(2.27) (^(h/k,) >Uh/ks)).

iv- A f u r t h e r i n c r e m e n t of t h e b e d friction-effect ( i . e . of Blh and/or kslh)


m u s t l e a d t o a f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n of t h e l a r g e s t sizes of eH a n d e w' ; a n d t h e
double-row configuration in F i g . 2.23a must change into the triple-row,
q u a d r i p l e - r o w , ... , a n d N-row configurations, w h e r e t h e largest e d d y sizes
a r e B / 3 , B / 4 , ... a n d BIN. ( F i g s . 2.23b a n d c s h o w t h e t r i p l e - a n d N - r o w
c o n f i g u r a t i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . S i n c e N is a n i n t e g e r , t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m o n e
configuration to t h e next, d u e to t h e c o n t i n u o u s i n c r e m e n t of t h e friction
effect, m u s t o c c u r b y " s t e p s " .

-H Of H ( L H) 3 - * H

Fig. 2.23

54
A l l b u r s t m o d u l e s ( t h e s h a d e d a r e a s in F i g s . 2.23a, b a n d c) a r e r o u g h l y
g e o m e t r i c a l l y s i m i l a r , a n d t h e r e f o r e if t h e l e n g t h of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s f o r m i n g
t h e N-row c o n f i g u r a t i o n is d e n o t e d by (LH)N, a n d t h e largest size of t h e
e d d i e s eH b y ( I h ) N ( w h i c h , at t h e s a m e t i m e , is t h e w i d t h of o n e r o w of t h e
N-row configuration), then

= W, (2.30)

WI1CIC
L L 6 B D A N B
( H)l = H ~ Wl = ( K ) M A X

a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s i n g l e - r o w c o n f i g u r a t i o n in Fig. 2 . 2 1 .
If N > 2 , t h e n t h e r e exists a r e g i o n of t h e w i d t h B - 2(lH)N =
= B - 2(B/N) w h i c h contains the large-scale horizontal eddies i n d u c e d by
t h e b u r s t s i s s u e d f r o m 0{ a n d 0[\ t h e l i n e a r d i m e n s i o n s of t h e s e " i n d u c e d
e d d i e s " ( w h i c h a r e s h o w n in Figs. 2.23b a n d c b y b r o k e n lines) a r e c o m p a -
2
r a b l e w i t h t h o s e of t h e " i n d u c t o r bursts". 3 S i n c e t h e s e n s e of r o t a t i o n of
i n d u c e d e d d i e s a l t e r n a t e s in t h e z - d i r e c t i o n , t h e i r effect o n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n
of t i m e a v e r a g e v e l o c i t i e s a l o n g z c a n n o t b e significant. H e n c e , o n e c a n as-
s u m e t h a t t h e flow in t h e r e g i o n B - 2(B/N) is p r a c t i c a l l y t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l
(du/dztt 0 a n d rH 0 for a n y y ) , a n d t h u s t h a t B - 2(BIN) can be identified
(as is d o n e in F i g s . 2 . 2 3 b a n d c) w i t h t h e w i d t h Bc of t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n ( s e e
S e c t i o n 1.1):

Bc= B - 2 ( l H ) N = B( (2.31)

B e i n g o n e of t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s p r o p e r t i e s of t u r b u l e n c e , t h e n u m b e r
N of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t r o w s is also d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e s
B/h a n d k^/h. i.e.

(2.32)

which yields

(2.33)

It f o l l o w s t h a t v a r i o u s c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s i m p l y v a r i o u s r e -
g i o n s , o r z o n e s , in t h e (B/h; / z / / c s) - p l a n e . T h e r e l a t i o n (2.33) c a n b e t a k e n
as t h e e q u a t i o n of t h e l i n e s e p a r a t i n g t h e z o n e of N-row c o n f i g u r a t i o n f r o m

23 T h e " i n d u c e d " large-scale eddies in the rows within Bc are, of course, not quite the same
as the bursts in the rows adjacent to the banks. Yet, for the sake of convenience, we will
c o n t i n u e to use t h e t e r m "TV-row bursts".

55
t h e z o n e of (N + l ) - r o w c o n f i g u r a t i o n . ( T h e r e l a t i o n ( 2 . 2 9 ) is t h u s t h e s p e c i a l
24
c a s e of (2.33) w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s to N = l ) .

2.3.5 Formulation of "N-row" horizontal bursts

i- S i n c e t h e b o u n d a r i e s s e p a r a t i n g v a r i o u s c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s
(in t h e {Blh; /z//c s)-plane) a r e , at t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e b o u n d a r i e s s e p a r a t i n g
t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of b a r s ( g e n e r a t e d b y t h e s e b u r s t s ) , a n at-
t e m p t t o p e n e t r a t e t h e f o r m of t h e f u n c t i o n (2.33) s h o u l d b e w o r t h w h i l e .
T h e ability of a b u r s t - f o r m i n g e d d y eH t o a d v a n c e a l o n g its t r a j e c t o r y s
c a n b e r e f l e c t e d b y its k i n e t i c e n e r g y Ek. If e m ax > h ( F i g . 2 . 2 2 c ) , t h e n m o s t
of t h i s e n e g y is s p e n t t o o v e r c o m e t h e w o r k W d o n e by t h e friction f o r c e ,
w h i c h i n t e r a c t s b e t w e n t h e l o w e r face of t h e " d i s k " eH a n d t h e b e d . It w o u l d
b e r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t t h e r e d u c t i o n of b u r s t l e n g t h b y t h e _ f a c t o r
N_= LHI{LH)N d e p e n d s o n h o w t h e t y p i c a l v a l u e s of Ek a n d W (viz Ek a n d
W) c o m p a r e w i t h e a c h o t h e r , i.e. it d e p e n d s o n t h e r a t i o Ek/W:

N= jN(Ek/W). (2.34)
But,
2
Ek ~^-p{hA)u" ~ phAv while W& (T0A)(Lh)n & p vl A(LH)N

w h e r e A is t h e t y p i c a l a r e a of eH in p l a n . H e n c e ,
2 2
(EkIW)~[h/(LH)N](v/v*) = [h/{LH)N)c . (2.35)

In t h e c a s e of r o u g h t u r b u l e n t flow u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e friction factor


l/6
c c a n b e g i v e n by t h e p o w e r r e l a t i o n ( 1 . 2 8 ) , v i z c = 7.66{h/ks) . U s i n g this
v a l u e of c a n d t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t h/{LH)N = h/(LH/N)& h/(6B/N),
o n e c a n e x p r e s s ( 2 . 3 5 ) as
m
(Ek/W) ~(h/B)(h/ks) N. (2.36)

S u b s t i t u t i n g (2.36) in ( 2 . 3 4 ) , o n e determines
l/3
N=4>N[(Blh)/(h/ks) ]9 (2.37)
and consequently
1 >~>

(2.38)

H e n c e if t h e flow is r o u g h t u r b u l e n t , t h e n t h e b o u n d a r i e s s e p a r a t i n g t h e
r e g i o n s of N-row and (N + l ) - r o w horizontal bursts (in a log-log
{Blh; / i / / C y ) - p l a n e ) m u s t b e 1/3-inclined s t r a i g h t l i n e s . T h e " l e v e l " of e a c h

24
As will be clarified in C h a p t e r 3, the n u m b e r of rows of multiple bars is the same as the
n u m b e r (N) of rows of horizontal bursts (which " i m p r i n t " t h e m ) . Hence, the n u m b e r of
multiple bar rows c a n n o t be specified at will (as it is frequently d o n e in some papers on
bed forms) - in every e x p e r i m e n t , it is determined by t h e existing Blh and kjh.

56
l i n e , as r e f l e c t e d b y t h e i n c r e a s i n g s t e p f u n c t i o n i>(N), c a n b e r e v e a l e d o n l y
by experiment.
It will b e s h o w n in C h a p t e r 3 t h a t t h e l i n e s e p a r a t i n g t h e z o n e of
a l t e r n a t e b a r s f r o m t h a t of m u l t i p l e b a r s c a n b e g i v e n b y t h e r e l a t i o n

(2.39)

( w h i c h is E q . (3.45) w h e r e D is r e p l a c e d b y k>/2). T h e l i n e r e p r e s e n t i n g ( 2 . 3 9 )
c a n t h u s b e t a k e n as t h e u p p e r l i m i t of e x i s t e n c e of t h e s i n g l e - r o w c o n f i g -
u r a t i o n of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s (N = 1; ^ ( 1 ) ^ 3 1 . 5 ) .
T h e r e l a t i o n (2.38) h a s n o b e a r i n g o n t h e f o r m of t h e f u n c t i o n ( 2 . 2 7 )
signifying t h e l o w e r l i m i t of e x i s t e n c e of t h e s i n g l e - r o w c o n f i g u r a t i o n of
h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s w h i c h a r e r u b b i n g t h e b e d ( l o w e r l i m i t of e x i s t e n c e of
alternate bars). For a given B , the rubbing must be expected to take place
for t h o s e h w h i c h a r e s m a l l e r t h a n t h e t h i c k n e s s e m ax of t h e free e d d i e s EH
(Fig. 2.22c). A c c o r d i n g l y , the lower limit m e n t i o n e d s h o u l d c o r r e s p o n d to
t h a t v a l u e of B/h w h i c h satisfies

(2.40)

T h e r a t i o o n t h e r i g h t is a d i m e n s i o n l e s s p r o p e r t y of t h e h o r i z o n t a l m a c r o -
t u r b u l e n c e , a n d t h e r e f o r e it m u s t p o s s e s s a c e r t a i n u n i v e r s a l v a l u e . C o n s e -
q u e n t l y , t h e f u n c t i o n ipe(h/ks) in (2.27) m u s t t e n d to b e c o m e a c o n s t a n t for
sufficiently l a r g e v a l u e s of hlks - o n l y for s m a l l hlk, s h o u l d it e x h i b i t a
s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n . I n d e e d , if k, is l a r g e , t h e n a n i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e
l o w e r p a r t of t h e e d d y eH a n d t h e d i s t u r b e d (by k,) flow at t h e b e d m u s t b e
e x p e c t e d t o b e g i n b e f o r e eH a c t u a l l y t o u c h e s t h e b e d s u r f a c e ; i.e. it s h o u l d
b e g i n for t h e flow d e p t h s h t h a t a r e l a r g e r t h a n e m a .x It f o l l o w s t h a t t h e c u r v e
r e p r e s e n t i n g B/h = ^ ( / z / Z c , ) , a n d signifying t h e l o w e r b o u n d a r y of t h e exist-
e n c e r e g i o n of b e d - r u b b i n g h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s , m u s t b e e x p e c t e d first t o r i s e
(for s m a l l h/k,), a n d t h e n t e n d to b e c o m e p a r a l l e l t o t h e a b c i s s a hlk,.

ii- T h e r e l a t i o n (2.37) i n d i c a t e s t h a t B/h a n d k^/h d e t e r m i n e N b y combining


themselves into a single variable

(2.41)

B u t t h i s m e a n s t h a t e a c h of (2.37) a n d (2.32) c a n b e s y m b o l i z e d b y
(2.42)

25
If t h e flow is not r o u g h turbulent, then c is d e t e r m i n e d by b o t h hlks and Re*. Conse-
quently, CJ and N b e c o m e functions of B/h, ks!h and Re* (which is in line with the state-
m e n t in footnote 22).

57
w h i l e (2.38) i m p l i e s
UJ = tf(/V). (2.43)

H e n c e , (2.42) a n d ( 2 . 4 3 ) a r e i n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s , a n d t h e r e f o r e it is sufficient
t o d i s c u s s o n l y o n e of t h e m : w e t a k e ( 2 . 4 2 ) .
T h e r e l a t i o n s a b o v e i n d i c a t e t h a t if UJ < 3 1 . 5 , t h e n (2.42) r e d u c e s i n t o
iV= 1, a n d (2.30) y i e l d s

(LH)X^6B and ( l H) x^ B . (2.44)

C o n s i d e r t h e o p p o s i t e e x t r e m e , viz UJ oo, w h i c h c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d as
B oo w h i l e ft a n d /c, r e m a i n c o n s t a n t ( s e e ( 2 . 4 1 ) ) . C l e a r l y , if B is " v e r y
l a r g e " , t h e n t h e h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s g e n e r a t e d at o n e of t h e b a n k s ( b y t h e finite
rH a c t i n g t h e r e ) c a n n o t d e p e n d o n B. B u t t h i s m e a n s t h a t w h e n j 3 ~ c j - o o ,
then B must vanish from the expressions

(LH)N^6B/N and (lH)N^B/N (2.45)

w h i c h follow f r o m ( 2 . 3 0 ) . T h i s , h o w e v e r , c a n b e a c h i e v e d o n l y if t h e f u n c t i o n
N = <t>N(w) h a s t h e p r o p e r t y

lim </>N(UJ) = (const)UJ . (2.46)

S u b s t i t u t i n g N= (const)u in ( 2 . 4 5 ) , a n d r e i n t e r p r e t i n g UJ a c c o r d i n g t o ( 2 . 4 1 ) ,
o n e r e a l i z e s t h a t w h e n B/h is " v e r y l a r g e " , t h e n

(L ) ^6h(-E5rWt)^y
H N and (lH)N = h( corut) (-A )
1 /3
( 2. 4 7 )

1
( w i t h const = (const)' ^

H e n c e t h e (so far u n k n o w n ) s t e p f u n c t i o n N = 0.v(w) s h o u l d b e of s u c h


a n a t u r e as t o b e e q u a l to u n i t y w h e n UJ < 3 1 . 5 , a n d as t o b e c o m e p r o p o r -
t i o n a l to UJ w h e n UJ oo.

iii- It follows t h a t t h e l i n e a r d i m e n s i o n s of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s ( a n d of t h e in-


d u c e d e d d i e s in Bc) d o n o t s c a l e a l w a y s w i t h B o r a l w a y s w i t h h. W h e n
UJ < 3 1 . 5 , t h e n t h e y s c a l e w i t h B. W i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of w , t h e l i n e a r s c a l e ,
n n
w h i c h can b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by B H , shifts t o w a r d s h (n d e c r e a s e s f r o m u n i t y
t o z e r o ) . A n d w h e n UJ - * oo, t h e n t h e l i n e a r d i m e n s i o n s of h o r i z o n t a l s t r u c -
2
t u r e s s c a l e w i t h h. &

It should be r e m e m b e r e d that the present analysis c o r r e s p o n d s to a rectilinear o p e n - c h a n n e l


with straight parallel banks. A natural river is, as a rule, irregular; and any irregularity in
plan (sudden change in direction, salient points, confluence, bifurcation, etc.) may generate
additional horizontal eddies whose linear d i m e n s i o n s scale with B. These eddies, which can
occur for any C J ~ B / / I , may in s o m e cases " e c l i p s e " the t u r b u l e n t structures considered
here.

58
F r o m t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a b o v e , it also f o l l o w s t h a t w h e n {Blh) ~ UJ is
c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l , t h e n t h e o p e n - c h a n n e l flow m a n i f e s t s itself a s a
" c o r r e l a t e d t o t a l i t y " - t h e flow at t h e left b a n k " k n o w s " w h a t t h e flow at
t h e r i g h t b a n k " i s d o i n g " , e.g. if UJ < 3 1 . 5 , t h e n t h e b u r s t s o u r c e s Ox a n d
Q\ at e a c h b a n k " o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s " so t h a t 0[ is e x a c t l y in t h e m i d d l e
of OiOt+i ( F i g . 2.21); a p o s s i b l e ( a c c i d e n t a l ) i n c r e m e n t of flow v e l o c i t i e s at
t h e r i g h t b a n k is c o m p e n s a t e d by t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v e l o c i t y d e c r e m e n t at t h e
left b a n k , e t c . W i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of UJ t h i s l a t e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n d e t e r i o r a t e s ,
a n d w h e n UJ is sufficiently l a r g e , it v a n i s h e s c o m p l e t e l y [24], [ 6 3 ] , [10].
T h e i n d u c e d e d d i e s t e n d t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e m s e l v e s : t h e y " d i f f u s e " in t h e
l a t e r a l d i r e c t i o n z ( a w a y f r o m t h e b a n k s ) . H o w e v e r , t h i s l a t e r a l diffusion
c a n n o t g o o n a l o n g z i n d e f i n i t e l y : t h e b e d f r i c t i o n p r e v e n t s it. B u t t h i s m e a n s
t h a t if Blh is sufficiently l a r g e , t h e n t h e r e m u s t exist s u c h a p a r t bc of t h e
c e n t r a l r e g i o n Bc w h e r e t h e l a r g e - s c a l e h o r i z o n t a l t u r b u l e n c e is n o l o n g e r
p r e s e n t ; i.e. w h e r e w e h a v e v e r t i c a l t u r b u l e n c e o n l y ( F i g . 2.24).27

YJ [ . B-
-B/N 1 B c-
f(K/h) h : b c-

g R J 1 J

horizontal turbulence

vertical turbulence

F i g . 2.24

If Blh is sufficiently large and bc exists, then the distances (B - bc)!2 m u s t be p r o -


portional to h, the proportionality factor being a function of kslh. i.e.

bc = B - 2f(k5lh)h, (2.48)

where the ( u n k n o w n ) function f{ks/h) satisfies

(Blh)IN < f(kslh) < (Blh)12 (2.49)

(the left-hand side of (2.49) is d u e to bc < B(\ see (2.31)).


Consider now t h e expression of Bc, for which we have the relations (1.1) and (2.31).
E q u a t i n g these relations, o n e obtains

where N is d e t e r m i n e d by Blh and c ((2.41) and (2.42)). H e n c e , in general, m is d e t e r m i n e d


also by Blh and c , and it reduces into a function of only c w h e n (Blh)-too (see (2.47)). In

27
T h e central region Bc is two-dimensional with regard to the time average velocities u, which
do not d e p e n d on the t h e velocities u[ fluctuating a r o u n d t h e m . H e n c e , the fact that the
large-scale horizontal eddies and thus the low-frequency fluctuations (u[) caused by t h e m
progressively decrease along z , has no bearing on the two-dimensionality of u in Bc.

59
the present chapter, turbulence was studied for the simplest case of an open-channel: vertical
banks (<t> = TT/2) and bank r o u g h n e s s (ks') equal to the bed roughness ks. In reality, <f> and
(k^) lks are the additional variables a n d m m u s t be treated as

m = <t>m(Blh,c, (k'5)lks,<t>). (2.50)

T h e analogous is valid for the function f(ks In) (in (2.48)).


In the considerations above, which c o r r e s p o n d to large Blh, the distance mh was
identified with the width (lH)N of h o r i z o n t a l burst rows corresponding to N ^ 3. If, however,
Blh is not large, and vertical t u r b u l e n c e d o m i n a t e s , then mh is simply the distance affected
by side walls. Clearly, in this case m c a n n o t d e p e n d on Blh, and it varies, in the neigh-
b o u r h o o d of 2 . 5 (see [65]), d e p e n d i n g o n c, (ks)lks and <j> only.

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26. Johansson, A.V., Alfredsson, P.H.: Velocity and pressure fields associated with near-wall
turbulence structures. Int. Seminar on Near-Wall T u r b u l e n c e , D u b r o v n i k , May 1988.
27. Kim, H.T., Kline, S.J., Reynolds, W.C.: The production of turbulence near a smooth wall
in a turbulent boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 50, 1971.
28. Kinoshita, R.: An analysis of the movement of flood waters by aerial photography, con-
cerning characteristics of turbulence and surface flow. P h o t o g r a p h i c Surveying, Vol. 6, 1967
(in Japanese).
29. Klaven, A.B., Kopaliani, Z.D.: Laboratory investigations of the kinematic structure of
turbulent flow past a very rough bed. Tech. R e p o r t of the State Hydro-Geological Inst.
( G G I ) , Vol. 209, 1973.
30. Klaven, A.B.: Investigation of structure of turbulent streams. Tech. Report of the State
Hydro-Geological Inst. ( G G I ) , Vol. 136, 1966.
31. Kondratiev, N., Popov, I., Snishchenko, B.: Foundations of hydromorphological theory of
fluvial processes. (In Russian) G i d r o m e t e o i z d a t , Leningrad, 1982.
32. Landau, L.D., Lifshitz, E.M.: Fluid Mechanics. P e r g a m o n Press, Oxford, 1986.
33. Lu, L.J., Smith, C.R.: Use of flow visualization data to examine spatial-temporal velocity
and burst-type characteristics in a turbulent boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 232, 1991.
34. Lu, S.S., W i l l m a r t h , W.W: Measurements of the structure of the Reynolds stress in a
turbulent boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 60, 1973.
35. Monin, A.S., Yaglom, A.M.: Statistical Fluid Mechanics: Mechanics of Turbulence. Vol. 1
and 2, T h e MIT Press, 1975
36. Muller, A.: Secondary flows in an open channel. Proc. XVII Congress I A H R , N o . B.A.3,
1979.
37. Nakagawa, H.: Study on interaction between flowing water and sediment transport in alluvial
streams. Part III. Stochastic model for bed material load. Report of G r a n t - i n - A i d for
Scientific Research (B), J a p a n , 1986.
38. Nakagawa, H., Nezu, I.: Structure of space-time correlations of bursting phenomena in an
open-channel flow. J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 104, 1981.
39. Nakagawa, H., Nezu, I., T o m i n a g a , A.: Spanwise streaky structure and macroturbulence in
open-channel flows. Memoirs, Fac. of Engrg., Kyoto Univ., Vol. XLIII, Part 1, Jan. 1981.
40. Nakagawa, H., Nezu, I.: Bursting phenomenon near the wall in open-channel flows and its
simple mathematical model. M e m o i r s , Fac. of Engrg., Kyoto Univ., Vol. XL, Part 4, Oct.
1978.
41. Nakagawa, H., Nezu, I.: Prediction of the contributions to the Reynolds stress from bursting
events in open-channel flows. J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 80, 1977.
42. Nakagawa, H., Nezu, I.: Turbulence of open-channel flow over smooth and rough beds.
Proc. of J S C E , Vol. 2 4 1 , Sept. 1975.
43. Nakagawa, H., Nezu, I.: On a new eddy model in turbulent shear flow. Proc. of J S C E , Vol.
231, Nov. 1974.
44. Nezu, I., Nakagawa, H.: Numerical calculation of turbulent open-channel flows in consid-
eration of free-surface effect. M e m o i r s , Fac. of Engrg., Kyoto Univ., Vol. XLIX, April 1987.
45. Nezu, I., Rodi, W.: Open-channel flow measurements with a laser doppler anemometer. J.
Hydr. Engrg., A S C E , Vol. 112, No. 5, May 1986.
46. Nezu, I., Rodi, W.: Experimental study of secondary currents in open channel flow. Proc.
XXI Congress I A H R , M e l b o u r n e , Aug. 1985.
47. Nezu, I., Nakagawa, H.: Cellular secondary currents in straight conduits. J. Hydr. Engrg.,
A S C E , Vol. 110, No. 2, Feb. 1984.

61
48. Nezu, I., Nakagawa, H., Tominaga, A.: Secondary currents in a straight channel flow and
the relation to its aspect ratio. 4th Int. Symp. on T u r b u l e n t Shear Flow, Karlsruhe, 1983.
49. Nychas, S.G., Hershey, H.C., Brodkey, R.S.: A visual study of turbulent shear flow. J. Fluid
Mech., Vol. 6 1 , 1973.
50. Offen, G.R., Kline, S.J.: A proposed model of the bursting process in turbulent boundary
layers. J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 7, 1975.
51. Offen, G.R., Kline, S.J.: Combined dye-streak and hydrogen-bubble visual observations of
a turbulent boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 62, 1974.
52. Rao, K.N., Narasimha, R., Narayanan, M.A.B.: The bursting phenomenon in a turbulent
boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 4, 1971.
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channel flows. J. Fluids Engrg., Vol. 112, J u n e 1990.
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Vol. 3 1 , Sept. 1988.
55. Schlichting, H.: Boundary layer theory. M c G r a w Hill Book Co. Inc., Verlag G. B r a u n (6th
edition), 1968.
56. Sherenkov, I.A.: Applied problems of plan hydraulics of tranquil flows. (In Russian) E n e r g y
Publishing House, Moscow, 1978.
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58. Smith, C.R., Walker, J.D.A, Haidari, A.H., S o b r u n , U.: On the dynamics of near-wall
turbulence. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lon. A, Vol. 336, 1991.
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Hydroscience and Hydraulic Engrg., Vol. 7, No. 1, Nov. 1989.
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flow visualization and picture processing. J. Hydroscience and Hydraulic Engrg., Vol. 9,
No. 1, May 1991.
6 1 . U t a m i , T. et al: On the mechanism of secondary flow in prismatic open channel flow. Flow
Visualisation II. Proc. Second Int. Symp. on Flow Visualisation, B o c h u m , Sept. 9-12, 1980.
62. U t a m i , T., U e n o , T.: Lagrangian and Eulerian measurement of large scale turbulence. Flow
Visualisation I. Proc Int. Symp. on Flow Visualisation, T o k y o , Oct. 1977.
63. Velikanov, M.A.: Dynamics of alluvial streams. (In Russian) Gostechizdat, Moscow, 1955.
64. Willmarth, W.W., Lu, S.S.: Reynolds stress structure in turbulent boundary layer. P r o c .
Symp. on T u r b u l e n t Diffusion in E n v i r o n m e n t a l Pollution, Charlottesville, Virginia, April
1974.
65. Yalin, M.S.: Mechanics of sediment transport. P e r g a m o n Press, Oxford, 1977.
66. Yokosi, S.: The structure of river turbulence. Bull. Disaster Prevention Res. Inst., Kyoto
Univ., Vol. 17, Part 2, No. 121, Oct. 1967.

62
CHAPTER 3

BED FORMS AND FRICTION FACTOR

3.1 Classification of Bed F o r m s

3.1.1 Quasi-uniformity of flow and bed forms

C o n s i d e r a s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t e x p e r i m e n t ( r u n ) w h i c h c o m m e n c e s , at
2
t h e i n s t a n t t = 0, o n t h e flat s u r f a c e of a m o b i l e b e d : 77 = (v*/v*cr) > 1;
>
qs ~ Qsb 0. In o r d e r t o r e v e a l w h a t m i g h t s u b s e q u e n t l y h a p p e n to this flat
b e d surface, we i n v o k e the transport continuity equation (1.76). Substituting
in t h i s e q u a t i o n ps = 0 ( n o m a t e r i a l is d e p o s i t e d f r o m a n e x t e r n a l s o u r c e ) a n d
c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t in t h e c a s e of a flat b e d dyb Idx = 0, o n e d e t e r m i n e s t h e
f o l l o w i n g s p e c i a l f o r m of (1.76):

(3.1)

(qs = t); yb = fb(x, t)).

H e r e dybldt is t h e s p e e d Vb of t h e v e r t i c a l d i s p l a c e m e n t of a p o i n t of t h e b e d
s u r f a c e . T h e r e l a t i o n (3.1) i n d i c a t e s t h a t if t h e initial flow is c o m p l e t e l y u n i -
f o r m , i.e. if its p r o p e r t i e s u a n d r, a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y qs, d o n o t v a r y a l o n g
x, t h e n t h e flat b e d s u r f a c e will r e m a i n as it is (dqjdx = dybldt = 0). Simi-
l a r l y , if dqjdx- const ( o r dqjdx = fs(t)), t h e n t h e b e d s u r f a c e will m o v e
u p o r d o w n , b u t it will still r e m a i n u n d e f o r m e d (flat). If, h o w e v e r , t h e initial
f l o w is q u a s i - u n i f o r m , i.e. if it c o n s i s t s of a s e q u e n c e of i d e n t i c a l n o n - u n i f o r m
r e g i o n s Rt, e a c h of t h e s a m e l e n g t h L , t h e n t h e b e d - l o a d r a t e qs at t = 0 is
a p e r i o d i c ( a l o n g x) f u n c t i o n

qs = fs(x, 0) = fs(x + L, 0) ( w i t h (qs)av = const), (3.2)

w h i c h r e n d e r s t h e (initial) vertical d i s p l a c e m e n t velocity VM a l s o a p e r i o d i c


function:

VbQ = - (dqs/dx)t=Q = fVb(x,Q) = fVb(x+ L,0) (3.3)

( w i t h (VM)av = 0).

C l e a r l y , in t h i s c a s e t h e flat initial s u r f a c e of t h e m o b i l e b e d , viz

63
yb = fb(x,0) = o, (3.4)

c a n n o t r e m a i n u n d e f o r m e d . I n d e e d , after t h e p a s s a g e of a s m a l l i n t e r v a l of
t i m e 8t, t h e p l a n e (3.4) will t u r n i n t o t h e s u r f a c e
Syb = VM6t, (3.5)

w h i c h is c e r t a i n l y p e r i o d i c , for VM is p e r i o d i c :

Syb = fVb(x, 0)St = fb(x, St) = fb(x+L, St) ( w i t h (Syb)av = 0). (3.6)

T h e a v e r a g e p l a n e of t h e p e r i o d i c a l l y d e f o r m e d ( " w a v y " ) s u r f a c e at t = 8t
is t h e s a m e as t h e p l a n e of t h e initial b e d at / = 0: (6yb)av = 0 ( = fb(x,0)).
H e n c e , if t h e flow at / = 0 is q u a s i - u n i f o r m , t h e n t h e initially flat sur-
face of a m o b i l e b e d will e v e n t u a l l y d e f o r m i n t o a n u n d u l a t e d o n e : it will
b e c o v e r e d b y bed forms ( o r sand waves). E a c h b e d f o r m / is o n e
" e r o s i o n - d e p o s i t i o n " s e q u e n c e (as s h o w n s c h e m a t i c a l l y b e l o w ) , its l e n g t h A f
b e i n g i d e n t i c a l to t h e p e r i o d L{ of t h e q u a s i - u n i f o r m flow:

A, = L t . (3.7)

A basically u n i f o r m o p e n - c h a n n e l flow b e c o m e s q u a s i - u n i f o r m e i t h e r
b e c a u s e of t h e s t r u c t u r e s of t u r b u l e n c e ( b u r s t s , v i s c o u s flow u n d u l a t i o n s at
t h e b e d , etc.) c o n t a i n e d in it, o r b e c a u s e of t h e w a v e s w h i c h m a y o c c u r o n
1
its free s u r f a c e .
S i n c e t h e g r a n u l a r s k i n r o u g h n e s s ks is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e t y p i c a l g r a i n
size D ( S e c t i o n 1.6), a n y f u n c t i o n of K i n t r o d u c e d in t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r t s of
t h e b o o k will b e i n t e r p r e t e d in t h i s c h a p t e r i n t e r m s of D.

1
T h e flow can also possess a certain periodicity in its lateral direction ( z ) , caused by the
secondary currents. Since the lateral period of secondary c u r r e n t s is 2 / i (see 2.2.4), the
lateral distance between the longitudinal ridges generated by t h e m m u s t also be 2 / i (and
experiment shows that this is indeed so). However, t h e role of longitudinal ridges in fluvial
processes is rather limited, and therefore they will n o t be elaborated here. Interested
readers are referred to the outstanding recent works [33], [34], [42], [43], [44].

64
3.1.2 Definition of bed forms and their general properties

i- Antidunes

If Fr > 0.6 [4], [24], [ 5 4 ] , t h e n s t a n d i n g w a v e s o c c u r o n t h e free s u r -


face of a n o p e n - c h a n n e l flow. T h e l e n g t h Lg of t h e s e ( g r a v i t y ) w a v e s is
d e t e r m i n e d by the form
Lg= %(Fr)h, (3.8)

w h e r e $g(Fr) c a n b e a p p r o x i m a t e d by 6Fr. ( M o r e r e f i n e d e x p r e s s i o n s of
%(Fr) c a n b e f o u n d in Refs. [24], [3], [54]).
T h e r e l a t i v e h e i g h t of s t a n d i n g w a v e s i n c r e a s e s w i t h Fr, a n d w h e n
Fr > 1 (i.e. w h e n t h e flow is s u p e r c r i t i c a l ) t h e y a r e u s u a l l y a b l e to d e f o r m
t h e initially flat s u r f a c e of a m o b i l e b e d as to p r o d u c e " t h e i r " b e d f o r m s
- antidunes. H e n c e , u s i n g ( 3 . 7 ) , o n e c a n w r i t e for t h e l e n g t h Ag of a n t i -
dunes
A g = L ^ = %{Fr)h. (3.9)

ii- Dunes and bars

C o n s i d e r n o w t h e b e d f o r m s w h i c h a r e d u e to t h e q u a s i - u n i f o r m i t i e s
c a u s e d b y t h e s t r u c t u r e s of t u r b u l e n c e . F r o m t h e c o n t e n t of C h a p t e r 2 , it
s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t t h e l e n g t h ( a l o n g x) of a t u r b u l e n t s t r u c t u r e of a n
o p e n - c h a n n e l flow is p r o p o r t i o n a l to o n e of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l e n g t h s h, B
o r vlv*. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s a m e m u s t b e v a l i d for t h e l e n g t h of b e d f o r m s
" i m p r i n t e d " b y o n e of t h o s e s t r u c t u r e s . In t h i s p a r a g r a p h w e w i l l c o n s i d e r
o n l y t h e b e d f o r m s p r o d u c e d b y t h e largest t u r b u l e n t s t r u c t u r e s , viz b u r s t s .
In C h a p t e r 2 it h a s also b e e n s h o w n t h a t all l i n e a r d i m e n s i o n s of v e r t i c a l
b u r s t s a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l to h; t h o s e of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s , t o BIN ( w h e r e N is
t h e n u m b e r of b u r s t - r o w s ) . In this t e x t , dunes a n d bars will b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h
( o r d e f i n e d as) t h o s e b e d f o r m s w h i c h a r e p r o d u c e d b y v e r t i c a l b u r s t s a n d
h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . If N= 1, i.e. if w e h a v e t h e b a s i c s i n g l e - r o w
c o n f i g u r a t i o n of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s ( F i g . 2.21), t h e n t h e r e s u l t i n g b a r s a r e
single-row bars o r alternate bars. If N > 1 ( F i g . 2 . 2 3 ) , t h e n t h e i m p r i n t e d b e d
f o r m s a r e N-row bars o r multiple bars.

1- If t h e flow p a s t t h e flat initial b e d is r o u g h t u r b u l e n t , t h e n n o v i s c o u s


i n f l u e n c e is p r e s e n t a n d t h e l e n g t h of v e r t i c a l b u r s t s is L^6h (2.2.1 ( i ) ) .
H e n c e , a c c o r d i n g to t h e d e f i n i t i o n s a b o v e ( a n d E q . ( 3 . 7 ) ) , t h e l e n g t h Ad of
d u n e s g e n e r a t e d by a r o u g h t u r b u l e n t flow s h o u l d b e g i v e n b y

Ad = L 6h. (3.10)

A s is k n o w n f r o m r e s e a r c h o n s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t , t h e l e n g t h of d u n e s p r o -
d u c e d b y r o u g h t u r b u l e n t flows c a n b e e x p r e s s e d i n d e e d as &6h (e.g.
Ad^2irh [ 5 4 ] ; Ad = Ih [17]; Ad = 5h [57]; ... e t c . ) .

65
If t h e flow p a s t t h e flat initial b e d is n o t r o u g h t u r b u l e n t , t h e n t h e r a t i o
Ad/h m a y b e affected by X = v*kslv ( ~ Re*) a n d Z- hID (~ hlk,), and
(3.10) m u s t b e g e n e r a l i z e d i n t o
Ad=%(X,Z)6h. (3.11)

T h e f o r m (3.11) is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l m e a s u r e m e n t s : t h e family of
e x p e r i m e n t a l c u r v e s in F i g . 3.18 i n d i c a t e s t h a t , in g e n e r a l , t h e r a t i o kdlh
( = (Ad/D)/Z) v a r i e s as a f u n c t i o n of X a n d Z , a n d t h a t it b e c o m e s 6 o n l y
2
w h e n X > 3 5 (for a n y Z ) . T h e d e v i a t i o n of ( A ^ / / z ) - v a l u e s f r o m 6 w i t h
t h e d e c r e m e n t of X Re* is (as c a n b e i n f e r r e d f r o m F i g . 3.18) m u c h l a r g e r
t h a n w h a t o n e w o u l d e x p e c t o n t h e b a s i s of e x p l a n a t i o n s g i v e n in S e c t i o n
2.2. T h e r e a s o n for t h i s will b e c l a r i f i e d in 3.1.3 (iv).

2- In 2.3.2 it h a s b e e n e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e l e n g t h LH - (LH)X of h o r i z o n t a l
bursts c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the basic configuration N = 1 can b e identified with
t h e l e n g t h Aa of a l t e r n a t e b a r s , viz &6B. H e n c e w e h a v e

A (J = ( L / / ) 1 6 B , (3.12)

w h i c h is in l i n e w i t h t h e a b o v e d e f i n i t i o n of a l t e r n a t e b a r s ( a n d w i t h (3.7)).
It s h o u l d b e p o i n t e d o u t h e r e t h a t ( i n a n a l o g y t o Ad/h) the relative bar length
Aa/B m a y a l s o b e affected b y X a n d / o r Z if t h e initial flow is n o t r o u g h
t u r b u l e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e e x i s t i n g p l o t s of Aa ( F i g s . 3.29a a n d b ) a r e t o o scat-
t e r e d t o s u p p l y a n y i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h i s s c o r e , a n d w e will u s e (3.12) for all
r e g i m e s of t h e initial flow.

3- If N> 1, t h e n (LH)N = (LH)JN ( s e e (2.30)) a n d (3.12) m u s t b e r e p l a c e d


by
(Ab)N = (LH)N^6B/N. (3.13)

E x p e r i m e n t s h o w s t h a t t h e l e n g t h of m u l t i p l e b a r s d e c r e a s e s i n d e e d w i t h t h e
i n c r e m e n t of /V ( s e e [9], [ 1 8 ] , [ 2 0 ] , e t c . ) . B e i n g a n o u t c o m e of flow past t h e
flat initial b e d (at t 0 ) , t h e n u m b e r of b u r s t r o w s , N, is d e t e r m i n e d b y
B/h, h/ks~ Z a n d Re*~ X ( s e e 2.3.5). M o r e specifically, it is d e t e r m i n e d by
2
t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s c o m b i n a t i o n uj~(Blh)lc ( E q s . (2.41) a n d ( 2 . 4 2 ) ) , w h e r e
c = $c(Re*, hlk) = %(X, Z).3
It h a s also b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d i n 2.3.5 t h a t if (B/h) ~ UJ -> oo, t h e n
N= (const)uj ~ B/h. In t h i s c a s e ( 3 . 1 3 ) y i e l d s ( A ^ ) ^ h, w h e r e a s for N =

2
Usually / c s 2D, and therefore 35 m e a n s Re*& 70, which is the lower limit of rough
turbulent flows (see e.g. [37]).
3
In 2.3.5 the analysis was confined to r o u g h t u r b u l e n t flows only, and therefore c was ex-
m
pressed (independently of Re*) as c ~ (hlks) = ipc(Z).

66
4
= 1 it g i v e s ( A 6 ) i = A a ~ B ( t h e l i n e a r s c a l e of b a r s shifts f r o m B t o h w i t h
t h e i n c r e m e n t of Blh, a n d t h u s of N).

Hi- Ripples
R i p p l e s will b e d e f i n e d , i n this t e x t , as t h e b e d f o r m s " i m p r i n t e d " b y
t h e v i s c o u s flow s t r u c t u r e s ( u n d u l a t i o n s ) at t h e b e d of a t u r b u l e n t flow ( s e e
2.2.5). S i n c e t h e a v e r a g e w a v e l e n g t h \ x of t h e q u a s i - p e r i o d i c s t r u c t u r e s is
g i v e n b y ( 2 . 1 9 ) , w e h a v e for t h e l e n g t h X0 of r i p p l e s e m e r g i n g a t t = 0

X 0= X v 2 0 0 0 - - . (3.14)

It is i m p o r t a n t t o r e a l i z e t h a t (3.14) c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e c a s e of a flat b e d a n d
a clear fluid ( z e r o c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s e d i m e n t ) . Y e t , w h e n r i p p l e s a r e f o r m i n g ,
t h e b e d r o u g h n e s s c h a n g e s , a n d t h e flow at t h e b e d b e c o m e s s a t u r a t e d w i t h
t r a n s p o r t e d g r a i n s . T h e s e f a c t o r s affect t h e flow a t t h e b e d a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y
t h e v a l u e ( ^ 2 0 0 0 ) of its d i m e n s i o n l e s s w a v e l e n g t h \xv*/i/.$ Considering that
t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n C of t r a n s p o r t e d solids is o n e of t h e p r o p e r t i e s of t h e
t w o - p h a s e m o t i o n at t h e b e d , a n d t h u s t h a t it is itself a c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n of
a n d rj ( s e e (1.67) a n d ( 1 . 6 8 ) ) , o n e d e t e r m i n e s o n t h e b a s i s of (3.14) t h e
f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n for t h e ( d e v e l o p e d ) r i p p l e l e n g t h A r at Tr:

= ^ ( C e ) = M 2(*,?). (3.15)

H e r e X* is t h e w a v e l e n g t h of v i s c o u s s t r u c t u r e s a t t = Tr\ t h e f u n c t i o n s o n
t h e r i g h t satisfy
<^(0) = <t>2( , 1) 2 0 0 0 . (3.16)

F i g . 3.1 s h o w s t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l v a l u e s of A ru*/i> f o r m i n d e e d a f a m i l y
of c u r v e s , as i m p l i e d b y (3.15). N o t e also t h a t w h e n 7 7 - + 1 ( c l e a r f l u i d ) , t h e n
Arv*/v a p p r o a c h e s ^ 2 4 0 0 , w h i c h is c o m p a r a b l e w i t h ^ 2 0 0 0 .
Since

and (3.17)

( s e e 1.3.2), t h e r e l a t i o n (3.15) c a n b e e x p r e s s e d a s

*,(*,0* (3.18)

4
In t h e following, d e p e n d i n g o n the purpose, both Aa a n d (Ab)x will be used to d e n o t e t h e
length of alternate bars (A a = (&b)i)-
5
This is not so in the case of bed forms defined previously, for t h e flow s t r u c t u r e s p r o d u c i n g
t h e m are not confined to t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of t h e bed (where t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n C is
m u c h larger than elsewhere).

67
F i g . 3.1 (from Ref. [49])

i.e. as
Ar = *r(X,Z)D. (3.19)
r
A s will b e s e e n l a t e r ( F i g . 3.24), t h e f u n c t i o n $ r ( A , ^ ) v a r i e s a r o u n d 1 0 0 0 ;
h e n c e t h e r e a s o n for t h e a p p r o x i m a t e r e l a t i o n

Ar 1000 D (3.20)

p r o p o s e d in t h e e a r l i e r w o r k s of t h e a u t h o r [ 5 7 ] , [54].
T h e r e l a t i o n (3.19) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e flow affects t h e r i p p l e l e n g t h A r
o n l y b y m e a n s of v* ( w h i c h a p p e a r s in X)\ n o h ~ Z is p r e s e n t in t h i s r e -
l a t i o n . T h u s , t h e fact t h a t t h e l e n g t h of r i p p l e s d o e s n o t d e p e n d o n t h e flow
d e p t h h Z follows f r o m t h e i r p r e s e n t d e f i n i t i o n (it is n o t e x p l i c i t e l y s t a t e d
in it).6

3.1.3 Additional remarks

i- N o a s p e c t s p e c u l i a r o n l y t o o p e n - c h a n n e l flows w e r e u s e d in t h e p r e s e n t
d e f i n i t i o n of d u n e s a n d r i p p l e s . H e n c e , t h e s e b e d f o r m s m u s t b e e x p e c t e d to
o c c u r in a n y t u r b u l e n t s h e a r flow h a v i n g v e r t i c a l b u r s t s a n d v i s c o u s flow
s t r u c t u r e s at t h e b e d . A n d , as is w e l l k n o w n , d u n e s a n d r i p p l e s a r e e n -
c o u n t e r e d i n d e e d in c l o s e d c o n d u i t s as w e l l as in d e s e r t s . In t h e l a t t e r c a s e ,
t h e b o u n d a r y - l a y e r flow of a i r ( w i n d ) d o e s n o t h a v e a n y d i s t i n c t u p p e r limit
a n d t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e b u r s t l e n g t h L m a y b e v e r y difficult o r e v e n
i m p o s s i b l e . T h i s , h o w e v e r , h a s n o b e a r i n g o n t h e fact t h a t is n o n e t h e l e s s
d u e to L .

6
In the literature, bed forms are usually defined without taking into account their origins
and without indicating how their size A z is related to the characteristic lengths of the flow.
T h e y are referred to as " l a r g e " or "small"; yet it is not m e n t i o n e d "in comparison to what"
are they large, or how small is "small". In this text we will use only the definitions intro-
duced in the preceding t h r e e paragraphs.

68
ii- N o s i d e w a l l s o r b a n k s a r e n e e d e d for t h e o c c u r r e n c e of v e r t i c a l b u r s t s .
Y e t t h e y a r e n e e d e d for t h e o c c u r r e n c e of a l t e r n a t e a n d m u l t i p l e b a r s ( w h i c h
are g e n e r a t e d by horizontal bursts issued from t h e side walls o r b a n k s ) .
H e n c e t h e r e a r e n o " d e s e r t b a r s " in a n a l o g y to d e s e r t d u n e s a n d r i p p l e s .

iii- L e t A; a n d A ; b e t h e l e n g t h s of t w o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of b e d f o r m s . If t h e s e
l e n g t h s a r e c o m p a r a b l e (A/ A 7) , t h e n s u c h b e d f o r m s a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e :
o n l y t h e b e d f o r m s of t h e " s t r o n g e r a g e n t " m a t e r i a l i z e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e
l e n g t h s of d u n e s a n d a n t i d u n e s a r e c o m p a r a b l e , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e y c a n n o t
coexist: w e h a v e either d u n e s or a n t i d u n e s . If F r < 1, t h e n t h e i m p a c t of
v e r t i c a l b u r s t s is s t r o n g e r t h a n t h a t of t h e s t a n d i n g w a v e s , a n d w e h a v e ( o n l y )
d u n e s ; if Fr > 1, t h e n it is t h e o t h e r w a y a r o u n d , a n d w e h a v e ( o n l y )
antidunes.
If A { a n d A ; a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y different (A/<^ A ; ) , t h e n s u c h t w o b e d f o r m s c a n
c o e x i s t (as / s u p e r i m p o s e d o n j). C o n s i d e r e.g. A r 1000 D a n d Ad 6h; t h e y
yield Ad/Ar Z / 1 6 6 . If Z is by m u l t i p l e t i m e s l a r g e r t h a n 166, t h e n b o t h
7
d u n e s and r i p p l e s ( s u p e r i m p o s e d o n t h e d u n e s ) c a n b e p r e s e n t . S i m i l a r l y ,
if Aa/Ad& B/h is sufficiently l a r g e , t h e n a l t e r n a t e b a r s a n d d u n e s ( s u p e r i m -
p o s e d o n b a r s ) m a y o c c u r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . A n d if Ar< Ad< Aa, t h e n w e c a n
e v e n h a v e r i p p l e s and d u n e s and b a r s s u p e r i m p o s e d o n e a c h o t h e r ( t h e T a g u s
at S a n t a r e m ) .

iv- A s is well k n o w n [55], [56], a n d as c a n b e r e a d i l y i n f e r r e d f r o m ( 3 . 1 ) , t h e


d u r a t i o n of d e v e l o p m e n t Tt of a b e d f o r m / c a n b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e
proportionality

(3.21)

w h e r e qs is a n a v e r a g e d v a l u e of t h e t r a n s p o r t r a t e qs = fs(x, t) a n d ( A , A , )
is ( t w i c e ) t h e a r e a of t h e d e v e l o p e d b e d f o r m p r o f i l e . C o n s i d e r t h e c a s e
of d u n e s a n d r i p p l e s s u p e r i m p o s e d o n t h e m : ( A r < ^ A ^ ) . T h e s e b e d f o r m s a r e
g e n e r a t e d by t h e s a m e flow a n d t h u s b y t h e s a m e qs. A s s u m i n g t h a t t h e i r
s t e e p n e s s is c o m p a r a b l e , o n e o b t a i n s f r o m (3.21)

(3.22)

w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t if d u n e s a r e , for e x a m p l e , 5 o r 10 t i m e s l o n g e r t h a n
r i p p l e s ( s u p e r i m p o s e d o n t h e m ) , t h e n r i p p l e s will d e v e l o p 2 5 o r 100 t i m e s

7
Vertical bursts are always present in a t u r b u l e n t o p e n - c h a n n e l flow; yet the viscous flow
undulations at the bed, which generate ripples, are present only if X is sufficiently small.
T h u s for a given a p p r o p r i a t e 77, a "large e n o u g h Z " is merely a necessary condition for
superimposition of ripples on dunes (as implied by "can be p r e s e n t " ) . T h e necessary and
sufficient condition for the superimposition m e n t i o n e d is "large e n o u g h Z " and "small
e n o u g h " X (smaller than 3 0 , say).

69
faster t h a n d u n e s . B u t t h i s m e a n s t h a t in m o s t c a s e s r i p p l e s a r e a l r e a d y n e a r l y
d e v e l o p e d w h e n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of d u n e s h a s o n l y just s t a r t e d . A n d t h i s ,
in t u r n , m e a n s t h a t ( i n t h e c a s e of d u n e s + r i p p l e s ) d u n e s d o n o t r e a l l y f o r m
o n a flat b e d h a v i n g g r a n u l a r r o u g h n e s s ks D: t h e y f o r m o n a " f l a t " b e d
h a v i n g ( t h e e a r l i e r d e v e l o p e d ) r i p p l e r o u g h n e s s Ks Ar. ( C l e a r l y , e x a c t l y t h e
s a m e c a n b e s a i d for t h e c a s e of d u n e s + b a r s (if Ad< (Ab)N)). The change
of t h e initial b e d r o u g h n e s s f r o m ks D to KsAr (> D) m u s t , t o s o m e e x -
t e n t , affect t h e l e n g t h of v e r t i c a l b u r s t s a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e l e n g t h of d u n e s
i m p r i n t e d by t h e m . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s t e e p n e s s of r i p p l e s i n c r e a s e s w i t h
t h e p r o m i n e n c e of viscosity at t h e b e d , a n d t h e r e f o r e KsAr is a d i r e c t
l
( n o n - d e c r e a s i n g ) f u n c t i o n of t h e g r a i n size R e y n o l d s n u m b e r Xu~ . Hence,
t h e i n f l u e n c e of AT o n ( m e n t i o n e d in 3.1.2 (ii)) is n o t so m u c h b e c a u s e t h e
b u r s t l e n g t h L ( = Ad) is d i r e c t l y affected b y X, b u t b e c a u s e it is d i r e c t l y
affected b y t h e ( e a r l i e r d e v e l o p e d ) r i p p l e r o u g h n e s s KsAr- w h i c h is
d i r e c t l y affected b y X.

3.2 F o r m a t i o n of Bed F o r m s

3.2.1 Bed forms caused by bursts (dunes and bars)

i- Discontinuity and burst sequences

T h e fact t h a t " b u r s t s a r e r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d in s p a c e a n d t i m e "


(2.1.1) i m p l i e s t h a t , u n d e r c o m p l e t e l y u n i f o r m c o n d i t i o n s of flow a n d b e d
s u r f a c e , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y ( o r f r e q u e n c y ) of o c c u r r e n c e of b u r s t s in a r e g i o n
A x , d u r i n g a t i m e i n t e r v a l At, d o e s n o t d e p e n d o n w h e r e this r e g i o n is l o -
cated on the x-axis. Clearly such a h o m o g e n e o u s , or uniform, distribution
of b u r s t s a l o n g x c a n n e v e r y i e l d a w a v e - l i k e d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e b e d s u r f a c e :
for this d e f o r m a t i o n t o o c c u r , t h e c o n v e r s i o n of u n i f o r m c o n d i t i o n s t o t h e
q u a s i - u n i f o r m o n e s is r e q u i r e d (3.1.1). In p r a c t i c e , s u c h a c o n v e r s i o n is r e a l -
i z e d b y m e a n s of a local discontinuity, d say, (at t h e s e c t i o n x = 0) o n t h e
bed surface or banks. U n d e r laboratory conditions, d can be the beginning
of m o b i l e b e d o r b a n k s , a n a c c i d e n t a l r i d g e a c r o s s t h e s a n d b e d s u r f a c e , e t c .
T h e p r e s e n c e of d c a u s e s t h e b e h a v i o u r of flow a n d its t u r b u l e n t s t r u c t u r e
at x = 0 t o b e d i f f e r e n t f r o m its " u s u a l " b e h a v i o u r at a n y o t h e r x. F o r
e x a m p l e , if d is a r i d g e , t h e n it will c e r t a i n l y " p r o m o t e " t h e e d d y s h e d d i n g ,
a n d t h e b u r s t - f o r m i n g e d d i e s e will b e g e n e r a t e d at x = 0 m o r e f r e q u e n t l y
t h a n a n y w h e r e e l s e . O n e c a n say t h a t t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y s e c t i o n x = 0 m a n i -
fests itself as t h e " l o c a t i o n of p r e f e r e n c e " as far as t h e g e n e r a t i o n of b u r s t s
is c o n c e r n e d . In t h e c a s e of v e r t i c a l b u r s t s , t h e i n c r e m e n t of t h e f r e q u e n c y
of b u r s t s g e n e r a t e d at x = 0 i n e v i t a b l y l e a d s to t h e i n c r e m e n t of t h a t fre-
q u e n c y a l s o at t h e s e c t i o n s x = L , 2 L , ... , e t c . , for t h e b r e a k - u p of o n e b u r s t
(of t h e l e n g t h L ) t r i g g e r s t h e " b i r t h " of t h e n e x t (2.1.1). T h e s a m e c a n b e
s a i d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s (of t h e l e n g t h LH) i s s u e d at t h e
b a n k s . It f o l l o w s t h a t it is n o t j u s t t h e single b u r s t s , b u t t h e sequences of b u r s t s

70
w h i c h a r e g e n e r a t e d at x = 0 m o r e f r e q u e n t l y t h a n e l s e w h e r e . T h e d u n e s a n d
b a r s , w h i c h i n v a r i a b l y o r i g i n a t e at t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y - s e c t i o n s , a r e t h e i m p r i n t s
of t h e b u r s t s e q u e n c e s .
O n e m a y w o n d e r h o w a n a t t e n u a t i n g ( a l o n g x) s e q u e n c e of b u r s t s c a n
p r o d u c e b e d f o r m s of t h e s a m e h e i g h t t h r o u g h o u t t h e l e n g t h of a ( l o n g )
c h a n n e l ; w h y is t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h i s s e q u e n c e n o t c o n f i n e d t o a l i m i t e d
x - r e g i o n d o w n s t r e a m of t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y o n l y ? T h e a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n
lies in t h e fact t h a t t h e first e m e r g i n g i n f i n i t e s i m a l " s t e p s " ( A , ) / , ( A r ) / 7,
(A,)///, ... (in F i g . 3.2) act t h e m s e l v e s as n e w d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , a n d c r e a t e (just
l i k e t h e o r i g i n a l d) t h e i r o w n n e w s t e p s o n t h e i r d o w n s t r e a m s i d e : t h e
a c t i v i t y s t a r t e d by d p e r p e t u a t e s a n d p r o p a g a t e s a l o n g

Fig. 3.2

ii- Dunes

1- T h e e q u a l i t y A^ = L&6h suggests that t h e o c c u r r e n c e of d u n e s merely


c a u s e s t h e v e r t i c a l b u r s t m o d u l e s to b e " t i l t e d " b y a n a n g l e </> w i t h o u t al-
9
tering their length and configuration (Fig. 3.3). The same applies to the
horizontal burst modules and bars, whose steepness is, in g e n e r a l , even
s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t of d u n e s . A n d also to t h e s t a n d i n g w a v e s a n d antidunes:
t h e g r o w t h of a n t i d u n e s in t h e ^ - d i r e c t i o n c a n n o t c a u s e t h e " n e s t i n g " s y s t e m
of s u r f a c e w a v e s t o e l o n g a t e o r c o n t r a c t in t h e x - d i r e c t i o n . O n l y r i p p l e s a r e
the exceptions - t h e i r g r o w t h a l t e r s t h e v i s c o u s flow (at t h e b e d ) producing
t h e m . O n t h e b a s i s of t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d , o n e c a n a s s e r t t h a t t h e flow and
t h e l a r g e - s c a l e b e d f o r m s c r e a t e d b y it (A, ~ h o r B) a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h e a c h
other. This compatibility c a n n o t b e e x p e c t e d to b e p r e s e n t if t h e flow t a k e s

8
It follows that although the d u r a t i o n of d e v e l o p m e n t Td of a certain n u m b e r of d u n e s is
meaningful, the duration of d e v e l o p m e n t (Td)ch of d u n e s in a c h a n n e l is meaningless, if
the c h a n n e l length (Lch) is not specified. For, as o n e can easily infer, (Td)ck increases in
p r o p o r t i o n to Lch.
9
T h e "tilt" (<f>) cannot be substantial (for the d u n e steepness A/A is always less t h a n 0 . 0 6
(Fig. 3.19)). Nonetheless, it causes the macroeddy E to be pressed against the free surface,
and consequently it e n h a n c e s the o c c u r r e n c e of "boils"; t h e larger the d u n e steepness, the
m o r e p r o m i n e n t are boils. (Boils are never observed if d u n e s (and t h u s "tilts") are not
present: m o r e on the topic in the next p a r a g r a p h ) .

71
p l a c e p a s t i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of a n i n d e p e n d e n t o r i g i n . 10

a
Fig. 3.3

2- If t h e d u n e l e n g t h Ad is t h e i m p r i n t of t h e b u r s t l e n g t h L&6h, why then


d o t h e d u n e s n o t o r i g i n a t e as to p o s s e s s t h e l e n g t h Ad = L in t h e first p l a c e ?
W h y d o e s t h e i r l e n g t h , At say, " g r o w " d u r i n g t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l 0 < t< Td,
s t a r t i n g f r o m a m u c h s m a l l e r v a l u e , A 0 h say (just after t = 0 ) , a n d a c -
q u i r i n g t h e v a l u e Ad = L o n l y at t = Tdl T h e a n s w e r t o this q u e s t i o n lies in
t h e fact t h a t t h e b u r s t s of t h e l e n g t h L&6h (in s h o r t t h e b u r s t s L ) a r e n o t
t h e o n l y b u r s t s of t h e flow: t h e y a r e m e r e l y t h e largest b u r s t s ( s e e 2.2.3). L e t

L 0 h < Lx < L2 < < L - < - < L 6h (3.23)

b e t h e s y m b o l i c " h i e r a r c h y " of v e r t i c a l b u r s t s e q u e n c e s (Fig. 3.4). T h e s m a l l e r

Fig. 3.4

t h e lesser b u r s t s Lt, t h e s m a l l e r is t h e i r p e r i o d Tt (2.2.3), a n d t h e e a r l i e r t h e y


can imprint themselves on the bed surface (see 3.1.3 ( i v ) ) . In a n a l o g y to
r i p p l e s , o n e c a n say t h a t t h e s m a l l e s t b e d f o r m s A 0 ( d u e t o L 0 h) a r e al-
r e a d y n e a r l y d e v e l o p e d w h e n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e largest b e d f o r m s A^
( d u e to L^6h) h a s o n l y just s t a r t e d . H e n c e , t h e b e d first b e c o m e s c o v e r e d
b y t h e s h o r t e s t b e d f o r m s A 0 . W i t h t h e p a s s a g e of t i m e , t h e s e q u e n c e s of
l a r g e r b u r s t s Lt b e g i n to " c a t c h u p " w i t h t h e i r b e d f o r m production. The

io Very often, rigid b o u n d a r i e s are used (rigid d u n e s , m e a n d e r loops, etc.) to reveal the
characteristics of flow past these features. F r o m the aforementioned, it should be clear that
the information supplied by such studies can be misleading, if the shape a n d size of the
rigid b o u n d a r i e s used are not identical to those which the flow under study would have
created itself (in an alluvium of c o m p a r a b l e skin roughness).

72
e m e r g e n c e of b e d f o r m s A, is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of t h e p r e v i o u s
b e d f o r m s A,-_ lm T h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m A,-_ i to A,- o c c u r s , as is w e l l k n o w n , by
coalescence: a s e r i e s of n ( s m a l l e r ) b e d f o r m s A f - - i c o a l e s c e as t o f o r m
n - 1 ( l a r g e r ) b e d f o r m s A/. T h u s t h e l e n g t h of b e d f o r m s " g r o w s " f r o m
A,--! to A,. T h i s p s e u d o - g r o w t h t e r m i n a t e s (at t = Td) w h e n t h e largest b e d
f o r m s , viz t h e d u n e s Adl a r e p r o d u c e d by t h e l a r g e s t , o r u s u a l , b u r s t s
L&6h. T h e s a m e is v a l i d (mutatis mutandi) for b a r s . F i g . 3.5 s h o w s t h e
" g r o w t h " of a l t e r n a t e b a r s , w h e r e t h e s m a l l e r ( e a r l i e r ) b e d f o r m s a r e d u e to
t h e lesser h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s (LH)i.
time (min)

DJstance from the flume inlet (m) - x

Fig. 3.5 ( f r o m Ref. [18])

iii- Additional information on dunes

1- In i t e m (2) of t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h , t h e l e n g t h L 0 of t h e s m a l l e s t lesser
b u r s t s w a s a p p r o x i m a t e d b y t h e flow d e p t h h. T h i s w a s d o n e o n t h e basis
of l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s r e p o r t e d in Ref. [5]. T h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s w e r e c a r -
r i e d o u t for D = 0.5 mm a n d 1 m m s a n d , a n d D = 1 m m B a k e l i t e . T h e r a t i o
A 0/Arf, just after t = 0, w a s 1/6 0.17 for all t h r e e m a t e r i a l s u s e d ; h e n c e ,
L0&h( = A 0) w a s a d o p t e d in ( 3 . 2 3 ) . Fig. 3.6 s h o w s , as e x a m p l e , t h e t i m e
g r o w t h of r e l a t i v e d u n e l e n g t h for D = 0.5 mm s a n d . ( N o e x p l a n a t i o n c a n b e
offered by t h e a u t h o r as to w h y L 0 s h o u l d b e e q u a l ( o r c o m p a r a b l e w i t h )
h).

2- F r o m s p e c i a l flow v i s u a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t s r e p o r t e d in Refs. [30], [31],


it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e b u r s t - f o r m i n g e d d i e s e of t h e flow p a s t d u n e s o r i g i n a t e
at t h e i n t e r f a c e b0S b e t w e e n t h e m a i n flow a n d t h e " r o l l e r " R at t h e d o w n -
s t r e a m d u n e face ( F i g . 3.7). T h u s , t h e o c c u r r e n c e of d u n e s r e n d e r s t h e
large-scale vertical t u r b u l e n c e m o r e regular. I n d e e d , the bursts L are n o

73
1.1 O
8

1.0

0.9 e
* % * *
GO * C
A 0.8
'EL *
0.7

At 0.6
Ad
Of

04 " D = 0.5mm (sand)


C
0.2 . J P ^ Different symbols

0.2 fe^
JF<? represent different
A0 runs (specified in [5]).
1/6
0.1

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 05 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

Fig. 3.6 ( f r o m Ref. [5])

l o n g e r d i s t r i b u t e d r a n d o m l y in s p a c e a n d t i m e : t h e y i n i t i a t e p r e d o m i n a n t l y
at t h e w e l l d e f i n e d l o c a t i o n s (b0S) a n d t h e y t e r m i n a t e , b y t h e b r e a k - u p ' s of
t h e i r m a c r o t u r b u l e n t e d d i e s , at t h e d u n e c r e s t s b. T h i s " r e g u l a r i z a t i o n "
of t u r b u l e n t flow b y d u n e s w a s a p p a r e n t l y first p o i n t e d o u t in Ref. [29].

F i g . 3.7

3- In C h a p t e r 2 it h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m e n t i o n e d t h a t b o i l s a r e c a u s e d b y t h e
i m p i n g e m e n t of m a c r o t u r b u l e n t e d d i e s E o n t h e free s u r f a c e . T h e b u r s t
m o d u l e e x t e n d s a l o n g t h e u p s t r e a m faces of d u n e s ab, a n d t h e fact t h a t t h e
d u n e s t e e p n e s s c a u s e s this m o d u l e t o b e t i l t e d (see Fig. 3.3) m e a n s t h a t t h e
m a c r o t u r b u l e n t e d d y f, at b, is " p r e s s e d " a g a i n s t t h e free s u r f a c e . T h i s m a y
c a u s e t h e e d d y E to p r o t r u d e t h r o u g h t h e free s u r f a c e as t o f o r m t h e b o i l :
the m o r e so, the steeper are dunes. F r o m observations a n d m e a s u r e m e n t s
c a r r i e d o u t in n a t u r a l r i v e r s , it is k n o w n [21], [ 2 6 ] , [6] t h a t b o i l s o c c u r i n d e e d
(intermittently) a b o v e the d u n e crests a n d that their p r o m i n e n c e increases
w i t h d u n e s t e e p n e s s . T h e a v e r a g e f r e q u e n c y of t h e o c c u r r e n c e of b o i l s is in

74
11
c o i n c i d e n c e w i t h t h e a v e r a g e f r e q u e n c y of b u r s t s .

4- It h a s b e e n e x p l a i n e d in 3.2.1 (i) t h a t t h e l o c a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y (d) o n t h e


flow b e d at x = 0 c a u s e s t h e i n c r e m e n t of v e r t i c a l b u r s t g e n e r a t i o n s t h e r e ;
w h i c h , in t u r n , l e a d s t o t h e g e n e r a t i o n of d u n e s .
Let us s u p p o s e that t h e discontinuity d e x t e n d s along z t h r o u g h o u t the
flow w i d t h B ( F i g . 3.8). T h e m a x i m u m w i d t h of a v e r t i c a l b u r s t in p l a n , a n d

F i g . 3.8

t h u s t h e w i d t h of a " b u r s t - c h a n n e l " a c c o m m o d a t i n g a s e q u e n c e of b u r s t s ( s e e
F i g . 2.11), is 2 / z . If t h e b u r s t s e q u e n c e s i n all t h e a d j a c e n t c h a n n e l s w e r e
in p h a s e , t h e n t h e d i s t a n c e Z0 b e t w e e n t h e " p o i n t s o u r c e s " O; a n d O i +l o n
t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y - l i n e d w o u l d a l s o b e &2h. H o w e v e r , the high- a n d low-
s p e e d r e g i o n s of a w i d e t u r b u l e n t f l o w h a v e , i d e a l l y , a c h e s s b o a r d - l i k e
a r r a n g e m e n t i n p l a n ( F i g . 2 . 1 ) , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e b u r s t - s e q u e n c e s in t h e
a d j a c e n t b u r s t c h a n n e l s a r e o u t of p h a s e a l o n g x b y LI 2 ( s e e Fig. 2.11). O n e
w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of B/h a n d hID t h e f l o w - d u n e s y s t e m
s h o u l d t e n d t o o r g a n i z e itself so as t o c o n f o r m t o t h i s f u n d a m e n t a l c h e s s -
b o a r d - l i k e a r r a n g e m e n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , l0 s h o u l d t e n d t o b e ^Ah as s h o w n in
F i g . 3.8. T h i s ( h i g h l y i d e a l i z e d ) s k e t c h h e l p s t o u n d e r s t a n d w h y , in t h e c a s e
of a w i d e flow, t h e d u n e c r e s t s a r e c u r v i l i n e a r in p l a n . ( T h i s s k e t c h a l s o
suggests t h a t d u n e c r e s t - l i n e s s h o u l d b e s y m m e t r i c a l o r a n t i - s y m m e t r i c a l w i t h

11
Recall from C h a p t e r 2 that the cross-section of a burst m o d u l e consists of two opposite
rotating eddies which grow with the passage of t i m e in t h e ( y ; z)-plane (Fig. 2.10). S u p p o s e
now that dye is injected into a point inside o n e of these eddies - inside the eddy in the
region z > 0, say. In this case the burst will be visualized as a clockwise rotating spiral
which grows in its d i a m e t e r as it advances along its u p w a r d - d o w n s t r e a m inclined axis. This
may explain why in s o m e earlier works boils were attributed to the " u p w a r d tilted
streamwise vortices". A n informative a c c o u n t of boils is given in I. Nezu and H. Nakagawa:
Turbulent structures over dunes and their role on suspended sediments in steady and unsteady
open channel flows. Proc. Int. S y m p . o n t h e T r a n s p o r t of Suspended Sediment and its
Mathematical Modelling, F l o r e n c e , Sept. 1991.

75
r e s p e c t t o t h e x - a x i s , d e p e n d i n g o n w h e t h e r B is a n o d d o r e v e n m u l t i p l e
of 2h).

Consider a stationary and uniform two-dimensional t u r b u l e n t flow past a flat initial


bed. Let U - fv(x, t) be the fluctuating (along x and t) longitudinal flow velocity at a level
y near the bed, and

(3.24)

its autocorrelation function along x. T h e emergence of bed forms d u e to vertical t u r b u l e n c e


can also be explained (and was explained in the past [45], [46], [54]) with the aid of this
function. It is assumed that bed forms are caused by those longest (along x) {/-fluctuations,
whose frequencies are confined to a narrow band including 2ir/L. T h e function Ruu(x) a n d
its g r a p h in Fig. 3.9 indicate that if the (fluctuating) values of U at a section x - 0, say, ex-

Fig. 3.9

hibit a systematic deviation (e.g. an increment) from their " r e g u l a r " values (which can be
caused e.g. by a discontinuity d at x = 0), then a tendency for an analogous deviation
( i n c r e m e n t ) must be present also at the sections x = L, 2L, ... , whereas at the sections
x = L / 2 , 3 L / 2 , ... a tendency for the d e c r e m e n t of U m u s t be present. All these t r e n d s must,
of course, progressively die out with the increment of x (due to the d a m p i n g factor e'**). This
repetitive (along x) behaviour of U leads to the analogous behaviour of r and qs = qsb; a n d
consequently to the generation of bed waves of the length A = L. However, this m a t h e m a t i c a l
m e t h o d is inherently incapable of supplying the value of A ( = L) itself: it operates with the
unknown L. A n d yet, it is exactly the magnitude of A which is the focus of interest in any
study of alluvial forms. T h e same drawback is present also in the stability analysis, which is
frequently used today.
F u r t h e r m o r e , the stability m e t h o d s rely on a n u m b e r of notions which are " t a k e n for
g r a n t e d " ; and yet some of t h e m are not obvious at all, at least as far as fluvial hydraulics is
c o n c e r n e d . F or example, why should the initial perturbation be necessarily a periodic function
of xl H o w can such a p e r t u r b a t i o n (which in reality occurs (if it occurs) for a real fluid and
a rough bed) extend t h r o u g h o u t the (infinitely long) A:-axis - with no d e c r e m e n t of its
a m p l i t u d e , nor any change of its period? W h a t is the cause of such an extraordinary p e r t u r -
bation? W h y should one express every perturbation, i.e. irrespective of its physical origin, by
the same sine- or cosine-functions (although there is an infinite manifold of c o n t i n u o u s peri-
odic functions)? ... , etc. T h e consideration of these questions would certainly be worthwhile.

76
iv- Bars

1- F r o m t h e c o n t e n t of 2.3.4, it s h o u l d b e c l e a r that although horizontal bursts


a r e a l w a y s p r e s e n t in a n o p e n - c h a n n e l flow, they cannot always produce
" t h e i r " b e d f o r m s , viz b a r s . O n l y if Blh is sufficiently l a r g e (Blh >
^(h/k^)) a n d t h e b u r s t - f o r m i n g e d d i e s eH a r e r u b b i n g t h e b e d ( F i g . 2.22c),
can the bars be produced.

2- F i g . 3 . 1 0 a s h o w s t h e b a s i c a r r a n g e m e n t of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s in a s i m p l i f i e d
m a n n e r : t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y d is t h e o r i g i n ( O x ) of t h e b u r s t s e q u e n c e .
If t h e b u r s t - f o r m i n g h o r i z o n t a l e d d i e s eH a n d were moving without
i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r , t h e n t h e b o u n d a r i e s of t h e i r m o d u l e s w o u l d b e
t h e l i n e s O / P ; a n d 0[P[ ( F i g s . 3 . 1 0 a a n d b ) . I n r e a l i t y , h o w e v e r , t h e i r m o t i o n s
,
i n t e r f e r e , a n d t h e r e f o r e OiPi a n d 0[P i m u s t d e f o r m , e v e n t u a l l y , i n t o a se-
q u e n c e of n o n - i n t e r s e c t i n g l i n e s lt a n d /' w h o s e e n d p o i n t s a r e 0[ a n d Ot + x
( F i g . 3 . 1 0 c ) . T o p u t it d i f f e r e n t l y , e a c h l i n e OtPi m u s t d e f o r m so t h a t its e n d
p o i n t Pi is d i s p l a c e d u p s t r e a m t o t h e l o c a t i o n 0[ ( t h e a n a l o g o u s a p p l i e s to
each 'o[Fi).
A p p a r e n t l y t h e e d d i e s eH a n d w h i c h o r i g i n a t e at 0{ a n d 0[ n e a r t h e
free s u r f a c e , e r o d e t h e b e d b y t h e " t o r n a d o a c t i o n " , a n d t h e r e f o r e it is o n l y
n a t u r a l t h a t t h e e r o s i o n o c c u r s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of b u r s t m o d u l e s ; t h e d e -
p o s i t i o n , at t h e i r e n d s . If t h e b u r s t s w e r e n o t i n t e r f e r i n g , t h e n t h e m a t e r i a l
e r o d e d f r o m t h e s h a d e d r e g i o n s w o u l d h a v e b e e n d e p o s i t e d i n t h e a r e a s Dt
L H- 6 B H p2
o; R 02

a
d
0, o2 R' Q3

o; R CDS P2

o, Po' o2 R' 03
o; a
D' d;

d , (+rvr* -
; c
(+)\Z 2 ^

o, 02 03
o;

B d

o, 6B Q3
Aa = H
F i g . 3.10

77
a n d Dl n e a r t h e e n d of t h e b u r s t m o d u l e s ( F i g . 3.10b). H o w e v e r , in a c t u a l
c a s e , t h e d e p o s i t i o n s c a n n o t o c c u r as far d o w n s t r e a m , for t h e e x c e s s i v e a d -
v a n c e of D / , say, will b e " c h e c k e d " b y t h e s t r e a m of e d d i e s e H' i s s u e d f r o m
0[\ this s t r e a m will s i m p l y w a s h a w a y a n y e x c e s s i v e m a t e r i a l . H e n c e , t h e
a c t u a l d e p o s i t i o n s will o c c u r in t h e l o c a t i o n s D{ a n d D\ (F_ig. 3.10c^, w h i c h
a r e n o t as far d o w n s t r e a m as t h e " i n t e n d e d " d e p o s i t i o n s D{ a n d D[. A s a
result of this, t h e d o w n s t r e a m b o u n d a r y of e a c h d e p o s i t i o n Dt a n d t h e c u r v e d
b o u n d a r y of t h e ( s h a d e d ) " c h a n n e l " e r o d e d b y eH' f r o m 0[ will f o r m a single
l i n e / c o n n e c t i n g 0[ a n d Oi+i. ( T h e s a m e a p p l i e s to U, c o n n e c t i n g O,- a n d
0 / ) . T h e lines lt a n d / e m e r g i n g in t h i s w a y a r e t h e c r e s t - l i n e s of a l t e r n a t e
b a r s , e a c h b a r b e i n g a n e r o s i o n - d e p o s i t i o n - s u r f a c e c o n f i n e d b e t w e e n lt a n d
/ ' . Fig. 3.10d s h o w s s c h e m a t i c a l l y t h e t i m e a v e r a g e s t r e a m l i n e s of t h e flow
p a s t t h e b a r surfaces.
In a n a l o g y to d u n e s , t h e o c c u r r e n c e of a l t e r n a t e b a r s l e a d s t o t h e
" r e g u l a r i z a t i o n " of h o r i z o n t a l t u r b u l e n c e : t h e p r e s e n c e of " h o l e s " at 0{ a n d
f
0[ e n h a n c e s t h e r o l l - u p of eH a n d eH at t h e free s u r f a c e a b o v e t h e m .
O n e w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t m u l t i p l e b a r s ( c a u s e d by t h e h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s
a d j a c e n t to t h e b a n k s a n d t h e i n d u c e d e d d i e s ) a r e f o r m e d in a s i m i l a r m a n -
ner.

3.2.2 Antidunes and ripples

C o n s i d e r t h e t i m e a v e r a g e s t r e a m l i n e s of a flow h a v i n g s t a n d i n g w a v e s
o n its s u r f a c e . T h e s t r e a m l i n e s u n d e r t h e t r o u g h s a r e c l o s e r t o e a c h o t h e r ,
t h o s e u n d e r t h e crests a r e f u r t h e r a p a r t f r o m e a c h o t h e r t h a n t h e p a r a l l e l
s t r e a m l i n e s of a strictly u n i f o r m flow. H e n c e , t h e v a l u e s of u a n d c o n s e -
q u e n t l y of r 0 a n d qs v a r y p e r i o d i c a l l y a l o n g x. T h i s c a u s e s t h e initially flat
b e d to d e f o r m i n t o a n u n d u l a t e d o n e to b e c o v e r e d by a n t i d u n e s . S i m i -
larly, t h e h i g h - a n d l o w - v e l o c i t y z o n e s u n d e r t h e t r o u g h s a n d c r e s t s of t h e
u n d u l a t e d v i s c o u s flow at t h e b e d (Figs. 2.13 a n d 2.14) c a u s e t h e p e r i o d i c i t y
of qs, l e a d i n g to t h e f o r m a t i o n of r i p p l e s . In o t h e r w o r d s , r i p p l e s a r e
" i m p r i n t e d " b y t h e v i s c o u s flow at t h e b e d in m u c h t h e s a m e w a y ( s t r a n g e
to say) as a n t i d u n e s a r e i m p r i n t e d b y s t a n d i n g w a v e s . S i n c e t h e standing
w a v e s a r e s t a t i o n a r y , so a r e t h e p e r i o d i c ( a l o n g x) c o n g e s t i o n s a n d r e c e s s i o n s
of s t r e a m l i n e s . H e n c e , a n t i d u n e s c a n o r i g i n a t e a n y w h e r e o n t h e flow b e d : n o
n e e d for a local d i s c o n t i n u i t y t o i n i t i a t e t h e i r f o r m a t i o n . T h e v i s c o u s flow
s t r u c t u r e s at t h e b e d a r e n o t p e r m a n e n t . Y e t , t h e i r d e f o r m a t i o n a n d d i s -
p l a c e m e n t is c o m p a r a t i v e l y s l o w , a n d t h e y m a y persist at a n a r e a for a
d u r a t i o n l o n g e n o u g h to p e r m i t t h e i n i t i a t i o n of r i p p l e s t h e r e . T h i s is w h y
r i p p l e s c a n a l s o i n i t i a t e s p o n t a n e o u s l y a n y w h e r e o n t h e flow b e d (in a d d i t i o n
to t h e i r s y s t e m a t i c i n i t i a t i o n at a d i s c o n t i n u i t y ) . T h e e m e r g e n c e of r i p p l e s
r e n d e r s t h e b e d r o u g h e r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e v i s c o u s i n f l u e n c e at t h e b e d d e -
c r e a s e s a n d a n y R e y n o l d s n u m b e r r e l a t e d to t h e flow n e a r t h e b e d i n c r e a s e s .
A s a result of this, t h e p l a n d i m e n s i o n s of v i s c o u s s t r u c t u r e s ( i n c l u d i n g \ x )
b e c o m e larger. T h e l a r g e r \ x p r o m p t t h e e m e r g e d r i p p l e s t o i n c r e a s e in t h e i r
size as to m a t c h t h e m . T h e i n c r e m e n t of r i p p l e size ( b y c o a l e s c e n c e ) l e a d s ,
in t u r n , to t h e f u r t h e r i n c r e m e n t of X x, a n d so o n - u n t i l t h e e q u i l i b r i u m

78
s t a t e is r e a c h e d , i.e. u n t i l t h e r i p p l e s t e e p n e s s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to t h e e x i s t i n g
77 is a c h i e v e d . T h e l e n g t h of r i p p l e s d o e s n o t g r o w d u r i n g t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t
as m u c h as t h e l e n g t h of d u n e s . T h e f a c t o r of t h e p s e u d o - g r o w t h of r i p p l e s
is u s u a l l y less t h a n 2 ( s e e p h o t o g r a p h s in Figs. 5.7 a n d 5.12 of Ref. [38]: s e e
a l s o Refs. [54] a n d [1]). T h e r e s e a r c h o n ripples [2], [11], [12], [13], [47]
c o n f i r m s t h a t t h e y a r e d u e t o t h e v i s c o u s s t r u c t u r e s at t h e b e d : a d e t a i l e d
d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e f o r m a t i o n of r i p p l e s c a n b e f o u n d in Ref. [38].

3.3 Steepness of Bed F o r m s

3.3.1 Transport continuity equation and bed form steepness

i- In this s e c t i o n w e will d e a l w i t h t h e b e d f o r m s p r o d u c e d b y t u r b u l e n t
s t r u c t u r e s o n l y ( a n t i d u n e s e x c l u d e d ) . E x p e r i m e n t s h o w s t h a t if 77 ( > 1) is
"sufficiently s m a l l " ( s m a l l e r t h a n a c e r t a i n 7/- 2, i n t r o d u c e d in 3.3.3), t h e n all
g r a i n s t r a n p o r t e d o v e r t h e b e d f o r m crest slide d o w n its a b r u p t d o w n s t r e a m
f a c e , w h i c h is i n c l i n e d b y t h e a n g l e of r e p o s e <f>. In t h i s c a s e , n o g r a i n s a r e
" f l y i n g " f o r w a r d so as t o " l a n d " o n t h e u p s t r e a m face of t h e n e x t b e d f o r m .
H e n c e if 1 < TJ < 77 2 , t h e n ps = 0 a n d t h e t r a n s p o r t c o n t i n u i t y e q u a t i o n (1.76)
is of t h e f o r m

(3.25)

w h e r e qs is t h e b e d - l o a d (qs = qsb). It is i n t e n d e d to r e v e a l h o w t h i s r e l a t i o n
is affected by t h e t i m e g r o w t h of t h e b e d f o r m h e i g h t At: t h e initial b e d is
flat.
A t t = 0 w e h a v e At = 0 a n d t h u s dyb Idx = 0. H e n c e , at t = 0 a n d at
t h e i n s t a n t s " j u s t a f t e r " t = 0, E q . (3.25) r e d u c e s i n t o its (first) s p e c i a l f o r m

(3.26)

( w h i c h is E q . (3.1) u s e d t o f o r m u l a t e t h e e m e r g e n c e of b e d f o r m s ) .
W i t h t h e p a s s a g e of t i m e , A r i n c r e a s e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , dybldx also in-
c r e a s e s ( f r o m z e r o o n w a r d s ) , w h i l e dybldt d e c r e a s e s (for t h e l a r g e r is At9 t h e
s m a l l e r is its g r o w t h r a t e , a n d t h u s t h e s m a l l e r is t h e v e r t i c a l d i s p l a c e m e n t
v e l o c i t y Vb = dybldt of a p o i n t o n t h e b e d f o r m s u r f a c e ) . T h i s m e a n s t h a t ,
w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of t, t h e s p e c i a l f o r m (3.26) m u s t g r a d u a l l y t u r n i n t o t h e
g e n e r a l f o r m (3.25) ( w h e r e t h e first a n d s e c o n d t e r m s a r e c o m p a r a b l e ) . T h e
f u r t h e r i n c r e m e n t of t, i.e. t h e f u r t h e r g r o w t h of A M c a u s e s t h e first t e r m t o
b e c o m e s m a l l e r t h a n t h e s e c o n d , a n d w h e n t h e g r o w t h of A , s t o p s , t h e first
t e r m r e d u c e s t o z e r o . H e n c e w h e n t h e b e d f o r m is d e v e l o p e d , i.e. w h e n
t = T a n d A, = A , t h e g e n e r a l f o r m (3.25) a c q u i r e s its ( s e c o n d ) s p e c i a l f o r m

(3.27)

79
T h i s f o r m r e m a i n s v a l i d for all t > T\ a n d it is t h u s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e d e v e l -
o p e d b e d forms only.

ii- S i n c e t h e b e d f o r m s o r i g i n a t e f r o m t h e flat b e d (yb = 0) at / = 0, t h e i n i t i a l


infinitesimal increments 6t a n d Syh a r e e q u a l t o t h e ( s m a l l ) v a l u e s of t a n d
yb themselves (t = 0 + 6t; yb - 0 + 8yb). But this means that the initial
vertical displacement velocity VM of a p o i n t on the bed plane yb = 0 at
t = 0 c a n b e e x p r e s s e d as

(3.28)

H e r e , t h e f u n c t i o n yb = fb(x, t) signifies t h e c o n t o u r of t h e i n f i n i t e s i m a l bed


f o r m p r o f i l e , o r t h e " ^ - d i a g r a m " , at t h e i n s t a n t t = St ( F i g . 3.11).
C o n s i d e r t h e first s p e c i a l f o r m (3.26) w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o t = 0. T h e
vertical displacement velocity Vb = dybidt o n its r i g h t - h a n d s i d e is, in fact,
V^o, a n d therefore

(3.29)

which indicates that the infinitesimal bed form-profile e m e r g i n g just after


t = 0 is in "inverse phase" with the x-derivative of t h e ^-diagram (Fig.
3.11).12
T h e s e c o n d s p e c i a l f o r m ( 3 . 2 7 ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e x - d e r i v a t i v e s of yb a n d
qs a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l to each other, a n d thus that the d e v e l o p e d bed form-
profile is " i n p h a s e " w i t h t h e ^ - d i a g r a m itself ( F i g . 3 . 1 1 ) .

>q-diagrams

bed form
profiles

F i g . 3.11

12
It is relevant (with regard to (3.29)) that the origin of yb is at the level of the flat initial
bed at t = 0 or, which is the same, at the average level of the ( u n d u l a t e d ) bed at t > 0
(see 3.1.1). Otherwise, the bed point which is not moving in vertical direction will not
coincide with dqs Idx = 0.

80
H e n c e , t h e b e d - l o a d diagram deforms substantially during the growth
of t h e b e d f o r m h e i g h t : j u s t after t = 0, it is t h e ( m i n u s ) x - d e r i v a t i v e of t h e
- d i a g r a m w h i c h " n e s t s " w i t h t h e b e d p r o f i l e ; at t > T, it is t h e ^ - d i a g r a m
itself. T h i s t i m e v a r i a t i o n of t h e g s - d i a g r a m is i l l u s t r a t e d s c h e m a t i c a l l y in F i g .
3.11.

3.3.2 Some aspects of the bed form steepness

i- C o n s i d e r t h e t u r b u l e n t flow past t h e " b a r r i e r " b'd' in F i g . 3.12a. T h e


b o u n d a r y ab of t h e m a i n flow past t h e b e d f o r m in Fig. 3.12b is r e m a r k a b l y
s i m i l a r t o its c o u n t e r p a r t a'b' in F i g . 3.12a (as if t h e b e d f o r m c o m e s i n t o
b e i n g b e c a u s e t h e d e a d a r e a a'b'd' is filled w i t h t h e d e p o s i t e d s e d i m e n t ) .
T h i s s i m i l a r i t y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s h a p e of b e d f o r m s a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r
s t e e p n e s s A / A a r e of t h e f l o w - i n d u c e d o r i g i n . O n e c a n say t h a t t h e flow
( s p e c i f i e d b y s o m e g i v e n v a l u e s of Re* ~ X a n d hlks~ Z) " t r i e s " t o s h a p e
its l o w e r b o u n d a r y so t h a t it p o s s e s s e s a c e r t a i n ideal steepness (A/A)* =
= <f>*(X, Z ) . W h e t h e r o r n o t t h e flow will a c t u a l l y " s u c c e e d " in t h i s
e n d e a v o u r , d e p e n d s o n t h e m a g n i t u d e of t h e e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t r a t e . It will
b e d e m o n s t r a t e d l a t e r o n t h a t t h e i d e a l s t e e p n e s s (A /A)* c a n b e a c h i e v e d o n l y
for a l i m i t e d ( " c o o p e r a t i v e " ) r a n g e of qs = qsb, o r 77.

Fig. 3.12

ii- T h e f r i c t i o n f a c t o r c of t h e flow p a s t a b e d c o v e r e d by r i p p l e s o r d u n e s
is d e t e r m i n e d b y ( 1 . 3 5 ) . U s i n g (1.26) for cf = c a n d s u b s t i t u t i n g ks ^ 2 D , o n e
c a n e x p r e s s ( 1 . 3 5 ) as

(3.30)

It is i n t e n d e d t o r e v e a l h o w t h e v a r i a t i o n s of c, hID a n d A / A a r e interrelated,
for s o m e g i v e n ( c o n s t a n t ) v a l u e s of Alh a n d bs. W e a s s u m e , in accordance
w i t h r e a l i t y , t h a t Af a n d A c a n a c q u i r e c o m p a r a b l e v a l u e s ( a l b e i t at different
s t a g e s ) . E x p e r i m e n t s h o w s t h a t t h e v a r i a t i o n of c is r a t h e r l i m i t e d : its v a r i a t i o n
is at t h e m o s t b y a f a c t o r of 4 , say ( n o t e e.g. f r o m F i g s . 3.34 to 3.37 t h a t

81
t h e c - r a n g e is r o u g h l y 7 < c < 2 5 ) . In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s , A / A a n d Dlh
( w h i c h c a n b e z e r o a n d n e a r l y z e r o r e s p e c t i v e l y ) m a y v a r y o v e r s e v e r a l log-
c y c l e s . H e n c e , a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e m e n t of Dlh m u s t , a c c o r d i n g t o ( 3 . 3 0 ) , b e
c o m p e n s a t e d m a i n l y b y a d e c r e m e n t of A / A . B u t t h i s is a d i f f e r e n t w a y of
s a y i n g t h a t , for t h e s a m e r e m a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s , t h e s t e e p n e s s of d u n e s a n d
r i p p l e s m u s t , in g e n e r a l , d e c r e a s e w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of t h e g r a i n size D
(~ kg). T h i s c o n c l u s i o n , w h i c h w i l l b e f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o , is in a g r e e m e n t
w i t h e x p e r i m e n t ( s e e e.g. F i g . 3.19, a n d a l s o r e c a l l t h a t t h e r e a r e n o p r o m i -
n e n t d u n e s o r r i p p l e s in g r a v e l b e d r i v e r s ) .
In t h e c a s e of a l t e r n a t e b a r s , h/D a n d A / A a r e " s m a l l " . 13 C o n s e q u e n t l y , A
is a l w a y s n e g l i g i b l e in c o m p a r i s o n t o Af ( c c ) ; a n d t h e a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n
is n o t a p p l i c a b l e . In fact, as will b e c o m e a p p a r e n t i n 3.5.3 ( i i ) , t h e s t e e p n e s s
of a l t e r n a t e b a r s i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of Dlh.

iii- C o n s i d e r a " r u n " c o n d u c t e d o n a g i v e n s a n d b e d : q, S a n d D a r e s p e c -


ified. T h e g r o w t h of b e d f o r m s m e a n s t h e g r o w t h of t h e t o t a l b e d r o u g h n e s s
Ks a n d t h u s t h e r e d u c t i o n of t h e friction f a c t o r c. B u t , as c a n b e i n f e r r e d
2
f r o m ( 1 . 3 1 ) , t h e p r o d u c t of c w i t h S is t h e F r o u d e n u m b e r (Fr =
2 2
= v /gh = c S). C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e g r o w t h of b e d f o r m s is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e
d e c r e m e n t of Fr. In t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , w e will s e e t h a t t h e s e l f - f o r m a t i o n of
a n a l l u v i a l c h a n n e l is m o t i v a t e d b y t h e t r e n d F r - + m i n . H e n c e , t h e
14
d e v e l o p m e n t of b e d f o r m s is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h ( t h o u g h n o t m o t i v a t e d b y ) this
trend.

3.3.3 Bed form steepness and flow intensity 77

It h a s b e e n s t a t e d in 3.3.2 (i) t h a t t h e i d e a l b e d f o r m s t e e p n e s s (A/A)*


c a n b e a c h i e v e d o n l y for a l i m i t e d r a n g e of qsb a n d t h u s of rj. T h e p r e s e n t
p a r a g r a p h deals with this topic.
A s is w e l l k n o w n ( a n d a s c a n b e i n f e r r e d f r o m ( 3 . 2 7 ) ) , t h e a v e r a g e
( a l o n g x) b e d - l o a d r a t e qsb c a n b e e x p r e s s e d in t e r m s of t h e d e v e l o p e d t w o -
d i m e n s i o n a l b e d f o r m p r o p e r t i e s as
qsb = asUbA ( w i t h as 1/2). (3.31)

T h i s r e l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t if rj is j u s t l a r g e r t h a n u n i t y , a n d t h u s if qsb is just
l a r g e r t h a n z e r o , t h e n A , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y A / A , m u s t a l s o b e just l a r g e r t h a n
z e r o (for Ub~v* is a l w a y s finite (v* > v*cr > 0 ) ) . H e n c e t h e i d e a l b e d f o r m
s t e e p n e s s ( A / A ) * , w h i c h h a s a c e r t a i n finite v a l u e , c a n n o t b e a c h i e v e d for t h e
v a l u e s of TJ w h i c h a r e j u s t l a r g e r t h a n u n i t y .
If A / A is s m a l l a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y c / c 1, t h e n qs = qsb c a n b e g i v e n
b y t h e flat-bed v e r s i o n of B a g n o l d ' s b e d - l o a d f o r m u l a ( 1 . 5 7 ) , viz

W e have (A/A) a = 8a < 0.02 (Fig. 3.30).


14
T h e development of bed forms c a n n o t be attributed to Fr-+ min, at least because they
occur also in flows which d o not have a free surface.

82
(3.32)

I d e n t i f y i n g (3.32) w i t h ( 3 . 3 1 ) , t r e a t i n g A a s i n d e p e n d e n t of TJ a n d c o n s i d e r i n g
t h a t Ub~v*~ ub, o n e d e t e r m i n e s

^ - - ( 7 - 1 ) , (3.33)

w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t w h e n 77 is j u s t l a r g e r t h a n u n i t y t h e s t e e p n e s s A / A of t h e
d e v e l o p e d b e d f o r m s i n c r e a s e s a s a l i n e a r f u n c t i o n of rj ( s t r a i g h t l i n e a in
F i g . 3.13). W i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of A / A , this l i n e a r r e l a t i o n m u s t p r o g r e s s i v e l y
d e t e r i o r a t e , for if t h e b e d is n o l o n g e r flat, t h e n qsb v a r i e s a l s o w i t h c / c ,
w h i c h , i n t u r n , d e c r e a s e s w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of A / A . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e
s t r a i g h t l i n e a m u s t d e g e n e r a t e i n t o a c o n v e x c u r v e , Z0i say ( F i g . 3.13).
E v e n t u a l l y , at a c e r t a i n 77 = r)x, t h e c u r v e l01 r e a c h e s t h e l e v e l of t h e i d e a l
s t e e p n e s s , a n d for 77 > 771 w e h a v e ( A /A) = (A/A)* ( h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s e g m e n t
l l 2 i n F i g . 3.13). H o w e v e r , t h e i d e a l s t e e p n e s s t o o , c a n n o t b e m a i n t a i n e d i n -
d e f i n i t e l y , a n d t h e r e a s o n for t h i s c a n b e e x p l a i n e d as f o l l o w s .

F i g . 3.13

W h e n 77 a n d t h u s qsb a r e sufficiently s m a l l , t h e n all of t h e g r a i n s t r a n s -


p o r t e d o v e r t h e crest b0 of a b e d f o r m s l i d e d o w n a l o n g its a b r u p t d o w n -
s t r e a m face b0a ( F i g . 3 . 1 4 a ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e b e d f o r m face b0a ( a n d , in
fact, t h e w h o l e b e d f o r m ) a d v a n c e s p e r u n i t t i m e b y t h e d i s t a n c e Ub, t h e a r e a
0 " s w e p t " i n t h e p r o c e s s b e i n g UbA. C l e a r l y , this a r e a is e q u a l t o t h e
t r a n s p o r t r a t e (qsb)max at t h e d u n e c r e s t , a n d o n e c a n w r i t e
3 3 4
( ^ ) m a x = ( - )

If, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , 77 a n d t h u s qsb = as(qsb)max a r e n o t sufficiently s m a l l ,


t h e n not all of t h e g r a i n s t r a n s p o r t e d o v e r t h e b e d f o r m crest s l i d e d o w n its
d o w n s t r e a m face b0a s o m e of t h e m " f l y " f o r w a r d , a n d l a n d o n t h e u p -
s t r e a m face of t h e n e x t b e d f o r m , o r e v e n f u r t h e r ( F i g . 3.14b). A s a r e s u l t
of t h i s , i n s t e a d of t h e a r e a Q ( p e r u n i t t i m e ) w e h a v e a s m a l l e r a r e a fi', a n d
c o n s e q u e n t l y i n s t e a d of Ub, a s m a l l e r m i g r a t i o n v e l o c i t y Ub. T h e a r e a -
d i f f e r e n c e fi fl' is t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o t h e d e p o s i t i o n a r e a UJ = UJX + u)2, w h e r e
t h e ( l a r g e r ) p a r t UJ2 e x t e n d s a l o n g t h e u p s t r e a m face of t h e n e x t b e d f o r m , t h e

83
F i g . 3.14

s m a l l e r ( b l a c k ) p a r t UJX b e i n g o n t h e d o w n s t r e a m face b0a. S i n c e t h e l a n d e d


m a t e r i a l is c o n c e n t r a t e d m a i n l y a r o u n d t h e s t a g n a t i o n p o i n t 5 , t h e largest
t h i c k n e s s of t h e a r e a UJ is in t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of S. C l e a r l y , t h e e m e r g e n c e
of UJ is a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e r e d u c t i o n of t h e b e d f o r m h e i g h t ( f r o m A to
A ' ) , a n d t h u s of t h e b e d f o r m s t e e p n e s s . B u t t h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e i d e a l s t e e p -
n e s s (A/A)* c a n n o t b e m a i n t a i n e d for rj l a r g e r t h a n a c e r t a i n 772, for w h i c h
s o m e of t h e t r a n s p o r t e d g r a i n s b e g i n to fly t o t h e n e x t b e d f o r m : t h e v a l u e
of A / A m u s t p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e c r e a s e w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g v a l u e s of 77 ( > 772),
as s h o w n s c h e m a t i c a l l y in Fig. 3.13 b y t h e c u r v e / 2 3 - E v e n t u a l l y , w h e n
77 = ry 3, say, all of t h e g r a i n s fly f o r w a r d . In t h i s c a s e t h e b e d f o r m s v a n i s h
( A - + 0) a n d w e h a v e t h e "flat b e d at a d v a n c e d s t a g e s " . 15
T h e conditions described above c a n b e f o r m u l a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g
manner. Consider again the transport c o n t i n u i t y e q u a t i o n (1.76) a n d a p p l y
it to t h e d e v e l o p e d d u n e s (Vb = dybldt = 0) c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o 772 < 77 < 773. In
this c a s e , ps is n o l o n g e r z e r o : it v a r i e s as a f u n c t i o n of x (ps = ps(x)). Hence,
E q . (1.76) is of t h e f o r m

" Ps(x). (3.35)

T a k i n g t h e o r i g i n of x at t h e t r o u g h a ( F i g . 3 . 1 4 b ) a n d i n t e g r a t i n g (3.35) a l o n g
0 < x < A 2, o n e o b t a i n s

= U A 2
( f e ) m a x " (<lsb)a b + f p5{x)dx. (3-36)

H e r e (qsb)max a n d (qsb)a are the b e d - l o a d rates passing through t h e vertical


s e c t i o n s at t h e c r e s t a n d t r o u g h r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e i n t e g r a l o n t h e r i g h t b e i n g

15
In reality, the transition from each line to t h e next in Fig. 3.13 occurs "smoothly''; i.e. the
a n
line complex [ / 0i , / 1 2 . d ^ 3 ] is a single c o n t i n u o u s curve (see bed form steepness plots
in Section 3.5).

84
t h a t p a r t UJ2 of t h e t o t a l d e p o s i t i o n a r e a UJ w h i c h is t o t h e r i g h t of a. C o n s i d e r
n o w t h e a r e a UJX w h i c h is t o t h e left of a. It is d u e t o t h e p a r t i c l e s f o r m i n g
16
t h e ( l e f t w a r d - d i r e c t e d ) t r a n s p o r t r a t e (qsb)a :

=
r x dx
(4sb)A J A
P s( ) = "i (3-37)
" L

C o n s e q u e n t l y , (3.36) i m p l i e s

( ^ ) ma x = U b + i j , (3.38)

where

r*^2 (*
J
O
ps(x)dx + I J
-A,
ps(x)dx + I0 p5(x)dx = I ps(x)dx. (3.39)

S i n c e UJ is d u e t o ps(x), w h i l e ps(x) is d u e to (qsb)max , t h e v a l u e of UJ is a n


i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of (qsb)max . O w i n g to dimensional reasons, the deposition
a r e a p e r u n i t t i m e UJ m u s t , in fact, b e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o (qSb)max, the
d i m e n s i o n l e s s proportionality factor being d e t e r m i n e d by the t r a n s p o r t
i n t e n s i t y rj. i.e.

3 4
= W ( " )

w h e r e t h e f u n c t i o n 0 ( 7 7 ) , w h i c h is u n k n o w n at p r e s e n t , m u s t h a v e t h e p r o p e r t y

<t>(ri) = 0 if TJ < ri2 and <t>(r]) = 1 if rj > rj3. (3.41)

U s i n g ( 3 . 4 0 ) , o n e c a n e x p r e s s ( 3 . 3 8 ) as

[1 -<t>(N)](qsb)max= UbA. (3.42)

W h e n rj < 7}2, t h e n ^(77) = 0 a n d (3.42) r e d u c e s i n t o its s p e c i a l f o r m ( 3 . 3 4 ) .


W h e n 77 > 773, t h e n ^(77) = 1 a n d (3.42) r e d u c e s i n t o UbA = 0, i m p l y i n g t h e
flat b e d at a d v a n c e d stages.

T h e relation (3.42) may help to realize that the migration velocity Ub is not an in-
d e p e n d e n t characteristic of sediment transport as the bed-load rate qsb or the bed form height
A , say. Indeed, if 77 < rj2 (and <t>{r}) = 0), then Ub is completely d e t e r m i n e d by qsb&
(qSb)max /2 and A ; only if 77 > r}2 t h e knowledge of the function <j>(r)) is required. This is why
we are not c o n c e r n e d with Ub in t h e present text. It should be m e n t i o n e d , however, that in
s o m e of t h e (comparatively recent) works Ub is given as a function of Fr (rather t h a n 77), al-
t h o u g h it is well known that ripples and dunes occur, and migrate, also in deserts a n d closed
conduits.

In Fig. 3.14, (qsb)a a p p e a r s to be negative only because its direction opposes the flow
direction x\ not because it creates erosion instead of deposition. H e n c e (qsb)a (which
generates the deposition u^) is treated as positive.

85
3.4 E x i s t e n c e R e g i o n s of Bed F o r m s

3.4.1 Formulation of existence regions

i- S i n c e t h e b e d f o r m l e n g t h A is a l w a y s f i n i t e , a b e d f o r m " e x i s t s " if it h a s
a n o n - z e r o h e i g h t A , a n d t h u s a n o n - z e r o s t e e p n e s s A / A . T h i s is t h e c a s e
w h e n j] satisfies 1 < t] < 773 ( s e e 3.3.3). H o w e v e r , as s h o u l d b e c l e a r f r o m
3.1.2, t h e e x i s t e n c e of a b e d f o r m d e p e n d s a l s o o n t h e v a l u e s of ( s o m e of)
the parameters

(3.43)

In t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t , t h e v a l u e of t h e F r o u d e n u m b e r Fr m e r e l y i n d i c a t e s
w h e t h e r t h e b e d f o r m s w h o s e l e n g t h is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o h a r e d u n e s o r
a n t i d u n e s ; t h e r e f o r e , in t h e f o l l o w i n g , a t t e n t i o n will b e f o c u s e d o n t h e r o l e
of t h e first t h r e e v a r i a b l e s in ( 3 . 4 3 ) .

ii- C o n s i d e r t h e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e f o r m e d b y t h e c o o r d i n a t e s Blh, Z
a n d X ( F i g . 3.15). T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e (Blh; Z ) - p l a n e P m u s t , in g e n -
e r a l , b e e x p e c t e d to v a r y d e p e n d i n g o n its l o c a t i o n o n t h e X-axis. F r o m t h e
c o n t e n t of p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s , it s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t t h e r o l e of X o n t h e
f o r m a t i o n of s t e e p n e s s of t h e l a r g e r b e d f o r m s ( d u n e s a n d b a r s ) is of a n in-
x
d i r e c t n a t u r e : it is via r i p p l e s w h i c h o c c u r for s m a l l Xv . Ripples, which
c o m e i n t o b e i n g s o o n after / = 0, c o n v e r t t h e initial b e d r o u g h n e s s k D i n t o
t h e r i p p l e r o u g h n e s s Ks ~ A r (3.1.3 ( i v ) ) . T h u s , t h e ( s u b s e q u e n t ) d e v e l o p m e n t
of l a r g e r b e d f o r m s t a k e s p l a c e v i r t u a l l y p a s t t h e b e d c o v e r e d b y r i p p l e
r o u g h n e s s . C l e a r l y , t h e i n c r e m e n t of Ks A r m u s t l e a d to t h e r e d u c t i o n of
p r o m i n e n c e of t h e l a r g e r b e d f o r m s ( s e e 3.1.3 ( i v ) ) . O n e c a n say t h a t t h e
(earlier d e v e l o p e d ) ripples " p r o t e c t " t h e bed against any further deformation.
E x p e r i m e n t s h o w s [ 8 ] , [38] t h a t w h e n X< 2.5 ( h y d r a u l i c a l l y s m o o t h flow
past t h e flat b e d at / = 0 ) , t h e n it is m a i n l y r i p p l e s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t o n t h e
b e d s u r f a c e , t h e s t e e p n e s s of l a r g e r b e d f o r m s b e i n g c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l
( p l a n e P i n t h e p o s i t i o n P i ) . W h e n 2.5 < X < 35 ( t r a n s i t i o n a l r e g i m e at
t = 0 ) , w e h a v e r i p p l e s s u p e r i m p o s e d o n l a r g e r b e d f o r m s ( p l a n e P in t h e
p o s i t i o n P 2 ) - w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of X t h e p r o m i n e n c e of r i p p l e s d e c r e a s e s ;
t h a t of t h e l a r g e r b e d f o r m s i n c r e a s e s . W h e n X > 35 ( r o u g h t u r b u l e n t flow
at t = 0 ) , r i p p l e s a r e n o l o n g e r p r e s e n t a n d t h e l a r g e r b e d f o r m s h a v e t h e i r
m a x i m u m p r o m i n e n c e ( p l a n e P i n t h e p o s i t i o n P 3) .

iii- C o n s i d e r n o w t h e l a r g e r b e d f o r m s i n t h e ( r o u g h t u r b u l e n t ) p l a n e P 3 ( F i g .
3.15) - w e b e g i n w i t h b a r s . It h a s b e e n s h o w n in 2.3.5 t h a t if t h e flow is
r o u g h t u r b u l e n t , t h e n t h e r e g i o n s of N- a n d ( N + l ) - r o w h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s in

86
r o u g h turbulent flow: no ripples

> d u e to
horizontal turbulence
(bars)

d u e to
vertical turbulence (if Fr<1)
or
standing w a v e s (if Fr>1)
(dunes o r antidunes)

logZ

F i g . 3.15

t h e log-log (Blh; Z ) - p l a n e are s e p a r a t e d from e a c h o t h e r by t h e 1/3-inclined


s t r a i g h t l i n e s lN r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e f u n c t i o n ( 2 . 3 8 ) , i.e.
17
4 = ^(yv)z . 1/3
(3.44)
h
C l e a r l y , t h e l i n e s lN a r e , at t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e b o u n d a r i e s s e p a r a t i n g t h e r e -
g i o n s of N~ a n d (N + l ) - r o w b a r s . T h e l i n e Z e, w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e f u n c t i o n
(2.27) (viz tp(Z)), is t h e l o w e r b o u n d a r y of t h e a l t e r n a t e b a r r e g i o n .

T h e l e n g t h s of d u n e s a n d a n t i d u n e s a r e c o m p a r a b l e , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e y
a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . Y e t n e i t h e r of t h e m is m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e w i t h a l t e r -
n a t e b a r s (for Aa ~ B > h Ad o r A g ) , a n d e x p e r i m e n t s h o w s [18] t h a t a l t e r -
n a t e b a r s c a n o c c u r i n d e e d w i t h d u n e s or a n t i d u n e s s u p e r i m p o s e d o n t h e m .
T h e e x p l a n a t i o n b e l o w is g i v e n in t e r m s of d u n e s .
Since the earlier occurring ripples " p r o t e c t " the bed against any further
d e f o r m a t i o n , t h e y r e n d e r t h e b a r s a n d d u n e s less p r o m i n e n t ( a n d t h e m o r e
s o , t h e s t e e p e r a r e r i p p l e s , i.e. t h e s m a l l e r is X). N o r i p p l e s a r e p r e s e n t , of
c o u r s e , in t h e r o u g h t u r b u l e n t p l a n e P 3 . Y e t t h e b e d w h i c h will s u b s e q u e n t l y
b e c o v e r e d b y b a r s m a y b e c o v e r e d first b y t h e ( e a r l i e r d e v e l o p e d ) d u n e s .
I n d e e d , s i n c e Blh &AaIAd is l a r g e , t h e n Ta/Td is l a r g e t o o ( i n a n a l o g y t o
( 3 . 2 2 ) ) , a n d t h e b e d m a y a l r e a d y b e c o v e r e d by t h e n e a r l y d e v e l o p e d d u n e s
w h e n t h e f o r m a t i o n of b a r s h a s o n l y j u s t s t a r t e d . C l e a r l y , t h e s t e e p e r t h e
e a r l i e r d e v e l o p i n g d u n e s , t h e flatter a r e t h e s u b s e q u e n t l y f o r m i n g b a r s . O n
- 1
t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s t e e p n e s s of d u n e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e c r e a s e s w i t h D Z
(3.3.2 (ii)) a n d w h e n Z < 3 0 , say, t h e y a r e b a r e l y d e t e c t a b l e ( s e e F i g . 3.19).

17
hiks is replaced by h ID = Z , hence ip instead of ip.

87
1
C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s t e e p n e s s of b a r s m u s t i n c r e a s e w i t h D ~ Z " ; a n d , as is
well k n o w n , bars forming on a coarse material usually are m o r e pro-
m i n e n t , is T h e z o n e b e l o w / e is t h e z o n e of c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e flow d e p t h s :
h o r i z o n t a l e d d i e s a r e n o t r u b b i n g t h e b e d a n d t h e a c t i o n of v e r t i c a l b u r s t s
d o m i n a t e s . In this z o n e , l i k e a n y w h e r e e l s e o n P3 w h e r e Z is sufficiently l a r g e ,
d u n e s a r e p r e s e n t if Fr < 1; a n d a n t i d u n e s if Fr > 1.
If B/h is v e r y l a r g e , t h e n w e h a v e a n o n - z e r o r e g i o n bc w h e r e o n l y
v e r t i c a l b u r s t s a r e p r e s e n t ( s e e F i g . 2.24). C l e a r l y , n o b a r s c a n o c c u r w i t h i n
bc w h e r e n o l a r g e - s c a l e h o r i z o n t a l t u r b u l e n c e is p r e s e n t : t h e b e d f o r m s a r e
e i t h e r d u n e s o r a n t i d u n e s ( a s in t h e r e g i o n b e l o w / e ) .

3.4.2 Experimental determination of existence regions

A l l t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a (a t o t a l of 5 0 7 d a t a - p o i n t s f r o m 27 s o u r c e s ) a r e
p l o t t e d o n t h e l o g - l o g (B/h, Z ) - p l a n e , i.e. (B/h; / z / D ) - p l a n e , in F i g . 3.16.
T h e p o i n t s A, C a n d D in F i g . 3.16 r e p r e s e n t a l t e r n a t e b a r s , m u l t i p l e b a r s
a n d d u n e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . 19 N o d i s t i n c t i o n w a s m a d e b y t h e a u t h o r s of t h e d a t a
as to w h e t h e r t h e m u l t i p l e b a r s w e r e d o u b l e - , o r t r i p l e - r o w b a r s , e t c . , a n d
2
t h e r e f o r e t h e y a r e all m a r k e d b y C . o
A s c a n b e s e e n f r o m F i g . 3.16, t h e p o i n t s A, C a n d D e x h i b i t a c l e a r
t e n d e n c y to form " t h e i r o w n " regions, a l t h o u g h their "diffusion" from o n e
r e g i o n to a n o t h e r is s u b s t a n t i a l . In o r d e r t o r e v e a l t h e u p p e r a n d l o w e r limits
of t h e a l t e r n a t e b a r r e g i o n m o r e a c c u r a t e l y , a s e r i e s of s p e c i a l e x p e r i m e n t s
w a s c a r r i e d o u t (Ref. [40]). T h e e n c i r c l e d a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s , as well as t h e
t r a n s i t i o n a l p o i n t s T , o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s w e r e of c o n s i d e r a b l e

18
T h e quantitative relation r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d e c r e m e n t of alternate bar steepness with Z is
d e t e r m i n e d (from the data) in 3.5.3.
19
T h e sources are too n u m e r o u s to assign a special symbol for each of them. O n the other
hand, the utilization of only A, C and D makes it possible to see m o r e clearly how alternate
bars, multiple bars a n d d u n e s g r o u p themselves on the (Blh\ / i / D ) - p l a n e .
T h e data sources are given in "References A " and " B " :
Flume data:
Point-symbol A (0.38mm < D 50 < 6.40mm): [ l b ] , [2b], [3b], [4b], [5b], [6b], [7b], [9b],
[ l i b ] , [12b] ( = [40]), [13b].
Point-symbol C (0.61mm < D 50 ^ 1.71mm): [5b], [9b], [ l i b ] , [12b] ( = [40]).
Point-symbol D (0.25mm < D 50 ^ 1.71mm): [2a], [5a], [10a], [12a], [17a], [31a], [32a],
[36a], [37a].
River data:
Point-symbols A and C: F r o m Ref. [8b] (B/h and hID given, D-range unspecified). T h e
plot contains also the data from various Japanese rivers - kindly provided by Dr. S. Ikeda
(Tokyo Institute of T e c h n o l o g y ) : D-range is too wide, hence not given here.
Point-symbol D (0.20mm < D s o < 0.56mm): [ l a ] , [13a], [14a], [19a], [27a].
20
Hence t h e available data do not p e r m i t the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the existence regions of bars
c o r r e s p o n d i n g to N > 1.

88
h e l p in l o c a t i n g t h e " l e v e l s " of t h e l i n e s f o r m i n g t h e l i m i t s m e n t i o n e d . T h u s ,
the following relations have been established:

i) t h e l i n e U ( u p p e r limit of t h e a l t e r n a t e b a r r e g i o n ) ,

(3.45)

ii) t h e l i n e le ( l o w e r limit of t h e a l t e r n a t e b a r r e g i o n ) ,

: p a 100 t h e n

and (3.46)

> wlOO t h e n

T h e l o w e r l i m i t of t h e r e g i o n of a l t e r n a t e b a r s is m u c h v a g u e r t h a n its u p p e r
l i m i t - it is m o r e a " t r a n s i t i o n a l r i b b o n " t h a n a l i n e , le b e i n g b u t t h e c e n t r a l
l i n e of t h a t r i b b o n . - 1
M o s t of t h e d a t a p l o t t e d in F i g . 3.16 c o r r e s p o n d t o r o u g h t u r b u l e n t
flows (X > 3 5 ) . Y e t t h e p o i n t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o X< 3 5 ( u n m a r k e d in F i g .
3.16) d i d n o t t e n d to l o c a t e t h e m s e l v e s " d i f f e r e n t l y " o n t h e (Blh; hiD)
- p l a n e ; a n d a n y i n f l u e n c e of X o n t h e l i n e s lx a n d l c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n

2 3 5
1 10 10 10 10* 10
h/D a-

F i g . 3.16 ( f r o m Ref. [40])

T h e theoretical reason for l( to be a 1/1-inclined straight line w h e n Z is small is given in


Ref. [48].

89
d e t e c t e d . T h i s is n o t s u r p r i s i n g , for it is h a r d l y likely t h a t t h e p l a n config-
u r a t i o n a n d t h i c k n e s s of t h e l a r g e - s c a l e h o r i z o n t a l e d d i e s eH ( w h i c h d e t e r m i n e
lN a n d lt) s h o u l d b e affected m u c h b y t h e e a r l i e r d e v e l o p i n g d u n e s a n d / o r
r i p p l e s . ( M o r e i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e p l o t i n F i g . 3.16 a n d its c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n
b e f o u n d in Ref. [40]).

T h e existence regions of bed forms has been a p o p u l a r topic for a long time, the recent
contributions to it being mostly by Japanese researchers. A p p a r e n t l y , it was first Sukegawa
1972 [41] who i n t r o d u c e d the c o m b i n a t i o n S(Blh), which was subsequently referred to as
" c h a n n e l form index" (Ikeda 1973 [19]). Using this combination, in conjunction with
2
77 = ( u . / u * c, ) , Sukegawa a t t e m p t e d to reveal the existence regions of bed forms by plotting
l/2
the data o n t h e plane [77; [n S(B I h)] ]. T h e resulting plot was only moderately successful (see
Fig. 2 in [41]) - in spite of the fact that the spurious correlation d u e to the presence of 77
in b o t h abcissa and o r d i n a t e has c o n t r i b u t e d considerably to its visual appearence. Ikeda 1973
[19], and Kishi a n d K u r o k i 1975 [28], have also used 77 and S{Blh) (without "mixing" t h e m
with each other, h o w e v e r ) to d e t e r m i n e t h e existence regions. T h e zone-boundaries obtained
in the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d t h r e e works are not quite the same: they vary depending o n t h e data
22
u s e d . But this m e a n s t h a t t h e b o u n d a r i e s separating various types of bed forms c a n n o t be
"immobilized" on t h e plane [77; S(B/h)]. And this is because the transport-related p a r a m e t e r 77
(which, for a given flow, varies d e p e n d i n g on material (lsD)) has hardly any influence o n the
formation of (flow-induced) bursts, standing waves, etc., which d e t e r m i n e the bed form types.
T h e value of 77 merely indicates w h e t h e r a given flow is capable of transporting the sediment
and thus of i m p r i n t i n g a certain bed form; and what t h e steepness of the imprint might
be - it c a n n o t , however, t h r o w any light on the type of that " c e r t a i n " bed form.
It seems that t h e p a r a m e t e r 77 was first discarded by P a r k e r 1976 [35], who introduced
the (flow-related) F r o u d e n u m b e r instead of 77. According to Ref. [35], the zone-separating
2
lines (/, v) should be given by the proportionalities F r ~ [S(Blh)] , which are equivalent to
V2 2
c~S (Blh) (for Fr = c S (see (1.31)). But, according to [41], [19] and [28] we have
m 1/w /m l
7 7 - g S h / v l c r~ [S(Blh)] and t h u s (gh/vlcr) ~ (Blh)IS^ ~ > (where 1/m > 1 and conse-
quently ((1/m) - 1) > 0). H e n c e , according to [35] the ratio Blh must be multiplied by a
positive power of 5, whereas according to [41], [19] and [28] it must be divided by it. Since
all of t h e proportionalities above were " s u p p o r t e d " by the data, the discrepancy between t h e m
should be d u e mainly to t h e utilization of 5 which, in fact, is not a p a r a m e t e r d e t e r m i n i n g
the type of bed forms. This was realized by M u r a m o t o a n d Fujita 1978 [32] who have used
only the dimensionless variables Blh and Z = h/'Dy and who have expressed the z o n e -
m
separating lines by t h e proportionalities (Blh)~ Z . (Note that their empirical exponent 1/2
is c o m p a r a b l e with the present 1/3). M o r e recently, Hayashi a n d Ozaki 1980 [15] have p r o -
posed, for the zone-separating lines, the proportionalities Fr~ S{Bih). H e r e 5 is an " a p p a r e n t
2 2
p a r a m e t e r " ; for Fr - c 5 , and Fr^ S(Blh) implies c ~ {Bin). In the case of a rough t u r b u l e n t
m m
flow, where c ~ {hlks) , the proportionalities of Ref. [15] acquire the form Blh~ (h/ks) ,
which is the same as t h e p r e s e n t expression (2.43) of the zone-separating lines. Fig. 3.17 is
the r e p r o d u c t i o n of t h e original plot published by the Public W o r k s Research Institute,
Ministry of C o n s t r u c t i o n of J a p a n 1982 [36] (see also [25]). Observe that this plot is very
similar to the present plot in Fig. 3.16: even the zone b o u n d a r i e s resemble each other. Finally,
it should be m e n t i o n e d that in Z n a m e n s k a y a 1976 [59] the alluvial forms were also classified
2
by using only t h e flow related p a r a m e t e r s , viz (Blh)c and hID.

22 m
Each of the t h r e e w o r k s m e n t i o n e d proposes a power relation 7 7 - [S(Blh)] to separate
various bed form regions. According to [41], [19] and [28] the value of m is 1/4, 1/3 and
0.4 respectively.

90
a & ti Aj
m # m it

A & ft &J|c 7K
A m ?y # $ it

& ?y # m m
A W $ i t + #tl^
o m n # % it (Hfljn)
& #1 # $ it (Hfljll)

B/h ,cL (D ^ t ^ / K ^ W ^ i t ^

<S> ^ ? $ i t ^
0

10 100 1,000
h/D

F i g . 3.17 ( f r o m Ref. [36])

3.5 E x p e r i m e n t a l D a t a a n d Bed F o r m E q u a t i o n s

This section c o n c e r n s the relations w h i c h can b e used to c o m p u t e the


l e n g t h a n d s t e e p n e s s of d u n e s , r i p p l e s a n d a l t e r n a t e b a r s . T h e s e r e l a t i o n s w e r e
d e t e r m i n e d from the available data.

3.5.1 Dunes

i- Dune length

A c c o r d i n g t o 3.1.2 ( i i ) , t h e d u n e l e n g t h is g i v e n b y ( 3 . 1 1 ) , i.e. b y

Ad= %{X,Z)6h. (3.47)

If t h e flow past t h e flat i n i t i a l b e d is r o u g h t u r b u l e n t , t h e n Ad 6h, i.e.


$ r f ( A f , Z ) 1. T h e c u r v e f a m i l y in F i g . 3 . 1 8 , w h i c h w a s d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e
v o l u m i n o u s d a t a of v a r i o u s s o u r c e s ( g i v e n in Ref. [ 5 4 ] ) , c a n b e considered
as t h e g r a p h of t h e f u n c t i o n $d(X, Z ) (for t h e r a t i o of t h e c o o r d i n a t e s in
F i g . 3.18, viz (Ad/D)/Z9 is e q u a l t o 6$d(X, Z ) ) . T h e following comp-eq. can
b e u s e d for t h e e v a l u a t i o n of $d(X, Z):

*d(X, Z ) = 1 + 0.01 (3.48)

(with m = 0.055 V z + 0.04*).

91
10

10

10'
y z

D
10*

5.62 < >( < 10.00


10.00<> C < 13.50
1(f \ v \ - 1 3 . 5 0 < X < 17.80
\\>-17.80<X<31.62
\ \ - 3 1 . 6 2 < X < 42.66
\-42.66<X
10'
^2K 6

10"
u 1
10 10 10 10 10* 10

z = h/D
F i g . 3.18 ( f r o m Ref. [54])

ii- Dune steepness

F r o m 3.3.3 a n d 3.3.2 it s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t t h e d u n e s t e e p n e s s
(A IA)d = Sd v a r i e s as a f u n c t i o n of t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s flow i n t e n s i t y rj, a n d its
v a l u e s h o u l d d e c r e a s e w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of t h e r e l a t i v e s k i n r o u g h n e s s
_1
kslh Z (3.3.2 ( i i ) ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e v a l u e of Sd m u s t b e a f f e c t e d b y t h e
g r a i n s i z e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r X (for w i t h t h e d e c r e m e n t of AT, t h e s t e e p n e s s
of t h e ( e a r l i e r o c c u r r i n g ) r i p p l e s i n c r e a s e s , a n d t h e p r o m i n e n c e (Sd) of d u n e s
d e c r e a s e s ) . H e n c e , in g e n e r a l , t h e d u n e s t e e p n e s s m u s t b e a f u n c t i o n of r?, Z
a n d X, its u n i m p e d e d ( b y t h e r i p p l e r o u g h n e s s ) v a l u e b e i n g a f u n c t i o n of 77
a n d Z o n l y . H e n c e , t h e d u n e s t e e p n e s s Sd c a n b e g i v e n by t h e f o r m

Sd = %(X,V,Z) = ^xd(X)%(r,,Z), (3.49)

w h i c h r e d u c e s t o t h e e x p r e s s i o n of t h e u n i m p e d e d d u n e s t e e p n e s s

(3.50)

w h e n * i s " s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e " (X > 2 5 , s a y p a n d ^ ( A T ) = 1.

1- F i g . 3 . 1 9 , w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o X>&25, s h o w s t h e family of e x p e r -
i m e n t a l c u r v e s w h i c h can b e t a k e n to imply (3.50). N o t e from this g r a p h that
t h e a b s o l u t e m a x i m u m of t h e d u n e s t e e p n e s s is 0.06, a n d t h a t it o c c u r s (for

23
Strictly speaking, the u n i m p e d e d d u n e steepness m u s t b e expected to be p r e s e n t when there
are n o ripples at all (i.e. w h e n X > 3 5 ; rough t u r b u l e n t flow past the flat initial bed
(3.4.1)).

92
1 10 16 100
0.3 5
100 < Z < 1.04-10 REFS. AND
0.2 65<Z<75^ -J"****""
O 40 < Z < 50 }-REF.[53] (=REF. [36AD
X>* 25
1 20 < Z < 30
10

I
8d

10'

10" SYMBOL D M(MM)


[5A] BISHOP (FLUME) 0.54 TO 1.10 1004TO 240
[19A] LANE & EDEN (MISSISSIPPI RIVER) 0.27 TO 0.56 2.03-10 TO 1.04-10'
[31A] SHINOHARA & TSUBAKI (FLUME) 1.26 TO 1.46 100 TO 508
[33A] SIMONS, RICHARDSON (") 0.45 162 TO 608
& ALBERTSON
[12A] SIMONS, RICHARDSON & GUY (") 0.27 TO 0.93 169 TO 1043
[32A] SIMONS, RICHARDSON (") 0.47 194 TO 862
& HAUSHILD
[34A] SINGH (") 0.62 100 TO 219
[35A] STEIN (") 0.40 312 TO 777
[37A] ZNAMENSKAYA (") 0.80 914 TO 783 S
NORDIN (AMAZON RIVER)* (") 0.15 TO 0.50 5.4-10 TO 3.86-10
* PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

F i g . 3.19 ( f r o m Ref. [53])

X> & 25 a n d Z > 100) w h e n r / ^ 1 6 . In Ref. [53] it h a s b e e n f o u n d that


t h e c u r v e s C,- in F i g . 3.19 c a n b e n o r m a l i z e d b y i n t r o d u c i n g

and C (3.51)

w h e r e (6d)max is t h e largest 6d of e a c h Ct - c u r v e a n d fjd is t h e a b c i s s a of


(8d)max I n d e e d , u s i n g ( 3 . 5 1 ) , it w a s p o s s i b l e t o a r r i v e a t t h e u n i f i e d p l o t s h o w n
in F i g . 3.20. H e r e t h e s c a t t e r is s u b s t a n t i a l ; y e t t h e p o i n t s of d i f f e r e n t s y m b o l s
1
d o n o t f o r m " t h e i r o w n ' p a t t e r n s . H e n c e nd c a n b e t r e a t e d a s a f u n c t i o n of
o n l y C (nd = fd{Q), a n d in Ref. [53] t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m w a s p r o p o s e d ( o n t h e
basis of t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ) for t h i s f u n c t i o n :
. 11 - C
fd(0 = Ce (3.52)

93
T h e s o l i d c u r v e in F i g . 3.20 is t h e g r a p h of (3.52). O b s e r v e t h a t in t h e limit
C - * 0, t h e f u n c t i o n fd() r e d u c e s i n t o t h e s t r a i g h t l i n e ( e ( a s y m p t o t e in F i g .
3.20). T h u s , w h e n ( ~ (rj - 1) -f 0, t h e n 8d b e c o m e s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o (77 - 1);

0.1 1 10
C

F i g . 3.20 ( f r o m Ref. [53])

a n d t h i s is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n (3.33) d e r i v e d o n t h e b a s i s of
24
B a g n o l d ' s f o r m u l a ( s t r a i g h t l i n e o in F i g . 3.13). F u r t h e r d a t a , p l o t t e d i n F i g .
3 . 2 1 , also a p p e a r t o b e in a r e a s o n a b l e a g r e e m e n t w i t h E q . (3.52).25 T h e
q u a n t i t i e s (6d)max a n d fjd m u s t b e e x p e c t e d t o v a r y as f u n c t i o n s of Z . U s i n g
t h e d a t a at t h e t o p s of t h e Z = const, c u r v e s (viz, t h e c u r v e s C,- in F i g . 3 . 1 9 ) ,
t h e p o i n t p a t t e r n s s h o w n in Figs. 3.22 a n d 3.23 w e r e p r o d u c e d . T h e s o l i d
l i n e s in t h e s e p l o t s a r e t h e g r a p h s of t h e c o m p - e q s .
0 0 8 Z
(6d)max = 0.06(1 - e- ) (3.53)

and
0 0 0 3 Z
fjd = 1 4 ( 1 - "e ) + 2. (3.54)

24
T h e sources of the data plotted in Figs. 3.21 to 3.23 and 3.25 to 3.27 (all of which are from
[39]), as well as in Fig. 3.28, are given in "References A". T h e point-symbols in these plots
are " n u m b e r s " which increase with the grain size D as indicated below.
Point-symbol 1 (0.02mm < D 50 ^ 0.04mm): [13a], [22a], [23a].
Point-symbol 2 (0.10mm < D 50 ^ 0.30mm): [ l a ] , [3a], [4a], [8a], [13a], [16a], [17a],
[20a], [21a], [22a], [26a], [27a], [28a], [29a].
Point-symbol 3 (0.32mm ^ D 50 ^ 0.47mm): [11a], [13a], [25a], [26a], [27a].
Point-symbol 4 (0.51mm ^ D 50 < 0.93mm): [2a], [7a], [14a], [18a], [28a], [29a].
Point-symbol 5 (1.00mm < D 50 ^ 5.10mm): [6a], [9a], [10a], [15a], [18a], [24a], [30a].
25
F u t u r e research may reveal that a curve with a longer " p l a t e a u " (such as, for example, C
in Fig. 3.21), may reflect nd m o r e realistically than Eq. (3.52).

94
2
10

F i g . 3.21

N o t e t h a t t h e v a l u e s of (8d)max a n d fjd g i v e n b y t h e s e e q u a t i o n s ( w h i c h c o r r e -
s p o n d t o X> w 25) r a p i d l y a p p r o a c h 0.06 a n d 16, r e s p e c t i v e l y , w i t h t h e in-
c r e a s i n g v a l u e s of Z . 2 6 it f o l l o w s t h a t t h e u n i m p e d e d d u n e s t e e p n e s s c a n b e
e x p r e s s e d as
6d=%(v,Z) = (Sd)maxfd(0, (3.55)

w h e r e (8d)max a n d fd(Q a r e d e t e r m i n e d b y ( 3 . 5 3 ) a n d (3.52) r e s p e c t i v e l y .

2- N o s p e c i a l m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e c a r r i e d o u t , t o t h e a u t h o r ' s k n o w l e d g e , t o
r e v e a l h o w t h e d u n e s t e e p n e s s d e c r e a s e s w i t h t h e d e c r e a s i n g v a l u e s of X
( o n l y ) . A n i n d i r e c t d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h i s d e c r e m e n t f r o m t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a
is v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e , for m o s t of t h e d a t a is d u e t o e x p e r i m e n t s w h e r e o n l y
o n e ( d o m i n a n t ) m o d e of b e d f o r m s w a s m e a s u r e d . S i m i l a r l y , t h e n u m b e r of
a v a i l a b l e b e d p r o f i l e s o b t a i n e d b y m e a n s of b e d - l e v e l - p l o t t e r s ( w h i c h c o r r e -
s p o n d t o v a r i o u s X ( f r o m 2.5 < X < 2 0 ) a n d yet t o s o m e c o n s t a n t rj a n d
Z ) is a l s o t o o l i m i t e d t o p e r m i t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e f u n c t i o n ipXd(X).
H e n c e , a t p r e s e n t , o n e h a s n o a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o i d e n t i f y *l>xd(X) w i t h a
n o n - d e c r e a s i n g c o n t i n u o u s f u n c t i o n w h i c h is z e r o w h e n X = 0 a n d w h i c h is
(nearly) unity w h e n X > 35. T h e c o m p - e q .
- (xnoy
4Xd(X) = 1 - e (3.56)

is s u c h a f u n c t i o n . T h e a n a l o g o u s d e c r e m e n t of t h e r i p p l e s t e e p n e s s 6r w i t h
the increasing X can be reflected by

26
Since (6d)max a n d rjd are functions of only Z , the p r o d u c t nd(6d)max = 6d is thus a function
of C a n d Z or, which is the s a m e , of 77 and Z (as required by 6d = %(ri , Z ) ) .

95
111111 1 111 1
1 ~3 I I I I ! I I 1 1 1 M I L

X > 25

Hill Figs. 2 a n d 5 in Ref.[53]

o
2 3 4
1
1 0r 1 0 10 10
Z ^

F i g . 3.22

F i g . 3.23

{ X{ 2 5 )) / 1 4
1>Xr(X) = e if X>2.5, and ^ ) = 1 if X < 2 . 5 , (3.57)

w h e r e 2.5 is t h e A^-value w h i c h signifies t h e u p p e r l i m i t of t h e h y d r a u l i c a l l y


s m o o t h r e g i m e (of t h e flow p a s t t h e flat i n i t i a l b e d at t = 0 ) . T h e e x p r e s s i o n s
(3.56) a n d (3.57) p r o v e d t o g i v e r e a l i s t i c r e s u l t s w h e n u s e d a l o n g s i d e o t h e r
r e l a t i o n s of this s e c t i o n in c o m p u t a t i o n s of t h e f r i c t i o n f a c t o r c.

96
3.5.2 Ripples

i- Ripple length
W e have, according to (3.19),

A, = , ( * , O D . (3.58)

C o n s i d e r t h e p l o t i n F i g . 3 . 2 4 w h e r e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l v a l u e s of A r / D a r e
p l o t t e d v e r s u s X. T h i s p l o t is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h (3.58): t h e d a t a p o i n t s sort
t h e m s e l v e s o u t d e p e n d i n g o n t h e c o n s t a n t v a l u e s of . A s will b e s e e n i n t h e

Symbol D(mm)fluid bed Source


D 0.180 water sand 94.40 Barton, Ln i (1955) [2]
A 0.137 41.60 Vanoni, Brooks (1957) [5]
a 0.230 196.90 Vanoni, Hwang (1967) [6]
0.260 141.50
A. 0.200 117.72 Alexander (1980) |1] 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
e GB.*. 40.38
A 0.195 sand 120.02
O G +W 16.70
* glass0beads
.105 water 18.74 Ref. numbers above are
" glycerine and water solutions those in Ref. [50]

F i g . 3 . 2 4 ( f r o m Ref. [50])

next paragraph, r i p p l e s d i s a p p e a r , t h e i r s t e e p n e s s (A / A ) r r e d u c e s t o z e r o ,
when (77 ~ 1 ) 20. T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e Af-values a t t h e ( u p w a r d b e n d i n g )
r i g h t - h a n d e n d s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t p a t t e r n s = constt must b e in
c o i n c i d e n c e w i t h T / 2 1 . H e n c e t h e a b c i s s a of t h e r i g h t - h a n d e n d s will b e
m
u n i f i e d if Ar/D is p l o t t e d v e r s u s rj ( r a t h e r t h a n v e r s u s X)?i S i m i l a r l y , t h e
l e f t - h a n d e n d s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n s i n F i g . 3.24 c a n b e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r
b y t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e fact t h a t t h e y a r e s i t u a t e d o n t h e c o m m o n s t r a i g h t
l i n e AB. T h e p l o t of t h e r i p p l e d a t a ( m a i n l y s y m b o l s 1 a n d 2 of t h e d a t a - s e t
in f o o t n o t e 2 4 ) p r o d u c e d a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s is s h o w n i n F i g . 3 . 2 5 . T h e solid
l i n e p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e ( u n i f i e d ) p a t t e r n is t h e g r a p h of t h e c o m p - e q .

27 T h e consideration of r\ a n d instead of X and is obviously permissible, for


-]

=3
X = V? *(0? (see (1.12) a n d (1.14)).

97
-[4//(l - H)]~\ (3.59)

where

and (3.60)

( A r ) m ni ID is t h e s m a l l e s t r e l a t i v e l e n g t h of r i p p l e s t h a t o c c u r s for t h e s p e c i f i e d
f: m o r e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of ( 3 . 5 9 ) a n d ( 3 . 6 0 ) c a n
b e f o u n d in Ref. [39].
3
10 - H R- I I II| 1 1 1II I I H

X <10

J II I I I I |
^ \ 10

F i g . 3.25

ii- Ripple steepness

T h e g e o m e t r y of r i p p l e s d o e s n o t d e p e n d o n t h e f l o w d e p t h ( s e e 3.1.2
(iii)).28 H e n c e , Z ~ h c a n n o t b e a v a r i a b l e in t h e e x p r e s s i o n of (A IA)r = Sr:

6r= i,r(X9v) = i>Xr(x) %(v). (3.61)

T h e f o r m of t h e f u n c t i o n ipXr(X) has already b e e n discussed (see (3.57)), a n d


it r e m a i n s t o r e v e a l ^ r ( r ; ) o n l y . T h e e x p e r i m e n t a l v a l u e s of t h e u n i m p e d e d
ripple-steepness

6r = * , ( ) (3.62)

28
T h e only (insignificant) case when h might be of relevance will be discussed at the e n d
of the paragraph.

98
( w h i c h c a n b e t a k e n as t o c o r r e s p o n d t o X< 10, say) a r e p l o t t e d versus
(rf - 1) in F i g . 3 . 2 6 . N o t e f r o m this g r a p h t h a t
14
(^)max^O- > *7, - 1 10 and (rjr)max - 1 20, (3.63)

w h e r e fjy a n d (rjr)max a r e t h e 77-values w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o Sr = (Sr)max and

X<10

(TL-1)

F i g . 3.26

6r 0 (at a d v a n c e d s t a g e s ) r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t r o d u c i n g t h e n o r m a l i z e d coordi-
nates

and (3.64)

( w h e r e fjr 1 1 0 ) , o n e m a y a t t e m p t , in a n a l o g y t o d u n e s , t o e s t a b l i s h t h e
normalized ripple function 1% = fr(C)- T h e p l o t of 1%. v e r s u s ( ' is s h o w n i n
F i g . 3.27. H e r e t h e b r o k e n l i n e ( E q . (3.52)) is t h e n o r m a l i z e d d u n e function
nd = fd(0 w i t h C = (' O b s e r v e t h a t fr(C) (solid l i n e ) c a n b e a d e q u a t e l y r e -
p r e s e n t e d b y fd(Q ( b r o k e n l i n e ) as l o n g as (' < 1. In t h e r e g i o n (' > 1, h o w -
ever, the dune function must be "corrected" - as t o yield 8r = 0 for
(77r)max - 1 2 0 , i.e. for ( ' = 2. T h u s w e a d o p t
l c
fr(C) = rfd(c) = rCe ~ , (3.65)

w h e r e t h e " c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r " r c a n b e g i v e n e.g. b y

r = 1 if C' 1 ; r =C(2 - C) if 1 < C' < 2 . (3.66)

T h e solid l i n e i n F i g . 3 . 2 7 is t h e g r a p h of ( 3 . 6 5 ) ( w i t h r computed from


(3.66)). H e n c e

6, = %(n) = (Sr)max fr(C) 0 . 1 4 / r( O , (3.67)

w h e r e fr(C) is d e t e r m i n e d b y (3.65) a n d ( 3 . 6 6 ) .

99
100

;_(f r(C): Eq.(3.65))

I
(f d(C): Eq.(3.52))

0.01

0.001

F i g . 3.27

F r o m (3.59) and (3.60) it is clear that A, is a function of f a n d rj only, while the un-
impeded 8r is determined by rj alone (see (3.62)). H e n c e in t h e usual case of h > A r , the value
of A , = 8rAr depends on f and 77 ~ Sh but not o n h separately. S u p p o s e , however, that the
value of A r (determined by and 77~ Sh) t u r n s o u t to be c o m p a r a b l e with h. In such cases
(very rare in river engineering), the ripple height A , and thus 8r can obviously not grow to
their "full extent", i.e. to the values d e t e r m i n e d by the curve in Fig. 3.26: their growth will
be d a m p e d by the (too small) flow thickness h. Let a be the " d a m p i n g factor", implying the
ratio of the d a m p e d ripple height A,' to the regular ripple height A , ; the ratio
a = A / / A , = 8'ri8r can be given by
1 7 ( / , / A
a = 1 - 0.95e- ^. (3.68)
Observe from Fig. 3.28 that a is nearly unity for almost all h/Ar e n c o u n t e r e d in practice. [First

i
a

F i g . 3.28

determine 8r and thus A , (from the expressions of this subsection), t h e n c o m p u t e a from (3.68)
and use a8r instead of 8r]. An analogous d a m p i n g of d u n e s c a n n o t arise, for the (statistical)
height of dunes is always less than approximately o n e third of the flow d e p t h . Indeed,
A , < ( A , ) m xa = (8d)max Ad (0.06)(6/i) = 0.36/i.

100
3.5.3 Alternate bars

i- Bar length

F i g s . 3.29a a n d b a r e t w o e x a m p l e s of t h e c u r r e n t s p l o t s of t h e a l t e r n a t e
b a r d a t a . A s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e g r o s s s c a t t e r in t h e s e
p l o t s d o e s n o t p e r m i t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e f o r m

A f l = *a(X9Z)6B9 (3.69)

w h i c h is a n a l o g o u s t o ( 3 . 4 7 ) . T h u s w e will c o n s i d e r A a as g i v e n b y ( 3 . 1 2 ) ,
viz
Aa & 6B,

for all r e g i m e s of t u r b u l e n t flow.

a (Ref.[23]) b (Ref.[16])
r O LEOPOLD AND WOLMAN.
I0 FRIEDKIN, QURAISHY, INGLIS
(RIVER, FLUME)
o LEOPOLD AND WOLMAN, 20
4 BROOKS (CHANNEL) O
10 E FUJI RIVER
a CHIKUGO RIVER
ASHIDA, NARAI / ' ^ ; w ^ O A a = 6 B
(EXPERIMENTAL FLUME) 10
A a 10 if ISHIKARI HIVER
om 8
(m) O- TESHIO RIVER
TOKACHI RIVER
: URYO RIVER
Aa 6
10 O & NAYORI RIVER
(m)
A=6B SATUNAI RIVER
4
/

A
10

J I L_ I I
01 1 5 4
1 01 ( T 10 To 10* 10 10 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 2 5 6
B(m) ^ B(m)

Fig. 3.29

ii- Bar steepness

A p p l y i n g f o r m a l l y t h e I I - t h e o r e m t o t h e set of p a r a m e t e r s

i/, 7 5 , , ft, 5 , (3.70)

w e o b t a i n for t h e a l t e r n a t e b a r s t e e p n e s s
S
a = ( A / A ) a= ^ ( ^ , T 7 , Z , B / / i ) = iPXa(X)*a(ri,Z,B/h). (3.71)

W e will c o n f i n e o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o t h e b a r s c a u s e d by r o u g h t u r b u l e n t
flows (ipXa(X)= I), a n d t h u s w e will identify Sa w i t h t h e u n i m p e d e d b a r
steepness
6a = *a(n9Z9B/h). (3.72)

In o r d e r t o r e v e a l t h e n a t u r e of this f u n c t i o n , t h e p l o t s s h o w n in F i g s . 3.30

101
29
to 3.32 w e r e p r o d u c e d .
W h e n 7] < 1, t h e n 8a is z e r o , a n d so it m u s t b e w h e n rj e x c e e d s a c e r t a i n
v a l u e (r)3)a ( s e e 3.3.3). C o n s e q u e n t l y , Sa m u s t ( n e c e s s a r i l y ) v a r y w i t h T J , in a
n o t yet k n o w n m a n n e r as i n d i c a t e d s y m b o l i c a l l y in F i g . 3.30 b y t h e b r o k e n
l i n e ( ? ) . Y e t n o n e of t h e r e c e n t e x p r e s s i o n s for 8a ~ Aa c o n t a i n s rj ( s e e e.g.

10
0
C B/h 10
* 1N
* I U <V B / n s i b

o
0
C B/h < 3 0
1 5 :< B/h < 5 0
3 0 <B/h > s o -

r ft.
- B/h := 6 8 . 3 (Na <A FI . , J a pa n)
2
>
10 ~ -
* yo ra A
/
/
/ ^

u
3
10 " -
2
1 10 1 0
T] 3-

Fig. 3.30

A a - f o r m u l a e in Refs. [20], [ 2 2 ] , [27], [10]): t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e a g e n e r a l


a g r e e m e n t t h a t Sa d o e s n o t d e p e n d o n 77. T h e r e a s o n for t h i s , a p p a r e n t l y , lies
in t h e fact t h a t for a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r v a l of rj ( w l . 5 < rj < 1 5 , say) t h e
e x p e r i m e n t a l p o i n t s a r e grossly, b u t e v e n l y , s c a t t e r e d a r o u n d t h e h o r i z o n t a l
l i n e 6a = 0.009. C o m p l y i n g w i t h t h e " g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t " , w e will c o n s i d e r
(3.72) in t h e r e d u c e d f o r m

8a = 0 . 0 0 9 t f a ( Z , B/h) (3.73)

( w h i c h is, in fact, v a l i d for t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d ^ - i n t e r v a l o n l y ) . N o a g r e e m e n t


a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n r e a c h e d yet, h o w e v e r , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r o l e of B/h.
C o n s i d e r , for e x a m p l e , t h e A a - f o r m u l a e of S. I k e d a [20] a n d M . J a e g g i [22],
viz

and (3.74)

respectively. Using A a 6 B , o n e d e t e r m i n e s from these expressions

and S = 0 . 0 3 6 5 [ (3.75)

29 T h e Refs. to the data sources are given in "References B " : [ l b ] , [3b], [6b], [7b], [9b], [ l i b ] ,
[13b].

102
r e s p e c t i v e l y . N o t e t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o S. I k e d a , 6a i n c r e a s e s w i t h B/h, whereas
a c c o r d i n g to M . J a e g g i Sa d e c r e a s e s w i t h it. T h e p r e s e n c e of t h e s e o p p o s i n g
B / / z - p o w e r s c a n b e t a k e n as a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e of B/h o n 6a (if
it exists) is n o t r e a d i l y d e t e c t a b l e f r o m t h e ( r a t h e r s c a t t e r e d ) p l o t of t h e
a v a i l a b l e d a t a in F i g . 3 . 3 1 . H e n c e , w i t h a n a c c u r a c y sufficient for p r a c t i c a l

10
-l
| I I I I I II1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1=H

F i g . 3.31

p u r p o s e s , 6a c a n b e t r e a t e d as a f u n c t i o n of Z o n l y :

6a = 0.009 \{Z). (3.76)

B o t h e x p r e s s i o n s in (3.75) i n d i c a t e t h a t 8a d e c r e a s e s w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t
of Z ; a n d so d o e s t h e p o i n t p a t t e r n in F i g . 3.32. T h e s o l i d s t r a i g h t l i n e h a v i n g
S. I k e d a ' s Z - e x p o n e n t , viz - 0 . 4 5 , a d e q u a t e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e i n c l i n a t i o n of
t h i s p a t t e r n . N o t e a l s o t h a t t h e c e n t e r of t h e p a t t e r n (its a p p r o x i m a t e m e d i a n )

F i g . 3.32

103
is at t h e levePO 0 . 0 0 9 , its a b c i s s a b e i n g Z = 15. H e n c e ,
0A5 0 45
%{Z) = aZ~ (with a = ( 1 5 ) = 3.38), (3.77)

w h i c h y i e l d s for t h e a l t e r n a t e b a r s t e e p n e s s
0 4 5
6a = 0.03 Z " - . (3.78)

T h i s r e l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a l t e r n a t e b a r h e i g h t A a ( = 6aAa) also scales


w i t h t h e flow w i d t h :

(3.79)

F r o m t h e c o n t e n t of t h i s p a r a g r a p h , o n e m a y c o n c l u d e t h a t a l t h o u g h
t h e v a r i a b l e s 77 a n d Blh d e t e r m i n e t h e existence of a l t e r n a t e b a r s , as
z
Sa > 0, w h e n 1 <ri < (rj3)a and 4>( ) < Blh < ^(Z),

t h e i r effect o n t h e s t e e p n e s s of existing b a r s , if a n y , is n o t d e t e c t a b l e in t h e
i n t e r v a l 1 . 5 < rj < 1 5 .
F i g . 3.33 s h o w s t h e p l o t of S. I k e d a [ 2 0 ] , t o w h i c h t h e d a t a f r o m Refs.
[ l b ] , [ 7 b ] , [ l i b ] h a v e a l s o b e e n a d d e d . T h e a b o v e e q u a t i o n of S. I k e d a , i.e.
t h e first e q u a t i o n of ( 3 . 7 5 ) , is t h e p o w e r - a p p r o x i m a t i o n of his t r a n s c e n d e n t a l
f u n c t i o n / = ip(Blh), say.^i T h e c u r v e tp(Blh) in F i g . 3.33 is t h e g r a p h of this
f u n c t i o n , t h e l i n e s Lx a n d L 2 b e i n g t h e g r a p h s of t h e first e q u a t i o n of (3.75)
a n d of t h e p r e s e n t e q u a t i o n ( 3 . 7 8 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y .

3.6 F r i c t i o n F a c t o r

3.6.1 Formulation of c

C o n s i d e r t h e friction f a c t o r r e l a t i o n s (1.36) t o ( 1 . 3 9 ) . T h e ( s i m u l t a -
n e o u s l y p r e s e n t ) b e d f o r m s 1 a n d 2 ( s e e F i g . 1.6b) will b e i d e n t i f i e d in t h e
f o l l o w i n g w i t h r i p p l e s a n d d u n e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . In t h i s s u b s e c t i o n , c, cf a n d
c h a v e t h e s a m e m e a n i n g as in 1.4.2 (ii) ( w h e r e t h e y w e r e i n t r o d u c e d ) .

i- S i n c e cf c a n b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h c ( s e e ( 1 . 4 0 ) ) , t h e r e l a t i o n (1.36) c a n b e
e x p r e s s e d as

10
It should be noted that according to T. Kishi [27] t h e height of alternate bars is given by
A fl = 0.05J3. Substituting this value together with A a = 6B in 8a = A a/ A , o n e obtains
8a = 0.05/6 = 0.0083, which is r e m a r k a b l y n e a r to the level 0 . 0 0 9 .
0A5
/ = (B/D) (Aa/h)\ tp(B/h) = 9 . 3 4 e x p ( 2 . 5 3 e r / [ ( \og(B/h) - 1.22)/0.594]) (see Eq. (19) in
[20| or Eq. (13) in [10]).

104
2 L, L2
10

(B/D) 045 (AJh)

B/h-

(3.80)

( w h e r e Sr a n d Sd s t a n d for ( A / A ) r a n d ( A / A ) d r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ^ F r o m t h e p r e -
ceding section, we have

/Ld/h = *d(X,Z)6 (Eq. (3.47))


h.rlh = *r(X,l)IZ (Eq. (3.58))
(3.81)
Sd = *)*(*?, Z ) (Eq. (3.49))
Sr = rf,Xr(X)9r(j,) (Eq. (3.61))

T h e six f u n c t i o n s w h i c h a p p e a r in t h e s e r e l a t i o n s , viz %{X,Z), * r( A T , ) >


* , ( i ? , Z ) , %(v), i>xd{X) a n d ^ R ( A - ) , are g i v e n b y (3.48), (3.59), (3.55),
( 3 . 6 7 ) , (3.56) a n d ( 3 . 5 7 ) r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e v a l u e of c is d e t e r m i n e d ( b y ( 1 . 2 6 ) )
as

(3.82)

H e r e , Bs is a f u n c t i o n of Re* = X(k,ID) (see 1.4.1) a n d k,/D is a function


of F ( s e e ( 1 . 7 2 ) ) . H e n c e ,

c = * ; * ( * , Z , ^ / D ) = %{X, Z,Y), (3.83)

32
T h e reduced version of this relation, corresponding to o n e m o d e of bed forms, has already
been used to correlate the friction factor data in Refs. [7], [51], [52] and [58].

105
w h i c h i n t h e u s u a l c a s e Y < 1, w h e n ksID 2 , r e d u c e s i n t o

c = * C( A \ Z ) . (3.84)

O b s e r v e t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a p p e a r o n t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e of (3.80)
(i.e. in (3.81) a n d i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n of c ( 3 . 8 3 ) ) a r e

X, Z, ,77, and Y.
7 s ee
But y = while V ^ ( (1-14) a n d ( 1 . 1 1 ) ) , a n d t h e r e f o r e c is,
in fact, d e t e r m i n e d b y t h r e e d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e s o n l y . T h u s , w e c a n w r i t e
e.g.

c = %(X, Y,Z) = tfc,*,Z) (3.85)

w h i c h is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h (1.9) a n d ( 1 . 1 5 ) .

ii- T h e flow i n a w i d e c h a n n e l c a n b e g i v e n by its specific flow r a t e


q = QIB ( r a t h e r t h a n b y its d e p t h ft). D i v i d i n g b o t h s i d e s of t h e C h e z y
resistance e q u a t i o n (1.31), viz

q vh he's/gSh = hcv*, (3.86)

b y t h e p r o d u c t Dv*cr, a n d t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t v*lv*cr = \ ^ T , o n e a r r i v e s
at t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n ( a n d e x p r e s s i o n ) of t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s specific flow
rate N

N = - = Zc (3.87)
Dv
*cr

E l i m i n a t i n g Z b e t w e e n (3.87) a n d ( 3 . 8 5 ) , o n e c a n d e t e r m i n e c i n t e r m s of
N q ( r a t h e r t h a n in t e r m s of Z ft) as

c= * c , i ? , A r 7 ( c V ^ ) ) . (3.88)

T h i s r e l a t i o n is t r a n s c e n d e n t a l , a n d t h u s it c a n n o t b e s o l v e d a l g e b r a i c a l l y w i t h
r e s p e c t t o c in t h e f o r m
c = 4>c(,n,N). (3.89)

N o n e t h e l e s s , it c a n b e s o l v e d n u m e r i c a l l y , a n d t h e r e f o r e (3.88) implies ( 3 . 8 9 ) .
In t h e p r e s e n t t e x t w e will a l w a y s d e s i g n a t e ( 3 . 8 8 ) by ( t h e c l e a r e r ) ( 3 . 8 9 ) .
T h e f o r m (3.89) is m o r e s u i t a b l e for t h e s t u d y of s e l f - f o r m i n g c h a n n e l s
in t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e v a l u e s of c a r e p l o t t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g
o n t h e basis of (3.89) ( r a t h e r t h a n ( 3 . 8 5 ) ) . T h e f u n c t i o n of t h r e e v a r i a b l e s
(3.89) is a family of s u r f a c e s o r a set of t h e f a m i l y of c u r v e s . In this text, t h e
v a l u e s of c ( o r d i n a t e ) a r e a l w a y s p l o t t e d v e r s u s TJ ( a b c i s s a ) . E a c h ( c ; T y ) - p l a n e ,
c o n t a i n i n g o n e c u r v e f a m i l y , is s p e c i f i e d b y a c o n s t a n t v a l u e of ((const)}),
e a c h c u r v e o n t h a t p l a n e b e i n g d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y " i t s " c o n s t a n t v a l u e of N
((const)j). A n individual curve

c = <t>c((const)t , 77, (const)^ = <c . ;.fo) (3.90)

will b e r e f e r r e d t o a s a c-curve.

106
2
iii- T h e c o m b i n a t i o n ( l / 2 ) ( A / A ) ( A / / z ) , w h i c h reflects t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of b e d
f o r m s o n c , h a s e m e r g e d (in Refs. [7] a n d [58]) f r o m t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of
t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l b e d f o r m s . T h e r e is n o r e a s o n to e x p e c t t h a t t h i s c o m b i -
n a t i o n s h o u l d still r e m a i n as it s t a n d s if b e d f o r m s a r e n o l o n g e r t w o -
d i m e n s i o n a l . If b e d f o r m s a r e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l , t h e n p a r t of t h e flow p a s s e s
a r o u n d t h e m , a n d t h e e n e r g y losses ( w h i c h a r e m a i n l y d u e t o t h e s u d d e n
e x p a n s i o n of flow at t h e a b r u p t d o w n s t r e a m faces) a r e s m a l l e r . F o r g i v e n
A / A a n d A / f t , t h i s r e d u c t i o n of losses c a n b e a c h i e v e d b y g e n e r a l i z i n g t h e
a f o r e m e n t i o n e d combination into the form

(3.91)

w h e r e a < 1/2 a n d b > 2 ( w i t h a - 1/2 a n d b = 2 , if t h e b e d f o r m s a r e


t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l ) . C l e a r l y , for a s p e c i f i e d , t h e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of b e d
f o r m s m u s t i n c r e a s e w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of B/h a n d h/D ( = Z ) ; a n d s i n c e
t h e c h a n n e l s u n d e r s t u d y a r e " w i d e " , it s h o u l d i n c r e a s e w i t h Z ( o r N~ Z )
o n l y . A t p r e s e n t , it is n o t k n o w n h o w a a n d b v a r y w i t h f a n d Z ( o r N); a n d
in o r d e r t o g a i n s o m e i n f o r m a t i o n o n this s c o r e , n u m e r o u s (a; Z?)-pairs w e r e
t e s t e d for a s e r i e s of p e r t i n e n t a n d N: o n l y t h e d u n e c o m b i n a t i o n (3.91)
(a = ad; b = bd) w a s v a r i e d d u r i n g t h e s e trials ( t h e r i p p l e c o m b i n a t i o n w a s
u s e d w i t h a^ = 0 . 5 ; br = 2 ) . T h e b e s t fit w a s p r e s e n t w h e n t h e (ad; Z^)-pairs
h a d t h e v a l u e s s h o w n in T a b l e 3 . 1 : t h e c - c u r v e s p r e s e n t e d in t h e n e x t s u b -

T a b l e 3.1

log N
D (mm) 3 4 5 6 7
0.2 5.1 0.50;2.00 0.50;2.00 0.50;2.00 0.35;2.00 0.35;2.30
0.3 7.6 0.50;2.00 0.50;2.00 0.45;2.00 0.45;2.30 0.45;2.50
0.5 12.6 0.50;2.00 0.50;2.00 0.45;2.00 0.45;2.25 0.45;2.50
0.7 17.7 0.50;2.00 0.50;2.00 0.50;2.00 0.45;2.25 0.45;2.50
1.0 25.3 0.50;2.00 0.50;2.00 0.50;2.00 0.50;2.00 0.50;2.00

s e c t i o n w e r e c o m p u t e d a c c o r d i n g t o this t a b l e . O b s e r v e t h a t t h e (ad; &^)-pairs


c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l d u n e s d o n o t d e v i a t e m u c h (e.g. b y
m u l t i p l e t i m e s ) f r o m (0.50;2.00); yet, this d e v i a t i o n often is sufficient t o c a u s e
a n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e in t h e c o m p u t e d c - v a l u e s .

3.6.2 Comparison with experiment

T h e d a t a f r o m 8 4 s o u r c e s g i v e n in " R e f e r e n c e s C " (all t o g e t h e r 6 9 8 2


" d a t a - p o i n t s " , D - r a n g e : 0 . 0 1 m m < D< 52mm) w e r e compiled by T. Hay-
a s h i , w h o u s e d t h e m in Ref. [14]: t h e d a t a c o r r e s p o n d s t o s a n d - o r - g r a v e l a n d
w a t e r o n l y ( = 2 5 . 3 D , w h e r e D is in m m ) . T h e s e d a t a w e r e u s e d t o test h o w
t h e v a l u e s of c d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e e x p r e s s i o n s a b o v e c o m p a r e w i t h e x p e r -

107
iment.33 F o u r e x a m p l e s of t h e s e t e s t - p l o t s a r e s h o w n in F i g s . 3.34 t o 3.37:
only the data c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o B/h > 5 w e r e u s e d . E a c h p l o t c o r r e s p o n d s t o
a certain Dt. H o w e v e r , o n e c a n h a r d l y f i n d a r e a s o n a b l e a m o u n t of d a t a
corresponding t o a value of D , a n d t h e r e f o r e e a c h g r a p h c o n t a i n s t h e d a t a
f r o m a range of D ( w h i c h i n c l u d e s Dt).
T h e d a t a - p o i n t s in F i g s . 3.34 t o 3.37 a r e s y m b o l i z e d b y digits. E a c h digit
m
is t h e e x p o n e n t m of t h a t N = 1 0 w h i c h is t h e n e a r e s t t o t h e N-value of t h e
p o i n t p l o t t e d . T h e s c a t t e r in t h e g r a p h s is g r o s s . N o n e t h e l e s s , o n e c a n r e a l i z e
t h a t t h e " p o i n t c l o u d s " a r e , i n g e n e r a l , in c o i n c i d e n c e w i t h t h e a r e a s o c c u -
p i e d b y t h e c o m p u t e d c - c u r v e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e l a r g e r t h e digits, t h e h i g h e r
t e n d t h e p o i n t s t o b e s i t u a t e d o n t h e ( c ; T y ) - p l a n e ( a s t h e m - v a l u e s of t h e
c - c u r v e s t h e m s e l v e s ) . A c o m p a r a b l e b e h a v i o u r is o b s e r v a b l e in e a c h of t h e
remaining test-plots.
F r o m Figs. 3.34 t o 3.37, o n e i n f e r s t h a t w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of D a n d
d e c r e m e n t of N t h e c o m p u t e d c - c u r v e s t e n d t o b e c o m e m o n o t o n o u s , w h e r e a s
w i t h t h e d e c r e m e n t of D a n d i n c r e m e n t of N t h e y u s u a l l y e x h i b i t " d i p s "
( w h e r e dc/drj = 0 ) . A s s h o u l d b e c l e a r f r o m p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s , w i t h t h e
i n c r e m e n t of rj f r o m u n i t y o n w a r d s , t h e s t e e p n e s s ( $ ) of r i p p l e s a n d d u n e s
first i n c r e a s e s , t h e n it r e a c h e s its m a x i m u m v a l u e a n d t h e n it d e c r e a s e s a g a i n ;
as t o y i e l d t h e flat b e d at a d v a n c e d s t a g e s . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , as c a n b e in-
f e r r e d f r o m ( 3 . 8 0 ) , t h e v a l u e of c m u s t first d e c r e a s e ( i n c o m p a r i s o n t o c ) ,

10 i i i i i i i i i i i ' i i 1 i im

- LgN = 7 . 0
- LgN = 6 . 0
- LgN = 5 . 0
- LgN = 4 . 0
3, LgN=3.0

- H 2
10

F i g . 3.34

33
T h e a u t h o r is grateful to Professor T. Hayashi for kindly providing him with these
comprehensive data.

108
2
10

LgN = 7.0
LgN = 6.0
LgN = 5.0
LgN = 4.0

10 LgN = 3.0
c
5 5

c-curves c o m p u t e d for D = 0 . 3 0 m m ( = 7.59)


D-range p l o t t e d : 0 . 2 0 m m < D < 0 . 3 9 m m

H h
10 10

Fig. 3.35

2
10

Fig. 3.36

109
2
10

LgN = 5.0
LgN = 4.0

10 LgN = 3.0
LgN = 2.5

LgN = 2.0

LgN = 1.5

LgN = 1.0
c-curves c o m p u t e d for D = 1 . 4 0 m m ( = 3 5 . 4 1 )
D-range p l o t t e d : 1 . 0 0 m m < D < 2 . 0 0 m m

2
10 10 10

F i g . 3.37

t h e n r e a c h its m i n i m u m v a l u e a n d t h e n i n c r e a s e a g a i n as t o b e c o m e c o m p a -
r a b l e w i t h c. H o w e v e r , t h e i n c r e m e n t of D r e d u c e s t h e s t e e p n e s s of b e d f o r m s
( s e e 3.3.2 ( i i ) ) , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e d e v i a t i o n of c f r o m c (for all 77). T h i s
is w h y t h e c - c u r v e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y b e c o m e u n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m t h e m o n o t -
o n o u s c - c u r v e s w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of D.

3.6.3 Total bed roughness Ks

T h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e f r i c t i o n f a c t o r c c a n a l w a y s b e r e p l a c e d b y t h a t
of t h e t o t a l b e d r o u g h n e s s KSID ( = CJ). I n d e e d if UJ is g i v e n , t h e n c can be
computed from
L
c= 2.5 l n [ c Z/CJ], (3.92)

w h e r e Bs = <j>Bs(Re*) = <j>Bs(Xuj) is a k n o w n f u n c t i o n ( F i g . 1.5).


A s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of UJ = Ks/D is d u e t o
t h e r e c e n t w o r k [14] of T . H a y a s h i . In Ref. [14] t h e v a l u e s of UJ w e r e r e v e a l e d
f r o m t h e s a m e set of d a t a w h i c h w a s r e f e r r e d t o in t h e p r e c e d i n g s u b s e c t i o n .
T h e d a t a w e r e classified a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r a n g e s of t h e s l o p e 5 , a n d for e a c h
r a n g e t h e cj-values w e r e p l o t t e d v e r s u s t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a l u e s of t h e fric-
2
t i o n m o b i l i t y n u m b e r Yf ( = F ( c / c ) ) . T h u s a set of g r a p h s s u c h as t h a t
s h o w n in F i g . 3.38 w a s o b t a i n e d . T h e p o i n t p a t t e r n i n e a c h g r a p h w a s
c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a l i n e ( L in F i g . 3 . 3 8 ) . T h e t o t a l i t y of t h e s e l i n e s , w h i c h is
s h o w n in F i g . 3.39, reflects t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n

UJ =4>(Yf9S). (3.93)

110
3 3
Subrange 3b 1.4 X 1 ( T < S< 2X 1 ( T

F i g . 3.38 ( f r o m Ref. [14])

F r o m (3.93) it d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h a t uj is a f u n c t i o n of t w o v a r i a b l e s o n l y ; for

Y f ^

F i g . 3.39 (from Ref. [14])

t h e " v a r i a b l e s " in t h e f u n c t i o n (3.93) a r e t h e m s e l v e s f u n c t i o n s of t h e


d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e s of t h e t w o - p h a s e m o t i o n . I n d e e d , if 7*/7 is s p e c i f i e d ,
2
t h e n S= (nsft)Y/Z~ YIZ, w h i l e Yf = Y(c/c) w h e r e c[c is d e t e r m i n e d b y
X, Y a n d Z ( s e e (3.84) a n d ( 3 . 8 5 ) ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , uj = 4>U(X9 Y, Z ) . N o r e -
s t r i c t i o n is p r e s e n t in t h e t h e o r y of d i m e n s i o n s as t o h o w o n e f u n c t i o n of a
p h e n o m e n o n s h o u l d b e g i v e n in t e r m s of its o t h e r f u n c t i o n s n o r b y h o w
m a n y of t h e m .

ill
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14a. Hubbell, D.W., Sayre, W.H.: Sand transport studies with radioactive tracers. J. Hydr. Div.,
A S C E , Vol. 90, No. H Y 3 , May 1964.
15a. H u n g , C.S., Shen, H.W.: Statistical analysis of sediment motions of dunes. J. Hydr. Div.,
A S C E , Vol. 105, No. H Y 3 , March 1979.
16a. Hwang, L.S.: Flow resistance of dunes in alluvial streams. P h . D . Thesis, California Inst.
of T h e e , Pasadene, California, 1965.
17a. Jain, S.C., Kennedy, J.F.: The growth of sand waves. Proc. I Int. Symp. o n Stochastic
Hydraulics, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1971.
18a. K o r c h o k h a , Y.M.: Investigation of the dune movement of sediments on the Polomet
River. Soviet Hydrology, No. 6, 1968.

114
19a. Lane, E.W., E d e n , E.W.: Sand waves in Lower Mississippi river. J. W e s t e r n Soc. Engrs.,
No. 6, 1940..
20a. Lau, Y.L., K r i s h n a p p a n , B.: Sediment transport under ice cover. J. Hydr. Engrg., A S C E ,
Vol. I l l , No. 6, J u n e 1985.
21a. M a h m o o d , K., A m a d i , H.: Analysis of bed profile in sand canals. Ill A n n u a l Symp. of
Waterways, H a r b o u r s and Coastal Eng., Colo. State Univ., Fort Collins, Colo., 1976.
22a. Mantz, P.A.: Semi-empirical correlations for fine and coarse sediment transport. Proc.
Instn. Civ. Engrs., Vol. 75, Part 2, 1983.
23a. Mantz, P.A.: Laboratory flume experiment on the transport of cohesionless silica silts by
water streams. Proc. Instn. Civ. Engrs., Vol. 68, Part 2, 1980.
24a. Martinec, J.: The effect of sand ripples on the increase of river bed roughness. Proc. XXII
Cong. I A H R , F o r t Collins, Colo., 1967.
25a. Matsunashi, J.: On a solution of bed fluctuation in an open channel with a movable bed
and steep slopes. P r o c . XXII C o n g . I A H R , F o r t Collins, Colo., 1967.
26a. Nordin, C.F.: Statistical properties of dune profiles. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 562-F,
1971.
27a. Nordin, C.F., Algert, J.H.: Spectral analysis of sand waves. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 92,
No. H Y 5 , Sept. 1966.
28a. Nordin, C.F.: Aspects of flow resistance and sediment transport - Rio Grande near
Bernalillo, New Mexico. U. S. Geol. Survey W a t e r Supply Paper, 1964.
29a. Raichlan, F., Kennedy, J.F.: The growth of sediment bed forms from an initially flattened
bed. Proc. XXI I A H R Cong., L e n i n g r a d , Vol. 3, 1965.
30a. Shen, H.W., C h e o n g , H.F.: Statistical properties of sediment bed profiles. J. Hydr. Div.,
A S C E , Vol. 103, No. H Y 1 1 , Nov. 1977.
31a. Shinohara, K., Tsubaki, T.: On the characteristics of sand waves formed upon the beds
of open channels and rivers. Rept. of the Research Inst, for Applied Mechanics, Vol. VII,
No. 25, 1959.
32a. Simons, D.B., Richardson, E.V., Hausbild, W.L.: Some effects of fine sediment on flow
phenomena. U.S. Geol. Survey W a t e r Supply Paper 1498-G, Washington, 1963.
33a. Simons, D.B., Richardson, E.V., A l b e r t s o n , M.L.: Flume studies of alluvial using medium
sand. U.S. Geol. Survey W a t e r Supply P a p e r 1498-A, Washington, 1961.
34a. Singh, B.: Transport of bed load in channels with special reference to gradient and form.
P h . D . Thesis, L o n d o n Univ., E n g l a n d , 1960.
35a. Stein, R.A.: Laboratory studies of total load and bed load. J. G e o p h . Res., Vol. 70, No.
8, April 1965.
36a. Yalin, M.S., Karahan, E.: Steepness of sedimentary dunes. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 105,
No. HY4, April 1979.
37a. Z n a m e n s k a y a , N.S.: Experimental study of the dune movement of sediment. Soviet
Hydrology: Selected papers. Published by A m e r i c a n Geophysical Union, No. 3, 1963.

References B
S o u r c e s of B a r D a t a

l b . Ashida, K., Shiomi,Y.: On the hydraulic of dunes in alluvial channels. Disaster Prevention
Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., A n n u a l R e p o r t No. 9, 1966.
2b. Chang, H.Y., Simons, D., Woolhiser, D.: Flume experiments on alternate bar formation.
J. Waterways, H a r b o r s and Coastal E n g i n e e r i n g Div., A S C E , Vol. 97, No. 1, F e b . 1971.
3b. Fujita, Y.: Fundamental study on channel changes in alluvial rivers. Thesis presented to
Kyoto University, Kyoto, J a p a n , 1980, in partial fulfillment of the r e q u i r e m e n t s for the
degree of D o c t o r of Engineering.
4b. Iguchi, M.: Tests for fine gravel transport in a large laboratory flume (In Japanese) Report
for National Science F o u n d a t i o n , School of E a r t h Science, T s u k u b a Univ., J a p a n 1980.

115
5b. Ikeda, H.: Experiments on bed load transport, bed forms, and sedimentary structures using
fine gravel in the 4-meter-wide flume. E n v i r o n m e n t a l Research Center Papers, N o . 2, T h e
University of Tsukuba, 1983.
6b. Ikeda, S.: Prediction of alternate bar wavelength and height. J. Hyd. Engrg., A S C E , Vol.
110, No. 4, April 1984.
7b. Jaeggi, M.: Alternierende Kiesbanke. Mitteilungen der Versuchsanstal fur W a s s e r b a u ,
Hydrologie und Glaziologie, Zurich, No. 62, 1983.
8b. Kinoshita, R.: Model experiments based on the dynamic similarity of alternate bars. (In
Japanese) Research Report, Ministry of Construction, Aug. 1980.
9b. Kinoshita, R.: Investigation of the channel deformation of the Ishikari River. (In J a p a n e s e )
Science and Technology Agency, Bureau of Resources, M e m o r a n d u m No. 36, 1961.
10b. Kuroki, M., Kishi, T., Itakura, T.: Hydraulic characteristics of alternate bars. (In J a p a n e s e )
Report for National Science F o u n d a t i o n , D e p t . of Civil Engrg., Kokkaido Univ.,
H o k k a i d o , Japan, 1975.
l i b . M u r a m o t o , Y., Fujita, Y.: The classification of meso-scale bed configuration and the
criteria of its formation. 2nd Meeting of Hydr. Res. in J a p a n , 1978.
12b. Silva, A.M.F.: Alternate bars and related alluvial processes. M.Sc. Thesis, D e p t . of Civil
Engrg., Q u e e n ' Univ., Kingston, Canada 1991.
13b. Yoshino, F.: Study on bed forms. (In Japanese) Collected Papers, D e p t . of Civil Engrg.,
Univ. of Tokyo, Vol. 4, 1967.

References C
Sources of Friction Factor D a t a

l c . Abdel-aal 1969; 2c. Barton and Lin 1955; 3c. G o v e r n m e n t West Bengal 1965; 4c. Bogardi
and Yen 1939; 5c. Brooks 1957; 6c. Casey 1935; 7c. C h a u d h r y et. al. 1970; 8c. C h a u d h r y et.
al. 1970; 9c. Chitale 1966 (canal data); 10c. Chyn 1935; 11c. Colby and H e m b r e e 1955
(Niobrara R.); 12c. Costello 1974; 13c. Culbertson, Scott and Bennett 1976 (Rio G r a n d e ) ; 14c.
D a C u n h a 1973 (Portuguese R.); 15c. Daves 1971; 16c. Einstein 1944 ( M o u n t a i n C r e e k ) ; 17c.
Einstein and Chien 1955; 18c. E. Pakistan Water and Power 1967; 19c. Gov. E. Pakistan 1966,
1968, 1969; 20c. Foley 1975; 21c. Franco 1968; 22c. Gibbs a n d Neill 1972; 23c. Gilbert 1914;
24c. Gilbert 1914 (Energy Slope); 25c. Gilbert 1914 ( U n i f o r m Flow); 26c. G u y , Simons a n d
Richardson 1966; 27c. Hill, Scrinivasan and Unny 1969; 28c. H o , Pang-Yung 1939; 29c. Hubell
and Matejka 1959 (Middle L o u p R.); 30c. Inou, H o k k a i d o D.B. 1981 (Ishikari R.); 31c. I-o-
hashi, H o k k a i d o D.B. 1981 (Ihsikari R.); 32c. I-kakobashi, Kinoshita 1989 (Ishikari R.); 33c.
Jorissen 1938; 34c. Kalinske and Hsia 1945; 35c. Kalkanis 1957; 36c. K a w a m o t o and
Y a m a m o t o 1976 (Tone R.); 37c. Kennedy 1961; 38c. K e n n e d y and Brooks 1963; 39c. K n o t t
1974 (Trinity R.); 40c. M a h m o o d et. al. 1979 (Apoc Canal); 41c. Laursen 1958; 42c. Leopold
1969 (river data); 43c. Mavis, Lin and Soucek 1937; 44c. MacDougall 1933; 45c. Meyer Peter
and Muller 1948; 46c. Milhous 1969 (Oak Creek); 47c. M u t t e r 1971; 48c. Niagara River 1976;
49c. Nedeco 1973 (Rio Magdalena and Canal Del Dique); 50c. Neill 1967; 51c. Nordicos 1957;
52c. Nordin and Beverage 1965 (Rio G r a n d e ) 53c. Nordin 1976; 54c. O ' B r i e n 1936; 55c.
Onishi, Jain and Kennedy 1976; 56c. Paintal 1971; 57c. Pratt 1970; 58c. Samide 1971 ( N o r t h
Saskatchewan R. and Elbow R.); 59c. Sato, Kikkawa and Ashida 1958; 60c. Seitz 1976 (Snake
and Clearwater R.); 61c. Shen et. al. 1978 (Missouri R.); 62c. Shinohara, K and Tsubaki, T.
1959 (Hii R.); 63c. Simons 1957 (American Canals); 64c. Singh 1960; 65c. Soni 1980; 66c.
Stein 1965; 67c. Straub 1954, 1958; 68c. Tayler 1971; 69c. Toffaleti 1968 (Atchafalaya R.);
70c. Toffaleti 1968 (Mississippi R.); 71c. Toffaleti 1968 (Red R.); 72c. Toffaleti 1968 (Rio
G r a n d e near Bernadillo); 73c. Vanoni and Brooks 1957; 74c. Vanoni and H w a n g 1967; 75c.
Willis, C o l e m a n and Ellis 1972; 76c. Willis 1979; 77c. Williams 1970; 78c. U.S. B u r e a u of
Reclamation 1958 (Colorado R.); 79c. U.S. Waterways Exp. Station 1935A; 80c. U.S.
Waterways Exp. Station 1936A; 81c. U.S. Waterways E x p . Station 1936B; 82c. U.S. W a t e r w a y s
E x p . Station 1963B; 83c. U.S. Waterways Exp. Station 1936C; 84c. Z n a m e n s k a y a 1963.

116
CHAPTER 4

REGIME CHANNELS

PART I

4.1 Regime Concept

4.1.1 Regime channel R and its determining parameters


C o n s i d e r a v e r y l o n g , s t r a i g h t o p e n - c h a n n e l e x c a v a t e d in a c o h e s i o n l e s s
a l l u v i u m ; a n d s u p p o s e t h a t , at t h e t i m e / = 0, a c o n s t a n t f l o w r a t e Q b e g i n s
t o flow i n it. It is a s s u m e d t h a t t h e flow is n e a r l y b a n k f u l l , a n d t h a t it is
t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e s e d i m e n t ( b e i n g t h u s c a p a b l e of i n d u c i n g t h e c h a n n e l d e -
f o r m a t i o n ) . E x p e r i m e n t s h o w s t h a t , in g e n e r a l , t h e flow r a t e Q w i l l n o t
" a c c e p t " t h e initial c h a n n e l : it will g r a d u a l l y d e f o r m it s o as to e s t a b l i s h ,
e v e n t u a l l y , a c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e c h a n n e l " o f its o w n " , w h i c h is r e f e r r e d t o as t h e
regime channel. U s u a l l y t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n of a r e g i m e c h a n n e l is t r a p e z o i d a l
a n d its w i d t h - t o - d e p t h r a t i o is " l a r g e " . H e n c e , t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n g e o m e t r y of
a r e g i m e c h a n n e l c a n b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t w o l e n g t h s o n l y : flow d e p t h a n d
( t h e a v e r a g e ) flow w i d t h . T h e flow in t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l is s t e a d y , a n d it
is t r e a t e d as u n i f o r m ( o r q u a s i - u n i f o r m ) .
L e t TR b e t h e d u r a t i o n of d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l , a n d
[B0, h0, S0] a n d [BR, hR, SR] b e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i n i t i a l c h a n n e l
(at t = 0) a n d of t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l (at t > TR) r e s p e c t i v e l y . F r o m o b s e r -
v a t i o n s a n d m e a s u r e m e n t s , it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e g i m e characteristics
[BR, hR, SR] do not depend on the initial channel characteristics
[B0, ho, So] t h e d e g r e e of d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e m c a n affect o n l y t h e
m a g n i t u d e of TR. T h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l , R say, w h i c h c o m e s i n t o b e i n g as
d e s c r i b e d a b o v e is c o m p l e t e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e ( c o n s t a n t ) f l o w r a t e Q, b y
the physical nature of t h e l i q u i d a n d s o l i d p h a s e s i n v o l v e d , a n d b y t h e
a c c e l e r a t i o n d u e to g r a v i t y g. S i n c e t h e n a t u r e of fluid is g i v e n b y t h e
p a r a m e t e r s p a n d v, w h i l e t h e n a t u r e of a c o h e s i o n l e s s g r a n u l a r m a t e r i a l of
a s p e c i f i e d i n t e r n a l g e o m e t r y (i.e. of a s p e c i f i e d s h a p e of g r a i n s a n d of t h e
d i m e n s i o n l e s s g r a i n size d i s t r i b u t i o n c u r v e ) c a n b e r e f l e c t e d b y l s a n d D [ 3 3 ] ,
[34], t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l R c a n b e d e f i n e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g six c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
parameters:

, p , i/, 7 , , D , g. (4.1)

117
( F r o m t h e fact t h a t t h e p a r a m e t e r g d e t e r m i n e s t h e u n i f o r m flow in a n
o p e n - c h a n n e l in t h e f o r m gS ( C h a p t e r 1), it d o e s n o t follow, a n d it is in fact
false, t h a t it m u s t d e t e r m i n e t h e f o r m a t i o n of a c h a n n e l also in t h e s a m e
manner).
A n y q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o p e r t y AR of t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l R ( s u c h as BR,
hR, SR, (QS)R9 cr, e t c . ) m u s t t h u s b e a c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n of t h e p a r a m e t e r s
(4.1):

AR = fAR(Q, p,v,ls,D,g). ' (4.2)

T h e v a r i a t i o n of a p r o p e r t y A, d u r i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e regime
c h a n n e l / ? , c a n b e s y m b o l i z e d by t h e t i m e - d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n

A= FA(Q, p, v9 l s , D , g 9 6) (4.3)

w h e r e 6 is t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s t i m e tlTR. F o r t h e special cases d = 0 and


0 > 1, t h i s r e l a t i o n a c q u i r e s its s p e c i a l f o r m s
A0 = FA(Q9 p , i/, 7 5 , > , g , 0 ) = fAQ(Q9 p9 v9 l D 9g )
s 9

and
AR= FA(Q9 p 9 u9 i s 9D 9g 9l ) =fAR(Q, P, 7 5, D , g ) ,

w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e initial a n d t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l s r e s p e c t i v e l y .
Only the characteristic parameters determining a p h e n o m e n o n must
r e m a i n c o n s t a n t d u r i n g its d e v e l o p m e n t . S i n c e t h e ( v o l u m e t r i c ) t r a n s p o r t r a t e
Qs is n o t o n e of t h e p a r a m e t e r s (4.1) d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l R9 it
m u s t b e e x p e c t e d t o v a r y (as a n y o t h e r A) d u r i n g t h e c h a n n e l f o r m a t i o n
p r o c e s s ( f r o m its initial v a l u e (Qs)o t o its final r e g i m e v a l u e (QS)R). T h i s is
o n l y n a t u r a l , for Qs is d e t e r m i n e d , a m o n g o t h e r s , b y B9 h a n d 5 , w h i c h v a r y
during TR2

4.1.2 Empirical regime formulae

A r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t i o n of t h e s t a b l e ( i n v a r i a n t in t i m e ) flow c r o s s - s e c t i o n
a n d s l o p e of a n a l l u v i a l c h a n n e l , as i m p l i e d b y BR9 hR a n d SR, is t h e k e y t o
s u c c e s s in r i v e r t r a i n i n g , a n d t h e r e f o r e it is n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t r e g i m e c h a n -

1
F r o m 3.6.1 it follows that the friction factor is d e t e r m i n e d by / i , gS, %t p, v and D, and
t h u s the regime value of cR should be given by
CR = fc&R.gSR'Is'P (i)

Observe that (i) is consistent with (4.2), for if t h e values of hR and SR given by (4.2) are
substituted (in principle) in (i), then its right-hand side will contain only the p a r a m e t e r s
(4.1); i.e. it will b e c o m e what is m e a n t by (4.2).
2
In the case of a laboratory channel (having a finite length), it must thus be ensured that
the (time variable) rate of sediment fed into the channel at its entrance is equal to the
t r a n s p o r t rate at its e n d , for any t (recirculation).

118
n e l s h a v e b e c o m e o n e of t h e m o s t p o p u l a r r e s e a r c h t o p i c s in t h e field. T h e r e
is n o s h o r t a g e of e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a , n o r of e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s p r o d u c e d f r o m
t h e m : T a b l e 4.1 s h o w s b u t a f e w of t h e e x i s t i n g " r e g i m e f o r m u l a e " (Refs. [ l a ]
t o [20a] in " R e f e r e n c e s A " at t h e e n d of t h e c h a p t e r ) . N o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t
m o s t of t h e s e e q u a t i o n s a r e t h e d i m e n s i o n a l l y i n h o m o g e n e o u s p o w e r f u n c -
t i o n s of <2, viz
n
A R = a A Q \ (4.4)

w h e r e t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e r e m a i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a r a m e t e r s ( p , %, D
a n d g) is " h i d d e n " i n t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s aA a n d t h e e x p o n e n t s nA. N o n e t h e l e s s ,
t h e s e r e g i m e e q u a t i o n s c o n v e y t h e f o l l o w i n g very relevant messages:

(i) BR is p r a c t i c a l l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e s q u a r e r o o t of Q in all c a s e s :
m
B R ~ Q . (4.5)
nh
(ii) T h e Q - e x p o n e n t in hR ~ Q is a f f e c t e d b y t h e g r a i n size D:

nh 1/3 for f i n e s a n d ; nh 0 . 4 3 for g r a v e l . (4.6)

M ns s a s o
(iii) T h e ( ^ - e x p o n e n t $R ~ Q * l affected by D:

ns -0.1 for fine s a n d ; ns -0.43 for g r a v e l . (4.7)

N o t e t h a t t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e s of nh a n d ns a r e i d e n t i c a l for g r a v e l
bed channels.

S o m e a t t e m p t s t o r e v e a l t h e i n f l u e n c e of /?, v, 7 , , D a n d g ( i n a d d i t i o n
to Q), a n d t o b r i n g t h e r e g i m e e q u a t i o n s i n t o t h e d i m e n s i o n a l l y h o m o -
g e n e o u s f o r m s h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n m a d e in t h e p a s t ( s e e e.g. [ 1 2 ] , [ 1 4 ] , [ 1 9 ] ,
[25]). H o w e v e r , in m o s t of t h e s e w o r k s t h e 7 r - t h e o r e m w a s u s e d f o r m a l l y ( t h a t
is, w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p h y s i c a l s i d e of t h e p h e n o m e n o n ) , a n d t h e r e f o r e
t h e r e s u l t s p r o d u c e d a r e of a l i m i t e d v a l u e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e u t i l i z a t i o n of
D as a " t y p i c a l l e n g t h " ( w h i c h in a f o r m a l a p p r o a c h is o n l y n a t u r a l , b e c a u s e
D is t h e o n l y l e n g t h a m o n g t h e p a r a m e t e r s i n v o l v e d ) l e d t o t h e e m e r g e n c e
of t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s f o r m s BRID a n d hR/D. Clearly these forms are not
r e a l i s t i c , for t h e e x t e r n a l d i m e n s i o n s (BR a n d hR) of a r e g i m e c h a n n e l c o r r e -
s p o n d i n g t o s o m e s p e c i f i e d v a l u e s of Q. p, v a n d 7, d o n o t i n c r e a s e in
p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e g r a i n s i z e D.

4.2 E x t r e m a l (or R a t i o n a l ) M e t h o d s

O w i n g t o t h e p i o n e e r i n g w o r k s of C . T . Y a n g , C . S . S o n g , H . C h a n g a n d
o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( s e e e.g. [ 3 9 ] , [ 4 0 ] , [ 2 7 ] , [ 4 ] , [5]), t h e s o - c a l l e d e x t r e m a l , o r
r a t i o n a l , m e t h o d s of d e t e r m i n a t i o n of r e g i m e c h a n n e l s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d .
T h e s e m e t h o d s a r e m o t i v a t e d b y t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a r e g i m e c h a n n e l is
f o r m i n g b e c a u s e a c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t y , A* s a y , t e n d s t o a c q u i r e its

119
Table 4.1

Source D 50 (mm) B h S

5 0
t 56
[la] Leopold, et al., 1953 - ~ Qnia '

8
[2a] Leopold, et al., 1956 0.7 to 5. 5.02/ 0.10G2/
0 33
[3a] Nixon, 1959 0.1 to 0.6 1.67Q?/* 0.55Q?/
54 7 12
[4a] Nash, 1959 clay 1.32Q?/ 0.932?/ ~G?/
50 3 1 5 11
[5a] Lacey, 1929 0.1 to 0.4 2.67C3 0A7QP 0.00039/ - ^
0 3
[6a] Lapturev, 1969 - 2.58QP 0.52QP
0 42
[7a] Ackers, 1964 0.16 & 0.34 3.6Q ; 0.28Q&J? no good
correlation

[f ]
0.50 0.33
Blench, 1957 W 0.1to0.6
dunes, sandbed 0.3to7. V [if] ^ 65 A0
Blench, 1957, n o >7. 0.50 0.20 ~ D / Qtf

[ f ] <xr# = 0 . 4 3 /
dunes, gravel bed
51 6 40
r1 0i , Simons
J
& 0.03 to 0.8 2.5Q?/ 0.00675Q^-
Albertson, 1960
0 33 86 21
[11a] Bose, 1936 - 2.8QP 0.47G2 0.209>- Qj
05
0
[12a] Inglis, 1957, 1949 ^0.2
0 3
3 ^ ^-0.167
~ <2 ~ G
Q5 QM 15 04
1 013 97 53
[13a] Hey, 1982 21. to 190. 2.2Qf Q 0.161D- ( 2 0.68a D- (2^-
07 528 025 33
1 0 586 33
4
B r a 1 92 8 19. to 145. 2.08D- Q$- 0.256D- (2?- 0.0965D - j22--
[14a] y>
regression
50 29 A2 1 285 4 28
Bra 1 92 8
[15a] y> 19. to 145. 2.61Q$- 0.0585D-* Q$ * 0.968D 2- -
threshold method
Bra 1 92 8 0 12 40 92 A0
y> 19. to 145. 1.80QP 0.166D-- QS- 0.12D- Qf
Kellerhals meth.
24 4 69 0 0 0 80 3 7
9 937 37
5
B r a 0.157D 2
1 92 8 19. to 145. 2.0Z)-- / 0.259D- G2-
[17a] y>
dimensional appr.
01 5 46 1 5 0 46 L15 46
G l or v e&
- 0.93D- Q 0.12D- Q - 0.44D Q--
[18a]
Florey, 1951
15 0 46 115 46
[19a] Ghosh, 1983 >6. 0.87D^ C> - 0 1 ) -1o .Zi 5 Qo . 4 6 0.68D >-
50 7 0 83 57
& 14. to 176. (2.3 to 4.3)G?/ (0.16 to 0.20) x 0.42QP D - <3f
[20a]
Thorne, 1983

120
m i n i m u m ( o r m a x i m u m ) v a l u e . 3 O n c e t h e m i n i m u m v a l u e of A* is r e a c h e d ,
the channel formation stops - t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l is a c h i e v e d .

D i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s p r o p o s e different q u a n t i t i e s as A*. T h u s w e h a v e e.g.

A* = 5 ( m i n i m u m s t r e a m p o w e r h y p o t h e s i s : Refs. [ 5 ] , [ 6 ] , [ 7 ] , [ 8 ] ,
[27], etc.)4

A* = Sv ( m i n i m u m unit stream p o w e r hypothesis: Refs. [36], [37],


[ 4 0 ] , [ 4 1 ] , etc.)
= 1
^4* Q7 ( m a x i m u m t r a n s p o r t r a t e (Qs) h y p o t h e s i s : R e f s . [ 3 1 ] , [32])
2
A* = c ( m a x i m u m friction f a c t o r ( ~ 1 / c ) h y p o t h e s i s : R e f s . [ 9 ] , [10])

A* = SL ( m i n i m u m energy dissipation rate hypothesis: Refs. [35],


[38], [39])5
... e t c .

No agreement h a s b e e n r e a c h e d y e t , h o w e v e r , as t o e x a c t l y w h a t A*
s h o u l d b e , for n o n e of t h e t r e n d s A* min proposed to d a t e rests o n a
convincing theoretical reasoning. An extensive comparative review of the
c u r r e n t e x t r e m a l h y p o t h e s e s is g i v e n in Ref. [9] ( s e e a l s o [ 3 ] , [4] a n d [35]).

T h r e e e q u a t i o n s a r e n e e d e d to d e t e r m i n e analytically t h e t h r e e prop-
e r t i e s (viz BR, hR a n d SR) of a r e g i m e c h a n n e l . A l l a u t h o r s u s e t h e flow
r e s i s t a n c e f o r m u l a as t h e " f i r s t " of t h e s e e q u a t i o n s , t h e " t h i r d " e q u a t i o n be-
i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n r e f l e c t i n g t h e m i n i m i z a t i o n of A* (i.e. dA* = 0 ) . T h e c h o i c e
of A* a n d of t h e " s e c o n d " e q u a t i o n v a r i e s f r o m o n e a u t h o r t o a n o t h e r .
V e r y often a t r a n s p o r t r a t e f o r m u l a is u s e d a s t h e s e c o n d e q u a t i o n ( [ 4 ] ,
[ 1 8 ] , [ 3 1 ] , [38], e t c . ) and, in this c a s e , o n e arrives at a system of three
equations which (for a given granular material and fluid) can be shown
s y m b o l i c a l l y as^

3
F o r the sake of uniformity we will refer in the following only to the m i n i m i z a t i o n of A*,
and if a m e t h o d is based on . - + m a x , we will interpret it as if it is based on
1
A* = Bz -+ min.
4
T h e original quantity subjected to minimization is iQS, which is reduced here to 5 because
iQ = const. T h e s a m e applies to the next hypothesis: Sv is originally iQSv.
5
H e r e , L is a length along the channel; the original quantity subjected to m i n i m i z a t i o n is
iQSL. F o r the sake of scientific precision, s o m e a u t h o r s use (iQ + lsQs)SL instead of
iQSL (see e.g. [38]. See also A. Brebner a n d K.C. Wilson: Derivation of the regime
equations from relationships for the pressurized flow by use of the principle of minimum
energy-degradation rate. Proc. I.C.E., Vol. 36, J a n u a r y 1967). It has been shown in Ref. [9]
that if QJQ < lOOOppm (per weight), then the e r r o r in neglecting 7SQS is less t h a n 0 . 1 % .
6
T h e reason for the subscript 1 in the set of Eqs. (4.8) will be clarified presently.

121
Q = fg(BR^ h R , S R, cR^) (resistance equation) \

= B c5 t r a n s r t
Qs fgs( Rr V ^i^ ( P equation) j (4.8)

dA* = 0 ( m i n i m u m A*) ]

w h e r e cRl, hRl a n d SRl a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d :

C l e a r l y , for a s p e c i f i e d g r a n u l a r m a t e r i a l a n d fluid ( i . e . for g i v e n p , i/, 7, a n d


D) t h e t h r e e r e g i m e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s BRl, hRl a n d SRl c a n t h e n b e s o l v e d from
t h e t h r e e e q u a t i o n s (4.8) (in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h (4.9)) if, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e flow
r a t e Q, t h e v a l u e of t h e t r a n s p o r t r a t e Qs is also g i v e n . B u t t h i s m e a n s t h a t
t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l d e t e r m i n e d by (4.8) is n o t s p e c i f i e d b y t h e six charac-
t e r i s t i c p a r a m e t e r s (4.1) as t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l R c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g
s e c t i o n : it is a different r e g i m e c h a n n e l Rx ( h e n c e t h e r e a s o n for t h e s u b s c r i p t
1) w h i c h is s p e c i f i e d b y seven parameters:

QS,Q, p , 1/, l s , D , g . (4.10)

A q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o p e r t y ARl of this " n e w " r e g i m e c h a n n e l Rx m u s t t h u s be


given by

\=fAR(Qs*Q< P< ^ l s , D , g). (4.11)

Since a physical p h e n o m e n o n is d e t e r m i n e d by the constant v a l u e s of its


characteristic parameters, one has to assume that both Q and Qs remain
c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e d u r a t i o n of d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l RXJ
T h e form (fAR) of t h e f u n c t i o n ( 4 . 1 1 ) , a n d t h u s t h e v a l u e of t h e property
ARl s u p p l i e d b y it d e p e n d s o n t h e c h o i c e of A* ( a n d , of c o u r s e , o n t h e c h o i c e
of t h e r e s i s t a n c e a n d t r a n s p o r t r a t e e q u a t i o n s ) .
T h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l s of e x t r e m a l t h e o r i e s m u s t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e d e -
f i n e d b y t h e set of p a r a m e t e r s (4.10): o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s a r e a l s o c o n c e i v a b l e .
F o r e x a m p l e , in Ref. [31] t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l is d e f i n e d by the following
seven parameters:

S,G, p , 1/, T f 5 , D , g, (4.12)

i.e. it is a s s u m e d t h a t t h i s c h a n n e l , R2 say, d e v e l o p s for t h e c o n s t a n t s l o p e S


( r a t h e r t h a n for t h e c o n s t a n t t r a n s p o r t r a t e Qs). I n fact, a c c o r d i n g t o Ref. [ 3 1 ] ,
t h e r e g i m e s t a t e e s t a b l i s h e s itself w h e n t h e ( v a r i a b l e ) t r a n s p o r t r a t e Qs
1
( = A* ) o r , t o b e m o r e e x a c t , t h e s e d i m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( ~ Q 5 ) , r e a c h e s
its m a x i m u m . B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , o n e c a n say t h a t t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l R2 is
d e t e r m i n e d as t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e f o l l o w i n g s y s t e m of e q u a t i o n s :

7
In the case of a (finite-length) laboratory channel, it must t h u s be e n s u r e d that t h e s a m e
(constant) rate of sediment, Qst is fed into the channel e n t r a n c e for any t.

122
(resistance equation) j
(transport equation) > (4.13)
l
(minimum Qj ) . J
A l l p o s s i b l e r e g i m e c h a n n e l s Rt of t h e e x t r e m a l t h e o r i e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d
by (at l e a s t ) s e v e n p a r a m e t e r s w h o s e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s m u s t b e k n o w n
b e f o r e h a n d - a fact t h a t c a n p r e s e n t s o m e difficulties w h e n u s i n g t h e s e
t h e o r i e s in p r a c t i c e . F o r e x a m p l e , n e i t h e r Q n o r Qs is c o n s t a n t in a n a t u r a l
river. Yet, a l t h o u g h s o m e m e t h o d s a r e available to estimate a channel-forming
Q ( d o m i n a n t d i s c h a r g e ) , n o m e t h o d is a v a i l a b l e to e s t i m a t e a " c h a n n e l -
f o r m i n g Q". S i m i l a r l y , t h e c a s e 5 = const is a l s o of a l i m i t e d p r a c t i c a l
i n t e r e s t , for (as will b e a p p a r e n t in C h a p t e r 5) it is e x a c t l y t h e variation of
S w h i c h i n d u c e s t h e r i v e r f o r m a t i o n in g e n e r a l , a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of
m e a n d e r i n g a n d b r a i d i n g in p a r t i c u l a r . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g , w e will d e a l o n l y
w i t h t h e (classical) r e g i m e c h a n n e l R w h e r e Qs e s t a b l i s h e s itself as a n o u t -
c o m e of t h e t w o - p h a s e m o t i o n .

It should be noted that the regime c h a n n e l s Rx and R2 are identical if Rx is based o n


8
A* = 5-+ min. Indeed, consider B a g n o l d ' s f o r m
Q5 ~ Bv[rQ - ( r 0 ) c r] = Bv[lSh - ( r 0 ) c r] =lQ[S~ f(h)] (4.14)

(with f (h) = (r0)cr/lh)


which yields, for Q = const*
dQs ~ [dS ~ f'{h)dh). (4.15)

In the case of /?! we have Qs = const, i.e. dQs - 0, and (4.15) gives

dS{ = f\hx)dhx. (4.16)

In the case of R2 we have 5 = const, i.e. dS = 0, and (4.15) gives

d(Q5h - -f'(h2)dh2. (4.17)


According to Ref. [31], Rx and R2 m u s t be c o m p a r e d for " t h e same values of b r e a d t h , velocity
and d e p t h " . H e n c e hx = h2, and from (4.16) and (4.17) o n e obtains
dSx ~ - d(Qs)2, (4.18)

which indicates that the d e c r e m e n t of Sx a n d t h e i n c r e m e n t of (Qs)2 are interrelated by a


constant proportionality, and thus that t h e m i n i m u m of Sx and the m a x i m u m of (Qs)2 must
occur for the same BR ( = BRl = BR2). A m o r e elaborate version of this d e m o n s t r a t i o n is given
in Ref. [31].

4.3 D i m e n s i o n l e s s F o r m u l a t i o n of t h e R e g i m e C h a n n e l R

4.3.1 Basic dimensionless forms

3 e
i- F r o m t h e c r i t i c a l s t a g e r e l a t i o n Ycr = # ( ) = #*(f )> i- -

It is assumed, for the sake of simplicity, that ub~v a n d Xc 1 (see (1.60)).

123
(4.19)

it is c l e a r t h a t 7, is a f u n c t i o n of p, v, v*cr a n d D o n l y :

l s = f(p, u, v . c D ) . (4.20)

Substituting (4.20) in ( 4 . 2 ) , o n e r e a l i z e s t h a t a p r o p e r t y AR of t h e regime


c h a n n e l R c a n b e e x p r e s s e d e q u a l l y w e l l as

A V D
R=fAR(Q* P> > *cr> ' 8)' (4.21)

F r o m a p h y s i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , t h e r e l a t i o n ( 4 . 2 1 ) is m o r e a d v a n t a g e o u s t h a n its
m a t h e m a t i c a l e q u i v a l e n t ( 4 . 2 ) , for v*cr r e f l e c t s t h e r e s i s t a n c e of a l l u v i u m to
e r o s i o n in a m o r e a c c o m p l i s h e d m a n n e r t h a n 7*.
S e l e c t i n g Q, p a n d v*cr as b a s i c q u a n t i t i e s a n d u s i n g t h e 7 r - t h e o r e m , o n e
d e t e r m i n e s t h e f o l l o w i n g d i m e n s i o n l e s s f o r m of ( 4 . 2 1 ) :
x y
U Ar = Q P vl c A
r R = *'Ar(Xu,Xd, Xg), (4.22)

w h e r e the dimensionless variables

and (4.23)

reflect t h e i n f l u e n c e of v, D a n d g r e s p e c t i v e l y ; t h e "length"

(4.24)

is t h e typical length of t h e phenomenon.


T h e m a t e r i a l n u m b e r is c o m p l e t e l y d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e dimensionless
v a r i a b l e s Xv a n d XD. Indeed,

(4.25)

a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of XD a n d is e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t of XD and
Xv. H e n c e , (4.22) c a n b e r e p l a c e d by
x y
= Q p vlcr AR = *"AR(t, XD, Xg), (4.26)

w h i c h y i e l d s for t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s r e g i m e w i d t h , d e p t h a n d slope

124
nR (4.27)

ii- L e t XR = AT/), A" g) b e t h e r e g i m e v a l u e of a p a r t i c u l a r d i m e n s i o n l e s s


p r o p e r t y II A ( = x). E l i m i n a t i n g XD b e t w e e n xR = 3>^(, A ^ , Xg) a n d ( 4 . 2 6 ) ,
one can express any II^ xR) as

n AR
x v
= Q p <rAR = *7 (*> R
x
R '
x
g )
4
( -
2 8
)

I n p a r t i c u l a r , o n e c a n e x p r e s s (4.27) a s

*7 (i>x ,x )
R R g

(4.29)

*7 (t>*R>x )-
R g

C l e a r l y , o u t of all t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e xR, it is o n l y o n e w h i c h r e n d e r s
t h e relations (4.29) physically meaningful; a n d the next subsection c o n c e r n s
its d e t e r m i n a t i o n .

y2
iii- W e g o o v e r t o r e v e a l h o w BR a n d hR a r e affected b y Xg = vl^r/gQ . And
for t h i s p u r p o s e w e e x p r e s s t h e f u n c t i o n s <>^ a n d as

xR, Xg) = XgP%R(t xR) and x R , Xg) = x;*hg(t, xR),

w h i c h m a k e s it p o s s i b l e t o e x p r e s s BR a n d hR in t h e f o l l o w i n g manner:

(4.30)

<7

'
x
*hR& R)- (4.31)

12
E x p e r i m e n t s h o w s ( s e e T a b l e 4.1) t h a t BR~ Q in all c a s e s , a n d (4.30)
m
i n d i c a t e s t h a t a n e x p l i c i t p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y b e t w e e n BR a n d Q can be achieved

9
T h e symbol 11^, without " b a r " , is reserved for the final version of the dimensionless ex-
pression of /i, which will be developed in the next section.

125
o n l y if p - 0 (a p o s s i b l e ( s e c o n d a r y ) i n f l u e n c e of Q, via xR, is t o b e d i s r e -
g a r d e d in t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t ) . E x p e r i m e n t a l s o s h o w s ( T a b l e 4.1) t h a t , b a -
m
sically, hR~ Q for s a n d channels,**) a n d t h i s m e a n s t h a t q = 1/3. H e n c e ,

Bp
x
*BR(t> R)
(4.32)
KBR =
and
11
(4.33)

where
(4.34)

4.3.2 Variable, xR; functions, UBR, UHR and SR

i- C o n s i d e r n o w t h e flow r e s i s t a n c e e q u a t i o n

(4.35)

which corresponds to "large" B lh .


R R This equation can b e brought identically
into the dimensionless form

i.e.

where CRSR is t h e r e g i m e v a l u e of t h e F r o u d e n u m b e r
2 2
Fr = v /gh = c S. (4.37)

2 3/
1- If t h e flow is r o u g h t u r b u l e n t , t h e n ~ . y ~ is n o l o n g e r a v a r i a b l e , a n d
t h e f u n c t i o n s QBR($, *R) a n d $ ^ ( , xR) b e c o m e d e p e n d e n t o n xR a l o n e :

nBR = <f>BR(xR) ; uhR=<t>hR(xR). (4.38)

10
In gravel bed channels, Ks~ D ( = const) while (TQ)R& ( r 0) c .r Consequently, knowing that
m
the regime width of gravel channels is p r o p o r t i o n a l to Q , o n e can d e t e r m i n e the Q-
e x p o n e n t of their hR (viz w 0 . 4 3 [see (4.6)]) directly from t h e resistance equation Q =
m m
= BRhRcRy/(rQ)R/p . Indeed, using BR~ Q , cR~(hlD) and (r0)R = (r0)cr = const, o n e
uz f V2n y l 0 43
obtains 0 ~ Q hRhR\ and t h u s hR~ [Q f = Q < 9 - ( m o r e details in 4.5.2). H e n c e ,
the present analysis of sand channels (whose Ks is not constant) covers automatically the
gravel channels (having Ks& const).
11
F o r a given Q, and the same remaining conditions, the width of rivers should t h u s be t h e
m
s a m e in different planets; their d e p t h should decrease in inverse p r o p o r t i o n to g .

126
Substituting (4.38) in (4.36), o n e d e t e r m i n e s
2 3
[*BR(*R)r [*kR(xR)]~ = (Fr)R. (4.39)

T h e l e f t - h a n d s i d e of this e q u a t i o n v a r i e s w i t h xR o n l y ; t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e ,
w i t h (Fr)R o n l y . H e n c e xR m u s t b e (Fr)R:^
xR = (Fr)R. (4.40)

H e r e a f t e r , Fr w i l l b e u s e d i n s t e a d of x.
N o t e f r o m ( 4 . 3 9 ) (by c o n s i d e r i n g (4.40)) t h a t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of o n l y
o n e f u n c t i o n is sufficient to f u r n i s h t h e e x p r e s s i o n s of b o t h UBR a n d UHR. F o r
e x a m p l e , if
4 41
n BR = *BJi(Fr)R) (- )
is d e t e r m i n e d , t h e n
m 4 42
-[*BRWr)R)Y - (- )

2- If t h e flow is n o t r o u g h t u r b u l e n t , t h e n is a l s o a v a r i a b l e (in a d d i t i o n t o
(Fr)R). T h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e of (4.36) c o n s i s t s o n l y of (Fr)R, and therefore
m u s t a p p e a r i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n s of UBR a n d UHR so t h a t it is c a n c e l l e d w h e n
UlR is m u l t i p l i e d w i t h 11;^. In o t h e r w o r d s , m u s t affect TLBR a n d ILHR b y m e a n s
of t h e s a m e m u l t i p l i e r - f u n c t i o n <t>z() a l b e i t in d i f f e r e n t p o w e r s :

KBR = %R(t (Fr)R) = ^(0 <t>BR((Fr)R) (4.43)

(4.44)

C l e a r l y , <^() m u s t a p p r o a c h u n i t y w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g v a l u e s of .

ii- T h e r e g i m e s l o p e SR d o e s n o t r e q u i r e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of a n y " n e w "


f u n c t i o n ( s ) : if UBR a n d 1 1 ^ a r e k n o w n , t h e n SR is v i r t u a l l y k n o w n . I n d e e d , it
has b e e n s h o w n in C h a p t e r 3 that c can be c o m p u t e d from the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l
f u n c t i o n ( 3 . 8 8 ) , w h i c h c a n b e s h o w n s y m b o l i c a l l y as c = (frcit,*!-, N). S i n c e

23 / 1
= Xa I K SR while --Tl^X- , (4.45)
HR
8 R

2 2
o n e c a n e x p r e s s SR = (Fr)RcR = n^II^c^ as

s R = (n^n^ ) m ,
3
a j -
w
n ^ ,
1
n"^" )]- .
2
(4.46)

12
It is pointless to insist t h a t xR should be identified with a function of (Fr)R rather t h a n
with (Fr)R itself, for t h e forms of (f>BR(xR) and <t>HR(xR) are not specified.

127
K n o w i n g UBr a n d UhR, o n e c a n a l w a y s c o m p u t e SR f r o m t h i s r e l a t i o n .

H e n c e , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a ( w i d e ) r e g i m e c h a n n e l (i.e. of BR, hR a n d
SR) c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a g i v e n set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a r a m e t e r s (4.1) rests o n
t h e k n o w l e d g e of t w o f u n c t i o n s , viz <t>BR ( o r <j>hR) a n d fe; a n d of t h e r e g i m e
F r o u d e n u m b e r (Fr)R. If t h e flow is r o u g h t u r b u l e n t , t h e n t h e k n o w l e d g e of
o n l y <t>BR( o r <t>hR) a n d (Fr)R is sufficient.

4.4 ( F r - > min) - the Basis of R e g i m e D e v e l o p m e n t

4.4.1 The quantity A*

i- C o n s i d e r n o w t h e c h a n n e l w h i c h is still at t h e s t a g e of its r e g i m e
d e v e l o p m e n t (t < TR; 0 < 1). T h e e x p r e s s i o n s of its d i m e n s i o n l e s s p r o p e r t i e s
2
n 4 , i n c l u d i n g Fr = c S , c a n differ f r o m t h o s e of TL
Ar o n l y b e c a u s e of 9 ( s e e
(4.2) a n d (4.3)). T h u s , i n s t e a d of ( 4 . 2 6 ) , w e h a v e

UA = *~{t X X 0)
9 D9 g9 9 (4.47)
a n d , in p a r t i c u l a r ,

Fr=9~r(t9XD,Xg9e). (4.48)

T h e e l i m i n a t i o n of XD from t h e s e t w o e q u a t i o n s g i v e s , f o r m a l l y ,

n / 4= *~{i9Fr9Xg99) 9 (4.49)

w h i c h is b u t t h e e x t e n d e d v e r s i o n of (4.28) ( w i t h x = Fr). N o w , t h e i n t r o -
d u c t i o n of 9 in t h e e x p r e s s i o n s (4.47) a n d (4.48) is n e c e s s a r y . I n d e e d , f, XD
a n d Xg r e m a i n c o n s t a n t in t h e c o u r s e of a n e x p e r i m e n t , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e y
c a n n o t b y t h e m s e l v e s reflect t h e t i m e - v a r i a t i o n of I I A a n d Fr d u r i n g t h a t
e x p e r i m e n t . T h i s is n o t so in t h e c a s e of ( 4 . 4 9 ) , w h e r e w e h a v e Fr w h i c h
v a r i e s w i t h t i m e a n d w h i c h c a n t h u s act as a " c l o c k " . T h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l
f o r m a t i o n is a g r a d u a l ( n o n - i m p u l s i v e ) p r o c e s s , a n d t h e r e f o r e it is u n l i k e l y
t h a t its p r o p e r t i e s I I A s h o u l d still b e d e p e n d e n t o n t i m e (t~9) p e r se - if
t h e t i m e - v a r y i n g Fr is a l r e a d y p r e s e n t in t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s .
O u t of all 11^, w e will b e c o n c e r n e d h e r e w i t h I I B a n d 11^ o n l y ; a n d it
a p p e a r s t h a t t h e i r t i m e v a r i a t i o n is c o m p l e t e l y r e f l e c t e d b y Fr a l o n e . I n d e e d ,
it is g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t o d a y t h a t a d e v e l o p i n g r e g i m e flow c a n b e t r e a t e d
as u n i f o r m , a n d t h u s t h a t it satisfies t h e r e s i s t a n c e e q u a t i o n
2 3
n' n; = Fr, (4.50)

for all 9. S i n c e this e q u a t i o n d o e s n o t c o n t a i n e x p l i c i t l y a n y t i m e p a r a m e t e r ,


a p o s s i b l e p r e s e n c e of 9 in t h e e x p r e s s i o n s of UB a n d 11^ m u s t b e s u c h t h a t
it is c a n c e l l e d in t h e p r o d u c t EEsIli. T h i s , h o w e v e r , w o u l d m e a n t h a t o n e of
I I B a n d Uh i n c r e a s e s , w h e r e a s t h e o t h e r d e c r e a s e s w i t h t h e p a s s a g e of t i m e .
B u t s u c h a s c h e m e is u n a c c e p t a b l e , for e x p e r i m e n t s h o w s t h a t b o t h n 5 ~ B

128
a n d Uh ~ h o n l y i n c r e a s e w i t h t i m e i n t h e ( p e r t i n e n t ) i n t e r v a l TB < T < TR
(Fig. 4.12). H e n c e I I f i a n d Uh c a n n o t d e p e n d o n 6 ( i n a d d i t i o n t o Fr): t h e i r
e x p r e s s i o n s m u s t b e of t h e f o r m

UB = $;**(, Fr, Xg) and II, = < U Fr, Xg) . (4.51)

S i n c e (4.50) a n d (4.51) a r e b u t ( 4 . 3 6 ) a n d (4.29) w i t h o u t t h e s u b s c r i p t / ? , t h e


s u b s c r i p t - / ? - r e m o v e d v e r s i o n of a n y r e l a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m (4.36) a n d (4.29)
in t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n m u s t b e v a l i d a l s o for t h e d e v e l o p i n g c h a n n e l s .
H e n c e , w e h a v e ( o n t h e basis of ( 4 . 4 3 ) , ( 4 . 4 4 ) a n d (4.46))

UB= B = *B{tFr) = ^ ( 0 ^ ( F r ) (4.52)

213
'[^(Fr)]' ' (4.53)

and
s = (n- 2 3
n; )[^(^ x- u s,
g
2!2
h
1
n" ^ )]" .
1 2
(4.54)

A t t e n t i o n is d r a w n t o t h e fact t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n s
+B(Fr) and <t>h(Fr) (4.55)

a r e essentially different from t h e functions

hR((^)R) and \((Fr)R). (4.56)

T h e f u n c t i o n s (4.56) i n d i c a t e h o w t h e developed r e g i m e v a l u e s of HB a n d II,,


c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o different e x p e r i m e n t s v a r y w i t h (Fr)R; whereas t h e functions
(4.55) i n d i c a t e h o w t h e developing v a l u e s of I I S a n d 11^ v a r y w i t h Fr in t h e
c o u r s e of t h e same e x p e r i m e n t . T h e f o r m s of 4>Br a n d <f>hR a r e k n o w a b l e ( t h e y
c a n b e d i s c o v e r e d ) ; t h e f o r m s <f>B a n d <j>h a r e n o t k n o w a b l e : t h e y v a r y d e -
p e n d i n g o n t h e n a t u r e of e x p e r i m e n t , i.e. d e p e n d i n g o n t h e n a t u r e of t h e
initial c h a n n e l (h0, B 0 , SQ).

ii- A m o n g all t h e q u a n t i t i e s i n v o l v e d in E q s . ( 4 . 5 2 ) , (4.53) a n d ( 4 . 5 4 ) , o n l y


B, h, S a n d Fr v a r y w i t h t i m e d u r i n g t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l f o r m a t i o n . H e n c e ,
if t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a r e g i m e c h a n n e l w h i c h m a n i f e s t s itself b y t h e t i m e
v a r i a t i o n of S , h a n d S t a k e s p l a c e b e c a u s e a ( n e c e s s a r i l y t i m e - v a r y i n g )
q u a n t i t y A . t e n d s t o a c q u i r e its m i n i m u m , as s u g g e s t e d b y t h e e x t r e m a l
t h e o r i e s , t h e n this q u a n t i t y A* c a n n o t b e a n y t h i n g else b u t t h e F r o u d e n u m -
b e r Fr:
A* = Fr. (4.57)

T h e F r o u d e n u m b e r is a " m e a s u r e " of t h e e n e r g y s t r u c t u r e of flow. I n d e e d ,


if t h e k i n e t i c e n e r g y of t h e u n i t fluid v o l u m e is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by
2
ek = (1/2) pv a n d its c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y b y ep = pgh, t h e n t h e
r a t i o ek/ep is (half) t h e F r o u d e n u m b e r :

129
(4.58)

O n e c a n say t h a t t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l is f o r m i n g b e c a u s e t h e flow t e n d s t o
r e d u c e its r a t i o eklep t o a m i n i m u m :

(^) m in = ( ^ ) m. n = (Fr)R. (4.59)


2
N o t e t h a t t h e r e g i m e c r i t e r i o n Fr = c S m i n c a n b e v i e w e d as a
2
" u n i f i c a t i o n " of t h e p r e v i o u s l y p r o p o s e d c r i t e r i a , S - m i n a n d c - * m i n ( s e e
S e c t i o n 4.2). 13

4.4.2 Fr-curves

i- U s i n g t h e flow r e s i s t a n c e e q u a t i o n ( 4 . 3 5 ) , in c o n j u n c t i o n with

(4.60)

and introducing

(4.61)

one determines
2 112 2
N=Z{c n) and Fr=^-(c Tj) (4.62)

and, consequently,
1 A

(4.63)
1V
E l i m i n a t i n g (in p r i n c i p l e ) c b e t w e e n ( 4 . 6 3 ) a n d ( 3 . 8 9 ) , o n e r e a l i z e s t h a t
(for a s p e c i f i e d a)
Fr= 4>F,(t,ri9N). (4.64)
H e n c e , o n e c a n a l w a y s c o m p u t e (in a n a l o g y t o c ) a f a m i l y of Fr-curves for
t h e ( F r ; T / ) - p l a n e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a g i v e n F = (const)each individual curve
implying

13
T h e only work known to the a u t h o r where it is explicitely stated that the regime formation
is d u e to Fr-+ min is d u e to Y. Jia [18] (1990). In this paper, t h e validity of Fr-> min is
demonstrated by an i n d e p e n d e n t a p p r o a c h : c o m p u t e r simulation in conjunction with the
field data.
14
Observe that although each of a , Z a n d N is d e p e n d e n t o n Z), the relations (4.62) and
(4.63) are not d e p e n d e n t o n it (D is cancelled from t h e m ) . Note also that in the case of
7 j / 7 1 . 6 5 (sand-or-gravel and water) t h e variation of a is insignificant, as it is d u e to Ycr
only.

130
const
Fr= ^FM )i f > (const)j) = <t>FKlJ(ri) (4.65)

( c o m p a r e with (3.90)).
F r o m t h e c o n t e n t of 3.6.2, it s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t in t h e c a s e of a g r a v e l
b e d ( w h e r e b e d f o r m s a r e n e g l i g i b l e ) t h e c - c u r v e s a r e m o n o t o n o u s , as cg in
F i g . 4.1a, w h e r e a s in t h e c a s e of a s a n d b e d ( w h e r e b e d f o r m s a r e p r o m i n e n t )
t h e y e x h i b i t " d i p s " , a s cs i n F i g . 4.1a. T h e a n a l o g o u s is v a l i d for t h e Fr-
c u r v e s : in t h e c a s e of g r a v e l c h a n n e l s t h e y a r e as (Fr)g in F i g . 4 . 1 b ; in t h e
c a s e of s a n d c h a n n e l s , a s (Fr)s. T h e m a i n difference b e t w e e n the c-curves

log t|

N = (const)-

N - (const)j

F i g . 4.1

a n d t h e F r - c u r v e s is b e c a u s e t h e o r d i n a t e s of t h e f o r m e r c u r v e s (as a w h o l e )
i n c r e a s e , w h e r e a s t h o s e of t h e l a t t e r d e c r e a s e w i t h t h e d e c r e m e n t of rj.
N o t r a n s p o r t of s e d i m e n t is p r e s e n t , a n d t h u s n o c h a n n e l f o r m a t i o n c a n
take place if rj < 1. Hence, in the present context, the Fr-curves are
m e a n i n g f u l o n l y i n t h e r e g i o n 1 < rj < oo, w h i c h is t r e a t e d i n t h e following
as t h e " e x i s t e n c e r e g i o n " of t h e s e c u r v e s .
L e t t h e regime-point be t h a t p o i n t PR o n t h e (Fr; ?7)-plane w h e r e Fr
= (Fr)min (Eq. (4.59)):
1) If a r e g i m e c h a n n e l e x p e r i m e n t is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a F r - c u r v e of t h e

131
1
t y p e (Fr)s ( s a n d ) , ^ t h e n t h e r e g i m e p o i n t PR is t h e l o w e s t p o i n t Ps
of t h e c u r v e (Fr)s (Fig. 4.1b):i6

PR = PS. (4-66)

2) If, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e e x p e r i m e n t is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a Fr-eurve
of t h e t y p e (Fr)g ( g r a v e l ) , t h e n PR is t h e l o w e s t p o i n t Pg of t h e c u r v e
( F r ) g , at rj = 1:
PR = Pg (at n = 1). (4.67)

4.4.3 (Fr-tmin) and experimental data

T h e s o u r c e s of field a n d l a b o r a t o r y d a t a w h i c h a p p e a r t o b e s u i t a b l e
t o test t h e r e g i m e r e l a t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n " R e f e r e n c e s B " (Refs. [ l b ] t o [18b]).
T h i s d a t a - s e t , w h i c h r a n g e s f r o m less t h a n o n e - m e t e r - w i d e l a b o r a t o r y s t r e a m s
to m o r e t h a n o n e - k i l o m e t e r - w i d e r i v e r s , c o r r e s p o n d s t o s a n d - o r - g r a v e l a n d
w a t e r o n l y (a ( 1 . 6 5 ) ( 0 . 0 4 ) 0.07). T h e c h a n n e l - f o r m i n g Q of a n a t u r a l r i v e r
w a s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h its b a n k f u l l flow r a t e . O n l y t h e d a t a - p o i n t s w h i c h c o r r e -
s p o n d t o s u p e r c r i t i c a l flows ((Fr)R > 1) a n d w h i c h r e m a i n o u t s i d e t h e r a n g e
5 < BRlhR < 100 w e r e e x c l u d e d . i ?
T h e v a l u e s of (Fr)R supplied by the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d data have b e e n
p l o t t e d o n t h e (Fr; 77)-planes c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o v a r i o u s ~ D: Figs. 4 . 2 , 4.3
a n d 4.4 a r e t h r e e e x a m p l e s of t h e s e p l o t s . 18 T h e F r - c u r v e s f o r m i n g t h e
b a c k g r o u n d in t h e s e g r a p h s w e r e c o m p u t e d , for e a c h = (const)i and
N= (const)j, as i m p l i e d by ( 4 . 6 4 ) a n d ( 4 . 6 5 ) .

i- Fig. 4.2 c o n t a i n s t h e r e g i m e d a t a of g r a v e l c h a n n e l s . T h e s c a t t e r is g r o s s ;
n o n e t h e l e s s , it c a n b e o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e d a t a - p o i n t s c l u s t e r a r o u n d rj = 1, so
as t o justify ( 4 . 6 7 ) .

15
This association will be clarified in the next section.
16
Few exceptions to this general rule will be discussed in Section 4.7.
17
T h e lower limit (5) is to ensure that the c h a n n e l can be regarded as "wide", the u p p e r limit
(100) to eliminate a possible tendency for braiding, which may affect the regime-formation
of the (single) channel u n d e r study.
18
Figs. 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4 typify gravel, fine sand a n d coarse sand respectively: their Fr-curves
were d e t e r m i n e d for D = 50mm, 0.17mm and 1 m m . In order to increase the n u m b e r of
points plotted, here too (in analogy to the plots presented in 3.6.2), the data of comparable
D were also included. (The D-range plotted is particularly large in Fig. 4.2 where it is
2
permissible. Indeed, if D is " l a r g e " and N is " m o d e r a t e " (D > 5 0 m m ; N < 10 , say) then
the shape of t h e cg- and (Fr)^-curves r e m a i n s invariant; only their level, which has no
bearing on t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of 7 7 * , varies). Also in analogy to 3.6.2, the present data-
n
points are represented by digits, each digit being that integer n in N = \0 which is the
nearest to the /V-value of the point plotted.

132
LGN = 1.5
G LGN=2.5
- LGN=3.0
^ LGN=3.5
< LGN=4.0

io " H

3
1o | 1ii i i i 111 1ii i i i 11| 1ii i i i 111 1ii i i i 11|
2 1 2
10 " 10 " 1 10 10
TL

F i g . 4.2

ii- F i g . 4.3 c o n t a i n s t h e fine s a n d r e g i m e c h a n n e l d a t a . T h u s t h e c h a n n e l b e d


is c o v e r e d b y b o t h r i p p l e s a n d d u n e s . H e r e t o o , t h e s c a t t e r is g r o s s . Y e t , it
is n o t i c e a b l e t h a t t h e d a t a - p o i n t s t e n d t o l o c a t e t h e m s e l v e s a r o u n d t h e l i n e
( " v a l l e y " ) Ls f o r m e d b y t h e p o i n t s Ps ( E q . ( 4 . 6 6 ) ) . T h e l i n e Lc i n F i g . 4.3
LgN=3.0

^ LgN=4.0

^ LgN=5.0

^ LgN=6.0

J LgN=7.0

4
10 " - | 1 1iii i i i i 1 1iii i i i |
2
1 10 10
TL

Fig. 4.3

c o n n e c t s t h o s e p o i n t s Pc of t h e F r - c u r v e s w h e r e c = cmm . T h e d i f f e r e n c e
b e t w e e n Ls a n d Lc is less t h a n t h e d e g r e e of l a t e r a l s c a t t e r , a n d t h i s m a y w e l l
2
b e t h e r e a s o n for t h e e m e r g e n c e of t h e m a x i m u m friction f a c t o r ( ~ 1/c )
h y p o t h e s i s (Refs. [ 9 ] , [10]). T h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l f o r m a t i o n
is p e r h a p s d u e t o c m i r, i r a t h e r t h a n t o Fr-+ (Fr)mm , must b e ruled out,
at least b e c a u s e of t h e c a s e (i) a b o v e . I n d e e d , t h e g r a v e l c h a n n e l d a t a c l u s t e r
a r o u n d rj = 1, w h e r e Fr = (Fr)m-m b u t c = c m ax ( s e e t h e s h a p e of t h e cg-

133
curves): o n e can hardly accept a hypothesis which attributes the channel
f o r m a t i o n t o c - 4 c m ni if D is " s m a l l " , a n d to c - + c m ax if D is " l a r g e " . 19

iii- F i g . 4.4 c o n t a i n s t h e c o a r s e s a n d c h a n n e l d a t a , a n d t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l
b e d is c o v e r e d m a i n l y b y d u n e s . T h e s e d u n e s a r e n o t p r o m i n e n t e v e n w h e n

10

Fr-curves c o m p u t e d f o r D = 1 . 0 0 m m ( = 2 5 . 3 ) | /L g N = 2 . 0
D-range p l o t t e d : 0 . 4 0 m m < D < 1 . 7 0 m m LgN=:3.0
LgN = 3.5
LgN = 3.7
t g N = 3.8
LgN = 4.0
LgN = 4.5

J
10 - - 2
10 10

F i g . 4.4

35 4 5
N is l a r g e (N = 1 0 t o 1 0 ) , a n d t h e i r s t e e p n e s s is c e r t a i n l y n e g l i g i b l e w h e n
20 3 0
N is s m a l l (N = 1 0 t o 1 0 ) . T h u s , t h i s ( d e l i b e r a t e l y s e l e c t e d ) c a s e is
t r a n s i t i o n a l b e t w e e n (i) a n d ( i i ) : t h e r e g i m e p o i n t s ( " s t a r s " ) of t h e F r - c u r v e s
20 30
c o r r e s p o n d i n g to N = 1 0 and 1 0 a r e at ry = 1, t h o s e c o r r e s p o n d i n g to
35 45
N = 1 0 to 1 0 a r e o n t h e ( s h o r t ) l i n e Ls. H e n c e , t h e d a t a m u s t b e e x p e c t e d
to b e s c a t t e r e d b e t w e e n Ls a n d 77 = 1: s m a l l e r N to t h e left, l a r g e r N t o t h e
r i g h t . In g e n e r a l , t h e p o i n t s in F i g . 4.4 t e n d t o justify this e x p e c t a t i o n .
[If the curvature of t h e (generally inclined) Fr-curve is only slight (faint dunes), then
this Fr-curve may have a 3/2-inclined t a n g e n t b u t no horizontal tangent. T h e point Pc of such
a Fr-curve may c o r r e s p o n d to a substantial 77 although its regime point (Pg) is at 77 = 1
3
(Fr-curve corresponding to N = 1 0 in Fig. 4.4). Consequently, the curve Lc diverges from
the regime locations c o r r e s p o n d i n g to small N].

4.4.4 ( F r ; 7 7 ) - p l a n e ; Sand-like and gravel-like behaviour

i- T h e F r - c u r v e s o n t h e (Fr;?7)-plane c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a constant f are shown


s c h e m a t i c a l l y in F i g . 4 . 5 . T h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t h e ( F r ) 5 - t y p e c u r v e s t o t h e
e x t r e m e ( F r ) g- t y p e c u r v e s ( w h i c h d o n o t h a v e a n y i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t s ) w i t h t h e

19
T h e points Pc, forming the line Lc, are d e t e r m i n e d as follows. Put N = {const)} in (4.63).
3 3 2/
O n e obtains Fr~ [c ]r7 which, for any given c , is the equation of a 3/2-inclined straight
line (in the log-log ( F r ; r?)-plane). H e n c e c = c m i ,n if it exists, is at that point Pc of the
Fr-curve where its tangent has the 3/2-inclination.

134
d e c r e m e n t of N is c o n t i n u o u s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r l o c a l m i n i m u m p o i n t s Ps,
t h e ( F r ) , - t y p e c u r v e s a l s o h a v e t h e i r l o c a l m a x i m u m p o i n t s Ps'. W h e n N d e -
c r e a s e s , t h e n t h e c u r v a t u r e of t h e F r - c u r v e s d e c r e a s e s as w e l l , a n d t h e p o i n t s
Ps a n d P^ c o m e c l o s e r a n d c l o s e r t o e a c h o t h e r . A t a c e r t a i n N = N* t h e y
m e r g e i n t o a s i n g l e p o i n t F*, w h i c h is t h e i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t ( w i t h a h o r i z o n t a l
t a n g e n t ) of t h e F r * - c u r v e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o N*. F r o m F i g . 4 . 5 , o n e i n f e r s t h a t

F i g . 4.5

t h e c u r v e s Ls a n d L\ ( f o r m e d b y t h e p o i n t s Ps a n d F / ) a r e , in fact, b u t t w o
b r a n c h e s of a s i n g l e c u r v e , w h i c h is t a n g e n t t o t h e Fr* - c u r v e a t P*. C l e a r l y ,
the Fr-curves situated above the Fr.-curve do not have horizontal tangents,
i.e. t h e y d o n o t h a v e t h e p r o p e r m i n i m u m s in t h e s e n s e dFrldr\ = 0 t h e y
m e r e l y h a v e t h e s m a l l e s t v a l u e s of F r at 77 = 1. T h e F r - c u r v e s s i t u a t e d b e l o w
t h e " b o u n d a r y - c u r v e " Fr* will b e c a l l e d sand-like curves; those situated
a b o v e F r . , gravel-like curves.

ii- C o n s i d e r a n " e x p e r i m e n t " w h i c h is d e t e r m i n e d b y s o m e s p e c i f i e d v a l u e s


of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a r a m e t e r s ( 4 . 1 ) . It s t a r t s , a t t = 0, in a n i n i t i a l c h a n n e l
w h i c h is, t o s o m e e x t e n t , a r b i t r a r y . 2 0 T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a r e g i m e c h a n n e l
c a n b e p i c t u r e d b y t h e m o t i o n of a p o i n t m in t h e ( F r ; r y ) - p l a n e . L e t F 0 b e
t h e p o i n t r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e v a l u e s F r = ( F r ) 0 a n d rj = rjo of t h e i n i t i a l c h a n n e l :

20
T h e restrictions i m p o s e d o n the initial c h a n n e l will be discussed in Section 4.7.

135
at t = 0, t h e p o i n t m is at P0. W i t h t h e p a s s a g e of t i m e , t h e p o i n t m m o v e s ,
a l o n g a p a t h /, t o w a r d s its " t a r g e t " r e g i m e l o c a t i o n PR\ at t = TR, it r e a c h e s
it.
E a c h e x p e r i m e n t g e n e r a t e s " i t s o w n " r e g i m e w i d t h BR. H e n c e , it is
a s s o c i a t e d w i t h its o w n v a l u e of NR = Q/(BRDv*cr) a n d consequently with
its o w n f > - c u r v e , w h i c h will b e r e f e r r e d t o in t h e f o l l o w i n g as t h e associated
Fr-curve o r t h e regime Fr-curve ((Fr)R - c u r v e ) . E a c h r e g i m e p o i n t PR, to
w h i c h all p o s s i b l e p a t h s / m u s t m e r g e w h e n t a p p r o a c h e s TR, is, of c o u r s e ,
o n t h e a s s o c i a t e d / r - c u r v e . If t h e a s s o c i a t e d c u r v e is a b o v e t h e c u r v e Fr*,
t h e n PR is t h e p o i n t Pg at rj = 1 a n d m will m o v e t o w a r d it: it will e x h i b i t
t h e gravel-like behaviour. If, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e a s s o c i a t e d c u r v e is b e l o w
t h e c u r v e Fr*, t h e n m w i l l m o v e t o w a r d t h e p o i n t Ps ( = PR): it will e x h i b i t
t h e sand-like behaviour ( F i g . 4.5).

iii- T h e r e is n o d o u b t t h a t if e.g. D = 2 c m , t h e n w e a r e d e a l i n g w i t h g r a v e l
( a n d PR = Pg is o n rj = 1) a n d if D = 0.2 m m , t h e n w e a r e d e a l i n g w i t h s a n d
( a n d PR = Ps is o n Ls). T h e s i t u a t i o n is n o t so o b v i o u s , h o w e v e r , if D is
1 m m o r 3 m m , say. F r o m t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s a b o v e , it s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t t h e
gravel- or sand-like b e h a v i o u r does not d e p e n d on a l o n e ; it d e p e n d s
a l s o o n NR:

if NR > N*, then sand-like ; if NR < /V*, then gravel-like. (4.68)

T h e c r i t e r i o n for t h e p r e d i c t i o n of s a n d - o r g r a v e l - l i k e b e h a v i o u r is t h u s
g i v e n solely o n t h e b a s i s of t h e " g e o m e t r y " of t h e (Fr)R-curves. In s o m e ( v e r y
r a r e ) c a s e s , t h e i n i t i a l p o i n t of a s a n d - l i k e a s s o c i a t e d F r - c u r v e m a y b e so n e a r
to rj = 1, t h a t t h e p o i n t m m a y " c h o o s e " t o m i n i m i z e Fr by m o v i n g to t h e
( n e a r b y ) p o i n t (Pg)s ( s e e P 0 in F i g . 4.5) r a t h e r t h a n t o P 5 , a n d t h u s it m a y
e x h i b i t t h e g r a v e l - l i k e b e h a v i o u r . H o w e v e r , w e will n o t e n c u m b e r t h e p r e s e n t
e x p l a n a t i o n s b y c o n s i d e r i n g s u c h ( r a r e ) c a s e s , a n d w e will c o n t i n u e t o identify
t h e s a n d - l i k e b e h a v i o u r w i t h t h e s a n d - l i k e (Fr)R-curves. (The conditions
p r e s e n t e d b y v a r i o u s P 0 will b e d i s c u s s e d in 4.7.2).
L e t rjs b e t h e a b c i s s a of a s a n d - l i k e r e g i m e p o i n t Ps. A s c a n b e i n f e r r e d
f r o m F i g s . 4.3 a n d 4.4, t h e v a l u e s of TJS a r e u s u a l l y l a r g e r t h a n ^ 3 , say, a n d
t h u s t h e y a r e m u c h l a r g e r t h a n rj = 1. In t h e r e g i m e d a t a p l o t s p r e s e n t e d in
t h e n e x t s e c t i o n , t h e s a n d - a n d g r a v e l - l i k e p o i n t s w e r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by u s i n g
t h e r e g i m e v a l u e s of rj: if rjR > 3 , t h e n s a n d - l i k e ; o t h e r w i s e , g r a v e l - l i k e . In t h e
r e g i m e c h a n n e l c o m p u t a t i o n m e t h o d p r e s e n t e d in S e c t i o n 4.6, t h e g r a v e l - l i k e
b e h a v i o u r is r e v e a l e d b y t h e fact t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r d o e s n o t y i e l d
dFr/dr} = 0 for rjR > 1 ( a n d if it d o e s , t h e n t h e b e h a v i o u r is s a n d - l i k e ) .

iv- T h e c o n v e r s i o n of t h e s a n d - l i k e b e h a v i o u r t o t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l y different
gravel-like b e h a v i o u r (or vice-versa) does not occur gradually along a
t r a n s i t i o n a l i n t e r v a l of N; b u t r a t h e r at a c e r t a i n v a l u e N* ( w h i c h v a r i e s d e -
p e n d i n g o n [26]). T h i s is a n a l o g o u s t o t h e ( s u d d e n ) c o n v e r s i o n of a l a m i n a r
flow t o a t u r b u l e n t o n e at a c e r t a i n Re, o r t o t h e c o n v e r s i o n of a s u p e r c r i t i c a l

136
flow to a s u b c r i t i c a l o n e at Fr = 1.

v- T h e c u r v e w h i c h c o n n e c t s t h e r e g i m e p o i n t s Ps of v a r i o u s e x p e r i m e n t s ,
is p r e d i c t a b l e (it c a n b e c o m p u t e d f r o m (4.63) a n d ( 4 . 6 4 ) ) : t h e p a t h s / a r e
n o t . I n d e e d , e a c h / c o n n e c t s a c e r t a i n r e g i m e p o i n t Ps to a n o n - c e r t a i n p o i n t
r
PQ ( w h o s e l o c a t i o n o n t h e ( / r ; r / ) - p l a n e is " t o s o m e e x t e n t a r b i t r a r y " ) .
It h a s b e e n s t a t e d in 4.4.1 (i) t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n s (4.55) s h o w h o w t h e devel-
oping v a l u e s of I I B a n d 11^ v a r y w i t h Fr in t h e c o u r s e of a g i v e n e x p e r i m e n t ,
w h e r e a s t h e f u n c t i o n s (4.56) i n d i c a t e h o w t h e developed r e g i m e v a l u e s UBR
a n d HhR v a r y w i t h (Fr)R f r o m o n e e x p e r i m e n t t o a n o t h e r . F r o m t h e a f o r e -
m e n t i o n e d , it s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n s (4.55) r e p r e s e n t t h e v a r i a t i o n s
of UB a n d TLh a l o n g a p a t h /: w h e n t h e p o i n t m m o v e s a l o n g /, t h e n its
p r o p e r t i e s I I B a n d 11^ v a r y ( d e v e l o p ) as f u n c t i o n s of its c o n t i n u a l l y d e c r e a s i n g
o r d i n a t e s Fr. S i n c e P 0 , a n d t h u s /, is u n p r e d i c t a b l e , t h e f u n c t i o n s (4.55) a r e
also u n p r e d i c t a b l e . In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s , t h e f u n c t i o n s (4.56) i n d i c a t e h o w HBR
a n d 1 1 ^ v a r y w i t h t h e o r d i n a t e s (Fr)R of t h e ( p r e d i c t a b l e ) c u r v e Ls. The
e x p l a n a t i o n s a b o v e a r e g i v e n in t e r m s of t h e s a n d - l i k e c u r v e L5. C l e a r l y , t h e
a n a l o g o u s is v a l i d also for t h e v e r t i c a l l i n e , Lg say, w h i c h c o n n e c t s t h e p o i n t s
Pg at rj = 1.

4.5 R e g i m e E q u a t i o n s

4.5.1 Formulation ofUBR andUhR

It is i n t e n d e d n o w to r e v e a l , w i t h t h e a i d of e x p e r i m e n t a l data, the
n a t u r e of t h e f u n c t i o n s (4.43) a n d ( 4 . 4 4 ) , viz
r 2,3
n f iR = ^ ( O 0 B (R ( / O ) a n d nhR=[^(0}~ 4>hR((Fr)R), \
where > (4.69)
\((Fr) ) = [^ ((Fr) )]- (Fr)- .
R BR R
2a
R
l!i
)
2/3
T h e c o m b i n a t i o n s UBR/<t>t() a n d UhR[<t>^)] a r e f u n c t i o n s of (Fr)R a l o n e . In
t h e c a s e of g r a v e l c h a n n e l s , t h e t u r b u l e n t flow is r o u g h ; h e n c e , <^() = 1 ( s e e
4.3.2), a n d t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s m e n t i o n e d r e d u c e i n t o UBR a n d UHR t h e m s e l v e s .
2/3
T h e s a n d - c h a n n e l c o m b i n a t i o n s HBR/fe() a n d UhR[<j>t()] a n d their
g r a v e l - c h a n n e l c o u n t e r p a r t s UBR a n d 1 1 ^ c o m p u t e d f r o m t h e a v a i l a b l e
r e g i m e - d a t a (Refs. [ l b ] to [18b]) a r e p l o t t e d v e r s u s (Fr)R in F i g s . 4.6 to 4.9.
T h e s y m b o l s , s o u r c e s a n d t h e D - r a n g e s of t h e d a t a - p o i n t s a r e g i v e n in T a b l e s
4.2 a n d 4 . 3 .
T h e s c a t t e r of e x p e r i m e n t a l p o i n t s in all f o u r d i m e n s i o n l e s s p l o t s is

137
21 22
gross. Y e t it is e n t i r e l y e x p e r i m e n t a l : the points do no tend to sort
themselves out depending on D ~ .

T a b l e 4.2
(Sand-like)

Symbol Range of D N o . of Sources


(mm) points

[4b], [5b], [6b], [7b], [10b], [14b],


0.02 < D < 0.10 71
[16b], [17b]

+ 0.11 < D < 0.20 84


[ l b ] , [2b], [4b], [5b], [6b], [7b],
[10b], [14b], [15b], [18b]
[ l b ] , [3b], [4b], [5b], [6b], [7b],
* 0.21 < D < 0.60 180 [8b], [9b], [10b], [ l i b ] , [12b],
[14b], [15b], [16b], [17b], [18b]
[ l b ] , [3b], [4b], [5b], [6b], [7b],
0.61 < D < 1.00 57 [8b], [9b], [10b], [14b], [16b],
[17b], [18b]
[ l b ] , [3b], [4b], [5b], [7b], [8b],
X 1.20 < D < 2.05 28
[10b], [ l i b ] , [14b], [16b], [18b]

T a b l e 4.3
(Gravel-like)

Symbol Range of D N o . of Sources


(mm) points
* 3.80 < D < 7.60 15 [2b], [6b], [7b], [10b], [17b]
+ 12.0 < D < 400 169 [3b], [9b], [10b], [13b]

i- Sand-like behaviour

B e i n g a s u b s t i t u t e of t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r X~i/~ \ t h e v a r i a b l e m u s t
b e e x p e c t e d to affect t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l f o r m a t i o n (via e a r l i e r o c c u r r i n g
r i p p l e s ) w h e n its v a l u e s a r e s m a l l . O n t h e basis of t r i a l - p l o t s ( s e e Ref. [26]),
it h a s b e e n f o u n d t h a t t h e least s c a t t e r of UBR a n d UHR o c c u r s w h e n is
of t h e f o r m

21
T h e scatter in dimensionless plots is, as a rule, larger by far than that in c o r r e s p o n d i n g
dimensional plots.
22
Actually, the experimental m e a s u r e m e n t s as such form only a minor reason for the gross
scatter in regime plots. T h e major reason is usually d u e to the subjective assessements
(which d e p t h and width of an irregular stream is the d e p t h and width of that stream; which
value of its t i m e varying Q is the channel-forming Q, etc.).

138
03
^(0 = 0.45 if < 15 and ^(0=1 if > 15. (4.70)

T h e f u n c t i o n <{() in t h e o r d i n a t e s of F i g s . 4.6 a n d 4.7 w a s e v a l u a t e d ac-


c o r d i n g t o (4.70).

1. Dimensionless flow width

C o n s i d e r Fig. 4.6. T h e first i m p r e s s i o n is t h a t t h e ( v e r y s c a t t e r e d )


p o i n t - p a t t e r n is s i m p l y p a r a l l e l t o t h e (Fr)R-axis; i.e. t h a t <t>BR - I I S / %? (f) is
2
i n d e p e n d e n t of (Fr)R a n d t h u s of Q (for (Fr)R = Q lghiBR) - which would
12
b e p r e c i s e l y w h a t is m e a n t b y t h e t r e n d BR~ Q (4.1.2). H o w e v e r , a m o r e
careful e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e p a t t e r n r e v e a l s t h a t it is n o t e x a c t l y s t r a i g h t a n d

(Fr) R
Fig. 4.6

h o r i z o n t a l : it c a n b e b e t t e r r e f l e c t e d b y a f a i n t l y c u r v e d l i n e , \ B say, w h i c h
e x h i b i t s a " d i p " a n d w h i c h c a n b e t a k e n as p a r a l l e l t o t h e ( F r ) R- a x i s (as
i m p l i e d b y t h e l i n e aB) o n l y for sufficiently l a r g e v a l u e s of (Fr)R. F o r small
(Fr)R, t h e line XB t e n d s to b e c o m e i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m t h e l / 4 - d e c l i n i n g
straight l i n e aB .

a) T h e u p p e r limit oB is of n o p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t : it m e r e l y c o n v e y s t h a t if
12
(Fr)R > 0.2, t h e n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y BR ~ Q holds, and

hR((Fr)R) 0.9 (4.71)

w h i c h is t h e e q u a t i o n of aB.

b ) T h e l o w e r limit oB i n d i c a t e s t h a t if (Fr)R < 0.05 (large l o w l a n d rivers;


v e r y fine s a n d ) , t h e n

139
*BR((Fr)R) (4.72)

w h i c h is t h e e q u a t i o n of aB'.

E x t e n s i v e s e r i e s of m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e c a r r i e d o u t o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d
of t i m e in l a r g e l o w l a n d r i v e r s of w e s t e r n R u s s i a ( i n c l u d i n g V o l g a , O k a ,
K a m a , D n e p r , e t c . [21], [22], [29], [30], [42]). U s i n g t h i s v o l u m i n o u s d a t a ,
M . A . V e l i k a n o v [30] p r o d u c e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d i m e n s i o n a l l y h o m o g e n e o u s r e -
lation:

(4.73)

w h e r e t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s factor a is t r e a t e d as a c o n s t a n t ( 2 . 5 ) . T h e v a l i d i t y
of t h e f o r m (4.73) w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y verified b y R.J. G a r d e [12], [13], w h o
h a s c o m p a r e d it w i t h a d d i t i o n a l d a t a f r o m v a r i o u s A m e r i c a n r i v e r s . S i m i l a r l y ,
u s i n g t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m e q u a l l y e x t e n s i v e m e a s u r e m e n t s c a r r i e d o u t in
r i v e r s of C e n t r a l A s i a ( i n c l u d i n g A m u - D a r y a , S y r - D a r y a , K a r a - D a r y a , e t c . ) ,
S.T. A l t u n i n [1] s u g g e s t e d t h e f o r m (see [42])

(4.74)

w h i c h is t h e s a m e as (4.73) as far as t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n BR, SR a n d


Q is c o n c e r n e d , if p is i d e n t i f i e d w i t h 1/2. ( T h e largest c h a n n e l - f o r m i n g Q
3
in t h e d a t a - s e t u s e d to d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s a b o v e w a s 8 0 0 0 r a / s , t h e
s m a l l e s t S w a s PSO.00002).23 T h e r e l a t i o n s of A r t a m a n o v a n d A n n a y e v ( r e -
p o r t e d in [42]) h a v e a l s o s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e .
L e t us n o w r e t u r n to t h e e q u a t i o n (4.72), w h i c h c a n b e e x p r e s s e d as

(4.75)

C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t for %ft = 1.65 (sand-or-gravel, and water), the value of


v*cr is g i v e n b y

.c, = y/{lsh)Sl>Ycr = y/{\.65)gDYcr = l.2X\/gDYc, , (4.76)


2
a n d t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t (Fr)R = c RSR, o n e d e t e r m i n e s f r o m (4.75)

23
T h e word " r e g i m e " is seldom used in Russian literature. T h u s the original "river-bed-
f o r m i n g " flow rate is used here as t h e regime-channel-forming Qy while the width and
slope of the "settled" river are identified with BR and SR.

140
(4.77)

and thus

(4.78)

w h i c h is t h e s a m e as ( 4 . 7 3 ) . H e r e ,

(4.79)

It follows t h a t t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s f a c t o r a i n ( 4 . 7 3 ) is n o t r e a l l y a c o n s t a n t : it
24
v a r i e s , h o w e v e r i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y , w i t h cR a n d f .
H e n c e , t h e 1/4-declining s t r a i g h t l i n e aB in F i g . 4.6 c a n b e v i e w e d as
t h e g r a p h of t h e f o r m ( 4 . 7 3 ) . T h e t o t a l c u r v e \ B in F i g . 4.6 is t h e g r a p h of
the comp-eq.
2
e ~ ^(Fr)R + Q9 (1 _ -4(KFr)
e R) 4 g( 0 )

2. Dimensionless flow depth

T h e p o i n t p a t t e r n in F i g . 4.7 a s a w h o l e e x h i b i t s r o u g h l y a 1/3-
m
d e c l i n a t i o n ( w h i c h w o u l d justify t h e t r e n d hR ~ Q ). However, here too, the
d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h i s o v e r a l l t r e n d a r e d e t e c t a b l e . S u b s t i t u t i n g (4.71) a n d
(4.72) i n t o t h e s e c o n d e q u a t i o n of ( 4 . 6 9 ) , o n e o b t a i n s t h e f o l l o w i n g e x -
p r e s s i o n s for t h e u p p e r a n d l o w e r l i m i t s ah a n d ah' of t h e c u r v e (which
a r e t h e / z - c o u n t e r p a r t s of cr f i, aB a n d \ B r e s p e c t i v e l y ) :

(4.81)

h- h R( (
F r
) R )
(4.82)

T h e s u b s t i t u t i o n of (4.80) in (4.69) y i e l d s t h e c o m p - e q . of t h e ( t o t a l ) curve


X,, itself:

24
T h e (fine-sand) bed of a lowland river having small Fr is invariably covered by d u n e s a n d
ripples; and their steepness in t h e regime state is nearly t h e largest. H e n c e ,
n
8 < c < 1 5 (see the " d i p s " in Figs. 3.34 a n d 3.35) a n d thus 3 < cR~ < 4 , which does
A 03 1/4
not reflect a significant variation. T h e same can be said for fa()IY" ~ / [ # ( O ] . (It is
thus not surprising that a was treated as a c o n s t a n t ) .

141
(Fr)

Fig. 4.7

L (Fr)R J

T h e l i n e s ah, ah' a n d \ h r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e a b o v e d e r i v e d r e l a t i o n s a r e i n
a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e p a t t e r n of d a t a - p o i n t s (Fig. 4.7).
F r o m t h e c o n t e n t of t h i s p a r a g r a p h it s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t , in t h e c a s e
12 m
of s a n d c h a n n e l s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l i t i e s BR ~ Q a n d hR ~ Q , strictly
s p e a k i n g , a r e v a l i d w h e n (Fr)R is sufficiently l a r g e .

ii- Gravel-like behaviour

In this c a s e , <^() = 1 a n d t h e o r d i n a t e s of t h e p l o t s in F i g s . 4.8 a n d 4.9


are and 11^ themselves.

1. Dimensionless flow width

T h e point-pattern in Fig. 4.8 is p r a c t i c a l l y horizontal at the level


1.42. Hence

n B j ? 1.42, (4.84)

w h i c h yields

(4.85)

2. Dimensionless flow depth

U s i n g (4.84) in ( 4 . 6 9 ) , o n e o b t a i n s
2 / 3 1 /3 l / 3
UHR = (1.42)- (Fr)- = 0.79(Fr)~ . (4.86)

142
2
10 -j i 1 1 1IIr-r -I 1 1 1IIrrj

10

R-Eq.(4.84) *+ +

1.42
+ +
1 -4 + + + + + + + # +

_ 1
10 -

10
1
10 10 "

(Fr) R ^
F i g . 4.8

T h e 1 / 3 - d e c l i n i n g s t r a i g h t l i n e r e p r e s e n t i n g (4.86) a n d the corresponding


p a t t e r n of e x p e r i m e n t a l p o i n t s a r e s h o w n i n F i g . 4.9.
2
10 - -1 1 1III I I
N 1 1IIR~R

10 d Eq.(4.86)

1 ^

10
2
10 " 10

(Fr) R-
F i g . 4.9

It f o l l o w s t h a t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of ILBR a n d UHR, for b o t h s a n d - a n d


g r a v e l - l i k e b e h a v i o u r s , r e s t s e n t i r e l y o n t h e k n o w l e d g e of (Fr)R. If (Fr)R is
k n o w n a n d UBR a n d UHR a r e d e t e r m i n e d ( w i t h t h e a i d of t h e e x p r e s s i o n s o r
g r a p h s p r e s e n t e d in t h i s s u b s e c t i o n ) , t h e n t h e r e g i m e s l o p e SR c a n b e c o m -
p u t e d f r o m ( 4 . 4 6 ) . (Fr)R is t h u s t h e " k e y " t o all t h r e e r e g i m e - c h a n n e l
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a n d its d e t e r m i n a t i o n is e x p l a i n e d in S e c t i o n 4.6.

143
4.5.2 Gravel channels with no bed forms
In this ( u p p e r ) l i m i t i n g c a s e of g r a v e l - l i k e b e h a v i o u r , w h i c h is s y m b o l -
i z e d in Fig. 4.5 by t h e c u r v e (Fr)g h a v i n g n o p o i n t s of i n f l e c t i o n , t h e e n e r g y
losses a r e d u e t o t h e g r a n u l a r skin r o u g h n e s s 2D o n l y , a n d t h e f r i c t i o n
factor is g i v e n by

(4.87)

Furthermore,
rtR = 1 i.e. gSRhR = v l cr . (4.88)

T h e r e l a t i o n s (4.87) a n d (4.88) a r e sufficient to f u r n i s h t h e e x p r e s s i o n s of hR


a n d SR - t h e e x p r e s s i o n of BR is a l r e a d y k n o w n ( E q . ( 4 . 8 5 ) ) . I n d e e d , s u b s t i -
t u t i n g (4.85), (4.87) a n d (4.88) in t h e r e s i s t a n c e e q u a t i o n

Q = BRhRcRy/gSRhR ,

one obtains
3/7

)( 2_)
1 /7
^ = (0.1437? 1 3 (4.89)

w h i c h , w i t h t h e a i d of ( 4 . 8 8 ) , y i e l d s

(4.90)

A d o p t i n g for g r a v e l c h a n n e l s Ycr - 0.05 a n d t a k i n g g = 9.81 m/s\ we obtain


f r o m (4.76)
1 2
v*cr = 0.90D ( w i t h [u* J = mis) . (4.91)

U s i n g this v a l u e of v*cr in (4.85), (4.89) a n d ( 4 . 9 0 ) , o n e a r r i v e s at t h e fol-


lowing (dimensionally non-homogeneous) relations:
2 5 0 50
BR = 1 . 5 0 D " - Q - (4.92)
0 7 0 43
^ = 0.15D- e - (4.93)
1 0 7 4 3
SR = 0.55D e~- , (4.94)

w h i c h a r e v a l i d for m e t r i c u n i t s o n l y . N o t e f r o m T a b l e 4.1 t h a t t h e s e r e l a t i o n s
c a n b e r e g a r d e d as " a v e r a g e s " of t h e r e g i m e e q u a t i o n s p r o d u c e d for w i d t h ,
d e p t h a n d s l o p e of g r a v e l c h a n n e l s (Refs. [13a] to [20a]).

4.6 C o m p u t a t i o n of BR, hR a n d SR

S i n c e t h e friction factor c = <c(f, 77, N) is d e t e r m i n e d by a t r a n s -


c e n d e n t a l e q u a t i o n (viz E q . ( 3 . 8 8 ) ) , n e i t h e r t h e r e g i m e v a l u e of c n o r t h a t

144
2 M
of Fr - a(c ri) IN c a n b e c o m p u t e d readily. C o n s i d e r i n g this, t h e following
c o m p u t a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e is s u g g e s t e d for t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of BR, hR a n d
SR.
It is a s s u m e d t h a t t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a r a m e t e r s
(4.1) a r e g i v e n , a n d t h u s t h a t t h e v a l u e s of t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e s X G 9
XD a n d ( a n d a) a r e k n o w n . O b s e r v e t h a t NR c a n b e e x p r e s s e d a s
1
AR = XDIIBR9 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e v a l u e s of NR a n d U B R a r e u n a m b i g u o u s l y
interrelated.

i- Sand-like behaviour:
1
1- A d o p t (BR)I a n d t h u s (TLBR)i a n d c o m p u t e Afo = XD(HBR)I.
2- K n o w i n g N R I, c o m p u t e f r o m
N 2 2
c = 4>c(t,1> *i) a n d Fr = a(c r)y INRl
(by e l i m i n a t i n g c) s u c h a n TJ = 77, w h i c h y i e l d s Fr = (Frt)m-m.
3 - U s i n g this (FRI)MIN ( a s (Fr)R) in ( 4 . 8 0 ) , c o m p u t e $ B r = (J\Br)x! + and
t h u s ( n B / ?) / + r.
If ( I I e / ) ?J 1+ = ( n S / ) ?; , t h e n t h e p r o b l e m is s o l v e d : UBR = (TLBR)I.
If (UBR)I+L ^(UBR)I9 t h e n r e p e a t t h e p r o c e d u r e b y u s i n g (UBR)I+L until
=
s u c h a n / = j is r e a c h e d w h i c h yields (UBR)J X+= (UBR)j ( n S / ?) .
4- K n o w i n g a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y BR, as w e l l a s (Fr)R, c o m p u t e hR f r o m
2
(Fr)R = Q /gBihR. A n d k n o w i n g TJR, c o m p u t e SR f r o m 7 / ^ = gSRhR/vlcr.

ii- Gravel-like behaviour:


1
1- C o m p u t e ILBR (from ( 4 . 8 4 ) ) , a n d A ^ = X D U B R.
2- K n o w i n g NR ( t o g e t h e r w i t h a n d a ) , c o m p u t e cR a n d t h u s (Fr)R from
2
cr = M^UNR) and (FR)R = a(c*iy /NR.
3- K n o w i n g UBR a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y BR, as w e l l a s (Fr)R, compute hR from
2
(Fr)R= Q IgBRhR and from 1 = gSRhRlvlcr.

In c a s e of d o u b t , it is a d v i s a b l e t o start f r o m ( i ) , i.e. t o start a s s u m i n g


t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r is s a n d - l i k e . If t h e r e l a t i o n s c = <c(, 77, N ) a n d Fr =
2 i2
= a(c rjy lN d o n o t yield a m i n i m u m for Fr i n t h e s e n s e of dFr = 0 f o r
7 7 > l ( a s r e q u i r e d b y i t e m ( 2 ) ) , t h e n t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l f o r m a t i o n is g r a v e l -
l i k e . I n this c a s e t h e p r o g r a m s h o u l d s w i t c h o v e r t o t h e g r a v e l - l i k e v e r s i o n
(ii) a n d s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m a c c o r d i n g l y .
S o m e e x a m p l e s of r e g i m e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o m p u t e d w i t h t h e a i d of t h e
5 2
a f o r e m e n t i o n e d m e t h o d a r e s h o w n b e l o w ( 7 s / 7 = 1.65, v = 1 0 ~ m / s ) .
3
1) Q = 1 6 6 9 . 7 r a / s , D = 0 . 1 8 m m ( B h a g i r a t h i R i v e r ; Ref. [7b]):

Computed: BR = 2 3 0 . 0 m hR = 8.00 m SR = 0 . 0 0 0 0 2 5
6 5
[ A f c w l O - ; (Fr)R = 0.010; 17* = 11.0; cR = 2 0 . 0 ]
R e p o r t e d in [7b]:
B = 218.1m h = 5.95m S = 0.000058
6 5
[ W ^ I O ; (Fr) = 0.028; 77 = 1 8 . 6 ]

145
3
2) Q = 1750 m / s , D = 0 . 4 0 m m ( S o l o R i v e r ; V . G a l a y , p e r s o n a l commu-
nication):

Computed: BR = 3 0 0 . 0 m hR = 7 . 1 0 m SR = 0 . 0 0 0 0 2 7
[ ; V R 10*; (Fr)R = 0 . 0 0 9 7 ; r,R = 9 . 1 ; cR = 19.0]

Reported:
B = 160.0 m / J = 5.20 m 5 = 0.000089
6 3
[N 1 0 ; (Fr) = 0.0870; r\ = 22]

3
3) Q = 4 0 m / s , D = 0 . 7 0 m m ( S o l o m o n R i v e r ; Ref. [ 1 5 b ] ) :

Computed: BR = 3 8 . 7 m / i R = 1.96m SR = 0 . 0 0 0 1 5
[ y V R 1 0 ; ( F r ) = 0 . 0 1 4 4 ; ^ = 7 . 3 ; cR = 9.8]

R e p o r t e d in [ 1 5 b ] :
5 = 38.0m /i = 2 . 3 0 m S = 0.00026
4 9
[N *t 1 0 ; ( F r ) = 0 . 0 0 9 3 ; T) = 14.8]

3
4) Q = 4 3 8 6 . 0 m / s , D = 3 . 1 0 c m ( N o r t h S a s k a t c h e w a n R i v e r ; Ref. [lib])

Computed: BR = 232.7 m hR = 6.60 m SR = 0 . 0 0 0 3 8 5


3
1 0 " ; (Fr)R = 0 . 1 2 0 6 ; r, R = 1 ; c R = 17.7]

R e p o r t e d in [ l i b ] :
B = 244.0 m h = 7.62 m S = 0.00035
3 b
[/V 1 0 ; (Fr) = 0 . 0 7 4 0 ; >7 = 1.12]

Special case: If t h e flow w i d t h is c o n s t a n t ( p r o t e c t e d r i v e r b a n k s , l a b o r a t o r y


f l u m e e x p e r i m e n t s ) , t h e n it is o n l y 5 a n d h w h i c h a r e s u b j e c t e d t o t h e r e g i m e
d e v e l o p m e n t . In t h i s c a s e t h e p o i n t s P0 a n d PR a r e o n t h e s a m e ( a s s o c i a t e d )
Fr-curve: the computations are simplified b e c a u s e I I B ( = ILBR) is known
beforehand.

S i n c e t h e r e g i m e F r o u d e n u m b e r (Fr)R is a p r o p e r t y ( I I A r) of t h e
p h e n o m e n o n d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p a r a m e t e r s ( 4 . 1 ) , it m u s t b e a f u n c t i o n ( t o
l
t h e m o s t ) of , XD a n d Xg ( s e e ( 4 . 2 6 ) ) . It is u n l i k e l y t h a t F r ~ g~ s h o u l d b e
d e p e n d e n t o n Xg~ g~\ a n d o n e w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t

(Fr)R=sTFr(t,XD). (4.95)

T h e v a l u e s of (Fr)R g i v e n by t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a (for b o t h s a n d a n d gravel)


a r e p l o t t e d v e r s u s XD in Fig. 4.10. T h i s g r a p h m a y b e h e l p f u l for e s t i m a t i o n
of t h e e x p e c t e d (Fr)R (shaded ribbon).

146
(Fr) R

I9 I I I LLLL| 1 8I I I I 1 I7 I I I! 111 1 I 6I (MIL 1 I I5


'L'LLLLL I I I I411 M| 1 TTTTTTT]
3 1 I I I 112 LL| 1 I I I I III]

10 " 10 " 10 ~ 10 " 10 " 10 " 10 " 10 " 10'' 1

Xo -
F i g . 4.10

4.7 R e g i m e C h a n n e l D e v e l o p m e n t

4.7.1 Development of the regime width and slope

i- T h e f o r m a t i o n of a w i d e a l l u v i a l c h a n n e l (itself) is d u e to t h e t i m e -
d e v e l o p m e n t of its w i d t h B a n d its s l o p e 5 . T h e s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t i n g flow
2
a c t i v e l y a l t e r s B a n d 5 s o as t o a c h i e v e t h e m i n i m u m v a l u e of c S ( = Fr).
In t h e p r o c e s s , h a n d Ks m e r e l y " a d j u s t " t h e m s e l v e s by satisfying t h e resist-
ance formula Q = BhcygSh a n d t h e friction f a c t o r e x p r e s s i o n c =
= *c{hlKs) =<t>c(^V,N)25

E x p e r i m e n t s h o w s ( s e e e.g. [2], [20]) t h a t B c a n o n l y i n c r e a s e d u r i n g


t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l R. ( T h e d e c r e m e n t of B c a n t a k e p l a c e
o n l y if ( t h e i m p o s e d ) Qs at t h e e n t r a n c e of t h e c h a n n e l is l a r g e r t h a n Qs
c a r r i e d ( n a t u r a l l y ) b y t h e flow in t h a t c h a n n e l ; t h i s , h o w e v e r , is n o t c o n s i s t e n t
w i t h t h e d e f i n i t i o n of R).
S i n c e A M m p l i e s QIBDv*cr, t h e i n c r e m e n t of B in t h e c o u r s e of a g i v e n
e x p e r i m e n t (i.e. for g i v e n Q, D a n d v*cr) m e a n s t h e d e c r e m e n t of N. E a c h
F r - c u r v e ( o n t h e (Fr; ?7)-plane c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a g i v e n ) is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
a c e r t a i n c o n s t a n t v a l u e of N, a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e F r - c u r v e s a r e b u t t h e
N= const c u r v e s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e N - f i e l d in a (Fr; r/)-plane: t h e l a r g e r is
N = const, t h e l o w e r is t h e F r - c u r v e (Figs. 4.2 t o 4.4). H e n c e a m o v i n g p o i n t
m ( i n Fig. 4.5) m u s t a p p r o a c h its " t a r g e t " PR (Psor Pg o n t h e r e g i m e
l
F r - c u r v e ) i n s u c h a w a y t h a t b o t h Fraud N ~ B~ c o n t i n u a l l y d e c r e a s e in t h e
p r o c e s s ( t h e p a t h s / of t h e p o i n t s m in Fig. 4.5 a r e d r a w n a c c o r d i n g l y ) .

ii- F r o m a s e r i e s of s p e c i a l ( r e c i r c u l a t i n g - f l u m e ) e x p e r i m e n t s [ 2 6 ] , it f o l l o w s
t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of S m u s t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e b y m e a n s of its d e c r e m e n t .

It is assumed that t h e d e p t h of the channel itself is only "slightly larger" than the flow
d e p t h h, at all stages.

147
2
If P0 is b e t w e e n Ps a n d P' ( s e e F i g . 4.5), t h e n t h e d e c r e m e n t of Fr - c S ,
d u r i n g t h e r e g i m e d e v e l o p m e n t of flow b e d , is a c h i e v e d b y a ( s t r o n g )
26
d e c r e m e n t of c \ a n d a ( n o t so s t r o n g ) i n c r e m e n t of 5 .
2 2 3a
E l i m i n a t i n g c b e t w e e n c = 0 C(,*7, N) a n d c S = (al'N)(c rf) 9 one can
c o m p u t e t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n S a n d TJ for v a r i o u s c o n s t a n t v a l u e s of f a n d
N. By d o i n g s o , it h a s b e e n f o u n d t h a t rj v a r i e s w i t h S as its i n c r e a s i n g
f u n c t i o n - for all p r a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e f a n d N ( F i g . 4 . 1 1 ) . H e n c e , t h e
i n c r e m e n t a n d d e c r e m e n t of S c a n a l w a y s b e i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e i n c r e m e n t
a n d d e c r e m e n t of rj (in a (Fr;r/)-plane).27

D =0.2 mm
^ D = 0.5 m m
"= D = 2.0 m m

E D = 0.2 m m
i D =0.4 mm
1 D = 2.0 m m

^1
Fig. 4.11

It follows t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e p o i n t m m u s t a l w a y s m o v e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n
of d e c r e a s i n g Fr a n d Af, n o r e s t r i c t i o n is i m p o s e d o n t h e d i r e c t i o n of its
m o t i o n a l o n g 77 ~ 5*.

iii- F r o m l a b o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h , it f o l l o w s t h a t t h e r e g i m e d e v e l o p m e n t of B
t a k e s p l a c e m u c h faster t h a n t h a t of 5 . In Ref. [20] it is r e p o r t e d t h a t in m o r e
t h a n 20 r u n s ( w i t h B0 < BR) " t h e a d j u s t e m e n t of t h e c h a n n e l w i d t h b y b a n k
e r o s i o n a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t c h a n g e of m e a n d e p t h t o o k p l a c e , o n a v e r a g e ,
in less t h a n 5 m i n u t e s ( = TB)"; a l t h o u g h " t h e r u n s l a s t e d n o t less t h a n 5
h o u r s a n d often as l o n g as 30 h o u r s . After t h e a d j u s t e m e n t i n c h a n n e l w i d t h
w i t h i n t h e first 5 m i n u t e s , n o s u b s e q u e n t c h a n g e i n w i d t h t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g
t h e rest of t h e r u n " ( p . 6 4 , Ref. [20]). T h e c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d a r e s h o w n
s c h e m a t i c a l l y in Fig. 4.12a, w h e r e t h e d u r a t i o n of d e v e l o p m e n t of r e g i m e
c h a n n e l (TR) is i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e d u r a t i o n of t r a n s i t i o n S0-+SR. The

26 2 m
In such cases, c ~ (h/Ks) decreases because of b o t h t h e d e c r e m e n t of h and the incre-
m e n t of Ks;~ A .
27
A l t h o u g h a simultaneous i n c r e m e n t of S and 77 may be intuitively expected, it is by no
m e a n s obvious; for r\ is p r o p o r t i o n a l to the p r o d u c t hS, w h e r e h usually decreases when
5 increases, and vice versa.

148
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h a n d c s i m p l y " f o l l o w " t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of B a n d S b y
satisfying t h e r e l a t i o n s m e n t i o n e d in (i). ( T h e t i m e 71 in F i g . 4.12 is t h e
d u r a t i o n of d e v e l o p m e n t of b e d f o r m s ) . It s h o u l d b e n o t e d (for f u t u r e refer-
e n c e ) t h a t , s i n c e t h e t r a n s i t i o n B0 - BR is v i r t u a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d (at TB)
w h e n t h e t r a n s i t i o n SQ -> SR h a s o n l y just s t a r t e d , the regime development of
S takes place for a nearly constant B& BR.

Fig. 4.12

F i g . 4.12 s h o w s t h e p a t h / of t h e m o v i n g p o i n t m in r e l a t i o n to t y p i c a l
times.

4.7.2 Initial channel

W e a s s u m e t h a t t h e " e x p e r i m e n t " ( d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p a r a m e t e r s ( 4 . 1 ) )
b e g i n s at t = 0 in t h e initial c h a n n e l ( f i 0 , hQj S0) h a v i n g a flat ( s c r a p e d ) b e d .

i- Sand-like behaviour

L e t t h e ( F r ) o - c u r v e a n d t h e ( / r ) 0 - c u r v e b e t h e F r - c u r v e s of t h e i n i t i a l
c h a n n e l : (Fr)0 - w h e n its b e d is flat; (Fr)0 - after it b e c a m e u n d u l a t e d ( F i g .
4 . 1 3 a ) . A t t 0, t h e b e d is flat and__the p o i n t m is e i t h e r at P 0 i , o r at P02,
o r ... e t c . , (in s h o r t , at Poi) o n t h e ( F r ) 0 - c u r v e . By t h e t i m e / = 7 1 , t h e b e d
b e c o m e s c o v e r e d b y s a n d w a v e s a n d m is d i s p l a c e d to Poi o n t h e ( F r ) 0 - c u r v e .

149
N o d e t e c t a b l e c h a n g e in B0 o r 5 0 c a n o c c u r d u r i n g 7^:28 t h e o c c u r r e n c e of
b e d f o r m s l e a d s o n l y t o t h e i n c r e m e n t of t h e i n i t i a l flow d e p t h f r o m h0 t o
hQ a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t o t h e i n c r e m e n t of 170/ t o T)Qi ( w h i c h is t h e r e a s o n for
Poi t o b e o n t h e r i g h t of Poi in F i g . 4 . 1 3 a ) . C l e a r l y , it is t h e p o i n t s Poi ( r a t h e r
t h a n PQi) w h i c h signify t h e l o c a t i o n s of t h e i n i t i a l c h a n n e l s o n t h e
(Fr;77)-plane.
C o n s i d e r t h e i n i t i a l ( F r ) 0 - c u r v e ( c o n t a i n i n g a p o i n t Poi) a n d t h e a s s o -
c i a t e d ( F r ) t f - c u r v e ( c o n t a i n i n g t h e p o i n t s Ps a n d (Pg)s). T h e (Fr)R-cur\e is
a b o v e t h e ( F r ) 0 - c u r v e , for its N - v a l u e is s m a l l e r (BR is l a r g e r t h a n B0). The
h o r i z o n t a l lines \ s a n d \ g p a s s t h r o u g h t h e p o i n t s Ps a n d (Pg)s'. t h e v e r t i c a l l i n e
X0 p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e l o c a l m a x i m u m p o i n t M 0 of t h e i n i t i a l ( F r ) o - c u r v e .
F r o m t h e g r a p h in F i g . 4.13a it is e a s i l y r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e ( m o v i n g ) p o i n t
m c a n t h e n o n l y r e a c h Ps b y a c o n t i n u o u s d e c r e m e n t of b o t h Fr a n d N, if
its m o t i o n starts f r o m s u c h a PQi w h i c h is i n t h e r e g i o n b e t w e e n t h e l i n e \ s
a n d t h e (Fr)R-curve - t o t h e r i g h t of X 0 ( p a t h s lx a n d l2 s t a r t i n g f r o m P0l
a n d P02). If m s t a r t s f r o m a p o i n t (P03) i n t h e r e g i o n b e t w e e n \ g a n d t h e
(Fr)R - c u r v e - t o t h e left of X 0 - t h e n it c a n n o t p o s s i b l y r e a c h Ps b y a
c o n t i n u a l d e c r e m e n t of Fr a n d N. I n d e e d , if its p a t h is / 3' , t h e n Fr will in-
c r e a s e in t h e p r o c e s s ; a n d if it is / " , t h e n N w i l l i n c r e a s e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
s t a r t i n g f r o m P 0 3 , t h e p o i n t m c a n r e a c h (Pg)s, by a c o n t i n u o u s m i n i m i z a t i o n
of b o t h Fr a n d N, if it m o v e s a l o n g t h e p a t h / 3. H e n c e , if t h e initial p o i n t
( P 0 3 ) h a p p e n s t o b e b e t w e e n \ g a n d t h e (Fr)R - c u r v e - t o t h e left of X0 -
t h e n t h e c h a n n e l f o r m a t i o n will b e g r a v e l - l i k e - in s p i t e of t h e fact t h a t t h e
( F r ) f l - c u r v e is s a n d - l i k e (i.e. h a v i n g a m i n i m u m p o i n t Ps). It follows t h a t t h e
n a t u r e of r e g i m e c h a n n e l f o r m a t i o n ( s a n d - o r g r a v e l - l i k e ) d o e s n o t d e p e n d
only o n t h e g e o m e t r y of t h e (Fr)R-curves; it d e p e n d s a l s o o n t h e n a t u r e of
t h e initial c h a n n e l ( o n t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e i n i t i a l p o i n t Poi o n t h e
( F r ; r 7 ) - p l a n e ) . [e.g. t h e p o i n t PQ3 " c a n n o t s e e t h e v a l l e y Ps b e y o n d t h e
( F r ) t f - h i l l o n its r i g h t ; h e n c e it s l i d e s d o w n t o t h e p o i n t Pg o n its l e f t " ] .
C l e a r l y , n e i t h e r Ps n o r Pg c a n b e r e a c h e d ( b y m i n i m i z i n g b o t h Fr a n d
N) f r o m a p o i n t P0 t h a t is a b o v e t h e (Fr)R - c u r v e o r b e l o w t h e l i n e s \ g o r
\ s : t h e r e g i m e d e v e l o p m e n t s i m p l y will n o t t a k e p l a c e for s u c h a n i n i t i a l
channel.

ii- Gravel-like behaviour


In this c a s e t h e p o i n t Ps o n t h e (Fr)R-curve is n o t p r e s e n t : n o r t h e p o i n t
M0 o n t h e ( F r ) 0 - c u r v e ( F i g . 4 . 1 3 b ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e is n o l i n e X 5, a n d t h e
r e g i o n b e t w e e n X g a n d t h e (Fr)R-curve e x t e n d s to t h e right indefinitely. T h e
p o i n t m c a n a l w a y s r e a c h Pg b y a c o n t i n u o u s d e c r e m e n t of b o t h Fr a n d i V ,
as l o n g as P0 is in t h a t r e g i o n ( p a t h / 4 ) .

28
It is assumed, in accordance with reality, that the d u r a t i o n TA required for the d e v e l o p m e n t
of bed forms is " s m a l l " in c o m p a r i s o n to TB (Figs. 4.12) which, in t u r n , is "small" in
comparison to TR (TA<TB<TR).

150
I I I I
I 1 -6^6 ^6 6 T
= lo2 T | o1 T l o1 | 0 g TJ

RJ = 1 log Tj

Fig. 4.13

It f o l l o w s t h a t t h e " a r b i t r a r i n e s s " of a n initial c h a n n e l is t h u s rather


r e s t r i c t e d - as is a l s o w e l l k n o w n f r o m e x p e r i m e n t ( s e e e.g. [2]).

PART II

4.8 R e g i m e Cross-Section

H e r e w e will b e d e a l i n g e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e r e g i m e c r o s s - s e c t i o n s , a n d
t h e r e f o r e t h e r e g i m e - s u b s c r i p t R will b e o m i t t e d . W e a s s u m e t h a t t h e c r o s s -
s e c t i o n is s y m m e t r i c a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c e n t e r l i n e : t h e b e d is h o r i z o n t a l ,
t h e b a n k s c u r v i l i n e a r . T h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l c o o r d i n a t e s y a n d z a r e s h o w n in
F i g . 4.14.

151
F i g . 4.14

L e t P b e a p o i n t o n t h e c u r v e f o r m i n g t h e b a n k . T h e c o o r d i n a t e s of
P, viz yt a n d z, a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d b y t h e b a n k e q u a t i o n yt = ip(z): the bank
i n c l i n a t i o n a n g l e 0, at P, is g i v e n by t a n 0 = - dytldz = - i>'{z). Clearly, the
f u n c t i o n yt = tp(z) satisfies

^(0) = h ; ip(z) = 0 ; ^ ' ( 0 ) = - t a n <f> ; f(z) = 0. (4.96)

A s is c l e a r f r o m F i g . 4.14, t h e s h e a r stress rt a c t i n g o n t h e b a n k s u r f a c e at
P is g i v e n b y

cos0 (4.97)

w h e r e 8A is t h e a r e a b e t w e e n t h e ( n e a r t o e a c h o t h e r ) l i n e s \ P a n d X/ which
a r e o r t h o g o n a l t o t h e family of i s o v e l s (u = const). Usually, the elementary
a r e a SA is a p p r o x i m a t e d b y t h e a r e a 8AX = h6z ( b e t w e e n the vertical lines).
Thus, one determines

rt 7 S ht c o s 6 (4.98)

w h i c h is c o m m o n l y u s e d t o d a y .

i- Gravel channel

In t h i s c a s e , t h e b e d of t h e regime channel is in t h e c r i t i c a l stage


(tj - 1), a n d so a r e t h e b a n k s . D i v i d i n g ( 4 . 9 8 ) w i t h r 0 = iSh, one obtains

COS0. (4.99)

O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e e q u i l i b r i u m of f o r c e s a c t i n g (at t h e critical s t a g e ) o n
a b a n k g r a i n gives

(4.100)

152
( s e e e.g. [ 1 5 ] , [16], [ 2 8 ] p 9 E q u a t i n g (4.99) a n d ( 4 . 1 0 0 ) , a n d b e a r i n g i n m i n d
t h a t ht = h - yt = h - tp(z) w h i l e t a n 6 = - tp'(z), o n e d e t e r m i n e s

(4.101)

w h i c h is t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n of t h e r e g i m e b a n k c u r v e yt = tp(z) of a
g r a v e l c h a n n e l . T h e i n t e g r a t i o n of (4.101) y i e l d s t h e f o l l o w i n g ( w e l l k n o w n )
trigonometric form:

(4.102)

ii- Sand channel


In t h i s c a s e , t h e r e g i m e v a l u e s of 77 = r 0 / ( r 0 ) c r a r e c o m p a r a b l e w i t h
1 0 ( F i g . 4 . 3 ) ; a n d t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l t r a n s p o r t s t h e s e d i m e n t - it is a
" l i v e - b e d " c h a n n e l . T h e r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s fact l e d t o m u c h d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e
p a s t ; it g a v e rise t o t h e " o p e n - c h a n n e l p a r a d o x " , w h i c h c a n b e s u m m a r i z e d
as follows.
If 7 7 10, s a y , a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n s a l o n g t h e flow b e d Bc ( F i g . 4 . 1 4 ) a r e
t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l , t h e n at t h e b e d - b a n k i n t e r f a c e b2 w e h a v e r 0 1 0 ( r 0 ) c r
> (r0)cr. B u t if s o , t h e n o w i n g t o t h e c o n t i n u i t y of t h e rt - d i a g r a m , t h e r e m u s t
exist s u c h a ( l o w e r ) p a r t of t h e b a n k s w h e r e rt > ( r 0 ) c r, i.e. w h e r e s e d i m e n t
is t r a n s p o r t e d (as a b a n k - l o a d ) . ^ H o w e v e r , s i n c e a n y w h e r e o n t h e b a n k s w e
h a v e a n o n - z e r o i n c l i n a t i o n a n g l e 0, t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e b a n k - l o a d t r a n s p o r t
c a n n o t b e p a r a l l e l to x: o w i n g t o t h e a c t i o n of g r a v i t y , t h e b a n k - l o a d r a t e
v e c t o r q^' m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e a d o w n w a r d - t o - t h e - r i g h t d i r e c t e d c o m p o n e n t
( q 5 / V B u t this m e a n s t h a t t h e b a n k m a t e r i a l m u s t b e c o n t i n u a l l y r e m o v e d
d o w n h i l l - w i t h n o r e p l e n i s h m e n t f r o m t h e t o p ( f r o m b{). H o w , t h e n , d o e s
t h e w i d t h of t h e c h a n n e l n o t c o n t i n u e t o w i d e n w i t h t h e p a s s a g e of t i m e ?
T h e r e a s o n for t h e p u z z l e is t h e a s s u m p t i o n of " n o r e p l e n i s h m e n t " .
I n d e e d , it is p e r f e c t l y p o s s i b l e t h a t w h i l e s o m e m a t e r i a l is b e i n g r e m o v e d
f r o m t h e b a n k , o t h e r is b e i n g d e p o s i t e d o n it. T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y w a s first r e -
c o g n i z e d b y H . A . E i n s t e i n [11]; t h e first m a t h e m a t i c a l t r e a t m e n t of t h e t o p i c
is d u e t o G . P a r k e r [ 2 4 ] . T h e p r i n c i p a l p a t t e r n of t h e d e r i v a t i o n in Ref. [24]
c a n b e o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s .
S i n c e t h e s t e a d y s t a t e r e g i m e flow is a s s u m e d t o b e u n i f o r m , t h e t i m e
a v e r a g e v o l u m e t r i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n C of s o l i d s t r a n s p o r t e d in s u s p e n s i o n d o e s
n o t v a r y in t h e flow d i r e c t i o n x. It v a r i e s as a f u n c t i o n of y a n d z o n l y :

C=4>c(y,z). (4.103)

A m o r e detailed analysis of the topic can be found in [23].


u
In analogy to b e d - l o a d " , " b a n k - l o a d " also consists of grains t r a n s p o r t e d at t h e flow
boundaries.

153
In Ref. [24] it is d e m o n s t r a t e d ( o n t h e basis of r i v e r d a t a ) t h a t , i n t h e b a n k
r e g i o n 0 < z < z, t h e v a l u e of C p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e c r e a s e s w h e n t h e b a n k s a r e
a p p r o a c h e d ( a t a n y level y ) , a n d at t h e b a n k s t h e m s e l v e s C is z e r o . In o t h e r
w o r d s , ( 4 . 1 0 3 ) is a n i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of ze [0 ; z ] , w h i c h h a s t h e p r o p e r t y
<t>c(yii z) = <t>c(i>(z), z) = 0. T h e p o s i t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n g r a d i e n t dCldz
i n e v i t a b l y i n d u c e s t h e t u r b u l e n t diffusion of s u s p e n d e d p a r t i c l e s t o w a r d t h e
b a n k s ((Q5S)z in F i g . 4.15). W h e n t h e s e p a r t i c l e s r e a c h t h e b a n k , t h e y d e p o s i t
t h e m s e l v e s o n it. A c c o r d i n g t o Ref. [ 2 4 ] , it is t h i s c o n t i n u a l d e p o s i t i o n w h i c h
c o m p e n s a t e s t h e e r o d i n g a c t i o n of t h e b a n k - l o a d c o m p o n e n t (q,&')i a n d k e e p s
the regime banks unchanging.3i

0
\ b, <
j

o' b2
* z *--* B c

Fig. 4.15

L e t (qss)z b e t h e v o l u m e of s u s p e n d e d s o l i d s p a s s i n g p e r u n i t t i m e ( d u e
t o t u r b u l e n t diffusion) t h r o u g h a u n i t a r e a p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o z. A c c o r d i n g t o
F i c k ' s l a w of diffusion,

(U:= -^-ff' ( -
4 104
)
w h e r e ez is t h e t u r b u l e n t diffusion coefficient a l o n g z. C o n s i d e r n o w a s e c t i o n ,
a s a y , p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e z - a x i s ( F i g . 4.15). T h e v o l u m e (Qss)zof s u s p e n d e d
s o l i d s p a s s i n g p e r u n i t t i m e t h r o u g h t h e a r e a hiX 1 of t h i s s e c t i o n is g i v e n
by

(GJz= \\lss)z<ly-
4
( -!0 )
5

S i n c e u n d e r t h e ( s t e a d y s t a t e ) r e g i m e c o n d i t i o n s , t h e v o l u m e of sediment in
fluid a n d t h e s h a p e of b a n k s r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d , t h e a m o u n t of s e d i m e n t
e n t e r i n g t h e fluid v o l u m e t o t h e left of a ( p e r u n i t t i m e ) , v i z (Qss)z, must
b e e q u a l t o t h e a m o u n t (qst>)t l e a v i n g it ( p e r u n i t t i m e ) , i.e. w e must have

(G) 2 + (fe')* = 0 for a n y ze[0;z], (4.106)

w h e r e (qSb)t is t h e m a g n i t u d e of ( q ^ ' ) * .

31
It should thus be clear that the time-invariance of the cross-section of a gravel-bed regime
channel is due to the static equilibrium; that of a sand-bed regime channel is due to the
dynamic equilibrium.

154
T h e o n l y d r a w b a c k of t h e d e r i v a t i o n s a b o v e lies in t h e i r r e s t r i c t i v e
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h e i m p r e s s i o n c o n v e y e d is t h a t t h e w i d e n i n g of a s e d i m e n t
t r a n s p o r t i n g s t r e a m c a n n o t s t o p u n l e s s it c a r r i e s a s u b s t a n t i a l s u s p e n d e d - l o a d
( w h i c h m i g r a t e s t o w a r d t h e b a n k s f r o m t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n Bc). T h i s is n o t so:
t h e r e a r e m a n y r e g i m e s t r e a m s w i t h a m o d e r a t e o r e v e n insignificant
s u s p e n d e d - l o a d . T a k e , for e x a m p l e , t h e s a n d c h a n n e l s t h e m s e l v e s . T h e i r r e -
g i m e v a l u e of 7] is c o m p a r a b l e w i t h 1 0 a n d t h e i r s a n d w a v e s h a v e n e a r l y
m a x i m u m s t e e p n e s s . H e n c e , it is h a r d l y l i k e l y t h a t t h e s u s p e n d e d - l o a d c a r r i e d
by t h e s e s t r e a m s c a n a l w a y s b e " s u b s t a n t i a l " . 3 2
T h e r e is n o n e e d t o s u p p o s e t h a t t h e b a n k t r a n s p o r t is n e c e s s a r i l y a
b e d - l o a d : it c a n b e a t o t a l - l o a d , f o r m e d b y a n ( i n s i g n i f i c a n t ) s u s p e n d e d - l o a d
and a b e d - l o a d (Fig. 4.16). W e a s s u m e that the s u s p e n d e d - l o a d disperses
1
bi

o' b 2
Nl

h b c

Fig. 4.16

along n only u p to a limited " c e i l i n g " 6S9 w h i l e t h e b e d - l o a d occupies a


t h i c k n e s s Sb ( < 6S). The concentration of s o l i d s c a r r i e d in s u s p e n s i o n in-
c r e a s e s a l o n g . T h u s , w e h a v e a p o s i t i v e g r a d i e n t dCldt, which must induce
(in a n a l o g y t o Ref. [24]) t h e t u r b u l e n t d i f f u s i o n of s u s p e n d e d p a r t i c l e s in t h e
negative -direction with the rate

(Qss)i= - jf^-ff- d
n
(->
4 107

C l e a r l y , t h e b a n k will r e m a i n i n v a r i a n t i n t i m e if

+ = 0 (4.108)

w h i c h is e s s e n t i a l l y t h e s a m e a s ( 4 . 1 0 6 ) . T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o ex-
p r e s s i o n s lies in t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In t h e c a s e of ( 4 . 1 0 6 ) , (Qss)z and {qSb)t
are from different sources ( o n e from t h e central region, the other from the
b a n k ) ; in t h e c a s e of ( 4 . 1 0 8 ) , (Qss)e a n d (qSb)t a r e from the s a m e source (they
both are from the b a n k ) .

As can be inferred from 3.3.3, t h e e m e r g e n c e of suspended-load is correlated with the


disappearance of sand waves (both are intensified with t h e i n c r e m e n t of TJ\ after it has well
exceeded 1 5 to 20, say). T h e turbidity of a tranquil river is often d u e to the non-settling
"washload" - not necessarily to the s u s p e n d e d - l o a d .

155
T h e e x p r e s s i o n s s u c h a s ( 4 . 1 0 6 ) a n d ( 4 . 1 0 8 ) , if a p p r o p r i a t e l y developed
and evaluated, can be used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s h a p e of m o b i l e b a n k s . How-
e v e r , for t h e p r e s e n t , e x p e r i m e n t is m o r e r e l i a b l e for this p u r p o s e . O n the
b a s i s of a n e x t e n s i v e s e r i e s of l a b o r a t o r y measurements, S. I k e d a [17] pro-
p o s e s t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p o n e n t i a l f o r m for yt - ip(z):
Z / A
yt = he~ , (4.109)

which can be considered t o b e v a l i d " r e g a r d l e s s of t h e ( m a g n i t u d e ) of d i s -


c h a r g e , s c a l e of f l u m e a n d k i n d of s a n d " [ 1 7 ] . T h e v a l u e of t h e l e n g t h A c a n
be determined33 by differentiating (4.109) and by taking into account that
when 2=0, then dytldz = - tan<. B y d o i n g s o , o n e o b t a i n s A = /z/tan^,
w h i c h y i e l d s for (4.109)

( t a n z0 )
=e" \ (4.110)

References

1. Altunin, S T . : Formation of alluvial streams. Proc. Academy of Sciences Uzb.S.S.R., Vol.


7, 1955.
2. Ackers, P.: Experiments on small streams in alluvium. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 90, No.
H Y 4 , July 1964.
3. Bettess, R., White, W.R.: Extremal hypothesis applied to river regime, in Sediment Transport
in Gravel-Bed Rivers, C R . T h o r n e , J.C. Bathurst a n d R . D . H e y eds., J o h n Wiley a n d Sons,
1987.
4. C h a n g , H.H.: Fluvial processes in river engineering. J o h n Wiley a n d Sons, 1988.
5. C h a n g , H.H.: Stable alluvial canal design. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 106, N o . H Y 5 , May
1980.
6. C h a n g , H.H.: Geometry of gravel streams. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 106, N o . H Y 9 , Sept.
1980.
7. C h a n g , H.H.: Minimum stream power and river channel patterns. J. Hydrology, Vol. 4 1 ,
1979.
8. C h a n g , H . H . , Hill, J . C : Minimum stream power for rivers and deltas. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E ,
Vol. 103, No. H Y 1 2 , Dec. 1977.
9. Davies, T.H.R., Sutherland, A.J.: Extremal hypothesis for river behaviour. W a t e r Resour.
Res., Vol. 19, No. 1, 1983.
10. Davies, T.H.R., Sutherland, A.J.: Resistence to flow past deformable boundaries. E a r t h Surf.
P r o c , Vol. 5, 1980.
11. Einstein, H.A.: Sedimentation, in River Ecology and Man, R. Oglesby ed., Academic Press,
1972.
12. G a r d e , R.J., Raju, K.G.R.: Mechanics of sediment transportation and alluvial stream prob-
lems. Wiley Eastern, New Dehli, 1977.
13. G a r d e , R.J.: Analysis of distorted river models with movable beds. Irrigation a n d Power,
No. 4, 1958.
14. G u p t a , R.D.: Total sediment load as a parameter in the design of stable channels. M.E.
Thesis, U O R , 1967.

33
Eq. (5) in Ref. [17] is a n identity: it does not supply any value for A.

156
15. Henderson, F.M.: Open channel flows. MacMillan, N e w York, 1966.
16. Ikeda, S.: Lateral bed load transport on side slopes. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 108, No.
H Y 1 1 , Nov. 1982.
17. Ikeda, S.: Self-formed straight channels in sandy beds. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 107, No.
HY4, April 1981.
18. Jia, Y.: Minimum Froude number and the equilibrium of alluvial sand rivers. E a r t h Surf.
Processes and L a n d f o r m s , Vol. 15, 1990.
19. Kondap, D.M.: Some aspects of flow in stable alluvial channels. P h . D . Thesis, U O R , 1977.
20. Leopold, L.B., W o l m a n , M.G.: River channel patterns: braided, meandering and straight.
U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 282-B, 1957.
21. Levi, I.I.: Dynamics of alluvial streams. (2nd edition) G o s e n e r g o i z d a t , Moscow 1957.
22. Makaveyev, N.I.: River bed and erosion in its basin. Press of t h e A c a d e m y of Sciences of
the USSR, Moscow 1955.
23. Nakagawa, H., Tsujimoto, T., M u r a k a m i , S.: Non-equilibrium bed load transport along side
slope of an alluvial stream, in Study on interaction between flowing water and sediment
transport in alluvial streams, Kyoto Univ., M a r c h 1986.
24. Parker, G.: Self-formed straight rivers with equilibrium banks and mobile bed. Part I. The
sand-silt river. J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 89, 1978.
25. Ranga Raju, K.G., D h a n d a p a n i , K.R., K o n d a p , D.M.: Effect of sediment load on stable sand
canal dimensions. J. Waterways and H a r b o u r s Div., A S C E , Vol. 103, W W 2 , May 1977.
26. Shizong, L.: A regime theory based on the minimization of the Froude number. P h . D .
Thesis, Dept. of Civil Engrg., Q u e e n ' s Univ., Kingston, C a n a d a (in p r e p a r a t i o n ) .
27. Song, C.C.S., Yang, C.T.: Minimum stream power: theory. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 106,
No. HY9, July 1982.
28. Stephenson, D.: Rockfill in hydraulic engineering. Elsevier, A m s t e r d a m , Oxford, 1977.
29. Velikanov, M.A.: Alluvial processes: fundamental principles. State Publishing House for
Physical and Mathematical Literature, Moscow 1958.
30. Velikanov, M.A.: Dynamics of alluvial streams, Vol. II, Sediment and bed flow. State
Publishing House for Theoretical a n d Technical L i t e r a t u r e , Moscow 1955.
31. White, W.R., Bettess, R., Paris, E.: Analytical approach to river regime. J. Hydr. Div.,
A S C E , Vol. 108, No. H Y 1 0 , Oct. 1982.
32. White, W.R., Paris, E., Bettess, R.: River regime based on sediment transport concepts. Rep.
IT 201, Hydraulic. Res. Stn., Wallingford, U.K., 1981.
33. Yalin, M.S.: Mechanics of sediment transport. P e r g a m o n Press, Oxford, 1977.
34. Yalin, M.S.: Theory of hydraulic models. MacMillan, L o n d o n , 1971.
35. Yang, C.T.: Energy dissipation rate approach in river mechanics, in Sediment Transport in
Gravel Bed Rivers, C . R . T h o r n e , J.C.Bathurst a n d R . D . H e y eds., J o h n Wiley and Sons,
1987.
36. Yang, C.T.: Unit stream power equation for gravel. J. H y d r . Engrg., A S C E , Vol. 110, No.
12, Dec. 1984.
37. Yang, C.T., Molinas, A.: Sediment transport and unit stream power function. J. Hydr. Div.,
A S C E , Vol. 108, No. HY6, J u n e 1982.
38. Yang, C.T., Song, C.C.S., W o l d e n b e r g , M.J.: Hydraulic geometry and minimum rate of
energy dissipation. W a t e r Resour. Res., 17, 1981.
39. Yang, C.T., Song, C.C.S.: Theory of minimum rate of energy dissipation. J. Hydr. Div.,
A S C E , Vol. 105, No. H Y 7 , July 1979.
40. Yang, C.T.: Minimum unit stream power and fluvial hydraulics. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol.
102, No. H Y 7 , July 1976.
41. Yang, C.T.: Unit stream power equation and sediment transport. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol.
98, No. HY10, Oct. 1972.
42. Znamenskaya, N.S.: Sediment transport and alluvial processes. H y d r o m e t e o i z d a t , Leningrad,
1976.

157
References A
Table 4.1

la. Leopold, L.B., Maddock, T.: The hydraulic geometry of stream channels and some
physiographic implications. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 252, 1953.
2a. Leopold, L.B., Miller, J.: Ephemeral streams - hydraulic factors and their relation to the
drainage net. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 282-A, 1956.
3a. Nixon, M.: A study of the bank-full discharges of rivers in England and Wales. Proc. Instn.
Civ. Engrs., Vol. 12, 1959.
4a. Nash, E.A.: discussion o n A study of the bank-full discharges of rivers in England and
Wales. Proc. Instn. Civ. Engrs., Vol. 14, 1959.
5a. Lacey, G.: Stable channels in alluvium. Min. Proc. Instn. Civ. Engrs., Vol. 229, 1929.
6a. L a p t u r e v , N.V.: Computation of stable channel beds in weak, fine-graided ground. Soviet
Hydrology, Selected Papers, No. 3, 1969.
7a. Ackers, P.: Experiments on small streams in alluvium. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 90, No.
HY4, 1964.
8a. Blench, T.: Regime behaviour of canals and rivers. Butterworth, L o n d o n , England, 1957.
9a. Blench, T., E r b , R. B.: Regime analysis of laboratory data on bed load transport. La
Houille Blanche, Vol. 2, 1957.
10a. Simons, D.B., Albertson, M.L.: Uniform water convergence channels in alluvial
materials. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 86, No. HY5, 1960.
11a. Bose (from Ref. [7a]), 1936.
12a. Inglis, C.C., Allen, F.H.: The regimen of the Thames Estuary as affected by currents,
salinities and river flows. Proc. Instn. Civ. Engrs., Vol. 7, 1957. See also
Inglis, C.C.: The effects of variation in charge and grade on the slopes and shapes of
channels. Proc. Third I A H R Congress, G r e n o b l e , 1949.
13a. Hey, R.D.: Design equations for mobile gravel-bed rivers, in Gravel-Bed Rivers, R.D. Hey,
J.C. B a t h u r s t and C R . T h o r n e eds., J o h n Wiley and Sons, 1982.
14a. (to 17a) Bray, D.I.: Regime equations for gravel-bed rivers, in Gravel-Bed Rivers, R.D.
Hey, J.C. Bathurst and C R . T h o r n e eds., J o h n Wiley and Sons, 1982.
18a. Glover, R.E., Florey, Q.L.: Stable channel profiles. U.S. B u r e a u of Reclamation Hyd.
Lab., R e p o r t Hyd-325, 1951.
19a. G h o s h , S.K.: A study of regime theories for an alluvial meandering channel. Proc. Second
Int. Symp. o n River Sedimentation, Nanjing, China, Vol. 1, paper C l l , 1983.
20a. Hey, R.D., T h o r n e , C.R.: Hydraulic geometry of mobile gravel-bed rivers. Proc. Second
Int. Symp. o n River Sedimentation, Nanjing, China, Vol. 1, paper C l l , 1983.

References B
Sources of D a t a Used for R e g i m e Plots

l b . Ackers, P. et al.: The geometry of small meandering streams. Proc. Instn. Civ. Engrs.
P a p e r 7328S, L o n d o n , 1970.
2b. Ackers, P.: Experiments on small streams in alluvium. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 90, No.
HY4, July 1964.
3b. Bray, D.: Estimating average velocity in gravel-bed rivers. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 105,
N o . H Y 9 , Sept. 1979.
4b. C e n t e r Board of Irrigation and Power: Library of canal data (Punjab and Sind). Technical
R e p o r t No. 15, J u n e 1976.
5b. C e n t e r Board of Irrigation and Power: Library of canal data (Upper Ganga). Technical
R e p o r t No. 15, J u n e 1976.
6b. C e n t e r Board of Irrigation and Power: Library of canal data (U.S. canals). Technical
R e p o r t No. 15, J u n e 1976.

158
7b. Chitale, S.V.: River channel patterns. J. Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 96, No. H Y 1 , 1970.
8b. Einstein, H.A.: Bed load transport in Mountain Creek. U.S. Soil Conservation Service,
SCS-TP-55, 1944.
9b. Hey, R.R., T h o r n e , C.R.: Stable channels with mobile beds. J. Hydr. Engrg., A S C E , Vol.
112, N o . 8, A u g . 1986.
10b. Higginson, N.N.J., J o h n s t o n , H.T.: Estimation of friction factor in natural streams. Int.
Conf. o n River Regime, W.R. W h i t e ed., Wallingford, 1986.
l i b . Neill, G.R.: Hydraulic geometry of sand rivers in Alberta. P r o c . Hydrology Sym., Alberta,
May 1973.
12b. Odgaard, A.J.: Stream bank erosion along two rivers in Iowa. W a t e r Resour. Res., Vol.
23, No. 7, 1987.
13b. Pizzuto, J.E. et al.: Evaluation of a linear bank erosion equation. W a t e r Resour. Res.,
Vol 25, No. 5, May 1989.
14b. S c h u m m , S.A., K h a n , H.R.: Experimental study of channel patterns. Geol. Soc. A m . Bull.,
83, 1972.
15b. S c h u m m , S.A.: River adjustements to altered hydrologic regime - Murrumbridge River
and Paleochannels, Australia. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. P a p e r 598, 1968.
16b. Shinohara, K., Tsubaki, T.: On the characteristics of sand waves formed upon the beds
of the open channels and rivers. R e p r i n t e d from R e p o r t s of Research Inst, for Applied
Mech., Kyushu Univ., Vol. 7, No. 5, 1959.
17b. Simons, D.B., Albertson, L.: Uniform water conveyance channels in alluvial materials. J.
Hydr. Div., A S C E , Vol. 86, No. H Y 5 , 1960.
18b. Struiksma, N., Olesen, K.W.: Bed deformation in curved alluvial channels. J. Hydr. Res.,
Vol. 2 3 , No. 1, 1985.

159
C H A P T E R 5

MEANDERING AND BRAIDING

P A R T I: M e a n d e r i n g

5.1 M e a n d e r G e o m e t r y

5.1.1 General

B e f o r e e n t e r i n g this c h a p t e r it m i g h t b e useful t o clarify first w h a t t h e


w o r d " m e a n d e r i n g " m e a n s . T h e u s u a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r i v e r s as s t r a i g h t ,
m e a n d e r i n g a n d b r a i d i n g is n o t of m u c h h e l p for t h i s p u r p o s e ; for, a c c o r d i n g
to this classification, e v e r y s i n g l e - c h a n n e l s t r e a m w h i c h is n o t s t r a i g h t m u s t
b e m e a n d e r i n g . In fluvial h y d r a u l i c s w e a r e i n t e r e s t e d n o t o n l y i n t h e
g e o m e t r y , b u t a l s o i n t h e p h y s i c s of t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y ,
meandering is not identified with any plan deformation of a
s t r e a m - h o w e v e r i n d u c e d . It is e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e d e f o r m a t i o n of a
m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m e x h i b i t s a t r a c e a b l e p e r i o d i c i t y a l o n g t h e g e n e r a l flow
d i r e c t i o n x , a n d t h a t t h i s d e f o r m a t i o n is i n d u c e d b y t h e s t r e a m itself: it
s h o u l d n o t b e " f o r c e d " u p o n t h e s t r e a m b y its e n v i r o n m e n t . C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s ,
it m i g h t b e a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e f i n e m e a n d e r i n g a s a self-induced plan de-
f o r m a t i o n of a s t r e a m t h a t is ( i d e a l l y ) p e r i o d i c a n d a n t i - s y m m e t r i c a l w i t h
respect to a n axis, x say, w h i c h m a y or m a y n o t b e exactly straight. A c c o r d i n g
t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , w h i c h will b e u s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g , a n a l l u v i a l s t r e a m
w h i c h d e f o r m s its i n i t i a l l y s t r a i g h t c h a n n e l i n t o o n e of t h e p e r i o d i c a n d
a n t i - s y m m e t r i c a l p l a n f o r m s s u c h as t h o s e s h o w n i n F i g s . 5 . 1 , is m e a n d e r i n g ;
w h e r e a s a s t r e a m f l o w i n g in a t o r t u o u s r o c k y t e r r a i n o r in a rigid s i n u o u s
flume, whose curvilinear plan pattern has not b e e n c r e a t e d by that stream
itself, is n o t m e a n d e r i n g , i

T h e present definition of m e a n d e r i n g does not involve a n y c o n c e p t peculiar to alluvial


streams only, and therefore it can be used for non-alluvial flows as well. T h u s , according
to t h e present definition, t h e flow between parallel walls in Fig. 5.17 is m e a n d e r i n g
(internally), for its d e f o r m a t i o n is induced by its o w n s e q u e n c e of bursts. Yet, the water-line
dragged by a d r o p rolling d o w n an inclined dusty glass plate ( t h o u g h often used as an
example to illustrate t h a t " m e a n d e r s can o c c u r e v e r y w h e r e " ) is n o t m e a n d e r i n g , for t h e
arbitrary sideways w a n d e r i n g of t h e water-line is forced u p o n it by the e n v i r o n m e n t (by
the irregularities of dust distribution o n t h e plate).

161
If t h e m e a n d e r l o o p s , o r half w a v e s , a r e s y m m e t r i c a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e
z - a x i s , p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e m i d d l e of 00\ as in F i g . 5.1a, t h e n it is s a i d t h a t
t h e m e a n d e r i n g is r e g u l a r ; o t h e r w i s e , it is i r r e g u l a r o r s k e w e d ( F i g . 5.1b).

F i g . 5.1

T h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r c o n c e r n s t h e r e g u l a r m e a n d e r i n g of a n i d e a l r i v e r i n a
cohesionless alluvium:^ the pertinent characteristics a n d notation are
s u m m a r i z e d in F i g . 5.2.

5.1.2 Sine-generated curve

i- It a p p e a r s t o b e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e p l a n s h a p e of a r e g u l a r ideal
r i v e r c a n b e r e f l e c t e d b e s t by t h e s i n e - g e n e r a t e d c u r v e

(5.1)

w h i c h " c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e s t h e s h a p e of r e a l r i v e r m e a n d e r s " ( p . 62 in [27]).


T h e r e l a t i o n (5.1) c a n b e t a k e n as t h e e q u a t i o n of t h e c e n t e r line;3 a n d its
o r i g i n c a n b e e x p l a i n e d as follows.
C o n s i d e r a g e o m e t r i c p l a n e c o n t a i n i n g t w o fixed p o i n t s a a n d b, a n d
a l s o a m o v i n g p o i n t m. T h e p o i n t m , s t a r t i n g f r o m a, m u s t a r r i v e at b after
a g i v e n n u m b e r N of e q u a l l y l o n g s t e p s . A t t h e e n d of e a c h s t e p , m c h a n g e s
its d i r e c t i o n b y a n a n g l e <t> w h o s e p r o b a b i l i t y of o c c u r r e n c e is a s s u m e d t o b e
d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n o r m a l l a w . S u p p o s e n o w t h a t e a c h of t h e

2
T h e reader interested in irregular m e a n d e r s is referred to the recent w o r k s [37], [38], [39],
[25].
3
If BIR is finite, t h e n the center line, the o u t e r and inner b a n k s a n d the thalweg are
different curves in plan. In this case it b e c o m e s uncertain w h e t h e r (5.1) is indeed t h e
e q u a t i o n of the center line; and not of t h e thalweg, say. T h e present choice of the center
line (which is easiest to define and detect) is thus only because of convenience.

162
i.z (axis of bend)

a (apex)
natural coordinates
point bar V//////A erosion
deposition

-f-t point of inflection


(crossover) X /(general
c direction
x

of flow)

cross-sections
atO

at a

F i g . 5.2

p o s s i b l e ( p o l y g o n a l ) p a t h s of m is s m o o t h e d , i.e. it is r e p l a c e d by a n a p p r o -
p r i a t e c o n t i n u o u s c u r v e . It h a s b e e n s h o w n b y H . V o n S c h e l l i n g [47], [48]
t h a t a m o n g t h e s e c u r v e s t h e l i k e l i e s t t o o c c u r is t h e o n e w h i c h h a s t h e
m i n i m u m o v e r a l l c u r v a t u r e , i.e. w h i c h satisfies

(5.2)

L. L e o p o l d a n d W . L a n g b e i n [27] h a v e f o u n d t h a t t h e m o s t p r o b a b l e p a t h
i m p l i e d by (5.2) c a n b e w e l l a p p r o x i m a t e d b y t h e s i n e - g e n e r a t e d c u r v e ( 5 . 1 ) ,
w h i c h w a s a d o p t e d b y t h e m for t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of t h e p l a n s h a p e of
meanders.
A l t h o u g h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of a r i v e r p a t t e r n in n a t u r e is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
a v e r y s t r o n g " r a n d o m e l e m e n t " , t h e m e a n d e r i n g as s u c h is n o t a n i n h e r e n t l y
r a n d o m p r o c e s s . N o r is it a p r o c e s s w h i c h o c c u r s in t h e f o r m of d i s c r e t e s t e p s .
B u t if so, t h e n t h e s i n e - g e n e r a t e d c u r v e s h o u l d b e d e r i v a b l e also o n a n o n -
p r o b a b i l i s t i c a n d c o n t i n u o u s b a s i s ; s u c h a d e r i v a t i o n is p r e s e n t e d b e l o w .

ii- S i n c e t h e sign of t h e c u r v a t u r e l/R a n d of its d e r i v a t i v e d(l/R)/dl =


= (l/R)' v a r y a l o n g /, t h e i n t e g r a l s of t h e s e q u a n t i t i e s a l o n g a n / - r e g i o n c a n
a c q u i r e p o s i t i v e , n e g a t i v e o r z e r o v a l u e s w i t h o u t t h r o w i n g a n y light o n
t h e a c t u a l m a g n i t u d e of \IR a n d (l/R)' in t h a t / - r e g i o n . C o n s i d e r , for
e x a m p l e , t h e l i n e s / a n d / in F i g . 5 . 3 . T h e l i n e / is, o n a v e r a g e , m o r e c u r v e d
t h a n /, a n d y e t t h e i n t e g r a l s of l/R a n d (l/R)' a l o n g lab m a y t u r n o u t to b e

163
l a r g e r , o r s m a l l e r , o r e q u a l to t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s a l o n g l a b. A s is w e l l k n o w n ,
s u c h s i t u a t i o n s a r e r e m e d i e d by o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e s q u a r e s of t h e q u a n t i t i e s
2
involved, rather than with those quantities themselves. H e n c e , [ l / / ? ] a n d
2
[ ( l / / ? ) ' ] will b e u s e d b e l o w in lieu of l/R a n d ( 1 / / ? ) ' (as e.g. in ( 5 . 2 ) ) .

Fig. 5.3

F o l l o w i n g Ref. [27], w e a s s u m e t h a t "... m e a n d e r s a r e n o t m e r e a c c i -


d e n t s of n a t u r e , b u t t h e f o r m in w h i c h a r i v e r d o e s t h e least w o r k in t u r n i n g
( p . 60 in [27]). C o n s e q u e n t l y , w e p o s t u l a t e t h a t if a r i v e r is to t u r n in a
m e a n d e r loop having a given average curvature (square)

m 2
(\IR) dl, (5.3)

t h e n t h i s l o o p m u s t b e s u c h t h a t t h e a v e r a g e r a t e of c h a n g e ( s q u a r e ) of its
c u r v a t u r e is m i n i m u m :
m
[(\IR)'fdl^ min. (5.4)

Introducing the dimensionless forms

(5.5)

w e c a n e x p r e s s (5.3) a n d (5.4) as

and (5.6)

w h e r e rjav is t o b e t r e a t e d as a g i v e n d i m e n s i o n l e s s c o n s t a n t . T h u s t h e d e -
t e r m i n a t i o n of 7} = 7i(0 is a n i s o p e r i m e t r i c v a r i a t i o n a l p r o b l e m . A c c o r d i n g l y ,
a u g m e n t i n g t h e f u n c t i o n a l o n t h e r i g h t of (5.6) i n t o t h e f o r m

fV - W)dC -+ m i n , (5.7)

164
where X is the Lagrange multiplier, and substituting the integrand
FtyiW) rf = 2
~ ^W 2 i n ot t eh
Euler form

(5.8)

w e a r r i v e at t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l equation
r?" + \r] = 0 . (5.9)

T h e g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n of ( 5 . 9 ) , viz

n =C!COS(X 1 / 2
C) + C 2s i n ( X
1/2
0 ( = - d$/dO, (5.10)
4
yields (by i n t e g r a t i o n )

(5.11)

Using the three boundary conditions


[ty(0) = 0 ] , [0 = 0 w h e n { = 1/4] and [0 = 0Q w h e n C = 0 ] , (5.12)

w e d e t e r m i n e for t h e t h r e e c o n s t a n t s i n v o l v e d
12
C 1 = 0, C 2 = 2TT0o and X = 2TT. (5.13)

Hence
9 = 0 () c o s (5.14)

w h i c h is t h e s i n e - g e n e r a t e d c u r v e ( 5 . 1 ) .

iii- N o t e t h a t t h e / - d e r i v a t i v e s (of any o r d e r ) of t h e s i n e - g e n e r a t e d curve


(5.14) a n d t h u s of t h e m a g n i t u d e of its c u r v a t u r e rj / L m , viz

(5.15)

v a r y c o n t i n u o u s l y a l o n g / ( t h e y a r e s i n e o r c o s i n e f u n c t i o n s of / ) . Figs. 5.4a
a n d b s h o w t h e p l a n v i e w of r a i l w a y t r a c k s f o r m e d b y t a n g e n t i a l l y j o i n e d
c i r c l e s . T h e c o n t i n u i t y of t h e s e t r a c k s a l o n e , i.e. t h e a b s e n c e of k i n k s in t h e m ,
is n o t sufficient t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e p a s s e n g e r s will h a v e a c o m f o r t a b l e j o u r n e y :
t h e y will e x p e r i e n c e a jolt w h e n e v e r t h e t r a i n p a s s e s t h r o u g h a p o i n t s u c h
as O w h e r e t h e 1 / / ? - d i a g r a m is d i s c o n t i n u o u s , a n d t h u s w h e r e t h e s u d d e n l y
2
a r i s e n ( o r c h a n g i n g ) c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e s ~ V /R a r e a c t i n g . N a t u r e w o u l d n e v e r
c r e a t e a c h a n n e l w h e r e m o v i n g fluid e l e m e n t s e x p e r i e n c e j o l t s a n d t h e

4
T h e integration constant is obviously z e r o , for 6 is distributed anti-symmetrically along /
(or x).

165
F i g . 5.4

s i n e - g e n e r a t e d f u n c t i o n is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s fact.5

5.1.3 Some consequences of sine-generated curve

F r o m (5.14), o n e obtains

(5.16)

O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , dx = dl c o s B y i e l d s

- c o s 0 = adC, cosd. (5.17)

E l i m i n a t i n g d( b e t w e e n (5.16) a n d (5.17) a n d i n t e g r a t i n g , o n e determines

(5.18)

and thus

(5.19)

(with = e/e0)

T h e e x p r e s s i o n o n t h e r i g h t is t h e Bessel f u n c t i o n of t h e first k i n d a n d z e r o - t h
o r d e r , JO(0Q): its g r a p h is s h o w n in F i g . 5.5a. H e n c e , in t h e c a s e of a s i n e -
g e n e r a t e d c u r v e , t h e s i n u o s i t y is c o m p l e t e l y d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e ( i n i t i a l ) de-
flection angle 0 O

5
T h e conditions associated with the schemes in Fig. 5.4 a r e , of course, well k n o w n to railway
and highway engineers. A n d these schemes are never used in an i m p o r t a n t project: the
circles are joined by special transitional curves. ( O n l y s o m e " m e a n d e r i n g s t u d i e s " were
conducted in flumes having plan shapes as in Fig. 5.4.)

166
(5.20)

O b s e r v e , f r o m F i g . 5.5a, t h a t w h e n 60 138 t h e n /o(0 o) = 0 a n d (5.20) y i e l d s


a - f oo. T h i s , h o w e v e r , c a n n e v e r b e r e a l i z e d , for t h e l o o p s b e g i n t o t o u c h
e a c h o t h e r a l r e a d y w h e n 0Q h a s g r o w n t o 126 ( F i g . 5 . 5 b ) . If 0O = 1 2 6 , t h e n
a 8 . 5 w h i c h is t h e m a x i m u m p o s s i b l e t h e o r e t i c a l s i n u o s i t y (of a s i n e -
g e n e r a t e d c u r v e ) . I n n a t u r a l r i v e r s , t h e v a l u e of a is s e l d o m l a r g e r t h a n 5 ,
say. F i g . 5.5c s h o w s t h e a g r e e m e n t of t h e f u n c t i o n (5.20) w i t h t h e d a t a o b -
t a i n e d in R u s s i a n r i v e r s ( d a t a f r o m Ref. [23]).

e0 (deg)

F i g . 5.5

N o t e f r o m ( 5 . 1 5 ) t h a t t h e l a r g e s t c u r v a t u r e ( s m a l l e s t R) is at t h e a p e x
(a) of t h e m e a n d e r l o o p , w h e r e l/Lm = ( = 1/4. D e n o t i n g t h i s R at a by Ra,
one determines

i.e. 6OJO(0O). (5.21)

T h e g r a p h of ( A m/ / ? a ) / 2 x is a l s o s h o w n i n F i g . 5.5a. O b s e r v e t h a t , for a g i v e n
( c o n s t a n t ) A m , t h e p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e m e n t of 0O ( f r o m z e r o o n w a r d s ) first

167
c a u s e s \IRa to i n c r e a s e , t h e n to a c h i e v e its m a x i m u m at 0 O 7 O , a n d t h e n to
d e c r e a s e a g a i n as to b e c o m e z e r o w h e n o oo (at 0 O 1 3 8 ) .
S i n c e t h e s h a p e of t h e s i n e - g e n e r a t e d c u r v e is s p e c i f i e d b y 0 O a l o n e , a n y
d i m e n s i o n l e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e l a t e d to t h e s h a p e of t h a t c u r v e , s u c h as
L / A
0\ m m - etc., (5.22)

c a n b e r e g a r d e d as g i v e n if 0 O is s p e c i f i e d ( a n d e a c h of t h e m c a n b e u s e d in
lieu of 0 O).

5.2 O r i g i n of M e a n d e r s

5.2.1 Meandering and horizontal bursts

i- F i g . 5.6 shows the meander length data plotted v e r s u s flow w i d t h B. As

B(m)

Fig. 5.6 (after Ref. [13])

s e e n f r o m this g r a p h , t h e l e n g t h A m of m e a n d e r s c a n b e g i v e n b y

A m 6 B , (5.23)

w h i c h is t h e s a m e as t h e e x p r e s s i o n of t h e l e n g t h Aa of a l t e r n a t e b a r s a n d
of t h e l e n g t h LH = (LH)\ of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s h a v i n g t h e b a s i c arrangement
N = 1 ( F i g . 5.7):
A m = Aa E E LH (~6B). (5.24)

168
LH 6B

\* -|
Fig. 5.7

Consider F i g . 5.8. It is t h e e x t e n d e d v e r s i o n of Fig. 3.16 w h e r e the


a v a i l a b l e field a n d l a b o r a t o r y d a t a of m e a n d e r i n g a n d b r a i d i n g s t r e a m s are
also p l o t t e d ( p o i n t s M\m a n d B\b r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . 6 T h e s c a t t e r of t h e p o i n t s is

h/D

F i g . 5.8 ( f r o m Ref. [43])

6
T h e Refs. to t h e data sources are given in "References A " .
River data:
Point-symbol M: [2a], [3a], [5a], [7a], [9a], [10a], [11a], [12a], [15a];

169
g r o s s , a n d t h e i r " d i f f u s i o n " f r o m o n e r e g i o n t o a n o t h e r is s u b s t a n t i a l .
N o n e t h e l e s s , o n e c a n still r e a l i z e f r o m this g r a p h t h a t t h e r e g i o n s of a l t e r n a t e
b a r s ( p o i n t s A) a n d m e a n d e r s , t h o u g h o v e r l a p p i n g , a r e n o t c o n g r u e n t : t h e
p o i n t s M e x t e n d m o r e t o t h e r i g h t a n d d o w n w a r d s t h a n t h e p o i n t s A, w h i c h ,
o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , e x t e n d m o r e t o t h e left t h a n M. T h e 1/3-inclined l i n e lx
a p p e a r s as t h e c o m m o n u p p e r b o u n d a r y for b o t h A a n d M\ m. T h e r e g i o n s
m e n t i o n e d a r e s k e t c h e d a n d l a b e l l e d in F i g . 5.9.

F i g . 5.9

T h e b a s i c a r r a n g e m e n t of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s d e p i c t e d in F i g . 5.7 is p r e -
s e n t a t a n y l o c a t i o n of t h e (Blh\ / z / Z ) ) - p l a n e w h i c h is b e l o w t h e l i n e lx. If
t h i s l o c a t i o n h a p p e n s t o b e b e t w e e n t h e l i n e s lx a n d lt ( z o n e s 3 a n d 1), t h e n
t h e h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t - f o r m i n g e d d i e s eH a r e r u b b i n g t h e b e d a n d in t h e i r final
s t a g e EH t h e y a r e also i m p i n g i n g o n t h e b a n k s ( F i g . 5 . 1 0 a ) ; a n d if it h a p p e n s
t o b e b e l o w t h e l i n e / c ( z o n e 2 ) , t h e n t h e e d d i e s eH a r e n o t r u b b i n g t h e
b e d - a n d yet at t h e i r final s t a g e EH t h e y a r e still i m p i n g i n g o n t h e b a n k s
( F i g . 5.10b).
In t h e c a s e d e p i c t e d in F i g . 5.10b, w h e r e n o b e d - r u b b i n g h o r i z o n t a l
eddies and thus no alternate bars are present, the m e a n d e r s originate because
of t h e d i r e c t a c t i o n of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s (i.e. of t h e i r e d d i e s EH) o n t h e b a n k s
- w h e r e b y t h e y i m p r i n t o n t h e l a t t e r t h e i r l e n g t h LH & 6B i n t h e f o r m of
m e a n d e r l e n g t h A m 6 B ( z o n e 2 in F i g . 5.9, w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e p o i n t s M ,
b u t n o t A). In t h e c a s e d e p i c t e d in Fig. 5.10a, w h e r e t h e b e d - r u b b i n g e d d i e s
eH a n d t h u s t h e a l t e r n a t e b a r s a r e p r e s e n t , it is t h e s e b a r s w h i c h c o m e i n t o
b e i n g first (i.e. b e f o r e t h e b a n k s c a n b e d e f o r m e d a p p r e c i a b l y b y t h e d i r e c t
a c t i o n of EH). T h e ( e a r l i e r ) f o r m a t i o n of a l t e r n a t e b a r s - w h o s e w a v e l e n g t h

Point-symbol B\ [2a], [5a], [6a], [13a], [16a], [17a].


Laboratory data :
Point-symbol m : [ l a ] , [4a], [14a];
Point-symbol b: [4a], [8a], [14a].
F o r data sources of point-symbols A, C and D, see footnote 19 in C h a p t e r 3.

170
n i h h i n n the
rubbing t h p bed
hfiH

^ not rubbing the bed

F i g . 5.10

is t h e s a m e as t h a t of m e a n d e r s - c a n b e v i e w e d a s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of
" g u i d e - v a n e s " w h i c h direct a n d regularize t h e flow so as to initiate
m e a n d e r i n g i n t h e m o s t efficient m a n n e r ( z o n e 1 i n F i g . 5 . 9 , w h i c h c o n t a i n s
t h e p o i n t s M , as w e l l as A). T h e i n i t i a t i o n of m e a n d e r i n g w i t h t h e a i d of
a l t e r n a t e b a r s is s h o w n s c h e m a t i c a l l y in F i g . 5 . 1 1 .

Fig. 5.11 ( f r o m Ref. [46])

T h e fact t h a t m e a n d e r s c a n b e p r e s e n t w h e n a l t e r n a t e b a r s a r e n o t
p r e s e n t (all p o i n t s M in F i g . 5.8 w h i c h a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a n d s u b s t a n t i a l l y
b e l o w t h e l o w e r limit lt of t h e a l t e r n a t e b a r r e g i o n ) is a sufficient i n d i c a t i o n
t h a t a l t e r n a t e b a r s cannot b e t h e c a u s e of m e a n d e r s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p r e -
v a i l i n g v i e w (Refs. [ 1 ] , [ 2 2 ] , [ 2 3 ] , [ 3 1 ] , [46]), a l t e r n a t e b a r s a r e m e r e l y t h e
" c a t a l y s t s " w h i c h a c c e l e r a t e t h e f o r m a t i o n of m e a n d e r s , w h i c h w o u l d t a k e
p l a c e e v e n w i t h o u t t h e m : t h e " p r i m e m o v e r " of t h e p e r i o d i c b e d a n d b a n k
d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e l e n g t h &6B is t h e s e q u e n c e of h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s .

ii- L e t Rm b e t h e " m e a n d e r - r e g i o n " , i.e. t h e p a r t of t h e (B/h; /z/D)-plane that


is w i t h i n t h e ( s h a d e d ) a r e a abed i n F i g . 5.9.

1- If a p o i n t P of t h e (B/h; / z / D ) - p l a n e is s i t u a t e d a b o v e t h e l i n e U f o r m i n g
t h e u p p e r b o u n d a r y of Rm, t h e n t h e e d d i e s EH c a n n o t r e a c h t h e o p p o s i t e
b a n k . In this c a s e , n e i t h e r a l t e r n a t e b a r s n o r m e a n d e r s c a n f o r m . A n d this
is w h y t h e l i n e U is t h e c o m m o m u p p e r b o u n d a r y of t h e m b o t h .

171
2- If t h e p o i n t P is s i t u a t e d b e l o w t h e l i n e le, t h e n t h e h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s a r e
n o t r u b b i n g t h e b e d a n d t h e e d d i e s EH c a n affect o n l y t h e u p p e r p a r t s of
t h e b a n k s . T h e h e i g h t of t h e affected r e g i o n is c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h e
t h i c k n e s s e m ax of t h e e d d y EH. S i n c e m a ~x EH~ B, t h e s m a l l e r is
w / ^ ~ Blh, t h e less significant m u s t b e t h e b a n k d e f o r m a t i o n c a u s e d b y
t h e i m p i n g e m e n t of EH. A n d if e m a /x / * ~ Blh is sufficiently s m a l l , t h e n t h e
e d d i e s EH s h o u l d n o t b e a b l e t o d e f o r m t h e b a n k s at all; h e n c e t h e r e a s o n
for t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e l o w e r l i m i t of Rm (Blh^A in F i g . 5.8, l i n e ab in
Fig. 5.9).

3- T h e o c c u r r e n c e of t h e p o i n t P w i t h i n t h e m e a n d e r r e g i o n Z? w, in s h o r t
Pe Rm, is o n l y a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n for t h e o c c u r r e n c e of m e a n d e r i n g (all
m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m s satisfy Pe Rm). However, there are many sediment
t r a n s p o r t i n g s t r e a m s w h i c h satisfy Pe Rm, a n d y e t w h i c h d o n o t m e a n d e r .
T h e n e c e s s a r y a n d sufficient c o n d i t i o n s for m e a n d e r i n g will b e i n t r o d u c e d
in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n .

5.2.2 Regime slope and valley slope

i- C o n s i d e r a n e x p e r i m e n t w h i c h s t a r t s at t - 0 in a s t r a i g h t initial c h a n n e l
e x c a v a t e d in a n a l l u v i a l v a l l e y - t h e s l o p e of t h e i n i t i a l c h a n n e l is t h e s a m e
as t h e v a l l e y s l o p e :
S0 = S v . (5.25)

W e a s s u m e t h a t t h e g r a n u l a r m a t e r i a l a n d fluid a r e specified,
Q = const is g i v e n , a n d r/0 > 1 . W e a l s o a s s u m e t h a t t h e initial c h a n n e l
( B 0 , ho, So) is s u c h t h a t t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l (BR, hR, SR) is
p o s s i b l e ( s e e 4.7.2).
T h e t r a n s i t i o n B0->BR t a k e s p l a c e m u c h faster t h a n S0-*SR9 and
t h e r e f o r e t h e t i m e - d e v e l o p m e n t of 5 o c c u r s for t h e p r a c t i c a l l y c o n s t a n t
7
B BR (4.7.1 ( i i i ) ) . S i n c e for a g i v e n e x p e r i m e n t Q a n d B BR a r e c o n -
s t a n t s , w h i l e h a n d c m e r e l y " a d j u s t " t h e m s e l v e s d e p e n d i n g o n Q, B a n d 5
(4.7.1 (i)), t h e d e v e l o p m e n t SR u n a m b i g u o u s l y reflects t h e t r e n d
2
Fr = c S m i n w h i c h m o t i v a t e s t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t . If Sv < SR, t h e n t h e
d e v e l o p m e n t of S c a n b e o n l y b y a g g r a d a t i o n . If, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
Sv > SR, t h e n t w o " o p t i o n s " a r e o p e n to t h e s t r e a m : d e g r a d a t i o n a n d
m e a n d e r i n g (Figs. 5.12a a n d b r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . A n d , in g e n e r a l , t h e s t r e a m
" t a k e s " a c e r t a i n c o m b i n a t i o n of b o t h .
H e n c e , a c c o r d i n g to t h e p r e s e n t a p p r o a c h , t h e t i m e g r o w t h of l o o p s ( o r
w a v e s ) of a m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m , a n d t h u s of its s i n u o s i t y cr, is b e c a u s e this
s t r e a m " e n d e a v o u r s " t o r e d u c e its s l o p e t o SR. [ E s s e n t i a l l y t h e s a m e a s s e r t i o n

7
In an actual m e a n d e r i n g stream, B varies along / only because of accidental reasons [4],
[23], [52]: no systematic relation ~ f(l/LmJQ) is present. H e n c e it is not an averaged-
along Lm value of B, but theoretically the same-for-any / value of B (&BR)y which is re-
ferred to here.

172
w a s m a d e p r e v i o u s l y b y H . C h a n g [4], [5] - t h e d i f f e r e n c e is o n l y in t h e
t e r m i n o l o g y , a n d in t h e m e t h o d s a d o p t e d for t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e " t a r g e t
s l o p e " ( w h i c h in t h i s t e x t is SR)].

Fig. 5.12

ii- F r o m t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s a b o v e , it follows t h a t t h e s l o p e 5 of a m e a n d e r i n g
s t r e a m m u s t , at a n y s t a g e of its d e v e l o p m e n t , b e w i t h i n t h e i n t e r v a l
Sv> S> SR (for a n y t), (5.26)

a n d s i n c e t h e v a l l e y s l o p e Sv h a s t o b e r e g a r d e d as a r b i t r a r y , t h e S - v a l u e s
of m e a n d e r i n g r i v e r s m u s t b e s p r e a d in t h e r e g i o n S > SR. T h e n a t u r a l r i v e r
d a t a a p p e a r t o c o n f i r m t h i s ( F i g . 5.13).8
C o n s i d e r n o w t h e p l o t in F i g . 5.14. It i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s i n u o s i t y o t e n d s
t o d e c r e a s e w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of s l o p e of m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m s : o r , w h i c h is
t h e s a m e , w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of t h e i r r e l a t i v e g r a i n size Dlh (for t h e p r o b a -
bility t o p o s s e s s a c e r t a i n ?y~ S(hlD) is c o m p a r a b l e for all of t h e m ) . T h e
t r e n d e x h i b i t e d in Fig. 5.14 is n o t s u r p r i s i n g . I n d e e d , let u s i n t e r p r e t t h i s
t r e n d i n t e r m s of t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d t w o " o p t i o n s " , viz d e g r a d a t i o n a n d
m e a n d e r i n g , b y m e a n s of w h i c h a s t r e a m c a n r e d u c e its s l o p e f r o m Sv t o
SR. S i n c e Sv is a r b i t r a r y , t h e s a m e v a l u e of t h e r a t i o SV/SR c a n b e p r e s e n t i n
a s t r e a m c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a n y S o r Dlh. A n d t h e fact t h a t s t r e a m s h a v i n g
large S a n d D (gravel bed rivers) exhibit a small a c a n only m e a n that they
a c h i e v e t h e i r r e g i m e s l o p e s SR m a i n l y b y d e g r a d a t i o n . C o n v e r s e l y , s t r e a m s

8
T h e Refs. to t h e data sources are given in "References A":
Sand rivers: [2a], [3a], [5a], [7a], [9a], [10a], [15a].
Gravel rivers: [5a], [11a], [12a].
SR values were c o m p u t e d according to the m e t h o d in Section 4.6.

173
2 S=S R
10 "

*
A It
3 A
10 "

IZS
A. A
CO l, A y L
A
4 A A
io-

a Sand
/ * Gravel

10 ~
5
/ I
Refs. in footnote 8)
I I I I I I Ml!
6 5 4 3 2
10 " 10 " 10 " 10 ~ 10 "

SR ^

F i g . 5.13

which have small S and D (large fine s a n d b e d rivers), a n d which exhibit


l a r g e a , a c q u i r e t h e i r SR m a i n l y b y m e a n d e r i n g .
L e t pm[Sv/SR] b e t h a t p a r t of SV/SR w h i c h is " c o v e r e d " b y m e a n d e r i n g
( a n d (1 - pm)[Sv/SR] by d e g r a d a t i o n ) . A s s u m i n g that the s a m e proportion
applies to the development of S (and thus of a) corresponding to any
r e [0; T m] , w e c a n w r i t e for a m e a n d e r i n g experiment

1 < [a = 1 + nm(SJS - 1)] < \oR = 1 + Hm(SJSR - 1)], (5.27)

w h e r e the lower a n d u p p e r limits c o r r e s p o n d to t = 0 a n d t > Tm respec-


tively. C l e a r l y :

if \im = 1 t h e n 1 < a = Sv/S < aR = Sv/Sr (only m e a n d e r i n g ) ,

(5.28)
if n m = 0 t h e n 1 = o = oR ( o n l y d e g r a d a t i o n ) .

4
active
low activity some high sinuosity1 active low sinuosity mountain streams (confined, boulder beds)
^-D/h
annual %
3
[channel c h a n g e
A 5.0
4-4.9
* 3-3.9 .river reaches in Wales
+ 2-2.9 a n d the Borderland
a
o 1 -1.9
2 -
. < 1
+
o *

i
i
10
5
F i g . 5.14 ( f r o m Ref. [30])

174
It w o u l d c e r t a i n l y b e w o r t h w h i l e t o r e v e a l b y f u t u r e r e s e a r c h h o w t h e
f a c t o r fim is d e t e r m i n e d ( b y SV9 h/D, Blh, e t c . ) i n its i n t e r v a l 0 < / i m < 1.
T h e following should b e noted:

1- W h e n BID ( o r hID) d e c r e a s e s , t h e n t h e p r o m i n e n c e of a l t e r n a t e b a r s in-


c r e a s e s ( E q . ( 3 . 7 8 ) ) , w h e r e a s t h e p r o m i n e n c e of m e a n d e r s d e c r e a s e s ( F i g .
5.14). It a p p e a r s t h a t g r a v e l s t r e a m s p r o d u c e " g o o d b a r s " a n d " b a d
m e a n d e r s " , w h e r e a s l a r g e r i v e r s w i t h fine s a n d d o t h e o p p o s i t e .

2- A l t h o u g h t h e p l o t in F i g . 5.14 s h o w s t h a t w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of 5 ( a n d t h u s
w i t h t h e d e c r e m e n t of hID) the sinuosity a t e n d s to b e c o m e unity, this
g r a p h c a n n o t s u p p l y t h e c o n d i t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a - f 1. H e n c e , t h e
left-hand boundary (bc) of t h e m e a n d e r region Rm, viz BID-
3
= (Blh)(hID) 1 0 , w a s d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e b a s i s of t h e p o p u l a t i o n of
9
M - p o i n t s in F i g . 5 . 8 .

3 - It h a s b e e n often m e n t i o n e d ( b u t n e v e r c l a r i f i e d ) t h a t t h e s m a l l s c a l e
l a b o r a t o r y s t r e a m s a r e n o t a b l e t o m e a n d e r e x t e n s i v e l y ( w i t h " l a r g e " o)
[ 2 3 ] , [41]. It s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t a c e r t a i n g r a i n size D c a n b e p o s s e s s e d
b y all s t r e a m s , l a r g e o r s m a l l , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e s m a l l e r t h e s t r e a m , t h e
s m a l l e r its v a l u e of BID is likely t o b e . A n d s i n c e a d e c r e a s e s w i t h t h e
d e c r e m e n t of BID, it is o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t t h e m e a n d e r i n g of s m a l l s t r e a m s
should only be limited.

5.2.3 Necessary and sufficient conditions for meandering

i- F r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r t s of t h i s s e c t i o n it f o l l o w s t h a t a n i n i t i a l l y s t r a i g h t
t r a n q u i l s t r e a m in a c o h e s i o n l e s s a l l u v i u m c a n m e a n d e r o n l y if it satisfies t h e
following necessary conditions:

1- it t r a n s p o r t s t h e s e d i m e n t ( o t h e r w i s e t h e flow b o u n d a r i e s c a n n o t
deform),
2- it is t u r b u l e n t ( o t h e r w i s e t h e r e will b e n o b u r s t s t o i n i t i a t e t h e
p e r i o d i c b a n k d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e w a v e l e n g t h A m & LH&6B)W
3- its s l o p e is l a r g e r t h a n t h e r e g i m e s l o p e ( o t h e r w i s e t h e s t r e a m w i l l
n o t " e n d e a v o u r " t o r e d u c e its s l o p e b y i n c r e a s i n g its l e n g t h , w h i c h
brings the sinuosity a into being),

9
T h e u p p e r and lower b o u n d a r i e s (cd and ab) of Rm are associated with certain physical
changes; hence, they are (sharp) lines. In contrast t o this, bc is but a c e n t e r line of a
transitional z o n e where the sinuosity o is gradually "fading a w a y " (with the d e c r e m e n t of
BID = (Bih)(h/D)).
10
A series of laboratory experiments was conducted with s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t i n g l a m i n a r flows
(rj > 2; Re < 200 - various percentages of water-glycerine mixture. 3m-long fine sand a n d
polystyrene channels were used. Tests by H.A. B r o w n u n d e r the a u t h o r ' s supervision
- G r a d . Hydr. Lab., Q u e e n ' s Univ., 1987). N o repetitive along x d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e
channel bed or banks could have been obtained - despite t h e utilization of n u m e r o u s
combinations of i/, h, S and Bih.

175
4- its i n i t i a l v a l u e s of B/h a n d h/D (at t = 0) m u s t b e s u c h t h a t t h e
initial p o i n t P0 is i n a c e r t a i n r e g i o n , viz in t h e m e a n d e r r e g i o n
7 ? m, of t h e (B/h; / * / D ) - p l a n e ( o t h e r w i s e t h e h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t se-
q u e n c e s will n o t b e of t h e t y p e n e e d e d to d e f o r m t h e b a n k s in t h e
a n t i - s y m m e t r i c a l a n d p e r i o d i c ( a l o n g x) m a n n e r ) .

T h e t o t a l i t y of t h e s e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r m s t h e set of t h e necessary
and sufficient c o n d i t i o n s for a n a l l u v i a l s t r e a m t o m e a n d e r . T h i s set c a n b e
s h o w n s y m b o l i c a l l y as

17 > 1 ; Re > ^ 5 0 0 ; Sv > SR ; PQe Rm. (5.29)

ii- S i n c e t h e m e a n d e r i n g of a n a l l u v i a l s t r e a m is b u t a p a r t of its r e g i m e
d e v e l o p m e n t (it is t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of its r e g i m e s l o p e SR for t h e a l r e a d y
( n e a r l y ) f o r m e d BR), the characteristic parameters determining meandering
m u s t b e t h e s a m e a s t h o s e d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e g i m e d e v e l o p m e n t . If t h e s t r e a m
is t h e c h a n n e l R i n C h a p t e r 4 , t h e n its m e a n d e r i n g is d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e
p a r a m e t e r s (4.1), viz

i / , 7 5, D , g , (5.30)

a n d b y t h e fact t h a t Sv > SR, of c o u r s e . [ T h e n a t u r e of t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l


(R o r o t h e r w i s e ) h a s n o b e a r i n g o n t h e s t a t e m e n t s m a d e h i t h e r t o w i t h r e g a r d
t o m e a n d e r s (as l o n g a s t h a t r e g i m e c h a n n e l d o e s n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o a " g i v e n "
S) - a l t h o u g h it m a y affect t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e of t h e t a r g e t s l o p e ( p r e s e n t

5.2.4 (B/h; h/D)-plane

i- F r o m t h e r e s i s t a n c e e q u a t i o n QI(Bh) = c*\/gSh , one obtains

25
( w i t h a = (Q/D )/(c\^JS)l (5.31)

w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t e a c h 2 . 5 / 1 - d e c l i n i n g s t r a i g h t l i n e o n t h e log-log
(B/h; / z / D ) - p l a n e is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c e r t a i n v a l u e of a ( F i g . 5.15).
C o n s i d e r a m e a n d e r - d e v e l o p m e n t e x p e r i m e n t w h i c h is specified by
s o m e v a l u e s of its c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a r a m e t e r s (e.g. ( 5 . 3 0 ) , if / ? ) , a n d w e h a v e
a l s o Sv > SR. T h e v a l u e of a i n ( 5 . 3 1 ) v a r i e s w i t h t h e t i m e te [0 ; 7 m] , for
b o t h c a n d S v a r y w i t h it. H o w e v e r , t h e v a r i a t i o n of c is m u c h w e a k e r t h a n
t h a t of 5 , a n d it is n o t w o r t h w h i l e t o e n c u m b e r t h e p r e s e n t e x p l a n a t i o n s by
12
t a k i n g it i n t o a c c o u n t . T h u s , w e a s s u m e t h a t t h e v a r i a t i o n of a in t h e c o u r s e

11
e.g. the "equilibrium s l o p e " in Ref. [5] is different from the present SR.
12 l/
Eliminating h from Q = Bhc'VgSh a n d c = 7.66(h/Ks) \ o n e obtains
l / l s1 / 6 , / 3 0 l 6 / , s
cwl/[(ei5) ^ (^S) ] ( = c ),
which may help to infer h o w weakly c varies with 5. H e r e , Ks~ D if ripples, and Ks~ h

176
of a g i v e n e x p e r i m e n t is d u e t o t h e v a r i a t i o n of S a l o n e ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , e a c h
of t h e 2 . 5 / 1 - d e c l i n i n g l i n e s in F i g . 5.15 " c a r r i e s " a c e r t a i n v a l u e of S - t h e
m o r e t o t h e r i g h t is t h e l i n e , t h e s m a l l e r is its 5 .

F i g . 5.15

In a n a l o g y t o ( 4 . 4 . 4 ) , t h e m e a n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t c a n a l s o b e t r a c e d , in
t h e (Blh, / i / D ) - p l a n e , w i t h t h e a i d of t h e " m o v i n g p o i n t ra".
S i n c e B&BR a n d t h u s B/D&BR/D remain constant during the exper-
i m e n t (5.2.2 ( i ) ) , t h e p o i n t m is m o v i n g d o w n t h e 1 / 1 - d e c l i n i n g l i n e

2- = (5.32)
h h/D
( p a t h 7Ti in F i g . 5.15), s t a r t i n g f r o m t h e i n i t i a l p o i n t P0 (e Rm) w h i c h r e p r e -
s e n t s t h e i n i t i a l c h a n n e l (BQ&BR, h0, 5 V) . D u r i n g its m o t i o n , t h e p o i n t m
c r o s s e s t h e 2 . 5 / 1 - d e c l i n i n g lines: t h u s , S p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e c r e a s e s ( a n d h i n -
c r e a s e s ) . E v e n t u a l l y , m r e a c h e s t h e r e g i m e - p o i n t PR w h e r e 5 = SR, a n d t h e
channel development terminates.
C o n s i d e r t h e c a s e \xm = 1 ( n o d e g r a d a t i o n , m e a n d e r i n g o n l y ) :

a ) If P$Rm, t h e n t h e m e a n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t will n o t e v e n s t a r t . H o w -
e v e r , it is p o s s i b l e t h a t P0e Rm b u t PR4Rm. In this case t h e m e a n d e r
d e v e l o p m e n t stops w h e n m has r e a c h e d the lower b o u n d a r y (ba)
of Rm ( p a t h 7 r 2 in F i g . 5.15).

b ) S i m i l a r l y , SR c a n n o t b e r e a c h e d if SVISR ( = aR) h a p p e n s t o b e l a r g e r
than 8 . 5 - where the adjacent m e a n d e r loops touch each other
( F i g . 5 . 5 b ) . In s u c h c a s e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l b e i n t e r r u p t e d w h e n
m has r e a c h e d the 2.5/1-declining line w h i c h (theoretically) corre-
s p o n d s t o 5 5 v / 8 . 5 ( p a t h T T 3 in F i g . 5.15). [ T h e m e a n d e r d e v e l o p -

m
if dunes. In the latter case, c ~ (h/Ks) is practically unaffected by /i; in the former, it
varies with the 1/6-power of it. Ripples and/or dunes must be considered to be present for
any te [ 0 , Tm] as they develop even (much) faster than BR.

Ill
m e n t is " i n t e r r u p t e d " - n o t a c c o m p l i s h e d . H a v i n g f o r m e d its
o x - b o w , t h e r i v e r , a t t h a t r e g i o n , v i r t u a l l y r e t u r n s to a n e a r l i e r s t a g e
of its d e v e l o p m e n t a n d " t r i e s " a g a i n t o a c h i e v e its SR, o n l y t o b e
i n t e r r u p t e d a g a i n , e t c . T h i s t y p e of m e a n d e r f o r m a t i o n n e v e r e n d s ,
for t h e r i v e r n e v e r a c h i e v e s w h a t it " w a n t s " t o a c h i e v e , viz SR
(Mississippi)].

If pm < 1 ( m e a n d e r i n g a n d d e g r a d a t i o n ) , t h e n t h e t e r m i n a t i o n of
m e a n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t m e n t i o n e d in a) d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m e a n t h e t e r m i -
n a t i o n of r e g i m e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e c h a n n e l . I n d e e d , if pm < 1, t h e n t h e
f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n of 5 c a n b e a c h i e v e d b y d e g r a d a t i o n (m c o n t i n u e s t o m o v e
a l o n g 7 r 2 u n t i l PR (4Rm) is r e a c h e d ) . If pm < 1, t h e n all w h a t h a s b e e n said
in b ) in t e r m s of Sv/S a n d SV/SR m u s t b e i n t e r p r e t e d in t e r m s of a a n d aR
r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h u s t h e l o o p s b e g i n to t o u c h e a c h o t h e r w h e n a ( a n d n o t
Sv/S) r e a c h e s 8 . 5 , t h e v a l u e of 5 at t h i s s t a g e b e i n g &Svpm/(7.5 + pm) (use
a w 8 . 5 in ( 5 . 2 7 ) ) .

ii- Additional remarks


1- F r o m t h e c o n t e n t of t h i s s e c t i o n it s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t m e a n d e r i n g is
initiated b y t h e l a r g e - s c a l e t u r b u l e n c e ( m o r e p r e c i s e l y , b y t h e s e q u e n c e of
h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s ) w h i c h p r o v i d e s it a l s o w i t h t h e w a v e l e n g t h A m w 6 5 ; its
s u b s e q u e n t development ( t h e t i m e g r o w t h of its a m p l i t u d e s A m ) is d u e t o t h e
r e g i m e t r e n d ( S - + SR). T h i s p r e s e n c e of t w o a g e n t s in o n e p h e n o m e n o n is
a n a l o g o u s t o t h e s i t u a t i o n d e p i c t e d in F i g . 5.16. T h e b a l l at rest at O c a n n o t

F i g . 5.16

start t o m o v e w i t h o u t t h e f i n g e r - p u s h . Y e t t h e f i n g e r - p u s h m e r e l y initiates t h e
b a l l m o t i o n ; its m o t i o n as s u c h , i.e. t h e t i m e - d e v e l o p m e n t of its " a m p l i t u d e "
J C , is d u e t o a d i f f e r e n t a g e n t : g r a v i t y . T h e a m p l i t u d e x grows because the
p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y of t h e b a l l Ep = Wy t e n d s to a c q u i r e its minimum.

2- If m e a n d e r i n g is n o t i n a l l u v i u m , t h e n t h e a l l u v i u m - r e l a t e d factors
(&, S ,7))R a r e , of c o u r s e , n o l o n g e r m e a n i n g f u l . In s u c h c a s e s , t h e i n i t i a t i o n
of m e a n d e r s ( h a v i n g t h e w a v e l e n g t h A m 6 X ( f l o w size)) is still b e c a u s e of
t h e l a r g e - s c a l e t u r b u l e n c e ( a s e.g. t h e " i n t e r n a l m e a n d e r i n g " in t h e r e g i o n I
of F i g . 5.17), t h e i r s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t (if a n y ) b e i n g d u e t o s o m e o t h e r
f a c t o r s (e.g. d u e t o t h e diffusion, as in t h e " f r e e m e a n d e r i n g " in t h e r e g i o n

178
B

F i g . 5.17

II). T h e s k e t c h in Fig. 5.18 s h o w s a l a b o r a t o r y e x a m p l e of t h e s t r e a m d e p i c t e d


in II of F i g . 5.17.13 M e a n d e r s c a n o c c u r for a n y b o u n d a r i e s w h i c h c a n b e
d e f o r m e d ( e v e n t u a l l y ) b y a t u r b u l e n t flow ( c h a l k , turf, i c e , ... , e t c . [ 3 2 ] , [ 2 3 ] ,
[18]), as w e l l as for t h e l i q u i d b o u n d a r i e s ( w h i c h c a n b e d e f o r m e d i n s t a n t l y ) ,
as in t h e r e g i o n s II of Figs. 5.17 a n d 5.18.

A-A

F i g . 5.18 ( f r o m Ref. [32])

3 - S i n c e for t h e p r e s e n t it is n o t k n o w n h o w t h e v a l u e of \xm is t o b e d e t e r -
m i n e d , it will b e a s s u m e d h e n c e f o r w a r d t h a t n o d e g r a d a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e
d u r i n g t h e m e a n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t (it will b e a s s u m e d t h a t \im = 1).

5.3 M e a n d e r K i n e m a t i c s ( s c h e m a t i c a l o u t l i n e )

5.3.1 General

i- H o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s b e g i n t o d e f o r m t h e b a n k s in m u c h t h e s a m e w a y as
v e r t i c a l b u r s t s b e g i n t o d e f o r m t h e b e d . T h e r e is o n e d i f f e r e n c e , h o w e v e r . In
t h e c a s e of d u n e s , o n l y o n e f l o w - b o u n d a r y (viz t h e b e d ) is d e f o r m i n g ,

In Ref. [32] it is reported that t h e u n d u l a t e d s t r e a m p a t t e r n in Fig. 5.18 occurs only if the


o p e n - c h a n n e l flow is tranquil a n d t u r b u l e n t : at the beginning of the wider channel the
stream turns to the left or to t h e right with the same probability.

179
w h e r e a s i n t h e c a s e of m e a n d e r s , t h e d e f o r m a t i o n o c c u r s in b o t h b o u n d a r i e s .
C o n s e q u e n t l y , in t h e c a s e of d u n e s , t h e c u r v a t u r e of s t r e a m l i n e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y
d e c r e a s e s w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e (y) f r o m t h e b e d , a n d t h e r e f o r e d u n e s c a n g r o w
t o a l i m i t e d s t e e p n e s s o n l y . N o s u c h r e s t r i c t i o n is p r e s e n t in t h e c a s e of
m e a n d e r s : t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s a n t i - s y m m e t r i c a l d e f o r m a t i o n of b o t h b a n k s , if
a n y t h i n g , e n h a n c e s t h e flow d e f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c a n g o o n u n t i l p r e v e n t e d
b y e x t e r n a l r e a s o n s (SR h a s b e e n r e a c h e d , l o o p s a r e t o u c h i n g e a c h o t h e r , e t c . ) .

ii- T h e l o n g i t u d i n a l b a n k - l o a d r a t e , q's say, at a n y l o c a t i o n o n t h e b a n k bxb2


s
o b v i o u s l y satisfies 0 < q's < (qs)b2> w h e r e (qs)b2 * t h e b e d - l o a d r a t e at t h e
b a n k - t o e b2 ( F i g . 5.19). L e t ~q's b e t h a t ( t y p i c a l ) v a l u e of q's w i c h is r e s p o n s i b l e

F i g . 5.19

for t h e b a n k d e f o r m a t i o n a n d d i s p l a c e m e n t i n p l a n . In this c a s e , t h e h o r i -
z o n t a l c o u n t e r p a r t of t h e t r a n s p o r t c o n t i n u i t y e q u a t i o n ( 1 . 7 6 ) , w i t h ps = 0, c a n
b e e x p r e s s e d as

(5.33)

w h e r e zh is t h e h o r i z o n t a l c o o r d i n a t e of a p o i n t o n t h e b a n k l i n e .

A t t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of m e a n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t , i.e w h e n 0O is s m a l l , t h e
flow p a s t t h e b a n k w a v e s (in t h e (x; z ) - p l a n e ) is s i m i l a r to t h a t p a s t t h e b e d
f o r m s ( i n t h e ( J C ; y ) - p l a n e ) . T h u s t h e flow a d j a c e n t e.g. to r i g h t b a n k in F i g .
5.20a is c o n v e r g e n t a l o n g a'Oa, a n d d i v e r g e n t a l o n g aO'a"\ at t h e a p e x a
it is n e a r l y p a r a l l e l . T h i s m e a n s t h a t a l o n g a'Oa w e h a v e d~q'sldx > 0 a n d t h u s
dzbldt < 0; w h e r e a s a l o n g aO'a", dq'/dx < 0 a n d dzbldt > 0 ( w i t h dzbldt 0
at t h e a p e x ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , w h e n 0O is s m a l l t h e m e a n d e r w a v e s a r e m a i n l y
m i g r a t i n g a l o n g x, r a t h e r t h a n e x p a n d i n g a l o n g z. N o t e t h a t t h e m o s t i n t e n s e
d e v i a t i o n of s t r e a m l i n e s f r o m t h e " c u r v i l i n e a r p a r a l l e l i s m " is at t h e i n f l e c t i o n
p o i n t s O a n d O ' , w h e r e t h e deviation angle u at t h e flow c e n t e r l i n e is
m a x i m u m (UJ c j m a )x .
N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e m e a n d e r w a v e s a r e a l s o g r o w i n g in t h e i r a m p l i t u d e ,
h o w e v e r s l o w l y a t first; a n d e v e n t u a l l y 0O will b e c o m e as l a r g e as t o d e f l e c t
t h e flow a w a y f r o m t h e b a n k s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e flow w h i c h w a s c o n v e r g e n t
a l o n g t h e r i g h t b a n k a'Oa, will t u r n i n t o a d i v e r g e n t o n e a l o n g its p a r t Oa

180
( F i g . 5 . 2 0 b ) , t h e m o s t i n t e n s e d e v i a t i o n f r o m p a r a l l e l i s m b e i n g r o u g h l y at t h e
a p e x a ( o ^ w o w ) . T h e m a x i m u m e x p a n s i o n of t h e d i v e r g i n g f l o w at t h e r i g h t
b a n k is t h u s at a s e c t i o n , a Ms a y , d o w n s t r e a m of a . A t t h e s e c t i o n a M w e h a v e ,
at t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e m a x i m u m c o n t r a c t i o n of flow at t h e left b a n k , a n d
c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e l a r g e s t f l o w v e l o c i t y ( W m a )x of t h e l o o p . H e n c e , t h e flow is
n o t s y m m e t r i c a l w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e a p e x s e c t i o n a. A n d t h i s is a p p a r e n t l y
d u e t o t h e i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e f l o w p l a n e in t h e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n x: t h e f o r c e s
gSv d e f o r m t h e s t r e a m l i n e s 1 i n t o 2 ( i n s e r t i n F i g . 5 . 2 0 b ) . N o t e t h a t w h e n 0 O
is l a r g e , t h e n t h e flows at t h e left a n d r i g h t b a n k s a r e c o n v e c t i v e l y d e c e l e r a t e d
a n d a c c e l e r a t e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t r e a m r e g i o n aua'u. Experiment
shows that the m e a n d e r length A m remains practically constant during the
meander development.

F i g . 5.20

For t h e s a k e of s i m p l i c i t y the present explanations are given on a


two-dimensional (vertically-averaged) basis; any influence of a possible
c r o s s - c i r c u l a t i o n is i g n o r e d . T h e " s m a l l " a n d " l a r g e " 0 O, in t h e p r e s e n t c o n -
t e x t , c a n n o t b e s e p a r a t e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r in a c l e a r c u t m a n n e r , for e v e n in
t h e c a s e of a r e c t a n g u l a r c r o s s - s e c t i o n , t h e b o u n d a r y - 0 o s e p a r a t i n g t h e m v a r i e s

181
d e p e n d i n g o n Blh a n d c. [In P. W h i t i n g a n d W . E . D i e t r i c h ' s e x p e r i m e n t s
=
[35], 0 O 10 w a s c e r t a i n l y " s m a l l " ; in R . L . H o o k e ' s e x p e r i m e n t s [16],
0O = 5 5 w a s " l a r g e " ] .

iii- T h e r e l a t i o n ( 5 . 3 3 ) , w i t h p s = 0 , c a n n o t r e f l e c t t h e e x p a n s i o n of m e a n d e r
l o o p s a d e q u a t e l y ; at least b e c a u s e it y i e l d s dzbldt = 0 a t t h e s e c t i o n au ( w h e r e
u is m a x i m u m a n d t h u s d~q'sldx is z e r o ) . I n t r o d u c i n g ps ( ^ 0 ) a n d u s i n g t h e
n a t u r a l b a n k c o o r d i n a t e s s = I a n d n9 o n e c a n e x p r e s s ( 5 . 3 3 ) as

(5.34)

w h i c h is m o r e s u i t a b l e for l a r g e 0 O. C o n s i d e r F i g . 5 . 2 0 b . T h e m a t e r i a l e r o d e d
f r o m t h e left b a n k a r o u n d au is c o n v e y e d - in s u s p e n s i o n - downstream,
a n d t h e n d e p o s i t e d ( b y t h e d e c e l e r a t i n g flow aual) o n t h e left b a n k ( a n d o n
its p o i n t b a r ) at a'u. T h i s t r a n s f e r of m a t e r i a l , w h i c h c a u s e s t h e e x p a n s i o n
(dnldt) of m e a n d e r l o o p s , m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d as d u e t o ps (for t h e g r a i n s
a r r i v i n g at a'u a r e f r o m t h e " e x t e r n a l s o u r c e " au). T h e ( l o c a l ) b a n k - l o a d r a t e
d e r i v a t i v e d~q'sldl h a s d i f f e r e n t signs a l o n g Oau a n d auO\ h e n c e it c o n t r i b u t e s
m a i n l y t o t h e d e f o r m a t i o n ( s k e w n e s s ) of e x p a n d i n g l o o p s . T h e l a r g e r h/D
( l a r g e r i v e r ; fine s a n d ) t h e m o r e effective is t h e m a t e r i a l t r a n s f e r d u e t o pS9
14
a n d t h e m o r e p r o n o u n c e d is t h u s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of m e a n d e r l o o p s . For
t h e e x p a n s i o n v e l o c i t y at t h e a p e x a of a r e g u l a r m e a n d e r l o o p w e h a v e

= (*) (5.35)

5.3.2 Migration and expansion of meanders

i- F r o m t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d m e a s u r e m e n t s c a r r i e d o u t in freely meandering
n a t u r a l r i v e r s it f o l l o w s t h a t " a t t h e e a r l y s t a g e s ( s m a l l 0 O), it is t h e down-
s t r e a m m i g r a t i o n of m e a n d e r w a v e s w h i c h is m a i n l y o b s e r v a b l e ; a n d when
0 O > [65 t o 7 5 ] (i.e. w h e n a > [1.35 t o 1.6]) it is t h e i r expansion which
dominates" (Ref. [23], p.108). And also "From the observations and
c o m p a r i s o n s (of a e r i a l p h o t o s t a k e n at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s o v e r a l o n g period
of t i m e ) it h a s b e e n f o u n d t h a t for a < [1.4 t o 1.6] (0 O < [65 t o 7 5 ] ) the
expansion s p e e d of m e a n d e r l o o p s (dd0/dt) i n c r e a s e s , for < J [ 1 . 4 t o 1.6] it
reaches its m a x i m u m value, and for o > [1.4 t o 1.6] it progressively de-
creases". "It should be noted t h a t t h e ( s a m e ) m a g n i t u d e c r [ 1 . 4 t o 1.6] is

14
If h/D is "small", t h e n so is ps. This explains why gravel rivers a n d laboratory streams
cannot acquire large 0 O and tend to minimize 5 by degradation (Fig. 5.14): t h e regime trend
S-+ SR m a y lead to t h e formation of extensive loops only if ps is substantial. [The m e a n d e r s
in ice, turf, etc., c o r r e s p o n d to ps= 0 and therefore their 0 O can only be limited. T h e same
applies to m e a n d e r i n g of fluid in fluid (Fig. 5.18)]. T h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e transfer by
suspension o n m e a n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t has already been emphasized in [32], [34], [41].

182
e x h i b i t e d b y s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t freely m e a n d e r i n g r i v e r s " (Ref. [ 2 3 ] , p . 1 2 6
a n d 128).
It c a n b e s h o w n , o n a p u r e l y m a t h e m a t i c a l b a s i s , t h a t t h e a n g u l a r
e x p a n s i o n s p e e d ddQ/dt is r e l a t e d t o t h e l i n e a r e x p a n s i o n s p e e d (Vm)a at t h e
a p e x a as

(5.36)

w h e r e Ra is t h e ( s m a l l e s t ) r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e of t h e m e a n d e r l o o p at a ( s e e
t h e d e r i v a t i o n of (5.36) i n Ref. [43]).
F r o m t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s a b o v e , o n e infers t h a t t h e ( n o r m a l i z e d ) m i g r a t i o n
v e l o c i t y Um a n d t h e e x p a n s i o n s p e e d d00/dt (~(Vm)a) s h o u l d v a r y w i t h 0O
( o r a ) , as s h o w n s c h e m a t i c a l l y in F i g . 5 . 2 1 . A t t e n t i o n is d r a w n t o t h e fact t h a t

. normalized Um

rnormalized ^?
dt

0 6075 126 138

F i g . 5.21

t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d e m p i r i c a l i n t e r v a l 0 O = [ 6 5 t o 7 5 ] w h e r e dd0/dt achieves
its m a x i m u m , i n c l u d e s in its m i d d l e t h e v a l u e 0 O = 7 0 w h e r e t h e c u r v a t u r e
(l/Ra) of t h e s i n e - g e n e r a t e d c u r v e , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a n y g i v e n A m , a c q u i r e s
its m a x i m u m ( F i g . 5 . 5 a ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s ( a s is c l e a r f r o m (5.36)) t h a t (Vm)a
N
m u s t b e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o (\/Ra) ( w i t h N > 0); w h i c h , as will b e s h o w n
p r e s e n t l y , is i n d e e d s o . In F i g . 5 . 2 1 , t h e a n g l e 0 O = 126 is in c o i n c i d e n c e
w i t h c r 8 . 5 ( t o u c h i n g of m e a n d e r l o o p s ) ; 0 O = 138 i m p l i e s a oo ( s e e 5.1.3).
S i n c e t h e r e g i m e v a l u e aR is finite, t h e ( d 0 o / d / ) - c u r v e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a
c o n c r e t e c a s e m u s t e v e n t u a l l y d e v i a t e f r o m t h e " e n v e l o p e c u r v e " C as t o
b e c o m e z e r o at aR ( c u r v e s d a n d C 2 in F i g . 5.21), C itself b e i n g z e r o at
a oo. If SV/SR = aR < 8.5, t h e n t h e r e g i m e s t a t e c a n b e a c h i e v e d ( c u r v e
C i ) . If, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , SV/SR > w 8 . 5 , t h e n t h e r e g i m e s t a t e c a n n e v e r b e
a c h i e v e d ( w i t h o u t d e g r a d a t i o n ) , for t h e m e a n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t will b e i n t e r -
r u p t e d at < J W 8 . 5 ( b r o k e n c u r v e C 2 ) .

ii- L e t qs b e t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a v e r a g e s p e c i f i c t r a n s p o r t r a t e , w h i c h c a n b e
a s s u m e d t o b e t h e s a m e for a n y s e c t i o n /. C l e a r l y , t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e of
(5.35) m u s t b e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o qsILm, a n d w e c a n e x p r e s s (5.35) as

183
(5.37)
1

In t h e n e x t s e c t i o n it w i l l b e s h o w n ( E q . ( 5 . 5 7 ) w i t h HLm = 0.25 = const)


t h a t a d i m e n s i o n l e s s q u a n t i t y s u c h as Aa is d e t e r m i n e d b y a f u n c t i o n a l r e -
l a t i o n of t h e f o r m

w h i c h , in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h (5.37), gives

(5.38)

H e r e Lm = aAm &a(6B) ( w h e r e B is, in fact, BR), and therefore

(5.39)

N o t e t h a t (Vm)a is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o \IRa (i.e. N= 1 > 0, a s r e q u i r e d ) . S u b s t i -


t u t i n g (5.39) in (5.36) a n d e l i m i n a t i n g a a n d Ra w i t h t h e a i d of (5.20) a n d
( 5 . 2 1 ) , o n e d e t e r m i n e s for t h e a n g u l a r e x p a n s i o n s p e e d

(5.40)

(where $ = (h/B)<f>),
2
w h i c h , w i t h t h e a i d of t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s t i m e U = tqsIB , can be expressed
in t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s f o r m

(5.41)

H e n c e , if t h e s e c o n d a r y i n f l u e n c e of 0 O w i t h i n $ is i g n o r e d , t h e n for a set
of s p e c i f i e d B , h, qs a n d c , t h e a n g u l a r e x p a n s i o n s p e e d d00/dt m u s t v a r y in
p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e t h i r d p o w e r of t h e [0 o./o(0o)]-curve s h o w n i n F i g . 5.5a. T h e
s o l i d c u r v e in F i g . 5.22 ( w h e r e a = l/JQ(0o) is u s e d a s t h e o r d i n a t e , i n s t e a d
3
of 0 O) is t h e n o r m a l i z e d g r a p h of d0o/dt~ [0o/o(0o)] : it c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e
e n v e l o p e c u r v e C i n F i g . 5 . 2 1 . N o t e t h a t t h e g r o s s l y s c a t t e r e d d a t a of R u s s i a n
R i v e r s p l o t t e d a r e " w i t h i n t h e e n v e l o p e " . T h e y f o r m t h e c u r v e s C,, w h i c h
d e v i a t e f r o m C a s t o a p p r o a c h " t h e i r " aR. T h e p l o t i n F i g . 5.22 is t h e
n o r m a l i z e d v e r s i o n of t h e p l o t in F i g . 8.15 of Ref. [23]. 15

A t h o r o u g h and interesting study of the time d e f o r m a t i o n of m e a n d e r loops can be found


in t h e work of Hasegawa 1989 [15]. This study also rests o n the t r a n s p o r t continuity
equation; however, it invokes b o t h the longitudinal and radial t r a n s p o r t rates qs and qr.

184
x Irtish (at Pavfodar)
o O k a (beJtween R y a z a n a n d Pronyi)
O k a ( b cj t w e e n Pronyi a nd Yushta)
A O k a ( b cj t w e e n Yushta ar\d R o u b e t s k o y e )
( Ref.[23 ] )
/ - C 2( x ) \

x ^x""~ _
i
x. J*
\Ko
^ C 4( o )
2
X XX

A
AA
X
X

XA-A
x
* O


3'
0 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
_ d9 0 ^
dt
F i g . 5.22 (after Ref. [23])

5.4 M e a n d e r D y n a m i c s ( s c h e m a t i c a l outline)

5.4.1 Dimensionless formulation of curved channel flows

i- M u c h r e s e a r c h ( b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l ) has been carried out


o n c i r c u l a r o p e n - c h a n n e l f l o w s , w i t h t h e h o p e of u n c o v e r i n g t h e m e c h a n i s m
of m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m s .
C o n s i d e r t h e steady state t r a n q u i l flow in a circular o p e n - c h a n n e l seg-
ment shown in Fig. 5.23a: L > B, the non-deforming cross-section is
r e c t a n g u l a r , t h e flow is t u r b u l e n t . A n y c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l p r o p e r t y A of t h i s flow
is d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e f u n c t i o n a l relation

A = fA(p,B9h,R9c9 U90Q9l/L)9 (5.42)

w h e r e R is t h e r a d i u s of t h e c i r c l e f o r m i n g t h e plan center line a n d U is a

F i g . 5.23

185
t y p i c a l flow v e l o c i t y . ^ T h i s v e l o c i t y c a n b e i d e n t i f i e d ( d e p e n d i n g o n t h e
n a t u r e of t h e q u a n t i t y A u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) w i t h u , u * , u ^ , e t c . ; for all
l o n g i t u d i n a l v e l o c i t i e s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d b y c a l o n e ( w h i c h is p r e s e n t in t h e
u n s p e c i f i e d f u n c t i o n f A) :

e.g. v* , etc. (5.43)

S e l e c t i n g p, h a n d U as b a s i c quantities, one arrives at the following


d i m e n s i o n l e s s f o r m of ( 5 . 4 2 ) :

x y z
TlA = p h U A=*A (5.44)

H e r e w e will f o c u s o u r a t t e n t i o n o n l y o n t h e flow r e g i o n at t h e a p e x a ( w h e r e
1/2 = const). F u r t h e r m o r e , w e will a s s u m e , f o l l o w i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n ,
t h a t 0 O a n d RIB = (Rlh)(hlB) a r e sufficiently l a r g e , a n d t h u s t h a t t h e influ-
e n c e of 0 O c a n b e i g n o r e d (in t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of a). T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e
flow in t h e a - r e g i o n of t h e p r e s e n t c i r c u l a r c h a n n e l , h a v i n g a f i n i t e L , is
i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e s o - c a l l e d " d e v e l o p e d f l o w " in t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n f i n i t e
c i r c u l a r c h a n n e l L - + o o ( s p i r a l c h a n n e l in F i g . 5.23b). C o n s e q u e n t l y , w e will
r e p l a c e (5.44) by its r e d u c e d f o r m

(5.45)

L e t A b e t h o s e A w h i c h a r e finite o n l y w h e n t h e c h a n n e l h a s a finite
c u r v a t u r e (I A I > 0 o n l y w h e n \\IR\ > 0 ) . C l e a r l y , for s u c h A t h e r e l a t i o n
(5.45) c a n m o r e s u i t a b l y b e e x p r e s s e d as

(5.46)

(with m > 0).


W e will u s e in t h e f o l l o w i n g t h e " c h a n n e l f i t t e d " s y s t e m of o r t h o g o n a l
c y l i n d r i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s /, r a n d y, s h o w n in F i g . 5.24; a n d w e will m a r k t h e
characteristics associated with these coordinates by the corresponding sub-
s c r i p t s . T h e o r i g i n O is at t h e b e d level y = 0, a n d it is in c o i n c i d e n c e w i t h
t h e c e n t e r of t h e c i r c u l a r c h a n n e l . T h e u p p e r fluid l a y e r a d j a c e n t t o t h e free
s u r f a c e will b e r e f e r r e d t o as " l a y e r 1 " ; t h e l o w e r fluid l a y e r a d j a c e n t t o t h e
b e d , as " l a y e r 2 " . T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (A) of t h e l a y e r s 1 a n d 2 w i l l b e
m a r k e d b y t h e s u b s c r i p t s 1 a n d 2, r e s p e c t i v e l y .

16
Since the flow is tranquil (Fr < 1), g is not included as a characteristic p a r a m e t e r . In the
present p h e n o m e n o n , g can a p p e a r only in conjunction with the longitudinal a n d tranverse
free surface slopes (S a n d Sr respectively) as gS and gSr (see e.g. the e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n
in 5.4.2).

186
'I

'0

F i g . 5.24

ii- E a c h of t h e p r o p e r t i e s l i s t e d b e l o w is o b v i o u s l y of t h e t y p e A (for w h i c h
t h e f o r m ( 5 . 4 6 ) is v a l i d ) t h e y c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e m i d d l e of t h e flow
cross-section (r&R):

1- T h e t r a n s v e r s e f r e e s u r f a c e s l o p e Sr o r , t o b e m o r e p r e c i s e , gSr ( s e e
f o o t n o t e 16).
2- T h e d e v i a t i o n a n g l e uj1 of t h e free s u r f a c e s t r e a m l i n e s at t h e c e n t e r
circle: tancji = Ur\lum3iX.
3- T h e d e v i a t i o n a n g l e u2 of t h e b e d s t r e a m l i n e s at t h e c e n t e r c i r c l e :
t a n c u 2 = Ur2/u2 (u2 is at a s p e c i f i e d l e v e l y n e a r t h e b e d ) .
4- R a d i a l f o r c e Fn a c t i n g p e r u n i t fluid v o l u m e a t t h e free s u r f a c e .
5- R a d i a l s h e a r stress ( r 0 ) r 2 a c t i n g o n t h e flow b e d .

Substituting

Ax = gSr (with U = u a x)
A2 = t a n c j i = Ur\/umax (with U= u^^)
A3 = t a n uj2 = Ur2lu2 (with U = v* = \ (5.47)
A4 = Frl (With U = Umax)
r
A5 = ( r 0 ) r2 ( w i t h f/ = = V o^P )

i n ( 5 . 4 6 ) , a n d t a k i n g m = 1, o n e determines

(5.48)

tan CJX (5.49a)

:
tan C J 2 (5.49b)

(5.50)

(5.51)

where each is d e t e r m i n e d a s

187
(5.52)

T h e above derived relations are consistent with their counterparts encount-


17
e r e d in t h e l i t e r a t u r e . F r o m t h e d e r i v a t i o n a b o v e it s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t t h e
m u l t i p l i e r s Xj a r e n o t just s o m e " c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s " ( a s t h e y a r e o f t e n re-
f e r r e d t o ) , b u t c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s of t h r e e d i m e n s i o n l e s s v a r i a b l e s . A n d it is
the knowledge of these functions (and not of the combinations
m x z l
(h/R) (p h?U )~ _which f o l l o w d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e 7 r - t h e o r e m ) t h a t signifies t h e
k n o w l e d g e o n a A - f o r m u l a . In m o s t c a s e s t h e f a c t o r s X^ a r e g i v e n a s f u n c t i o n s
of c o n l y .

iii- Consider n o w a r e g i o n AZ ( < &B) of a s i n u o u s c h a n n e l w h o s e plan


c e n t e r l i n e is a s i n e - g e n e r a t e d c u r v e : t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n is r e c t a n g u l a r ( f i ; h),
t h e s t e a d y s t a t e t r a n q u i l flow is t u r b u l e n t . In t h i s c a s e , R v a r i e s as a f u n c t i o n
of d0 a n d HLm as i n d i c a t e d b y ( 5 . 1 5 ) . T h e s e g m e n t AZ of t h i s s i n e - g e n e r a t e d
channel can always be identified with the segment of a c i r c u l a r channel
w h o s e c e n t e r - c i r c l e r a d i u s is e q u a l t o t h e r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e of t h e sine-
g e n e r a t e d c e n t e r l i n e (at t h e l o c a t i o n HLm of A / ) . T h e a t t e m p t s t o f o r m u l a t e
t h e flow w i t h i n A / b y u s i n g t h e " m a t c h i n g " c i r c u l a r flow e x p r e s s i o n s were
n o t successful, for t h e flow structure w i t h i n AZ is n o t d e t e r m i n e d by the
( c i r c u l a r ) g e o m e t r y of AZ a l o n e it is d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e total g e o m e t r y of
t h e s i n u o u s c h a n n e l . [ C o n s i d e r e.g. t h e s i n u o u s c h a n n e l s i n F i g s . 5.20a and
18
b . T h e s e c h a n n e l s h a v e at t h e i r a p e x e s a t h e s a m e Ra ( a n d B ) ; and, suppose,
t h e s a m e h a n d c . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i r Blh, hIR a n d c (at llhm = 0.25) are
i d e n t i c a l . Y e t t h e b e h a v i o u r of t h e i r s t r e a m l i n e s (at a) is e s s e n t i a l l y different.
A n d t h i s is b e c a u s e t h e i r t o t a l p l a n g e o m e t r y ( w h i c h i n t h e c a s e of a s i n e -
g e n e r a t e d c u r v e is d e t e r m i n e d b y 0 O a l o n e ) is v e r y d i f f e r e n t ] . It f o l l o w s that
a cross-sectional property A of the flow in a sine-generated channel is
d e t e r m i n e d by the relation

x y z
n^ = Ph u A= *A( (5.53)

w h i c h is e q u i v a l e n t t o ( 5 . 4 4 ) . U s i n g t h e s i n e - g e n e r a t e d r e l a t i o n s (5.15) and
( 5 . 2 0 ) , viz

and (5.54)

17
Compare (5.48) with the Sr -formulae e.g. in [4], [14], [51]; (5.49a) and (5.49b) with the
url~ and ur2- formulae in [4], [21], [40]; (5.50) and (5.51) with the Frl- and (r0)r-formulae
in [4], [40] and [4], [9], [20], [40] respectively.
18
Note from the ( A m/ K a) - c u r v e in Fig. 5.5a that it is possible to have the same \IRa for two
essentially different 60.

188
a n d c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t in t h e c a s e of a r e a l m e a n d e r i n g c h a n n e l Am 6B, one

(5.55)

i.e.

(5.56)

S u b s t i t u t i n g ( 5 . 5 6 ) i n ( 5 . 5 3 ) , o n e a r r i v e s at t h e ( r e d u c e d ) form

(5.57)

w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s to a sine-generated c h a n n e l having A m 6 B . Clearly, the


i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s B/h, c a n d 0 O in t h i s r e l a t i o n a r e , in t h e c a s e of a n
a c t u a l m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m , t h e m s e l v e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s (II A) d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e
parameters (5.30), the channel width B being BR.

5.4.2 Fluid motion in sinuous channels

i- C o n s i d e r a s i n u o u s c h a n n e l w h o s e p l a n c e n t e r l i n e is a s i n e - g e n e r a t e d
c u r v e : t h e ( n o n - d e f o r m i n g ) c r o s s - s e c t i o n is r e c t a n g u l a r , t h e s t e a d y s t a t e flow
is t u r b u l e n t .
W e i n t r o d u c e t w o e x t r e m e c a s e s of flow in this c h a n n e l . T h e first of
t h e m is t h e h e l i c o i d a l f l o w , o r " a - f l o w " , in F i g . 5.25a; t h e s e c o n d is t h e lat-
e r a l l y o s c i l l a t i n g f l o w , o r "/?-flow" in Fig. 5 . 2 5 b . T h e a - f l o w is i n d u c e d b y
t h e c h a n n e l c u r v a t u r e l/R a n d it c o n s i s t s of a p a r a l l e l ( t o t h e c u r v i l i n e a r
b o u n d a r i e s ) l o n g i t u d i n a l fluid m o t i o n (u{), u p o n which a cross-circulation
( T ) is s u p e r i m p o s e d . 1 9 /3-flow is c a u s e d b y t h e variation of c h a n n e l c u r v a t u r e ,
i.e. b y d(l/R)/dl, a n d it is f o r m e d by fluid m a s s w h i c h shifts ( i n all its
t h i c k n e s s h) p e r i o d i c a l l y left a n d r i g h t as it m o v e s a l o n g / ( F i g . 5 . 2 5 b ) : t h e
l a t e r a l o s c i l l a t i o n a m p l i t u d e of s t r e a m l i n e s d e c r e a s e s as t h e b e d is a p -
p r o a c h e d . T h e k e y w o r d for /3-flow, is c o n v e c t i v e a c c e l e r a t i o n .
E x p e r i m e n t s h o w s t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r of s m a l l - s c a l e m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m s ,
h a v i n g s m a l l B/h, is s i m i l a r t o t h a t of a n a - f l o w ( a n d t h e m o r e s o , t h e
s m o o t h e r are their b o u n d a r i e s ) , w h e r e a s the large-scale m e a n d e r i n g rivers,
h a v i n g l a r g e B/h ( a n d a r o u g h b e d ) , t e n d t o b e h a v e as a /3-flow ( [ 4 0 ] , [ 1 6 ] ,

In the p r e s e n t text the circulation T is assumed to be in the (readily identifiable) radial


( r ; y ) - p l a n e , a n d it is identified with a ur-diagram (along y) which consists of two negative
and positive p a r t s having equal areas (Fig. 5.25a). S o m e a u t h o r s prefer to consider T as
taking place in t h e surfaces which are o r t h o g o n a l to streamlines. In the case of a (pure)
a-flow, b o t h definitions are c o n g r u e n t ; in a c o m b i n e d (a and #)-flow, the shape of the
(curved) o r t h o g o n a l surfaces varies d e p e n d i n g on 0 O and ULm [a substantial difficulty in
measurements].

189
Fig. 5.25

[ 3 4 ] , [ 2 6 ] , e t c . ) . 2 0 T h e r a d i a l v e l o c i t i e s Un a n d Ur2 of a n a - f l o w a r e in t h e
o p p o s i t e r - d i r e c t i o n s , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e a n g l e s W I a n d C J 2 of its s t r e a m l i n e s sx
a n d s2 a r e of t h e o p p o s i t e sign ( F i g . 5 . 2 5 a ) . In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s , t h e v e l o c i t i e s
Lin a n d Ur2 of a /?-flow a r e i n t h e s a m e r - d i r e c t i o n , a n d its a n g l e s u)x a n d w2
a r e t h u s of t h e s a m e sign ( F i g . 5.25b): t h e v e l o c i t y g r a d i e n t diirldy merely
c a u s e s t h e v e r t i c a l 1 - 2 t o d e f o r m i n t o f - 2' as it is shifted s i d e w a y s (Fig.
5.25b). L e t qr b e t h e n e t specific c r o s s - f l o w r a t e p a s s i n g t h r o u g h a s u r f a c e
of u n i t l e n g t h ( a l o n g /) p a r a l l e l t o t h e b a n k s . I n t h e c a s e of a n a - f l o w , qr is
o b v i o u s l y z e r o ; in t h e c a s e of a /3-flow, it is n o t . I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e , t h e
e l e m e n t a r y cross-flow r a t e 8qr = qr 81 e n t e r i n g A B C t h r o u g h AB ( = 61), l e a v e s
it as qSr t h r o u g h BC ( = 6r) ( F i g . 5.26). T h u s , qr = g t a n c j a v.

ii- a - a n d /3-flows a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e l i m i t i n g c a s e s of s m a l l a n d l a r g e
Blh r e s p e c t i v e l y . In g e n e r a l ( i n t e r m e d i a t e Blh), t h e i ^ - d i a g r a m , at t h e c e n t e r
l i n e , s h o u l d b e " s o m e w h e r e in b e t w e e n " : it s h o u l d b e as o n e of t h e
n o r m a l i z e d ^ - d i a g r a m s in F i g . 5.27. L e t us d e n o t e t h e i ^ - d i a g r a m s of
( p u r e l y ) a - a n d 0-flows by ( U r ) a and ( U r ) d respectively. T h e ( U r ) a and ( U r ) d
d i a g r a m s f o r m t h e " e n v e l o p e " c o n t a i n i n g t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e Ur-diagrams. Each

20
In a meandering river B&BR, while h, at any stage of d e v e l o p m e n t , is comparable with
m n
hR. Recall from C h a p t e r 4 that BR~ Q a n d hR~ Q h (1/3 < nh < 0.42). Hence
m
BRlhR~ Q (where m > 0), which indicates that it is indeed t h e large rivers, carrying large
Q, which usually possess large Blh.

190
F i g . 5.26

Ur-diagram is t h e s u m of t w o c o m p o n e n t diagrams: the circulatory ^-dia-


gram, and the translatory ^-diagram ( F i g . 5.27). i.e.
U = U U f r a n 6 h 5 5 8
r ra + r0 ( Y -M [ ' \ ) ' ( * )

F i g . 5.27

T h e vertical average of radial velocities of a n a-flow is zero, whereas that of a /3-flow


is not. T h e vertically-averaged streamlines of a /3-flow a r e within the (narrow) areas between
the streamlines s{ a n d s2 (see Fig. 5.25b), a n d therefore t h e plan behaviour of a /3-flow can
be reflected very adequately by its vertically-averaged c o u n t e r p a r t . Clearly, n o information can
be gained from t h e vertically-averaged (or depth-averaged) equations o n t h e internal s t r u c t u r e
of a m e a n d e r i n g flow (on the velocity distributions along y, the c o m p a r a t i v e p r o m i n e n c e of
a- a n d /3-components, etc.). O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , they give a clear and adequate picture o n t h e
convective accelerations a n d decelerations in plan, a n d it is these characteristics which deter-
m i n e V q 5, a n d consequently t h e deformation of t h e bed surface (Eqs. (1.78) a n d (1.87)).
O w i n g to this reason m a n y recent theoretical works o n bed deformation of m e a n d e r i n g
streams were c o n d u c t e d with t h e aid of t h e vertically-averaged equations ([8], [35], [45], etc.).
It m a y also be added that, since t h e vertical average of a n a - c o m p o n e n t a^-diagram is
zero, t h e n o n - z e r o vertical average of t h e radial velocity field of a m e a n d e r i n g flow is, in fact,
the vertical average of its /^-component ((ur)av = ( a ^ ) a v) . Hence, if t h e vertically-averaged flow
is convectively accelerated/decelerated, t h e n that flow necessarily contains t h e ^ - c o m p o n e n t :
the a - c o m p o n e n t m a y o r m a y not be present - its vertical average consists of parallel sinuous
streamlines, (e.g. t h e 0-component is certainly present in t h e flows depicted in Figs. 5.20).

F r o m t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s a b o v e it s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t t h e d e t e c t i o n of a
finite radial velocity Ur is n o t necessarily an indication of t h e e x i s t e n c e of
c r o s s - c i r c u l a t i o n ; a n d e v e n w h e n t h e c r o s s - c i r c u l a t i o n is p r e s e n t , it is o n l y a
part (Um) of that Ur w h i c h "belongs" to it. It is difficult to visualize the
e x i s t e n c e of a c r o s s - c i r c u l a t i o n in a m e a n d e r i n g flow having B/h = 100 or

191
2 0 0 , say, a n d it h a s b e e n r e a l i z e d s i n c e a l o n g t i m e t h a t t h e " t r a n s v e r s e
c i r c u l a t i o n o n l y t a k e s p l a c e in d i s t o r t e d e x p e r i m e n t a l m o d e l s , a n d in s u c h
n a t u r a l c h a n n e l s w h o s e w i d t h is s m a l l a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e d e p t h " [34] ( s e e
also [33], [8]). T h e a n a l o g o u s c a n n o t b e s a i d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e / 3 - c o m p o n e n t :
a n o n - z e r o ^ - d i a g r a m is p r e s e n t in a n y t u r b u l e n t flow in a s i n u o u s c h a n n e l .
T h e fact t h a t t h e l a b o r a t o r y s t r e a m s h a v i n g c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l Blh
possess a / 3 - c o m p o n e n t is e v i d e n t e.g. f r o m t h e c l a s s i c a l e x p e r i m e n t s of J . F .
F r i e d k i n [10]. I n d e e d , h e h a s o b s e r v e d t h a t " t h e s a n d f r o m t h e e r o d e d c o n -
cave bank almost entirely deposited on the c o n v e x b a n k d o w n s t r e a m , close
to t h e s a m e s i d e of t h e c h a n n e l , a n d o n l y a s m a l l p a r t of it c r o s s e d t h e
c h a n n e l a n d d e p o s i t e d o n t h e o p p o s i t e c o n v e x b a n k " [10], [24]. In t h e c a s e
of a ( p u r e ) a - f l o w , t h e a m o u n t of m a t e r i a l t r a n s p o r t e d o n t h e s i d e of e r o d e d
b a n k , to t h e m o s t , is c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h a t t r a n s p o r t e d a c r o s s t h e c h a n n e l (as
c a n b e i n f e r r e d e.g. f r o m F i g . 5.29). Y e t in t h e c a s e of a ( p u r e ) /3-flow, all
of t h e e r o d e d m a t e r i a l is t r a n s p o r t e d o n t h e s i d e of e r o d e d b a n k . [If 0 O is
sufficiently l a r g e , t h e n t h e m a t e r i a l e r o d e d f r o m t h e a p e x z o n e of t h e o u t e r
(left) b a n k ( F i g . 5.20b) is likely to b e d e p o s i t e d a l o n g t h e d e c e l e r a t i n g flow
r e g i o n aua'u a d j a c e n t t o t h a t b a n k (5.3.1 ( i i ) ) ] . H e n c e if in t h e e x p e r i m e n t s
r e p o r t e d in Ref. [ 1 0 ] , t h e e r o d e d s e d i m e n t w a s t r a n s p o r t e d r e m a i n i n g " a l m o s t
e n t i r e l y " at t h e s a m e b a n k , t h e n / ^ - c o m p o n e n t m u s t h a v e b e e n p r e s e n t in t h e
flows of t h o s e e x p e r i m e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e c r o s s - c i r c u l a t i o n T is ( n e a r l y )
s y m m e t r i c a l w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e c e n t e r l i n e of a s y m m e t r i c a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n .
Y e t , in t h e l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s of R . L . H o o k e [ 1 6 p i t h e l o c a t i o n of
m a x i m u m " h e l i x s t r e n g t h " ( n e a r t h e a p e x s e c t i o n a) w a s s u b s t a n t i a l l y shifted
t o w a r d t h e o u t e r b a n k ( F i g . l l . B in Ref. [16]); a n d t h e m o r e s o , t h e s m a l l e r
w a s t h e flow r a t e Q a n d t h u s t h e r a t i o h/B.
H o w e v e r , in t h e past t h e / 3 - c o m p o n e n t w a s u s u a l l y i g n o r e d , a n d a t t e n -
tion was focused almost exclusively on cross-circulation.

iii- N o v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t i e s uy a r e p r e s e n t in a l a t e r a l l y o s c i l l a t i n g /?-flow, a n d
in t h e c a s e of a n a - f l o w t h e y a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d in t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of t h e
b a n k s ( l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s in [ 4 0 ] , s e e a l s o [24]). C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s , a n d
t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t t h e v a r i a t i o n of Ur w i t h r (at a n y y) at t h e flow
c e n t e r l i n e m u s t b e n e g l i g i b l e , o n e c a n a s s e r t t h a t t h e flow in a s i n u o u s
c h a n n e l m u s t p o s s e s s a c e n t r a l r e g i o n bm ( h o w e v e r n a r r o w ) w h e r e b o t h Uy
a n d diirldr can b e identified with zero.
T h e r a d i a l c o m p o n e n t of t h e e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n in t h e c h a n n e l - f i t t e d
c y l i n d r i c a l s y s t e m of c o o r d i n a t e s is g i v e n b y

(5.59)

21
R.L. H o o k e ' s [16] experiments: sine-generated c h a n n e l , rigid banks, cohesionless mobile
bed. 0 O = 55, Am = 10.33m, B = l m , S = 0.002, D 0.3mm. Q = 10, 20, 35, 50 Us were
used: 0.27 < Fr < 0.40, 8 < Blh < 20.

192
w h e r e t h e l e f t - h a n d s i d e is t h e r a d i a l c o n v e c t i v e a c c e l e r a t i o n . S u b s t i t u t i n g
Uy = 0 a n d dUr/dr = 0 in t h i s e q u a t i o n , o n e a r r i v e s at its r e d u c e d f o r m

(5.60)

w h i c h is v a l i d for t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n bm. U s i n g t h e v a l u e of Ur g i v e n b y ( 5 . 5 8 ) ,
o n e c a n e x p r e s s ( 5 . 6 0 ) as

(5.61)

M o s t of t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s a i m i n g t o r e v e a l t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r
of a c u r v e d c h a n n e l flow (i.e. t o r e v e a l t h e f o r m of t h e f u n c t i o n Ur = fr(y))
differ f r o m e a c h o t h e r m a i n l y b e c a u s e of t h e m e t h o d s u s e d for t h e e v a l u a t i o n
of uh rr a n d Sr. B a s i c a l l y , h o w e v e r , t h e y t e n d t o i d e n t i f y t h e flow in a r e g i o n
A / ( < B ) of a s i n u o u s c h a n n e l w i t h t h e d e v e l o p e d flow i n a c i r c u l a r
c h a n n e l (5.4.1 ( i ) ) . T h u s m o r e o f t e n t h a n n o t t h e y rest o n t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e
p o s t u l a t e s ( w h i c h w e r e a p p a r e n t l y first i n t r o d u c e d b y J . L . R o z o v s k i i [40]):
1- In a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s h o r t r e g i o n A / ( < B ) , a s i n u o u s c h a n n e l c a n
b e t r e a t e d as a c i r c u l a r c h a n n e l .
2- T h e v a r i a t i o n of c r o s s - c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n A / is n e g l i g i b l e .
3- T h e s i n u o u s c h a n n e l f l o w w i t h i n A / c a n b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e
d e v e l o p e d c i r c u l a r flow.
T h e p o s t u l a t e (1) h a s n o d i r e c t b e a r i n g o n t h e diff. E q . ( 5 . 6 1 ) . T h e p o s t u l a t e
(2) is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e a l i t y a n d it i m p l i e s

urot = const i.e. (5.62)

for a n y y a n d r w i t h i n A / a n d bm. T h e p o s t u l a t e ( 3 ) , h o w e v e r , i m p o s e s a
p a r a l l e l l o n g i t u d i n a l flow ( c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s of t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l b a s e of t h e
d e v e l o p e d c i r c u l a r a - f l o w ) - a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , it e l i m i n a t e s a u t o m a t i c a l l y
the convective (non-parallel) /?-component:

(5.63)

S u b s t i t u t i n g (5.62) a n d (5.63) in ( 5 . 6 1 ) , o n e a r r i v e s at

(5.64)

w h i c h w a s u s e d as b a s i c e q u a t i o n i n m o s t of t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s
p r o d u c e d ([4], [9], [14], [21], [40], [51], etc.).
S i n c e in t h e p o s t u l a t e s l e a d i n g t o ( 5 , 6 4 ) a - c o m p o n e n t ( c r o s s - c i r c u l a t i o n )
is m e n t i o n e d , w h e r e a s / 3 - c o m p o n e n t is n o t , it is o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t t h e r a d i a l
s h e a r stress r r in (5.64) w a s i n t e r p r e t e d a n d e v a l u a t e d i n t e r m s of Ur = Ura
2 2
o n l y ( a s , for e x a m p l e , rr = rm ~pu * o r r r a~ (dumldy) ). M o s t of t h e r e l a t i o n s

193
(Ur = f(y)) d e t e r m i n e d i n t h i s w a y w e r e t e s t e d b y t h e l a b o r a t o r y flows h a v i n g
c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l B/h; a n d their validity was thus "experimentally con-
f i r m e d " . C l e a r l y if U, is i d e n t i f i e d w i t h u m , t h e n anything that has a radial
c o m p o n e n t , o r o c c u r s a l o n g r ( d e v i a t i o n of s t r e a m l i n e s ( W I ; C J 2 ) , e x p a n s i o n of
l o o p s , c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l n o n - u n i f o r m i t y of t r a n s p o r t r a t e , etc.) must be e x p l a i n e d
by c r o s s - c i r c u l a t i o n . 2 2 It is t h u s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t it w a s t h e field r e s e a r c h e r s
d e a l i n g w i t h l a r g e n a t u r a l r i v e r s ( h a v i n g l a r g e Blh), in p a r t i c u l a r G . H .
M a t t h e s [ 3 4 ] , N.I. M a k a v e y e v [32] a n d S. L e l i a v s k i i [26], w h o w e r e first to
r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r o l e of c r o s s - c i r c u l a t i o n w a s o v e r e s t i m a t e d (see e.g. [52], [24],
[ 2 3 ] , [4]).
It a p p e a r s t h a t t h e l o n g s t a n d i n g d e b a t e o n t h e r e l e v a n c e of c r o s s -
c i r c u l a t i o n is t h u s s o m e w h a t o u t of f o c u s : it is n o t whether b u t when t h e
c r o s s - c i r c u l a t i o n is r e l e v a n t ( o r p r o m i n e n t ) - w h a t is r i g h t for s m a l l Blh
m a y t u r n o u t n o t t o b e so w h e n Blh is l a r g e .

iv- W e c o n c l u d e this s u b s e c t i o n b y g i v i n g a s c h e m a t i c a l o u t l i n e of t h e c r o s s -
s e c t i o n a l m e c h a n i c s of a - a n d / 3 - c o m p o n e n t s .
a-component: E q . ( 5 . 6 4 ) ; F i g . 5.28a.
S i n c e un > u a , w e h a v e for t h e s a m e r ( w i t h i n bm)

Frl = u]xlr> ifl2/r= Fr2.

W e a s s u m e t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e is d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e h y d r o s t a t i c l a w ,
a n d t h u s t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e f o r c e c a n b e t a k e n as gSr, for a n y y.
F u r t h e r m o r e , Frl > gSr > Frl. T h e l e f t w a r d - d i r e c t e d a c t i v e f o r c e Frl - gSr
m o v e s t h e fluid of l a y e r 1 t o t h e left ( t o w a r d t h e o u t e r b a n k ) : t h e p o s i t i v e
f o r c e Frl - gSr is b a l a n c e d b y t h e n e g a t i v e Tai = (drr/dy)i/p. Having turned
d o w n w a r d s at t h e o u t e r b a n k a n d d e s c e n d e d t o l a y e r 2 , t h e fluid is n o w
u n d e r t h e a c t i o n of t h e r i g h t w a r d - d i r e c t e d f o r c e gSr Fr2, w h i c h m o v e s it to
t h e r i g h t : t h e n e g a t i v e gSr - Fr2 is b a l a n c e d b y t h e p o s i t i v e Ta2 = (drrldy)2lp.
A t t h e i n n e r b a n k , t h e fluid t u r n s u p w a r d s a n d r e t u r n s t o l a y e r 1 - t h e
c r o s s - c i r c u l a t i o n is c o m p l e t e d .
0-component: Eq. (5.60); Fig. 5.28b.
W e c o n s i d e r t h e c o n v e c t i v e l y a c c e l e r a t i n g r e g i o n Oa at t h e o u t e r b a n k (Figs.
5.20b o r 5 . 3 0 b ) , w h e r e t h e l e f t - h a n d s i d e of ( 5 . 6 0 ) , viz u{(duTldl) is p o s i t i v e
for all y ( a n d / ) . S i n c e t h e fluid m o v e s in r a d i a l d i r e c t i o n o n l y t o t h e left,
w e h a v e Frl > Fr2 > gSr. T h e l e f t w a r d - d i r e c t e d p o s i t i v e forces Frl - gSr a n d
Fri ~ gSr a r e b a l a n c e d b y t h e n e g a t i v e TQX = - un(dUr/dl)i + (drr/dy)llp and
Tg2 = - ul2(dUr/dl)2 + (drrldy)2/p r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i n c e t h e flow c o n v e r g e s t o -
w a r d t h e o u t e r b a n k t h r o u g h o u t its t h i c k n e s s h, t h e p r o j e c t i o n s of rs a n d
drjdy o n t h e (r; y ) - p l a n e a r e p o s i t i v e . A n d b e c a u s e drjdy < 0, for a n y y, so

22
A tendency to explain any "radial p h e n o m e n o n " by cross-circulation is still noticeable even
in some recent works, e.g. if the left-hand side of (5.64) is known to be different from zero,
then this n o n - z e r o value is, as a rule, a t t r i b u t e d to du^/dl^O, rather than to du^/dl^O
(irrespective of Blh and c).

194
m u s t b e its p r o j e c t i o n drrldy. H e n c e t h e b a l a n c i n g f o r c e s TQx a n d Td2 c o n s i s t
of t h e ( r i g h t w a r d - d i r e c t e d ) n e g a t i v e t e r m s .

a
o

F i g . 5.28

5.4.3 Flow patterns

i- W e a s s u m e , as b e f o r e , t h a t t h e s i n u o u s c h a n n e l is s i n e - g e n e r a t e d , t h e
( n o n - d e f o r m i n g ) c r o s s - s e c t i o n is r e c t a n g u l a r , t h e s t e a d y s t a t e flow is t u r b u l e n t .

1) a-flow

T h e i n c r e m e n t of 1 I R c a u s e s t h e i n c r e m e n t of t h e m a g n i t u d e of all a;,-
a n d Ur ( E q s . ( 5 . 4 9 a ) a n d ( 5 . 4 9 b ) ) . S i n c e t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l f l o w , u p o n w h i c h
t h e c r o s s - c i r c u l a t i o n is s u p e r i m p o s e d , is p a r a l l e l t o t h e ( s i n e - g e n e r a t e d )
c h a n n e l b o u n d a r i e s , a n d s i n c e b o t h u{ a n d u^ c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a n y y a r e t h e
s a m e for all r of t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n bm, t h e s t r e a m l i n e s a t a l e v e l y a r e a l s o
p a r a l l e l to e a c h o t h e r ( w i t h i n bm). T h e a n g l e s w{ a n d UJ2 a t a f l o w s e c t i o n a r e
of o p p o s i t e sign b u t s a m e m a g n i t u d e . T h i s m a g n i t u d e v a r i e s a l o n g / so as t o
b e c o m e z e r o at t h e p o i n t s of i n f l e c t i o n ( 0 ) a n d a c q u i r e m a x i m u m at t h e
a p e x e s (a). T h e b e d s t r e a m l i n e s of a n a - f l o w a r e s k e t c h e d in F i g s . 5 . 2 9 a a n d
b ( w h i c h a r e d u e t o J . L . R o z o v s k i i [40]). H e r e t h e l i n e s a s e p a r a t e t h e b e d
streamlines w h i c h cross a n d d o not cross t h e c h a n n e l .

2) 0-flow-
In this c a s e , t h e a n g l e s UJX a n d UJ2 a r e of t h e s a m e s i g n , a n d t h e m a g n i -
t u d e of is l a r g e r t h a n t h a t of u2 at a n y l o c a t i o n of flow. A t a g i v e n c r o s s -
s e c t i o n , t h e m a g n i t u d e s of UJX a n d UJ2 a n d t h u s of t h e i r a v e r a g e UJ
( C J I + UJ2 )/2 a r e l a r g e s t at t h e c e n t e r l i n e ; a n d t h e y a r e z e r o at t h e b a n k s .
T h e s t r e a m l i n e s of a /3-flow d o n o t c r o s s t h e c h a n n e l : t h e y f o r m p e r i o d i c a l l y
a l t e r n a t i n g c o n v e r g e n c e - d i v e r g e n c e z o n e s in p l a n ( s e e F i g s . 5.30, w h i c h a r e
e s s e n t i a l l y t h e s a m e as F i g s . 5.20). W h e n 0 O is s m a l l , t h e n t h e l a r g e s t G J , viz

195
a

F i g . 5.29 ( f r o m Ref. [40])

w m a ,x is at t h e i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t s O a n d O', t h e largest flow v e l o c i t y ( u , ax ) b e i n g


at t h e a p e x s e c t i o n a ( F i g . 5 . 3 0 a ) . W i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of 60, t h e flow p i c t u r e

F i g . 5.30

196
p r o g r e s s i v e l y c h a n g e s , so t h a t w h e n 0 O is l a r g e , t h e n c j m ax is a p p r o x i m a t e l y at
t h e a p e x s e c t i o n , w h i l e umax is at t h e s e c t i o n d o w n s t r e a m of a ( F i g .
5.30b). T h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s l o c a t i o n , luIAm say, of t h e s e c t i o n o m u s t b e e x -
p e c t e d t o v a r y d e p e n d i n g o n 0 O, B/h a n d c .

3) General case
T h e flow p a t t e r n s f o r m e d b y b o t h , a- a n d / ^ - c o m p o n e n t s , a r e s k e t c h e d
in F i g . 5 . 3 1 . T h e c i r c u l a t i o n is p r e s e n t , b u t t h e s t r e a m l i n e s a r e n o t p a r a l l e l .

F i g . 5.31

W h i l e t h e s t r e a m l i n e s at o n e b a n k r o t a t e ( i n c o m p l e t e l y , a r o u n d l o n g i t u d i n a l
a x e s ) as t o c o m e f r o m t h e free s u r f a c e t o t h e b e d , t h o s e at t h e o t h e r b a n k
r o t a t e as t o c o m e f r o m t h e b e d t o t h e free s u r f a c e . T h e s t r e a m l i n e s far f r o m
t h e b a n k s d o n o t r o t a t e : t h e y m e r e l y o s c i l l a t e l a t e r a l l y , in t h e i r h o r i z o n t a l
p l a n e s . T h e p e r c e n t a g e of r o t a t i n g a n d o s c i l l a t i n g l i n e s d e p e n d s o n t h e
c o m p a r a t i v e i n t e n s i t y of a- a n d / 3 - c o m p o n e n t s .

F o r t h e s a m e r e m a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s , all cj/'s a n d u^s ( s e e ( 5 . 4 9 a ) a n d


( 5 . 4 9 b ) ) c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a flow s e c t i o n , i n c r e a s e w i t h t h e c h a n n e l c u r v a t u r e
(1/7?) of t h a t s e c t i o n . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , l/R is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o l/Ra, which
a c q u i r e s its m a x i m u m at 0 O 7 O (Fig- 5.5a). H e n c e , for t h e s a m e r e m a i n i n g
c o n d i t i o n s , t h e i n t e n s i t y of d i v e r g e n c e of s t r e a m l i n e s f r o m t h e g e n e r a l d i r e c -
t i o n / (in all flow p a t t e r n s s h o w n in F i g s . 5.29 t o 5.31) m u s t r e a c h its m a x i -
m u m w h e n 0 O 7 O . T o p u t it slightly d i f f e r e n t l y , d u r i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n of a
m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m , t h e i n t e n s i t y of r a d i a l p h e n o m e n a a n d t h e e x p a n s i o n
s p e e d (ddQ/dt) of l o o p s a c q u i r e t h e i r m a x i m u m s w h e n 0 O p a s s e s t h r o u g h
7 0 ( s e e F i g . 5.21).

ii- T h e i n c r e m e n t of ^ - c o m p o n e n t i n t e n s i f i e s t h e i n c r e m e n t of e n e r g y losses
d u e t o t h e c o n v e r g e n c e a n d d i v e r g e n c e of s t r e a m l i n e s , w h i l e t h e i n c r e m e n t
of a - c o m p o n e n t l e a d s t o t h e i n c r e m e n t of e n e r g y l o s s e s d u e t o t h e r o t a t i o n
of flow at t h e b a n k s a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t r a d i a l b e d f r i c t i o n . 2 3 O n e w o u l d

In the case of a /3-flow, rQr is but the projection of rQs o n t h e r-direction.

197
e x p e c t t h a t t h e f l o w in a s i n u o u s c h a n n e l " o r g a n i z e s " its a- a n d / 3 - c o m p o -
n e n t s so as t o p a s s t h e l o o p s w i t h m i n i m u m e n e r g y e x p e n d i t u r e .
C o n s i d e r t h e r a d i a l v e l o c i t y Ur at a s p e c i f i e d l e v e l y ; e.g. at t h e l e v e l
y h, i m p l y i n g t h e l a y e r 1. O n t h e basis of ( 5 . 5 8 ) , w e h a v e for Ur = Ur\
U U U
rl = ral + r0l (5-65)

and thus
1 = na+ n0. (5.66)

T h e r e l a t i v e i n p u t of a - a n d ^ - c o m p o n e n t s c a n r e a s o n a b l y w e l l b e r e f l e c t e d
b y t h e v a l u e s of na = UraJUri a n d n$ = Urdi/Uri- It is n o t k n o w n yet h o w na
a n d n& ( = 1 n^) a r e d e t e r m i n e d b y Blh, c , 0 O a n d ULm; a n d all t h a t c a n
b e a s s e r t e d o n t h e s c o r e at p r e s e n t is t h a t for a g i v e n l/Lm (e.g. for
ULm - 0.25 at t h e a p e x s e c t i o n ) a n d a s p e c i f i e d 0 O, t h e y s h o u l d v a r y w i t h
Blh a n d c as s h o w n s c h e m a t i c a l l y in F i g . 5.32.

F i g . 5.32

S i n c e / 3 - c o m p o n e n t is p r e s e n t for all Blh whereas a-component


p r o g r e s s i v e l y v a n i s h e s w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of Blh, t h e r e m u s t exist s u c h a
(Blh)* t h a t a - c o m p o n e n t is " p r a c t i c a l l y z e r o " if

Blh > (Blh), = 0 * ( c , 0 o, l/LJ

(as i n d i c a t e d in F i g . 5.32). T h e g r a p h s of na a n d n0 i n F i g . 5.32 a n d t h u s t h e


f u n c t i o n (Blh)* c a n b e r e a d i l y d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e family of r a d i a l v e l o c i t y
d i a g r a m s ( i n F i g . 5.27) w h i c h , in t u r n , c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d e i t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l l y
or from laboratory m e a s u r e m e n t s : future research o n the topic would cer-
tainly b e w o r t h w h i l e .

Suppose that the ur- and ^-distributions along y, e.g. at the center line of the apex
section a, have been revealed from laboratory measurements (w rdistribution should be nearly
logarithmic, if B/h is sufficiently large). In this case, the cross-circulation diagram um can be
determined as follows. W e have
ura - ur - UTQ - ur - Ui tan UJ ,

where the unknown UJ reflects the (vertically averaged) ^-deviation of flow. Now the upper
and lower areas of the ura -diagram must be equal, and therefore UJ must be of that particular
value which satisfies

198
I (ur - W / t a n UJ )dv - 0

(where ur = fr(y) and u{ = ft(y) are k n o w n from m e a s u r e m e n t s ) .

F r o m t h e c o n t e n t of t h i s s e c t i o n it s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t t h e m e c h a n i c a l
s t r u c t u r e of a m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m ( c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a g i v e n 0 O a n d c ) v a r i e s
f u n d a m e n t a l l y d e p e n d i n g o n its a s p e c t r a t i o B/h. Utmost caution should thus
b e e x e r c i s e d w h e n u s i n g t h e d i s t o r t e d m o d e l s t o p r e d i c t t h e b e h a v i o u r of a
m e a n d e r i n g flow (let a l o n e t h e s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t o r c h a n n e l deformation
c a u s e d b y it). M u c h of t h e c o n f l i c t in t h e field is d u e t o t h e a t t e m p t s t o e x -
p l a i n t h e m e a n d e r i n g of l a r g e - B Ih s t r e a m s b y u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d f r o m
small-B/h streams.

5.4.4 Bed deformation

i- T h e p r e s e n c e of c o n v e c t i v e l y a c c e l e r a t e d a n d d e c e l e r a t e d f l o w z o n e s in a
sinuous channel m e a n s t h e p r e s e n c e of n o n - u n i f o r m i t i e s (in plan) of the
bed-load rate ( V q 9^ 0 ) . H e n c e , as is c l e a r from the transport continuity
e q u a t i o n ( 1 . 7 8 ) , viz

in s o m e a r e a s t h e b e d e l e v a t i o n yb m u s t i n c r e a s e , w h i l e in s o m e o t h e r s d e -
c r e a s e w i t h t h e p a s s a g e of t i m e , as t o f o r m e v e n t u a l l y t h e " b e d topography"
4
(of a m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m ) : t h e c i r c u l a t i o n , if p r e s e n t , is a c a t a l y s t only.-
C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s , t h e b e d d e f o r m a t i o n will b e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s u b s e c t i o n o n
t h e ( c o n v e c t i v e ) /3-basis. (It m a y b e n o t e d in p a s s i n g h e r e , t h a t t h e i n c r e m e n t
of i9-input w i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of B/h, a n d t h u s of Q ( s e e f o o t n o t e 2 0 ) , f o r m s
a n a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n for l a r g e r i v e r s t o e x h i b i t a " b e t t e r m e a n d e r i n g " ) .
W e will a s s u m e , in a n a l o g y t o R . L . H o o k e ' s e x p e r i m e n t s [ 1 6 ] , t h a t t h e
b a n k s of t h e ( s i n e - g e n e r a t e d ) c h a n n e l a r e v i r t u a l l y r i g i d : t h e t r a n s p o r t is b y
t h e b e d - l o a d (qs = qsb). A t t = 0, t h e b e d is a (flat) p l a n e yb = 0; at t = Tb,
2
it is a ( c u r v e d ) s u r f a c e ^ yb = <f>b(r, /).

24
T h e cross-circulation is effective mainly in the f o r m a t i o n of p o i n t bars ([32], [52], [24],
etc.).
25
W h e n referring to the " b e d " in this p a r a g r a p h , we refer to that ( s m o o t h ) geometric surface
o n which the bed forms (ripples and/or dunes) are s u p e r i m p o s e d . T h e bed forms are al-
ready developed when the d e f o r m a t i o n of this surface has just started. T h e g e o m e t r y of
the developed bed forms c a n n o t vary significantly d u r i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e bed surface,
m
and the roughness Ks caused by t h e m is reflected by t h e practically non-varying c ~ K~ .

199
ii- If t h e c h a n g e s in t h e flow s t r u c t u r e d u e t o t h e b e d d e f o r m a t i o n a r e ig-
n o r e d , t h e n t h e g e n e r a l ( q u a l i t a t i v e ) n a t u r e of t h e r e s u l t i n g b e d t o p o g r a p h y
c a n b e p r e d i c t e d o n t h e b a s i s of t r a n s p o r t c o n t i n u i t y f o r m ( 1 . 8 7 ) , i.e.

= ~ [<*ub] ( = " V q 5) , (5.67)

where [aub] = ubd<t>(ub)/dub is a monotonously increasing function of u


( > ucr).
1- S i n c e [aub] is a l w a y s p o s i t i v e , dybldt c h a n g e s its sign w h e n dublds does so.
H e n c e t h e z o n e s of t h e d o w n w a r d a n d u p w a r d d i s p l a c e m e n t s (i.e. t h e e r o s i o n
a n d d e p o s i t i o n z o n e s ) m u s t c o i n c i d e w i t h z o n e s of c o n v e c t i v e a c c e l e r a t i o n
and deceleration respectively. Consequently, the erosion and deposition zones
d u e t o t h e flow s h o w n in F i g s . 5.30a a n d b s h o u l d b e in t h e a r e a s s k e t c h e d
in F i g s . 5.33a a n d b . T h e s c h e m e t h u s p r e d i c t e d is, in a b r o a d s e n s e ,
c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e b e d t o p o g r a p h y of a c t u a l m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m s (Figs. 5.34a
and b).

2- T h e d e e p e s t e r o s i o n o r p o o l s h o u l d b e at ( o r a r o u n d ) t h a t flow s e c t i o n
w h e r e t h e b e d - l o a d r a t e " c o n v e r g e n c e " V q 5 , i.e. t h e p r o d u c t [aub]dub/dsy is
m a x i m u m . S i n c e t h e m u l t i p l i e r [aub] is a m o n o t o n o u s f u n c t i o n of ub
( > ucr), its m a x i m u m is at t h e s e c t i o n of m a x i m u m ub\ t h e m a x i m u m
dublds is at t h e s e c t i o n of uj = c j m ax ( w h e r e t h e d e v i a t i o n of s t r e a m l i n e s f r o m
t h e c u r v i l i n e a r p a r a l l e l i s m is t h e l a r g e s t ) . B u t t h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e d e e p e s t
e r o s i o n s h o u l d o c c u r at a s e c t i o n t h a t is s o m e w h e r e b e t w e e n t h e s e c t i o n s of
c j m ax a n d (ub)max. H e n c e if 0 O is " s m a l l " , t h e n t h e d e e p e s t e r o s i o n s h o u l d b e
at t h e i n n e r b a n k of a s e c t i o n t h a t is b e t w e e n t h e s e c t i o n s O a n d a ( F i g .
5.33a); a n d if 00 is " l a r g e " t h e n it s h o u l d b e at t h e o u t e r b a n k of a s e c t i o n
t h a t is b e t w e e n t h e s e c t i o n s a a n d au ( F i g . 5.33b) " s o m e w h a t d o w n s t r e a m
of t h e a p e x " [23]. A s is w e l l k n o w n , t h i s , as a r u l e , is i n d e e d so in r e a l i t y .

iii- T h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e b e d t o p o g r a p h y is a p o p u l a r r e -
s e a r c h t o p i c s i n c e a l o n g t i m e . Y e t it h a s b e e n r e a l i z e d o n l y r e c e n t l y t h a t t h i s
t o p o g r a p h y c a n n o t b e d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e b a s i s of static e q u i l i b r i u m of f o r c e s
a c t i n g o n b e d g r a i n s ; at least b e c a u s e t h e b e d g r a i n s of a m e a n d e r i n g r i v e r
in s a n d a r e n o t static (rj is u s u a l l y c o m p a r a b l e w i t h 10). L e t (Qs)\n and
(?s)out b e t h e b e d - l o a d r a t e s e n t e r i n g a n d l e a v i n g a n a r e a , A say, of t h e b e d
s u r f a c e . T h e p o i n t b a r g r o w s b e c a u s e (QS)\N > (QS)OM for its a r e a s A. H o w -
e v e r , t h e l a r g e r t h e s t e e p n e s s of t h e b a r b e c o m e s , t h e m o r e it i m p e d e s t h e
s e d i m e n t - b r i n g i n g flow t o " c l i m b " o n it. O n e c a n say t h a t t h e s t e e p e r t h e
b a r , t h e m o r e effectively it s t e e r s a w a y f r o m itself t h e flow w h i c h t e n d s t o
a m p l i f y its s t e e p n e s s f u r t h e r . E v e n t u a l l y t h e b a r r e a c h e s s u c h a final e q u i l i b -
r i u m s t e e p n e s s ; a n d t h e flow b e d as a w h o l e , s u c h a n e q u i l i b r i u m t o p o g r a p h y ,
for w h i c h (Qs)\n a n d (Qs)out a r e e q u a l all o v e r .

200
a

Fig. 5.33

Muddy Creek ( Ref.[36]) Helm bend, Lower W a b a s h R. ( R e f . [ 1 9 ] )

F i g . 5.34

iv- T h e p r e v a l e n t c u r r e n t a p p r o a c h t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of b e d
t o p o g r a p h y of m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m s r e s t s o n t h e d y n a m i c equilibrium
=
((Qf)in (<2s)out^ 0 ) achieved by the above described "topographic steering".

T h i s a p p r o a c h is m a i n l y d u e t o t h e w o r k s of H . J . d e V r i e n d , J . D . S m i t h , S.R.
McLean, J.M. Nelson, W . E Dietrich, P. Whiting, N. Struiksma a n d others ([7],
[35], [ 8 ] , [ 4 5 ] , [42]). In t h e s e w o r k s , t h e f o r m a t i o n of b e d t o p o g r a p h y is
f o r m u l a t e d b y t h e c o n v e c t i v e a c c e l e r a t i o n s of f l o w a n d t h u s of t h e b e d - l o a d

201
r a t e : all e q u a t i o n s a r e v e r t i c a l l y a v e r a g e d , t h e b a n k s a r e t r e a t e d as rigid. It
is n o t p o s s i b l e to e n t e r a d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n a n d c o m p a r i s o n of t h e s e w o r k s
h e r e , a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g is b u t a n o u t l i n e of t h e i r c o m m o n p r i n c i p l e s .
It is a s s u m e d t h a t t h e p l a n g e o m e t r y of t h e s i n u o u s c h a n n e l is s p e c i f i e d
(60 is s p e c i f i e d , if s i n e - g e n e r a t e d ) , a n d t h a t Q, B a n d c a r e g i v e n .
T h e v e r t i c a l l y - a v e r a g e d l o c a l flow v e l o c i t i e s u a n d t h e l o c a l s h e a r
v e l o c i t i e s v* satisfy t h e c o n t i n u i t y a n d m o m e n t u m e q u a t i o n s w h i c h c a n b e
s y m b o l i z e d as

^ ( u ,h) = 0 and 0 2 ( u , v * , hyb) = 0 (5.68)

respectively. T h e velocities u and v. a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d b y t h e ( k n o w n ) " c l o -


sures":

0 3( u , v * ) = 0 . (5.69)

S u b s t i t u t i n g yb = 0, o n e d e t e r m i n e s f r o m t h e t h r e e e q u a t i o n s a b o v e t h e t h r e e
field f u n c t i o n s : u , v* a n d h w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e flat i n i t i a l b e d . K n o w i n g
t h u s t h e v e c t o r field v., o n e d e t e r m i n e s t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g qs-field, w i t h t h e
a i d of a ( s e l e c t e d ) b e d - l o a d r e l a t i o n ,

q, = 0 4( v * ) , (5-70)

a n d u s e s it in t h e t r a n s p o r t c o n t i n u i t y e q u a t i o n

(5.71)

T h e n , f r o m this e q u a t i o n , o n e d e t e r m i n e s (Syb)i c o r r e s p o n d i n g to t h e t i m e -
s t e p Stx, a l t e r s t h e field f u n c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o (Syb)i, a n d r e p e a t s t h e p r o c e -
d u r e for 6t2, 6t3, ... e t c . T h e c o m p u t a t i o n e n d s ( t h e e q u i l i b r i u m b e d s u r f a c e
=
yb fair, 0 is a c h i e v e d ) w h e n dybldt-+ 0 is r e a c h e d . T h e r e s u l t s t h u s o b -
t a i n e d a p p e a r t o b e r e m a r k a b l y r e a l i s t i c : c o m p a r e e.g. t h e e q u i l i b r i u m b e d
s u r f a c e s c o m p u t e d b y J . M . N e l s o n a n d J . D . S m i t h [35] w i t h t h o s e d e t e r m i n e d
f r o m e x p e r i m e n t ( s e e Figs. 5.35a a n d b ) .

PART II: Braiding

5.5 O r i g i n of B r a i d i n g

5.5.1 General

i- B r a i d i n g , i.e. t h e s p l i t t i n g of a n a l l u v i a l c h a n n e l i n t o a m u l t i t u d e of c h a n -
n e l s , is a l s o , l i k e m e a n d e r i n g , a s e l f - i n d u c e d f o r m of a n a l l u v i a l s t r e a m m o -
t i o n ( w h i c h is n o t f o r c e d u p o n t h e s t r e a m b y its e n v i r o n m e n t ) . F u r t h e r m o r e ,
it i n i t i a t e s also b e c a u s e of t h e l a r g e - s c a l e h o r i z o n t a l t u r b u l e n c e , a n d d e v e l o p s
b e c a u s e of t h e r e g i m e t r e n d Fr> m i n .

202
* by P. Whiting and W.E. Dietrich: Ref. [35]
by R.L Hooke [16]

F i g . 5.35

N o t e f r o m F i g . 5.8 t h a t t h e b r a i d i n g d a t a ( p o i n t s B) a r e s i t u a t e d a b o v e
the line h forming the u p p e r b o u n d a r y of t h e m e a n d e r r e g i o n Rm, and
t h e r e f o r e t h e l i n e lx c a n b e t a k e n as t h e b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n t h e m e a n d e r ( a n d
a l t e r n a t e b a r ) r e g i o n Rm a n d t h e b r a i d i n g ( a n d m u l t i p l e b a r ) r e g i o n Rb.

Numerous laboratory experiments have been conducted with the intention to explore the
mechanism of braiding ([2], [11], [17], [29], [41], etc.). However, in some of them the essential
characteristic of a natural braiding stream, viz its self-induced development (by successive
splittings, i.e. subdivisions), appears to be overlooked. The fact that the region of braiding
coincides with the region of multiple bars does not mean that a braiding stream is a "static
image" of multiple bars. (A meandering stream is not a static image of alternate bars, although
their regions also overlap on the (Blh; / i / D ) - p l a n e ) . Most of laboratory experiments were
conducted for a constant Q and erodible bed and banks. The bars occurred first: the channel
width continued to increase and flow depth h to decrease. When h was sufficiently small, the
bars were exposed. D o e s it mean that the flow was braiding? Take another example,
Q = const, B = const (flume experiments): again mutiple bars occured first. The slope 5
(which adjusts itself depending on sediment fed into the flume) continued to increase and h
to decrease; eventually the bars were exposed, and the same question can be asked again. The
answer is "no" in both cases, for each of the resulting flows around the emergent islands did
not possess the dynamic quality of a self-induced further development. Indeed, a further
decrement of h would merely cause the islands to become wider and the flow channels be-
tween them narrower: yet the number of these islands and channels would not increase. On
the other hand, e.g. in the experiments of L.B. Leopold and M.G. Wolman [29] the laboratory

203
stream was certainly braiding: t h e increment of n u m b e r of islands a n d channels is clearly
observable from Fig. 34 of Ref. [29]. (This valuable paper, t h o u g h n o t " n e w " a n y longer, will
often be referred to in t h e following). See also t h e experiments of S.A. S c h u m m a n d H . R .
Khan [41].

Since b r a i d i n g c a n i n i t i a t e a n d d e v e l o p o n l y if: t h e s e d i m e n t is m o v i n g ,
t h e flow is t u r b u l e n t , (Fr)0 > (Fr)R ( i . e . 5 0 = Sv > SR) a n d t h e i n i t i a l p o i n t
PQ is i n t h e b r a i d i n g r e g i o n Rb, t h e n e c e s s a r y a n d sufficient c o n d i t i o n s for t h e
occurrence of b r a i d i n g in a t r a n q u i l a l l u v i a l s t r e a m c a n t h u s b e s u m m a r i z e d
b y t h e set
rj > 1 ; Re > 5 0 0 ; Sv> SR ; PQe Rb, (5.72)

w h i c h differs f r o m (5.29) o n l y b e c a u s e Rb a p p e a r s i n s t e a d of Rm.

ii- A s h a s b e e n m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e r e g i m e d e v e l o p m e n t of flow w i d t h
t a k e s p l a c e m u c h faster t h a n t h a t of t h e s l o p e , a n d t h e r e f o r e o n e c a n a s s u m e ,
in a n a l o g y to m e a n d e r s , t h a t b r a i d i n g also d e v e l o p s s t a r t i n g f r o m a s i n g l e
initial c h a n n e l w h o s e w i d t h is n e a r l y t h e s a m e a s t h e r e g i m e w i d t h :
m
B Q * B R ~ Q . (5.73)

T h i s m e a n s ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s i s t a n c e e q u a t i o n Q = BQhQc<?s/gSvho) that
t h e i n i t i a l d e p t h a n d s l o p e of b o t h b r a i d i n g a n d m e a n d e r i n g e x p e r i m e n t s a r e
given by 1
2
cQh~QSv~ Q= const. (5.74)

Consider now the braiding and meandering experiments which corre-


m
s p o n d t o t h e s a m e Q a n d D , a n d t h u s t h e s a m e BQ/D~ Q ID ( w e will
d i s t i n g u i s h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of b r a i d i n g a n d m e a n d e r i n g flows b y t h e s u b -
s c r i p t s b a n d ra, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . A s s h o u l d b e c l e a r f r o m 5.2.4 ( i ) , t h e i n i t i a l
p o i n t s (P$)B a n d (P0)M of t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s m u s t l i e o n t h e s a m e 1 / 1 - d e c l i n i n g
s t r a i g h t l i n e , 7r s a y , i n t h e log-log (B/h; / i / D ) - p l a n e ( F i g . 5.36). T h e
2 . 5 / 1 - d e c l i n i n g s t r a i g h t l i n e s i n t h i s g r a p h c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e v a l u e s of S: t h e
m o r e t o t h e r i g h t is t h e l i n e , t h e s m a l l e r is its S (5.2.4 ( i ) ) . L e t P b e t h e
i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e l i n e 7r w i t h t h e l i n e U ( b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n Rm a n d Rb).

k log B/h

= const

F i g . 5.36

204
S i n c e e a c h (P0)b is h i g h e r t h a n P a n d t h u s t h a n (P0)m, its s l o p e m u s t b e l a r g e r
t h a n t h a t of (P0)m:

(5.75)

A s will b e a p p a r e n t in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n , t h e o v e r a l l s l o p e of a b r a i d i n g s t r e a m
d o e s n o t v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s it d e v e l o p s w i t h t h e p a s s a g e of t i m e . Y e t , t h e
s l o p e of a m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e c r e a s e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e in-
e q u a l i t y ( 5 . 7 5 ) , w h i c h is v a l i d for t = 0, c a n o n l y b e i n t e n s i f i e d w i t h t h e
p a s s a g e of t i m e . T h u s , ( 5 . 7 5 ) c a n b e g e n e r a l i z e d i n t o

(S)b>(S) m
(5.76)

w h i c h is v a l i d for a n y t.
It f o l l o w s t h a t t h e s l o p e of a b r a i d i n g s t r e a m m u s t , in g e n e r a l , b e l a r g e r
t h a n t h a t of a m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s a m e Q. T h i s ( d e -
r i v e d ) s t a t e m e n t is in a g r e e m e n t w i t h r e a l i t y [ r e c a l l t h e w e l l k n o w n p l o t of
L . L e o p o l d a n d M . W o l m a n ( F i g . 4 6 in Ref. [29]).

5.5.2 Initial channel

A l t h o u g h t h e b r a i d i n g d a t a ( p o i n t s B in Fig. 5.8) a r e s c a t t e r e d
t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n Rb, t h e i n i t i a l p o i n t s (Po)t> a r e likely t o b e c o n c e n t r a t e d
in t h e l o w e r p a r t of t h i s r e g i o n , i.e. in t h e z o n e of 2 - r o w h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s
(N = 2 ) . T h i s is i n v a r i a b l y so in c o n v e n t i o n a l laboratory braiding-
e x p e r i m e n t s , w h e r e o n e c a n h a r d l y h a v e a n initial c h a n n e l , w i t h a t u r b u l e n t
flow, w h o s e B0/h0 is 3 0 0 , say. In n a t u r a l r i v e r s , t h e i n i t i a l c h a n n e l p r o b l e m
is m o r e a m b i g u o u s ; for t h e b r a i d i n g of a n a t u r a l s t r e a m d o e s n o t o r i g i n a t e
f r o m a n i n i t i a l c h a n n e l as w e k n o w it t h e initial c h a n n e l m u s t b e c o n -
s t r u e d ( i n f e r r e d ) . A n a t u r a l s i n g l e - c h a n n e l s t r e a m starts t o b r a i d , a n d r e m a i n s
b r a i d i n g , in t h o s e s t r e t c h e s w h e r e t h e s l o p e is s t e e p e r t h a n u s u a l . W h e n t h e
slope flattens, b r a i d i n g disappears: separate c h a n n e l s m e r g e again into a
s i n g l e - c h a n n e l ( F i g s . 5.37 a n d 5.38). T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e s h o w n s c h e m a t i c a l l y
in F i g . 5.39. H e r e , t h e f l a t t e r s t r e t c h OA c o n t a i n s t h e s i n g l e - c h a n n e l s t r e a m
(B\ h\ S'). T h e s t e e p e r s t r e t c h AB, w h o s e s l o p e is S " , is t h e b r a i d i n g r e -
g i o n : B" a n d h" a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h a t s e c t i o n w h e r e t h e d i v i s i o n of
m
t h e s i n g l e - c h a n n e l b e g i n s . W e a s s u m e t h a t B!' B" &BR~ Q , and that the
s i n g l e - c h a n n e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h'; S' a n d h"; S" a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d , b y t h e
r e s i s t a n c e f o r m u l a , a p p r o x i m a t e l y as

(5.77)

T h e r a t i o s BRlh" a n d BRlh' can be identified, respectively, with the ordinates


of t h e i n i t i a l b r a i d i n g - p o i n t (P0)b ( a b o v e lx) a n d a m e a n d e r - p o i n t (P0)m (be-
l o w Zi), b o t h p o i n t s b e i n g o n t h e s a m e 1/1-declining s t r a i g h t l i n e TT ( F i g . 5.36).
N o t e f r o m F i g . 5.8 t h a t t h e l i n e l2 f o r m i n g t h e u p p e r l i m i t of t h e z o n e of t h e

205
MAGNETIC NORTH ^
\
y
, Mean s
'ope = . 0 0 2 2 Single or ijndivided channel
O Left chanrlei and its branches

rr H
Right charmel

s
\
\

V
*> s

400 600
DISTANCE ALONG STREAM, IN FEET

F i g . 5.37 ( f r o m Ref. [29])

Fig. 2/4.4 Tigris River near Baled


(after NEDECO, 1958) B O T T O M PROFILE AND SURFACE SLOPE
ADHAIM
RIVER
TIGRIS RIVER (IRAQ) B E T W E E N KM 340 AND KM 390

TIGRIS RIVER BALAD


FLOODED AT HIGH WATER

F i g . 5.38 ( f r o m Ref. [20])

206
2 - r o w h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s a n d bars26 is " h i g h e r " t h a n t h e l i n e lx b y a f a c t o r of
8 0 / 2 5 ^ 3 . 2 . H e n c e e v e n if t h e p o i n t (P0)M w e r e " j u s t b e l o w " t h e l i n e l u o n e
3
w o u l d still n e e d , r o u g h l y , S"/S' > ( 3 . 2 ) 3 3 to m a k e t h e p o i n t (P0)B t o o c -
c u r in t h e z o n e of 3 - r o w b u r s t s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s , it will b e a s s u m e d i n t h e
f o l l o w i n g t h a t t h e i n i t i a l c h a n n e l of a b r a i d i n g s t r e a m c o r r e s p o n d s to N = 2.

A B

F i g . 5.39

5.5.3 Minimization of the excess SV - SR 27

i- It s h o u l d b e r e c a l l e d f r o m C h a p t e r 4 t h a t t h e r e g i m e s l o p e SR is p r o p o r -
t i o n a l t o a n e g a t i v e p o w e r of t h e flow r a t e :
S
S R = <*SQ- ". (5.78)

H e r e 0 . 1 1 < ns < ^ 0 . 4 2 ( l o w e r l i m i t for s a n d , u p p e r l i m i t for g r a v e l ) a n d


as const for a g i v e n e x p e r i m e n t . S u p p o s e t h a t , o w i n g t o r e a s o n s w h i c h w i l l
b e c l a r i f i e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n , t h e i n i t i a l c h a n n e l (of N = 2) w h i c h h a s t h e
w i d t h B0 (zzBR) a n d w h i c h c o n v e y s t h e flow r a t e Q, splits i n t o 2 c h a n n e l s ,
e a c h of w h i c h h a s t h e w i d t h B2 = B0/2 a n d c o n v e y s QI2. T h e r e g i m e s l o p e
of e a c h of t h e s e c h a n n e l s , viz (SR)2, is l a r g e r t h a n t h e r e g i m e s l o p e SR of t h e
initial c h a n n e l . I n d e e d
n
(SR)2 = aS(Q/2y * = SR2 * > SR. (5.79)

H e n c e , t h e o r i g i n a l e x c e s s SV SR is r e d u c e d :

SV~(SR)2< S V - SR. (5.80)

N o w , e a c h of t h e s e t w o c h a n n e l s is s u b d i v i d e d , i n t u r n , i n t o f u r t h e r t w o
2
c h a n n e l s in t h e s a m e w a y (all t o g e t h e r four c h a n n e l s ) , 8 a n d t h e n again

T h e line l2 was located using t h e data in [12].

See 5.2.2 (i) for t h e r e p l a c e m e n t of the trend ( F r ) 0- + (Fr)R by 5 V - ^ SR.

Apparently, it is t h e a u t h o r s of Ref. [29] w h o were first to recognize that the " n e w channels
in the divided reach m a y b e c o m e subdivided in the same m a n n e r " .

207
e t c . T h e s e s u c c e s s i v e s u b d i v i s i o n s y i e l d t h e d e c r e a s i n g s e q u e n c e of deficits
Sv - (SR)k, viz
n 2n
(Sv - SR) > (Sv - 2 *SR) > (Sv - 2 *SR) > > (Sv - 2 ^ ) . (5.81)
k
H e r e t h e i n t e g e r k is t h e n u m b e r of s u c c e s s i v e s u b d i v i s i o n s ( s p l i t s ) , 2 b e i n g
t h e t o t a l n u m b e r of c h a n n e l s w h i c h c o m e i n t o b e i n g at t h e e n d of t h e /c'th
split. T h e initial (single) c h a n n e l c o r r e s p o n d s t o k = 0 o r 2 = 1, a n d it is
1
r e f e r r e d t o as t h e first order channel [3]. T h e 2 = 2 c h a n n e l s c o r r e s p o n d i n g
2
t o k = 1 a r e second order channels, t h e 2 = 4 c h a n n e l s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to
k = 2 a r e third order channels, a n d so o n ( " o r d e r " = k + 1). T h e field
s t u d i e s u s u a l l y d o n o t g o b e y o n d t h e t h i r d o r d e r c h a n n e l s . It is t h u s tacitly
a s s u m e d t h a t t h e s l o p e s of t h e d i v i d e d c h a n n e l s a r e ( n e a r l y ) t h e s a m e : t h e y
a r e all e q u a l t o T h i s a s s u m p t i o n will b e c l a r i f i e d in 5.6.2.

ii- It f o l l o w s t h a t m e a n d e r i n g a n d b r a i d i n g a r e t w o m e a n s u s e d b y a n a l l u v i a l
s t r e a m t o m i n i m i z e its deficit Sv ~ SR. In t h e c a s e of m e a n d e r i n g , t h e p o s i t i v e
d i f f e r e n c e (Sv ~ SR) is m i n i m i z e d b y t h e d e c r e m e n t of Sv (SR r e m a i n i n g
c o n s t a n t ) ; in t h e c a s e of b r a i d i n g , b y t h e i n c r e m e n t of SR (Sv r e m a i n i n g
c o n s t a n t ) . T h e " c h o i c e " of a p a r t i c u l a r m e a n s d e p e n d s o n t h e g e o m e t r y a n d
r o u g h n e s s of t h e initial c h a n n e l , a n d t h u s o n t h e t u r b u l e n t s t r u c t u r e of flow
c o n v e y e d by it (if N= 1, m e a n d e r i n g ; if N > 2, b r a i d i n g ) . T h e d e c r e m e n t
of Sv in a m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m is b y t h e g r o w t h of s i n u o s i t y , t h e i n c r e m e n t
of SR in a b r a i d i n g s t r e a m is by t h e i n c r e m e n t of s u c c e s s i v e c h a n n e l s u b -
d i v i s i o n s : a a n d k a r e t h e c o u n t e r p a r t s of e a c h o t h e r . I n t h e c a s e of
m e a n d e r i n g , t h e g r o w t h of a is n o t a g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e r e g i m e s t a t e will b e
a c h i e v e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y if t h e e x c e s s Sv - SR is " l a r g e " ( l o o p s m a y t o u c h e a c h
o t h e r , t h e " m o v i n g p o i n t " m m a y r e a c h t h e l o w e r b o u n d a r y of Rm, e t c . ( s e e
5.2.4)). S i m i l a r l y , t h e i n c r e m e n t of k is n o t a g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e s t a b l e r e g i m e
s t a t e will e v e r b e r e a c h e d by a b r a i d i n g s t r e a m ( u s u a l l y b e c a u s e of b r a n c h i n g
c h a n n e l s t o u c h i n g e a c h o t h e r ) - a n d t h e " r e s t l e s s n e s s " , o r i n s t a b i l i t y , of
b r a i d i n g r i v e r s is, in fact, m o r e c o m m o n .

5.6 D e v e l o p m e n t of B r a i d i n g

5.6.1 Channel division mechanism

i- C o n s i d e r a n initial c h a n n e l w i t h a flat m o b i l e b e d a t t = 0. T h e t u r b u l e n t
flow c o n t a i n s a s e q u e n c e of 2 - r o w h o r i z o n t a l b u r s t s ( F i g . 5 . 4 0 a ) c a u s e d b y a
d i s c o n t i n u i t y d ( u p s t r e a m e n d of m o b i l e b e d in l a b o r a t o r y , c h a n g e of t h e b e d
s l o p e at A ( F i g . 5.39) in t h e field, e t c . ) . If t h e c h a n n e l b a n k s w e r e r i g i d , t h i s
s e q u e n c e of b u r s t s w o u l d g e n e r a t e a s e q u e n c e of d o u b l e - r o w b a r s ( F i g . 5.40b).
H o w e v e r , t h e b a n k s a r e n o t r i g i d , a n d t h e a l l u v i a l f o r m a t i o n is t h u s n o t q u i t e
the same.
T h e first b u r s t s (0H)\ a n d (0H)I c o n v e c t i v e l y a c c e l e r a t e t h e flow at t h e
c e n t e r l i n e , a n d t h u s c o m p e l l t h e t r a n s p o r t e d s e d i m e n t ( w h i c h is a s s u m e d to

208
b e d i s t r i b u t e d u n i f o r m l y a l o n g t h e flow w i d t h at d) t o c o n v e r g e t o w a r d t h i s
l i n e - a l o n g t h e d i s t a n c e ( A / , ) i 6 ( 5 0 / 2 ) = 3 B 0 , as i n d i c a t e d b y t h e
" a r r o w s " in F i g . 5.40b.29 F u r t h e r d o w n s t r e a m , a l o n g ( A H ) 2 , t h e flow at t h e

F i g . 5.40

c e n t e r l i n e d e c e l e r a t e s , a n d t h e s e d i m e n t is d e p o s i t e d so as t o i n i t i a t e the
formation of the central bar I. W i t h the increment of bar steepness its
"topographic steering" (in the sense of 5.4.4) becomes more and more
effective: t h e b a r " f o r c e s t h e w a t e r i n t o t h e f l a n k i n g c h a n n e l s , w h i c h , t o c a r r y
t h e flow, d e e p e n a n d cut laterally into the original banks. Such deepening
locally l o w e r s t h e w a t e r surface a n d t h e c e n t r a l bar e m e r g e s as a n island"
( p . 3 9 , Ref. [29]). In s h o r t , " w h e n bank erosion occurs (and the channel
w i d e n s ) , t h e w a t e r l e v e l ( a n d t h u s t h e flow d e p t h ) d e c r e a s e s , a n d t h e bars
emerge" (p. 1 7 6 1 , Ref. [40]).30 T h e conditions described are shown sche-
matically in F i g s . 5.40c and d. T h e widening of t h e channel around the
central bar I alters the plan geometry of t h e flow, and consequently the
" i n t e n d e d " alluvial formation. T h e widened (and thus " w e a k e n e d " ) flanking
flows c a n n o t t r a n s p o r t t h e m a t e r i a l t h e y e r o d e ( f r o m t h e s i d e c h a n n e l s of I)
as far d o w n s t r e a m a s t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e p o t e n t i a l c e n t r a l b a r II. T h e m a t e r i a l
transported by t h e m is d e p o s i t e d e a r l i e r : a t If and II". T h u s t h e flanking
s t r e a m s c r e a t e " t h e i r o w n " d e p o s i t i o n s (If a n d I f ) w h i c h , in t u r n , will c a u s e

29
This (predicted) convergence of transport toward t h e center line is consistent with exper-
imental observations: at t h e early stages of formation " t h e band of principal bed t r a n s p o r t
lies o n t o p of t h e s u b m e r g e d central b a r " (p. 47 in [29]).
30
T h e original past tense has been altered to the present tense by the a u t h o r ; brackets added
for clarification.

209
e a c h of t h e s e t w o s e c o n d o r d e r s t r e a m s to b e d i v i d e d i n t o t w o t h i r d order
streams, etc.

It follows that it is indeed not a p p r o p r i a t e to consider braiding as the " i m a g e " , or " i m p r i n t " ,
of multiple bars; at least because the initiation of braiding is associated with the elimination
of the potential bar p a t t e r n (the bar II is replaced by If and II") - in spite of the fact that
it is o n e of the bars, viz the bar I, which, if present, triggers its initiation. This is analogous
to the destruction of alternate bars by the initiation of m e a n d e r s [12] (although it is the
alternate bars which facilitate the initiation of m e a n d e r s ) .

ii- T h e " N e w g r a v e l b a r " in F i g . 5.37 is a field e x a m p l e of t h e d e p o s i t i o n


c a u s e d b y t h e s e c o n d o r d e r f l a n k i n g s t r e a m . F i g s . 5.41a a n d b s h o w t h e
channel- (or island-) hierarchies in t h e braiding Donjek [49] and
B r a h m a p u t r a [3] R i v e r s ; " h i e r a r c h y n u m b e r s in c i r c l e s r e f e r t o i s l a n d s o r b a r s ,

10 k m i 250 m

F i g . 5.41 ( f r o m Ref. [3])

o t h e r n u m b e r s t o c h a n n e l s . T h e t h i r d - o r d e r c h a n n e l s still h a v e b a r s w i t h i n
them which cannot be shown in this s c a l e " [3]. S o m e of t h e t h i r d order
c h a n n e l s o c c u r o n t h e t o p of t h e first- a n d s e c o n d - o r d e r i s l a n d s , s o m e o t h e r s
o n t h e b e d of t h e first- a n d s e c o n d - o r d e r c h a n n e l s . T h e f o r m e r third-order
c h a n n e l s a r e p r o d u c e d , d u r i n g t h e d e c r e m e n t of Q (falling s t a g e ) , b y w a t e r
level d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g l o w e r - o r d e r c h a n n e l s : t h u s t h e y c a n n o t
b e f o r m e d in e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h c o n s t a n t Q ( a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of h i e r a r c h y
c h a n n e l s c a n b e f o u n d in [3]).

5.6.2 Slope and transport rate

F r o m t h e c o n t e n t of p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s , it s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t , for a
m
g i v e n Q a n d t h u s BR~ Q , t h e initial s i n g l e - c h a n n e l s t r e a m can b r a i d only
if its s l o p e So = Sv is as sufficiently l a r g e , a n d t h u s its flow d e p t h h0 is as
sufficiently s m a l l a s to m a k e the point P0(BR/h0; h0/D) to occur in the

210
b r a i d i n g r e g i o n Rb ( a b o v e t h e l i n e lx). T w o t y p e s of Q = const "experiments"
a r e c o n c e i v a b l e w i t h a s t r e a m of a l i m i t e d l e n g t h AB:

1) T h e i n i t i a l s l o p e 5 0 w h i c h e n s u r e s P0e Rb is p r o v i d e d , a n d t h e
e q u a l i t y of t h e " i n " a n d " o u t " t r a n s p o r t r a t e s (QS)A = (QS)B is
m a i n t a i n e d for a n y t (as in t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l / ? ) . I n t h i s c a s e t h e
b r a i d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t starts s o o n after t = 0 ( S . A . S c h u m m a n d H . R .
K h a n e x p e r i m e n t s [41]).

2) T h e initial s l o p e 5 0 c a n n o t y i e l d P0e Rb. A sufficiently l a r g e c o n s t a n t


(QS)A, l a r g e r t h a n t h a t w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s to 5 0 , is i n t r o d u c e d at t h e
c h a n n e l e n t r a n c e A (as in t h e r e g i m e c h a n n e l Rx). In t h i s c a s e , t h e
b r a i d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s t a r t s o n l y after t h e s l o p e h a s i n c r e a s e d ( b e -
c a u s e of t h e a g g r a d a t i o n c a u s e d b y (QS)A ~~ (QS)B > 0) t o a l e v e l
w h i c h e n s u r e s P0 e Rb ( L . B . L e o p o l d a n d M . G . W o l m a n e x p e r i m e n t s
[29]).

A p p a r e n t l y , it w a s t h e e n c o u n t e r w i t h c o n d i t i o n s a n a l o g o u s t o e x p e r -
i m e n t 2 , in b o t h field a n d l a b o r a t o r y , w h i c h g a v e rise t o t h e w i d e s p r e a d v i e w
t h a t it is t h e e x c e s s of t h e t r a n s p o r t r a t e ((QS)A ~~ (QS)B) w h i c h is t h e cause
of b r a i d i n g [23], [ 3 2 ] , [52]. T h i s is n o t s o ; " b r a i d i n g d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y
i n d i c a t e a n e x c e s s of t o t a l l o a d " ( p . 3 9 , Ref. [29]). T h e r o l e of t h e t r a n s p o r t
e x c e s s is i n d i r e c t : it d i r e c t l y affects S (by e l e v a t i n g i t ) , w h i c h d i r e c t l y affects
h ( b y r e d u c i n g it) so t h a t Blh b e c o m e s as l a r g e as t o m a k e t h e p o i n t P 0 t o
o c c u r i n Rb - a n d t h u s as t o i n i t i a t e b r a i d i n g .
C o n s i d e r F i g . 5.42 ( f r o m Ref. [29]). T h i s g r a p h s h o w s t h a t t h e b r a i d i n g
r e g i o n AB c o i n c i d e s i n d e e d w i t h t h e e l e v a t e d S r e g i o n , a n d t h a t t h e e l e v a t e d
S w a s a c h i e v e d r o u g h l y at t - 9 h . D u r i n g 0 < / < 7 t o 9 / i , t h e s l o p e w a s
i n c r e a s i n g , b u t n o b r a i d i n g activity as s u c h w a s p r e s e n t ( F i g . 3 4 i n Ref. [29]).
C o n v e r s e l y in t h e l a t e r t i m e s , viz d u r i n g 9h < t < 20/z, a s u b s t a n t i a l b r a i d i n g
d e v e l o p m e n t was present, but the slope was not c h a n g i n g in t h e process.
( N o t e f r o m F i g 5.42 t h a t t h e b e d - e l e v a t i o n l i n e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o 9h a n d
2 0 h a r e p a r a l l e l t o e a c h o t h e r , t h e shift b e i n g d u e t o t h e n o n - u n i f o r m i t y
Absolute elevation

[Aggradation

20 30
Horizontal distance, in feet

F i g . 5.42 ( f r o m Ref. [29])

211
dQsldx = const ( < 0 ) ) . H e n c e , t h e o v e r a l l s l o p e of a b r a i d i n g s y s t e m e i t h e r
d o e s n o t v a r y a t a l l , o r its v a r i a t i o n is n e g l i g i b l e ; t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s r e p o r t e d
in o t h e r s o u r c e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s v i e w [ 3 ] , [ 6 ] , [44].31 O n e c a n say t h a t
all b r a n c h e s of a b r a i d i n g s y s t e m w h i c h e v o l v e s o n t h e " p l a t f o r m " AB in F i g .
5.39, r e m a i n p a r a l l e l t o this p l a t f o r m . 3 2

5.6.3 (B/h; h/D)-plane

i- W e a s s u m e t h a t e a c h of t h e (k + l ) ' t h o r d e r c h a n n e l s ( r e s u l t i n g after k
s u c c e s s i v e d i v i s i o n s ) first w i d e n s u n t i l it a c q u i r e s its r e g i m e w i d t h (BR)k+x,
a n d t h e n d i v i d e s so as t o p r o d u c e t w o (k + 2 ) ' t h o r d e r c h a n n e l s . T h e r e g i m e
w i d t h of t h e (k + l ) ' t h o r d e r c h a n n e l is g i v e n b y
k l!2 12 2 k l k n
(BR)k+ =x const(QI2 ) = (const Q )2~ = (BR)X2' \ (5.82)

w h e r e (BR)X is t h e r e g i m e w i d t h of t h e i n i t i a l first o r d e r c h a n n e l ( w h i c h w a s
so far d e n o t e d a s B0 = BR), t h e r e g i m e w i d t h of t h e (k + 2 ) ' t h o r d e r c h a n n e l
{k m
b e i n g (BR)k+2 = (BR)x2- + - Hence

(5.83)

T h i s r e l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r a t i o of t h e r e g i m e w i d t h s of s u c c e s s i v e
c h a n n e l s d o e s n o t d e p e n d o n k: c h a n n e l s of all o r d e r s c o n t r a c t , b e c a u s e of
t h e i r d i v i s i o n , in a g e o m e t r i c a l l y s i m i l a r m a n n e r , t h a t is, in t h e s a m e
p r o p o r t i o n , viz 1.4.

The above analysis is, of course, a highly idealized reflection of reality, and therefore
one should be satisfied if the width ratio of successive real channels is (to the most) c o m p a -
rable with w l . 4 . Consider again Ref. [29], w h e r e it is r e p o r t e d that "two channels divided by
the willow-covered islands are about equal in width, 30 to 40 feet. T h e s u m of these widths
is 20 to 30 percent greater than the 50-feet width of the undivided r e a c h " (p. 41 in [29]).
T h u s (BR)i = 50ft and (BR)2 35/r, which yield (/?), I{BR)2 50/35 = 1.43. Such a proximity
to 1 . 4 is, of course, a p u r e coincidence. Nonetheless, it shows that the present a p p r o a c h is
in line with the (typical) braiding p a t t e r n of H o r s e C r e e k (Fig. 5.37). Similarly, with reference
to the B r a h m a p u t r a River, it is stated in Ref. [3] that " T h e first-order channel comprises the
entire river. This has an average width of \0km ... ", and that "Second-order channels have
m a x i m u m widths of 5km ..." (p. 73 in [3]). In this case we have ( # / ? ) i l { B R) 2 = 2, which is
larger than w l . 4 , b u t still c o m p a r a b l e with it.

ii- C o n s i d e r n o w t h e d e p t h r a t i o hk+x/hk + 2' T h e v a l u e of hk +x c o r r e s p o n d i n g


to given Bk + x a n d S follows from t h e resistance e q u a t i o n Qk + x =

31
T h e statement c o n c e r n s t h e overall (or average) slopes only: locally the slopes fluctuate.
32
It should thus be clear that it is t h e elevated slope which causes braiding, and not the o t h e r
way a r o u n d (as it is assumed in s o m e works).

212
= Ck + i yfgSBk + i hkl i ; a n d t h e a n a l o g o u s is v a l i d for hk +2 . A s s u m i n g ( i n
a c c o r d a n c e w i t h 5.6.2) t h a t S = S v , i g n o r i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n ck+ x a n d
+ a n d t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t ( 5 . 8 3 ) , t o g e t h e r w i t h Qk + Y = 2Qk + 2 , o n e
determines

(5.84)

H e n c e t h e d e p t h - r a t i o is a l s o i n d e p e n d e n t of k. U s i n g ( 5 . 8 3 ) a n d ( 5 . 8 4 ) , o n e
o b t a i n s for t h e r a t i o of a s p e c t r a t i o s of s u c c e s s i v e c h a n n e l s

(B/h)k+l 1/6
= 2 (5.85)
(Blh)k +

w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e B / f t - r a t i o d e c r e a s e s as t h e d i v i d e d c h a n n e l s b e c o m e
smaller a n d smaller.
E a c h s u c c e s s i v e d i v i s i o n of c h a n n e l s c a n b e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l o g - l o g
{Blh; / z / D ) - p l a n e (in F i g . 5.43) by a d i s c r e t e ( s t e p w i s e ) d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e

log h/D

Fig. 5.43

m o v i n g p o i n t m . B e f o r e t h e d i v i s i o n of t h e s i n g l e - c h a n n e l i n i t i a l s t r e a m ,
m = m0 is at t h e i n i t i a l p o i n t P0 = (P0)be Rb. A f t e r t h e first d i v i s i o n , m is
at m i , after t h e s e c o n d at m 2 , ... after t h e /c'th at mk. F r o m (5.84) a n d ( 5 . 8 5 ) ,
it is c l e a r t h a t t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t s ra0 mx-+ mk m u s t t a k e p l a c e ( i n t h e
d o w n w a r d - t o t h e left d i r e c t i o n ) a l o n g t h e 1/2-inclined s t r a i g h t l i n e 0X. T h e
l i n e 0i i n t e r s e c t s t h e 1/3-inclined l i n e ll9 a n d t h e r e f o r e e v e n t u a l l y , i.e. after
a c e r t a i n k, t h e p o i n t m w i l l e n t e r t h e m e a n d e r r e g i o n Rm (after k = 3 i n
F i g . 5.43). A n d f r o m t h e n o n e a c h of t h e d i v i d e d c h a n n e l s will c o n t i n u e t o
kn
m i n i m i z e its e x c e s s Sv 2 sSR b y m e a n d e r i n g : t h e p o i n t m will b e m o v i n g
a l o n g a 1/1-declining l i n e n.

213
E a c h of t h e 2 . 5 / 1 - d e c l i n i n g s t r a i g h t l i n e s in F i g . 5.43 signifies t h e v a r i -
a t i o n of B/h w i t h h/D for a c o n s t a n t v a l u e of t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s c o m p l e x
2S
a=(Q/D )/(cVgS),

w h i c h w a s i n t r o d u c e d in 5.2.4 ( E q . 5.31).
In t h e c a s e of a m e a n d e r i n g c h a n n e l ( g i v e n Qy D a n d c ) , e a c h of t h e s e
l i n e s c o r r e s p o n d s t o a p a r t i c u l a r S. T h u s , t h e y i n d i c a t e h o w S d e c r e a s e s as
t h e p o i n t m m o v e s a l o n g TT after it h a s e n t e r e d t h e r e g i o n Rm. However,
w h e n m is still in t h e b r a i d i n g r e g i o n Rb ( m 0 , mx in F i g . 5.43), t h e n t h e
2 . 5 / 1 - d e c l i n i n g l i n e s d o n o t signify p a r t i c u l a r S v a l u e s ; r a t h e r , t h e y signify
particular Q values. Indeed, the divided channels have nearly the same S
( ) , a n d it is t h e i r f l o w r a t e w h i c h v a r i e s ( d e c r e a s e s ) i n e a c h d i v i s i o n
( m o , nti, m 2 , ... h a v e Q, Q/2, Q/4 ...). In o t h e r w o r d s , w h e n t h e s t r e a m is
m e a n d e r i n g , t h e n t h e v a r i a t i o n of t h e c o m p l e x a is d u e t o t h e v a r i a t i o n of
S (Q r e m a i n i n g c o n s t a n t ) ; w h e n t h e s t r e a m is b r a i d i n g , t h e n its v a r i a t i o n is
d u e to t h e v a r i a t i o n of Q (S r e m a i n i n g c o n s t a n t ) . T h e 2 . 5 / 1 - d e c l i n i n g l i n e s
in F i g 5.43 a r e d e s i g n a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y .

ii- C o n s i d e r n o w t h e b r a i d i n g s t r e a m as a w h o l e . W i t h t h e i n c r e m e n t of k
(of d i v i s i o n s ) its a v e r a g e d e p t h d e c r e a s e s ( s e e ( 5 . 8 4 ) ) , w h i l e its t o t a l w i d t h
( t h e s u m of w i d t h s of c h a n n e l s a n d i s l a n d s a c r o s s a s e c t i o n ) i n c r e a s e s ; i.e.
B/h i n c r e a s e s a n d h/D d e c r e a s e s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e t o t a l Q a n d S r e -
m a i n constant, a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e c o m p l e x a also r e m a i n s constant (the
v a r i a t i o n of c is i g n o r e d ) . H e n c e , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a b r a i d i n g s t r e a m as a
w h o l e c a n b e r e f l e c t e d b y t h e ( u p w a r d - t o t h e left) m o t i o n of t h e p o i n t m
a n
a l o n g t h e 2 . 5 / 1 - d e c l i n i n g s t r a i g h t l i n e , 02 say, w h i c h o r i g i n a t e s f r o m (P0)b d
which represents a certain a = const.

5.6.4 Delta formation

W h e n a s i n g l e - c h a n n e l s t r e a m e n t e r s a s t a t i o n a r y fluid m a s s ( w h e n a
r i v e r e n t e r s t h e s e a ) , it c o n v e c t i v e l y d e c e l e r a t e s ; its c r o s s - s e c t i o n a r e a Bh
p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n c r e a s e s , w h i l e its t r a n s p o r t c a p a c i t y d e c r e a s e s in t h e flow
d i r e c t i o n I o r x. T h i s l e a d s t o t h e i n c r e m e n t of t h e a s p e c t r a t i o B/h a l o n g
J C , a n d t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e of d e p o s i t i o n . L e t xe b e t h e ( e n d ) s e c t i o n w h e r e t h e
s t r e a m e n t e r s t h e s e a , a n d x ( < xe) a n y o t h e r s t r e a m s e c t i o n in t h e d e c e l -
erated region.

1- If t h e p o i n t P ( o n t h e (B/h; / * / D ) - p l a n e ) c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a n y x
r e m a i n s b e l o w t h e l i n e U (i.e. if Pe 7 ? m) , t h e n t h e s i n g l e - c h a n n e l
s t r e a m e n t e r s t h e s e a in t h e f o r m of a ( w i d e n i n g ) " r i v e r m o u t h "
( T h a m e s , S e i n e , St. L a w r e n c e , e t c . ) .

2- If, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e exists s u c h a r e g i o n , lcblce say, t h a t t h e


p o i n t P c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a n y x i n t h a t r e g i o n is a b o v e t h e l i n e lx (i.e.
if Pe Rb), t h e n t h e s t r e a m b r a i d s in ~xblce a n d it e n t e r s t h e sea in t h e
f o r m of a " d e l t a " ( N i l e , M i s s i s s i p p i , M a c k e n z i e , e t c . ) .

214
T h u s , in t h e c a s e of a u s u a l b r a i d i n g , t h e i n c r e m e n t of Blh ( a s t o y i e l d
Pe Rb) is m a i n l y d u e t o t h e d e c r e m e n t of h - c a u s e d b y t h e i n c r e m e n t of
S; in t h e c a s e of a d e l t a , it is d u e t o t h e i n c r e m e n t of B - c a u s e d b y
convective deceleration.

References

1. Ackers, P., C h a r l t o n , F.G.: The geometry of small meandering streams. Proc. Instn. Civ.
Engrs., Paper 73286S, L o n d o n , 1970.
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217
SUBJECT INDEX

Aggradation 172 Degradation 172


A l t e r n a t e bars 65 Delta formation 214
Antidunes 65 Deposition rate (volumetric) 23
A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n function 76 D e v e l o p m e n t d u r a t i o n of bed forms 69
Dimensionless variables 4, 5
Discontinuity (local) 70
Dunes 65
Bars 77
Bed forms (sand waves) 64
Bed form
length 65, 66, 67, 9 1 , 97, 101 E d d y cascade processes 3 1 , 34
steepness 79, 92, 98, 101 Eddies (burst-forming) 32
Bed-load 15, 17 Eddies ( m a c r o t u r b u l e n t ) 29
Bed t o p o g r a p h y 199 Eddies (microturbulent) 29
Boil 4 1 , 74, 75 Ejection 32
Braiding 202 Existence regions of bed forms 86
B r e a k - u p phase 30, 34
Burst
configuration 51
length 36, 39, 48 Flat bed at advanced stages 84
sequence 45, 70 Form-drag 14
width 36, 41 Friction factor 11, 39, 104
Bursting process 30 Froude number 128
Bursts (induced) 55
Bursts (inductors) 55
Bursts (multiple rows) 55
G r a i n size Reynolds n u m b e r 6
G r a n u l a r roughness 12, 21

Central region 2
Channel
curvature 163 High- and low-speed regions 31
deflection angle 166 H o r i z o n t a l turbulence 46
sinuosity 166, 167
Characteristic p a r a m e t e r s 3
Chezy coefficient (dimensionless) 11
C o h e r e n c e length 40 Ideal river 1
Coherent structure 30 I n d e p e n d e n t dimensions 4
Concentration Initial channel 149, 172, 205
(of suspended sediments) 19, 153
Convective acceleration 189, 199
Cross-circulation 1, 189
Cross-section 2 Lesser bursts 40, 72
C u r v e d channel flow 185

218
Meandering 161 Secondary c u r r e n t s (cellular) 42, 64
Meanders Sediment transport 15
expansion 182 Shear stress 8, 14
migration 182 Shields' c u r v e 6
Mobility n u m b e r Shields' c u r v e (modified) 7
Multiple b a r s 65 Sine-generated curve 162
Sinuous c h a n n e l 189
Suspended-load 15, 19
Sweep 33
Natural arbitrariness 1

Total bed r o u g h n e s s 14, 110


P u r e friction 14 T r a n s p o r t continuity e q u a t i o n 2 3 , 6 3 , 79
T r a n s p o r t rate 16
Turbulence 29
T u r b u l e n t eddies 29
Quasi-uniform flow 5 T u r b u l e n t eddies (largest) 46
T w o - d i m e n s i o n a l flow 2
Two-phase motion 5

Regime channel (gravel) 142, 144


Regime channel (gravel) 138, 153
Regime channels 117 Undulated bed 18, 20
Regime cross-section 151
Regime extremal m e t h o d s 119
Regime formulae (empirical) 118
Regime point 131 Valley slope 172
Resistance equation 11, 12, 122, 126 Velocity distributions 8
Ridges (longitudinal) 64 Viscous s t r u c t u r e s 42, 44
Ripples 67 Von Karman constant 9
Roughness function 9
Rouse-Einstein equation 19

W i d t h - t o - d e p t h ratio 1, 8

219