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Problems 1: Open section beams 𝑑𝑑 3

𝐼π‘₯π‘₯ =
1. (a) 4
Shear flow: noting Sx = 0 allows use of the reduced shear flow equation:
𝑠
βˆ’π‘†π‘¦
π‘žπ‘  = ∫ 𝑑𝑦. 𝑑𝑠
𝐼π‘₯π‘₯
0

We now split the open section up and label ends. Start with section 1-2:

Section 1-2
Figure 1.1: Sketch of shape showing axis of symmetry
2nd moment of area: Note that the section is symmetric and thus Ixy = 0. (a) (b)
We note also that there is no Sx load (Sx = 0) and thus only Ixx is required. 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯

= ∫ 𝑦 2 . 𝑑𝐴

For thin walled sections, 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯

= ∫ 𝑦 2 𝑑 . 𝑑𝑠 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯

= π‘£π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘‘π‘–π‘π‘Žπ‘™ π‘ π‘’π‘π‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘› + π‘‘π‘€π‘œ π‘Žπ‘›π‘”π‘™π‘’π‘‘ π‘ π‘’π‘π‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘›π‘ 
Figure 1.2: (a) Sketch of shape showing numbered sections. (b) Sketch of the shear
Noting that y = s cos (60) for the angled sections flow magnitude in section 1-2.

𝑠1
𝑑𝑑3 𝑑 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯
= + 2 ∫0 (𝑠 cos(60))2 𝑑. 𝑑𝑠 βˆ’π‘†π‘¦
12 π‘ž12 = ∫ 𝑑 s cos(60) . 𝑑𝑠
𝐼π‘₯π‘₯
0
and that cos(60) = Β½, then
𝑆
3 3 4 𝑑 𝑠2 1
𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑 = βˆ’π‘†π‘¦ 3 [ ] 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯
= + 𝑑𝑑 2 2 0
12 2 3
𝑆𝑦
π‘ž12 = βˆ’ 𝑑3 𝑆12 (1)

1. (b) Sketch of the shear 𝑑 flow magnitude in section 3-4. (b) Sketch of the shear parabolic (see Fig.3: (a) Sketch of shape showing numbered sections. 1.2) as S1 thus from eq. Integrating gives: 4 𝑑 𝑆22 π‘ž23 = βˆ’π‘†π‘¦ 𝑑 [ 𝑆 βˆ’ ] + π‘ž2 𝑑𝑑3 2 2 2 2𝑆𝑦 π‘ž23 = βˆ’ 3 [𝑑𝑆2 βˆ’ 𝑆22 ] + π‘ž2 Figure 1. Section 3-4 Noting that S2 = 0 at y = d/2 and that we integrate along section 2-3 until S2 = d and y = -d/2. We note that at S1 = d. We now determine q2.4: (a) Sketch of shape showing numbered sections. S2 = 0 and q12 = q23 = q2 and Note that the shear flow q12 increases quadratically (see Fig. 𝑑𝑠 + π‘ž2 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯ 2 0 Where q2 is the shear flow from section 1-2 at S2 = 0 or at S1 = d.3) as S1 increases as we move along section 2-3. (1) we have increases as we move along section 1-2 from 0 to d and that q12 = 0 at 1. then (a) (b) 𝑠2 βˆ’π‘†π‘¦ 𝑑 π‘ž23 = ∫ 𝑑( βˆ’ 𝑠). . Section 2-3 𝑆𝑦 2 π‘ž2 = βˆ’ 𝑑 𝑑3 (a) (b) 𝑆𝑦 π‘ž2 = βˆ’ 𝑑 Hence q23 is given by 2𝑆𝑦 2] 𝑆𝑦 π‘ž23 = βˆ’ [𝑑𝑆2 βˆ’ 𝑆2 + (βˆ’ ) 𝑑3 𝑑 𝑆𝑦 π‘ž23 = βˆ’ 𝑑3 [𝑑 2 + 2𝑑𝑆2 βˆ’ 2𝑆22 ] (2) Note that the quadratic structure of the q23 equation means shear flow is Figure 1. flow magnitude in section 2-3.

𝑑𝑠1 𝑑3 1 Hence q34 is given by 0 𝑑 𝑆𝑦 𝑆𝑦 𝑆𝑦 √3 𝑆13 π‘ž34 = βˆ’ 3 [βˆ’π‘‘π‘†3 + 𝑆32 ] + (βˆ’ ) 𝑆𝑦 βˆ™ 𝑆𝐢 = 3 [ ] 𝑑 𝑑 𝑑 2 3 0 𝑆𝑦 π‘ž34 = βˆ’ [𝑑2 βˆ’ 2𝑑𝑆3 + 𝑆32 ] (3) √3 𝑑3 𝑆𝑦 βˆ™ 𝑆𝐢 = 𝑆 𝑑 6 𝑦 Note that the shear flow q34 decreases quadratically (see Fig. 𝑆𝐢 = 𝑑 6 Figure 1. A choice of centre about which to take moments is required and offers a Integrating gives: chance to simplify calculations. We note that at S2 = d.(3)). thus from eq.Noting that S3 = 0 at y = -d/2 and that we integrate along section 3-4 until S2 Shear Centre = d and y = 0. both section 1-2 and 3-4 exert moments but these act in the same direction and have the same magnitude 𝑆𝑦 2 π‘ž3 = βˆ’ (𝑑 + 𝑑. S3 = 0 and q23 = q34 = q3 and from the moment centre to section 1-2 along which q12 acts. 𝑑𝑠1 𝑆𝑦 2 π‘ž34 = βˆ’ [βˆ’2𝑑𝑆3 βˆ’ 𝑆32 ] + π‘ž3 0 𝑑3 Note here that the term in front of the integral is the perpendicular distance We now determine q3. 1. For example if the mid-point of 2-3 is chosen as the centre only the angled sections (1-2 and 3-4) exert an internal moment. 𝑑3 𝑆𝑦 𝑑 π‘ž3 = βˆ’ 𝑆𝑦 2 𝑑 𝑆𝑦 βˆ™ 𝑆𝐢 = βˆ’π‘‘ cos(30) ∫ βˆ’ 𝑆 . (2) we have Note further that.g.5.5: Moment balance diagram . Making this choice and taking moments it is found that: 4 𝑑 1 𝑆32 π‘ž34 = βˆ’π‘†π‘¦ 3 𝑑 [βˆ’ 𝑆3 + ] + π‘ž3 𝑑𝑑 2 2 2 𝑑 𝑑 𝑆𝑦 βˆ™ 𝑆𝐢 = βˆ’2 cos(30) ∫ π‘ž12 . then A moment balance is used to determine the shear centre: 𝑠3 βˆ’π‘†π‘¦ 𝑑 π‘ž34 = ∫ 𝑑(βˆ’ + 𝑠 cos 60). 𝑑𝑠 + π‘ž3 βˆ‘ 𝑀𝐸𝑋𝑇𝐸𝑅𝐼𝑂𝑅 = βˆ‘ 𝑀𝐼𝑁𝑇𝐸𝑅𝐼𝑂𝑅 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯ 2 0 Where q3 is the shear flow from section 2-3 at S3 = 0 or at S2 = d. in this symmetric section. 𝑑 βˆ’ 2𝑑 2 ) so we only need construct one integral and multiple it by 2.4) as S3 increases as we move along section 3-4 from 0 to d and that q34 = 0 at 4 (e. see Fig. 1. √3 substitute d in to eq.

π‘Ÿπ‘‘πœƒ Substituting for Ixx and for y = sin(ΞΈ) π‘Ÿπœ‹ 0 𝑠 βˆ’π‘†π‘¦ βˆ’π‘†π‘¦ π‘Ÿ π‘žπ‘ 1 = ∫ π‘‘π‘Ÿ sin(πœƒ) . πœ‹ 𝑆𝐢 + π‘Ÿ = 2π‘Ÿ β‡’ 𝑆𝐢 = π‘Ÿ . A moment balance is used to determine the shear centre note that the 2nd moment of area: We note that the section is symmetric and thus Ixy = 0.d𝑠 𝑆𝑦 βˆ™ (𝑆𝐢 + π‘Ÿ) = [sin(πœƒ) βˆ’πœƒ]2πœ‹ 0 πœ‹π‘‘π‘Ÿ 3 πœ‹ 0 βˆ’π‘†π‘¦ π‘Ÿ Converting to polar co-ordinates by noting that ds represents an arc length 𝑆𝑦 βˆ™ (𝑆𝐢 + π‘Ÿ) = (βˆ’2πœ‹) which in polar co-ordinates is given by rdΞΈ. π‘Ÿdπœƒ πœ‹π‘‘π‘Ÿ 3 0 πœƒ βˆ’π‘†π‘¦ π‘žπ‘ 1 = ∫ sin(πœƒ) . 2πœ‹π‘Ÿ 𝑆𝑦 βˆ™ (𝑆𝐢 + π‘Ÿ) = βˆ’π‘Ÿ ∫ π‘žπ‘ 1 .1: Sketch of section Figure 2.d𝑠 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯ 0 2πœ‹ 𝑆𝑦 𝑆𝑦 βˆ™ (𝑆𝐢 + π‘Ÿ) = βˆ’π‘Ÿ ∫ (cos(πœƒ) βˆ’ 1). 𝑑𝑠1 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯ = πœ‹π‘‘π‘Ÿ 3 0 𝑠 βˆ’π‘†π‘¦ Again converting to polar co-ordinates π‘žπ‘  = ∫ 𝑑𝑦.dπœƒ πœ‹π‘Ÿ 0 βˆ’π‘†π‘¦ π‘žπ‘ 1 = [βˆ’cos(πœƒ)]πœƒ0 πœ‹π‘Ÿ 𝑆𝑦 π‘žπ‘ 1 = (cos(πœƒ) βˆ’ 1) πœ‹π‘Ÿ Figure 2.1.2: (a) Sketch of shape Shear Centre showing numbered sections and shear flow magnitude. For this problem Ixx is given by. (b) πœƒ βˆ’π‘†π‘¦ π‘žπ‘ 1 = ∫ π‘‘π‘Ÿ sin(πœƒ) . moments are in opposite directions: We note also that there is no Sx load (Sx = 0) and thus only Ixx is required.

8310β„Ž2 + 1.5𝑠 2 ). 𝑑𝑠 2h x Calculation of the angled flange integral gives Sx β„Ž t 1.6423π‘‘β„Ž3 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯ = ∫ 𝑦 2 . 𝑑𝐴 β‡’ 𝐼𝑦𝑦 = ∫ π‘₯ 𝑑 . 𝑑𝑠 Calculation of the angled flange integral gives .1: Sketch of section = 1. =0 β„Žπ‘‘ 3 𝑑(2β„Ž)3 0. 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯ = 1. In each case we construct the second moment of area from the three 1.2134β„Ž) ] + [ 12 + 2π‘‘β„Ž(βˆ’0.0884β„Ž)2 ] + β„Ž ∫0 (0. =0 π‘‘β„Ž3 2β„Ž(𝑑)3 𝐼𝑦𝑦 = [ 12 + π‘‘β„Ž(0.5092π‘‘β„Ž3 To calculate Iyy we note that x = s cos (45) for the angled upper flange and 2 2 𝐼𝑦𝑦 = ∫ π‘₯ .6446β„Ž3 + 0.2134β„Ž)2 ] + 2 𝐼π‘₯𝑦 = ∫ π‘₯𝑦 .1667β„Ž3 ) Figure 3.0884h 𝑑 ∫(0. (c) y sections. 𝑑𝐴 β‡’ 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯ = ∫ 𝑦 2 𝑑 .2134h 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯ = [ 12 + π‘‘β„Ž(βˆ’1. 𝑑𝑠 𝐼π‘₯π‘₯ = 3.6823π‘‘β„Ž3 + 1.2134β„Ž + 𝑠 cos(45))2 𝑑.0884β„Ž)2 ] + [ 12 + 2π‘‘β„Ž(βˆ’0. 𝑑𝑠 β„Ž ∫0 (βˆ’0.9116β„Ž + 𝑠 sin(45))2 𝑑. 𝑑𝑠 so making use of the parallel axis theorem we find. 𝑑𝐴 β‡’ 𝐼π‘₯𝑦 = ∫ π‘₯𝑦𝑑 . Sy 𝐼𝑖𝑗 = β„Žπ‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘–π‘§π‘œπ‘›π‘‘π‘Žπ‘™ π‘“π‘™π‘Žπ‘›π‘”π‘’ + π‘£π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘‘π‘–π‘π‘Žπ‘™ 𝑀𝑒𝑏 + π‘Žπ‘›π‘”π‘™π‘’π‘‘ π‘“π‘™π‘Žπ‘›π‘”π‘’ h For Ixx we note that y = s sin (45) for the angled upper flange and so making 45Β° use of the parallel axis theorem we find.8310β„Ž3 + 0.18461π‘‘β„Ž3 + 0.6423π‘‘β„Ž3 Thus 2nd moment of area: The section is non-symmetric and so all second moments of area are required.5 βˆ’ 0.2892β„Žπ‘  + 0. 𝑑𝑠 0 h = 𝑑(0.

1509β„Žπ‘  + 0.1945β„Ž2 + 0.1655π‘‘β„Ž + 0.2190π‘‘β„Ž3 Recombining gives after dividing through by th3 Thus      ο€­ 3. we calculate the shear flow: = 0.0884thS1 = 0.6446β„Žπ‘  βˆ’ 0.0884β„Ž)(0.09108π‘‘β„Ž + 0.0884hdS1 ο€½ ο€­1.045540β„Ž βˆ’ 0. 𝑑𝑠 0 S1 S1 0 tyds ο€½ t  0 ο€­ 1.0552th3 S y οƒΆ S1  0.00304)(th 3 ) 2 οƒ· 0  1.2134β„Ž + 𝑠 cos(45))(0.2.7866h ο€­ S1 )dS1 ο€½ t (0.2134β„Ž) + q12 ο€½  οƒ·  txds ο€­  οƒ·  tyds  (3.3179π‘‘β„Ž 3 qs ο€½   I xx I yy ο€­ I xy οƒ· 0  2 οƒΈ   I xx I yy ο€­ I xy οƒ· 0  2 οƒΈ  To calculate Ixy we note as above that y = s sin (45) and x = s cos (45) for Substituting values from above and considering only second 1-2: the angled upper flange we find. This leaves only the = 𝑑(0.9116β„Ž + 𝑠 sin(45))𝑑.5092)(0.0884β„Ž)(βˆ’0.3179)(th 3 ) 2 ο€­ (0.  3.1125(th3 ) 2 οƒ· 0 β„Ž  οƒΈ  οƒΈ ∫0 (βˆ’0.2190π‘‘β„Ž3  3 οƒ·  th οƒΈ 𝐼π‘₯𝑦 = βˆ’0.06131π‘‘β„Ž3 Section 1-2 Thus Noting that the full equation for shear flow is required: 3 3 3 𝐼𝑦𝑦 = 0.05517π‘‘β„Ž3 .5092th 3 S x  0.1509β„Ž3 + 0.1667β„Ž3 ) lower flange hence following the numbering in Fig 3.5thS12 ο€­ 0.0884thS1  οƒΆ q12 ο€½  οƒ·  𝐼π‘₯𝑦 = βˆ’0. 𝑑𝑠 Substituting for x and y in terms of S1 and computing the integrals: Calculation of the angled flange integral gives S1 S1 S12 β„Ž 0 txds ο€½ t  0 (0.3018β„Žπ‘  + 0.5𝑠 𝑑𝑠 shear flow we make a choice of moment centre at the lower end of the 0 angled flange. 𝑑 ∫(0.5𝑠 2 ).04962S y 0.045540β„Ž3 βˆ’ 0. This means flows from the angles flange and vertical web produce no moment and hence need not be calculated.0552th3 S x οƒΆ S1 𝐼π‘₯𝑦 = π‘‘β„Ž(βˆ’1.06131π‘‘β„Ž  S x I xx ο€­ S y I xy οƒΆ s  οƒΆ s οƒ· tx ds ο€­  S y I yy ο€­ S x I xy οƒ· ty ds 𝐼𝑦𝑦 = 0.1543S x  0.7866hS1 ο€­ 2 ) 𝑑 ∫(βˆ’0.2858S y  0. β„Ž Noting that we are only asked to determine the shear centre and not the full 2 2 ).7866thS1 ο€­ 0.3179th 3 S y  0.03773π‘‘β„Ž3 + 0.3119π‘‘β„Ž3 + 0.2866β„Ž) + 2π‘‘β„Ž(βˆ’0.04962S x  1.

S x ο€½ 2h3  3.2858S y 0. S y ο€½ 2h th 3  3. 𝑑𝑠1 .376h As noted above we make a choice of moment centre at the lower end of the angled flange (point 3. 𝑑𝑠1 S1 0 ΞΎ = 0.    S y  ο€½ 2h ο€­ 0. Shear Centre A moment balance is used to determine the shear centre: Sx ο€½ 2h3.5442 βˆ‘ 𝑀𝐸𝑋𝑇𝐸𝑅𝐼𝑂𝑅 = βˆ‘ 𝑀𝐼𝑁𝑇𝐸𝑅𝐼𝑂𝑅 And thus cancelling out Sy terms.2266 ο€­ 0.2266th3  0.2858S y  0.1543Sx 0.2862h Now considering Sx to find Ξ·.04962Sx 0.2858S y  0.1543S x      0.04962S x 0. Ξ·=1.0552S y 0.5442   3 And thus cancelling out Sy terms. x Sx β„Ž SC βˆ’π‘†π‘₯ πœ‚ = ∫ 2β„Žπ‘ž12 .1543S x  0.376h  ο€½ 0.0552S y 0.5442th3  2 th Figure 3. Creating moment equilibriums for Sx and Sy indpendently and noting that the moment balance must hold even if Sx = 0 it is found that: β„Ž 𝑆𝑦 πœ‰ = ∫0 2β„Žπ‘ž12 .04962S x 0. Fig 3.2266th 3  0.0552S y 0.2266  0.2) and chose +ve moments clockwise with the direction of S1.2862h 1 .2: Moment balance diagram This time noting that the moment balance must hold even if Sy = 0 and cancelling a minus sign and the th3 terms we find.  ο€½ 1.5442th 3  y Sy 4 Cancelling th3 terms we find.