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𝐼𝑥𝑥 =

1. (a) 4

Shear flow: noting Sx = 0 allows use of the reduced shear flow equation:

𝑠

−𝑆𝑦

𝑞𝑠 = ∫ 𝑡𝑦. 𝑑𝑠

𝐼𝑥𝑥

0

We now split the open section up and label ends. Start with section 1-2:

Section 1-2

Figure 1.1: Sketch of shape showing axis of symmetry

2nd moment of area: Note that the section is symmetric and thus Ixy = 0. (a) (b)

We note also that there is no Sx load (Sx = 0) and thus only Ixx is required.
𝐼𝑥𝑥

= ∫ 𝑦 2 . 𝑑𝐴

For thin walled sections, 𝐼𝑥𝑥

= ∫ 𝑦 2 𝑡 . 𝑑𝑠 𝐼𝑥𝑥

= 𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 + 𝑡𝑤𝑜 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠

Figure 1.2: (a) Sketch of shape showing numbered sections. (b) Sketch of the shear

Noting that y = s cos (60) for the angled sections flow magnitude in section 1-2.

𝑠1

𝑡𝑑3 𝑑
𝐼𝑥𝑥

= + 2 ∫0 (𝑠 cos(60))2 𝑡. 𝑑𝑠 −𝑆𝑦

12 𝑞12 = ∫ 𝑡 s cos(60) . 𝑑𝑠

𝐼𝑥𝑥

0

and that cos(60) = ½, then

𝑆

3 3 4 𝑡 𝑠2 1

𝑡𝑑 𝑡𝑑 = −𝑆𝑦 3 [ ]
𝐼𝑥𝑥

= + 𝑡𝑑 2 2 0

12 2 3

𝑆𝑦

𝑞12 = − 𝑑3 𝑆12 (1)

1. (b) Sketch of the shear 𝑑 flow magnitude in section 3-4. (b) Sketch of the shear parabolic (see Fig.3: (a) Sketch of shape showing numbered sections. 1.2) as S1 thus from eq. Integrating gives: 4 𝑑 𝑆22 𝑞23 = −𝑆𝑦 𝑡 [ 𝑆 − ] + 𝑞2 𝑡𝑑3 2 2 2 2𝑆𝑦 𝑞23 = − 3 [𝑑𝑆2 − 𝑆22 ] + 𝑞2 Figure 1. Section 3-4 Noting that S2 = 0 at y = d/2 and that we integrate along section 2-3 until S2 = d and y = -d/2. We note that at S1 = d. We now determine q2.4: (a) Sketch of shape showing numbered sections. S2 = 0 and q12 = q23 = q2 and Note that the shear flow q12 increases quadratically (see Fig. 𝑑𝑠 + 𝑞2 𝐼𝑥𝑥 2 0 Where q2 is the shear flow from section 1-2 at S2 = 0 or at S1 = d.3) as S1 increases as we move along section 2-3. (1) we have increases as we move along section 1-2 from 0 to d and that q12 = 0 at 1. then (a) (b) 𝑠2 −𝑆𝑦 𝑑 𝑞23 = ∫ 𝑡( − 𝑠). . Section 2-3 𝑆𝑦 2 𝑞2 = − 𝑑 𝑑3 (a) (b) 𝑆𝑦 𝑞2 = − 𝑑 Hence q23 is given by 2𝑆𝑦 2] 𝑆𝑦 𝑞23 = − [𝑑𝑆2 − 𝑆2 + (− ) 𝑑3 𝑑 𝑆𝑦 𝑞23 = − 𝑑3 [𝑑 2 + 2𝑑𝑆2 − 2𝑆22 ] (2) Note that the quadratic structure of the q23 equation means shear flow is Figure 1. flow magnitude in section 2-3.

𝑑𝑠1 𝑑3 1 Hence q34 is given by 0 𝑑 𝑆𝑦 𝑆𝑦 𝑆𝑦 √3 𝑆13 𝑞34 = − 3 [−𝑑𝑆3 + 𝑆32 ] + (− ) 𝑆𝑦 ∙ 𝑆𝐶 = 3 [ ] 𝑑 𝑑 𝑑 2 3 0 𝑆𝑦 𝑞34 = − [𝑑2 − 2𝑑𝑆3 + 𝑆32 ] (3) √3 𝑑3 𝑆𝑦 ∙ 𝑆𝐶 = 𝑆 𝑑 6 𝑦 Note that the shear flow q34 decreases quadratically (see Fig. 𝑆𝐶 = 𝑑 6 Figure 1. A choice of centre about which to take moments is required and offers a Integrating gives: chance to simplify calculations. We note that at S2 = d.(3)). thus from eq.Noting that S3 = 0 at y = -d/2 and that we integrate along section 3-4 until S2 Shear Centre = d and y = 0. both section 1-2 and 3-4 exert moments but these act in the same direction and have the same magnitude 𝑆𝑦 2 𝑞3 = − (𝑑 + 𝑑. S3 = 0 and q23 = q34 = q3 and from the moment centre to section 1-2 along which q12 acts. 𝑑𝑠1 𝑆𝑦 2 𝑞34 = − [−2𝑑𝑆3 − 𝑆32 ] + 𝑞3 0 𝑑3 Note here that the term in front of the integral is the perpendicular distance We now determine q3. 1. For example if the mid-point of 2-3 is chosen as the centre only the angled sections (1-2 and 3-4) exert an internal moment. 𝑑3 𝑆𝑦 𝑑 𝑞3 = − 𝑆𝑦 2 𝑑 𝑆𝑦 ∙ 𝑆𝐶 = −𝑑 cos(30) ∫ − 𝑆 . (2) we have Note further that.g.5.5: Moment balance diagram . Making this choice and taking moments it is found that: 4 𝑑 1 𝑆32 𝑞34 = −𝑆𝑦 3 𝑡 [− 𝑆3 + ] + 𝑞3 𝑡𝑑 2 2 2 𝑑 𝑑 𝑆𝑦 ∙ 𝑆𝐶 = −2 cos(30) ∫ 𝑞12 . then A moment balance is used to determine the shear centre: 𝑠3 −𝑆𝑦 𝑑 𝑞34 = ∫ 𝑡(− + 𝑠 cos 60). 𝑑𝑠 + 𝑞3 ∑ 𝑀𝐸𝑋𝑇𝐸𝑅𝐼𝑂𝑅 = ∑ 𝑀𝐼𝑁𝑇𝐸𝑅𝐼𝑂𝑅 𝐼𝑥𝑥 2 0 Where q3 is the shear flow from section 2-3 at S3 = 0 or at S2 = d. in this symmetric section. 𝑑 − 2𝑑 2 ) so we only need construct one integral and multiple it by 2.4) as S3 increases as we move along section 3-4 from 0 to d and that q34 = 0 at 4 (e. see Fig. 1. √3 substitute d in to eq.

𝑟𝑑𝜃 Substituting for Ixx and for y = sin(θ) 𝑟𝜋 0 𝑠 −𝑆𝑦 −𝑆𝑦 𝑟 𝑞𝑠1 = ∫ 𝑡𝑟 sin(𝜃) . 𝜋 𝑆𝐶 + 𝑟 = 2𝑟 ⇒ 𝑆𝐶 = 𝑟 . A moment balance is used to determine the shear centre note that the 2nd moment of area: We note that the section is symmetric and thus Ixy = 0.d𝑠 𝑆𝑦 ∙ (𝑆𝐶 + 𝑟) = [sin(𝜃) −𝜃]2𝜋 0 𝜋𝑡𝑟 3 𝜋 0 −𝑆𝑦 𝑟 Converting to polar co-ordinates by noting that ds represents an arc length 𝑆𝑦 ∙ (𝑆𝐶 + 𝑟) = (−2𝜋) which in polar co-ordinates is given by rdθ. 𝑟d𝜃 𝜋𝑡𝑟 3 0 𝜃 −𝑆𝑦 𝑞𝑠1 = ∫ sin(𝜃) . 2𝜋𝑟 𝑆𝑦 ∙ (𝑆𝐶 + 𝑟) = −𝑟 ∫ 𝑞𝑠1 .1: Sketch of section Figure 2.d𝑠 𝐼𝑥𝑥 0 2𝜋 𝑆𝑦 𝑆𝑦 ∙ (𝑆𝐶 + 𝑟) = −𝑟 ∫ (cos(𝜃) − 1). 𝑑𝑠1 𝐼𝑥𝑥 = 𝜋𝑡𝑟 3 0 𝑠 −𝑆𝑦 Again converting to polar co-ordinates 𝑞𝑠 = ∫ 𝑡𝑦.d𝜃 𝜋𝑟 0 −𝑆𝑦 𝑞𝑠1 = [−cos(𝜃)]𝜃0 𝜋𝑟 𝑆𝑦 𝑞𝑠1 = (cos(𝜃) − 1) 𝜋𝑟 Figure 2.1.2: (a) Sketch of shape Shear Centre showing numbered sections and shear flow magnitude. For this problem Ixx is given by. (b) 𝜃 −𝑆𝑦 𝑞𝑠1 = ∫ 𝑡𝑟 sin(𝜃) . moments are in opposite directions: We note also that there is no Sx load (Sx = 0) and thus only Ixx is required.

8310ℎ2 + 1.5𝑠 2 ). 𝑑𝑠 2h x Calculation of the angled flange integral gives Sx ℎ t 1.6423𝑡ℎ3 𝐼𝑥𝑥 = ∫ 𝑦 2 . 𝑑𝐴 ⇒ 𝐼𝑦𝑦 = ∫ 𝑥 𝑡 . 𝑑𝑠 Calculation of the angled flange integral gives .1: Sketch of section = 1. =0 ℎ𝑡 3 𝑡(2ℎ)3 0. 𝐼𝑥𝑥 = 1. In each case we construct the second moment of area from the three 1.2134ℎ) ] + [ 12 + 2𝑡ℎ(−0.0884ℎ)2 ] + ℎ ∫0 (0. =0 𝑡ℎ3 2ℎ(𝑡)3 𝐼𝑦𝑦 = [ 12 + 𝑡ℎ(0.5092𝑡ℎ3 To calculate Iyy we note that x = s cos (45) for the angled upper flange and 2 2 𝐼𝑦𝑦 = ∫ 𝑥 .6446ℎ3 + 0.2134ℎ)2 ] + 2 𝐼𝑥𝑦 = ∫ 𝑥𝑦 .1667ℎ3 ) Figure 3.0884h 𝑡 ∫(0. (c) y sections. 𝑑𝐴 ⇒ 𝐼𝑥𝑥 = ∫ 𝑦 2 𝑡 .2134h 𝐼𝑥𝑥 = [ 12 + 𝑡ℎ(−1. 𝑑𝑠 𝐼𝑥𝑥 = 3.6823𝑡ℎ3 + 1.2134ℎ + 𝑠 cos(45))2 𝑡.0884ℎ)2 ] + [ 12 + 2𝑡ℎ(−0. 𝑑𝑠 ℎ ∫0 (−0.9116ℎ + 𝑠 sin(45))2 𝑡. 𝑑𝑠 so making use of the parallel axis theorem we find. 𝑑𝐴 ⇒ 𝐼𝑥𝑦 = ∫ 𝑥𝑦𝑡 . Sy 𝐼𝑖𝑗 = ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 + 𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑒𝑏 + 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒𝑑 𝑓𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 h For Ixx we note that y = s sin (45) for the angled upper flange and so making 45° use of the parallel axis theorem we find.8310ℎ3 + 0.18461𝑡ℎ3 + 0.6423𝑡ℎ3 Thus 2nd moment of area: The section is non-symmetric and so all second moments of area are required.5 − 0.2892ℎ𝑠 + 0. 𝑑𝑠 0 h = 𝑡(0.

1509ℎ𝑠 + 0.1945ℎ2 + 0.1655𝑡ℎ + 0.2190𝑡ℎ3 Recombining gives after dividing through by th3 Thus 3. we calculate the shear flow: = 0.0884thS1 = 0.6446ℎ𝑠 − 0.0884ℎ)(0.09108𝑡ℎ + 0.0884hdS1 1.045540ℎ − 0. 𝑑𝑠 0 S1 S1 0 tyds t 0 1.0552th3 S y S1 0.00304)(th 3 ) 2 0 1.2134ℎ + 𝑠 cos(45))(0.2.7866h S1 )dS1 t (0.2134ℎ) + q12 txds tyds (3.3179𝑡ℎ 3 qs I xx I yy I xy 0 2 I xx I yy I xy 0 2 To calculate Ixy we note as above that y = s sin (45) and x = s cos (45) for Substituting values from above and considering only second 1-2: the angled upper flange we find. This leaves only the = 𝑡(0.9116ℎ + 𝑠 sin(45))𝑡.5092)(0.0884ℎ)(−0.3179)(th 3 ) 2 (0. 3.1125(th3 ) 2 0 ℎ ∫0 (−0.2190𝑡ℎ3 3 th 𝐼𝑥𝑦 = −0.06131𝑡ℎ3 Section 1-2 Thus Noting that the full equation for shear flow is required: 3 3 3 𝐼𝑦𝑦 = 0.05517𝑡ℎ3 .5092th 3 S x 0.1509ℎ3 + 0.1667ℎ3 ) lower flange hence following the numbering in Fig 3.5thS12 0.0884thS1 q12 𝐼𝑥𝑦 = −0. 𝑑𝑠 Substituting for x and y in terms of S1 and computing the integrals: Calculation of the angled flange integral gives S1 S1 S12 ℎ 0 txds t 0 (0.3018ℎ𝑠 + 0.5𝑠 𝑑𝑠 shear flow we make a choice of moment centre at the lower end of the 0 angled flange. 𝑡 ∫(0.5𝑠 2 ).04962S y 0.045540ℎ3 − 0. This means flows from the angles flange and vertical web produce no moment and hence need not be calculated.0552th3 S x S1 𝐼𝑥𝑦 = 𝑡ℎ(−1.06131𝑡ℎ S x I xx S y I xy s s tx ds S y I yy S x I xy ty ds 𝐼𝑦𝑦 = 0.1543S x 0.7866hS1 2 ) 𝑡 ∫(−0.2858S y 0. ℎ Noting that we are only asked to determine the shear centre and not the full 2 2 ).7866thS1 0.3179th 3 S y 0.03773𝑡ℎ3 + 0.3119𝑡ℎ3 + 0.2866ℎ) + 2𝑡ℎ(−0.04962S x 1.

S x 2h3 3.2858S y 0. S y 2h th 3 3. 𝑑𝑠1 .376h As noted above we make a choice of moment centre at the lower end of the angled flange (point 3. 𝑑𝑠1 S1 0 ξ = 0. S y 2h 0. Shear Centre A moment balance is used to determine the shear centre: Sx 2h3.5442 ∑ 𝑀𝐸𝑋𝑇𝐸𝑅𝐼𝑂𝑅 = ∑ 𝑀𝐼𝑁𝑇𝐸𝑅𝐼𝑂𝑅 And thus cancelling out Sy terms.2266 0.2266th3 0.2858S y 0.1543Sx 0.2862h Now considering Sx to find η.04962Sx 0.2858S y 0.1543S x 0.04962S x 0. η=1.0552S y 0.5442 3 And thus cancelling out Sy terms. x Sx ℎ SC −𝑆𝑥 𝜂 = ∫ 2ℎ𝑞12 .1543S x 0.376h 0.0552S y 0.5442th3 2 th Figure 3. Creating moment equilibriums for Sx and Sy indpendently and noting that the moment balance must hold even if Sx = 0 it is found that: ℎ 𝑆𝑦 𝜉 = ∫0 2ℎ𝑞12 .04962S x 0. Fig 3.2266th 3 0.0552S y 0.2266 0.2) and chose +ve moments clockwise with the direction of S1.2862h 1 .2: Moment balance diagram This time noting that the moment balance must hold even if Sy = 0 and cancelling a minus sign and the th3 terms we find. 1.5442th 3 y Sy 4 Cancelling th3 terms we find.

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