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CHAPTER – III

LABOUR WELFARE - AN OVER VIEW

3.0. Introduction.

Labour welfare is one of the major determinants of industrial relations.
The development of community and society depends only on the development of
labours. The importance of labour welfare work is beyond the stage of debate and
is recognized as an integral part of industrial tradition in all industrially advanced
countries. Labour welfare is a vital part of business organisation and management
now-a-days attaches more important to human angle. It increases the productivity,
as well as productive efficiency of the workers and induces in them a new spirit of
self-realization and consciousness. The labour welfare scheme may be regarded as
a wise investment

3.1. Concept of Labour Welfare.

The term welfare suggests any ideas, meanings and connotations, such as
the state of well-being, health, happiness, prosperity and the development of
human resources. The concept of welfare can be approached from various angles.
Welfare has been described as a total concept. It is a desirable state of existence
involving physical, mental, moral and emotional well-being. All these four
elements together constitute the structure of welfare on which its totality is based.

The social concept of welfare implies the welfare of man, his family and
his community. There is interconnection of these three aspects, in the sense that
all the three work together or individually supplement one another, in a three-
dimensional approach, each serving as ends and means.

Welfare is called a relative concept, for it is related to time and space.
Changes in it have an impact on the system of welfare as well. As welfare is
growing and dynamic, the welfare potential changes, as a result of which its
content keeps on varying and has to keep pace with the changing times. Also, the

characteristics of welfare vary, for it depends largely on the development of a
nation in all fields. Its meaning and components, therefore, differ from country to
country and from place to place.

Welfare is also a positive concept. In order to establish a minimum level
of welfare, it demands certain minimum acceptable conditions of existence,
biologically and socially. This positive nature calls for the setting-up of the
minimum desirable standards necessary for certain components of welfare, such
as health, food, clothing, housing, medical assistance, insurance, education,
recreation, job security, and so on. Thus it has to specify the starting point for
building levels of welfare.

However, labour welfare has both positive and negative sides associated to
it. On the positive side, it deals with the provision of opportunities which enable
the worker and his family to lead a good life, socially and personally, as well as
help him adjust to social transition in his work like, family life and social life. On
the negative side, it functions in order to neutralize the baneful effects of large-
scale industrialisation and provides a counterbalance to the undesirable social
consequences and labour problems which have evolved in the process of this
transition.

The word labour means any productive activity. In a broader sense,
therefore, the physical, social, psychological and general well-being of the
working population. Welfare work in any industry aims, or should aim at
improving the working and living conditions of workers and their families.

The concept of labour welfare, however, is flexible, elastic and differs
from time to time, region to region, industry to industry and country to country,
depending upon the value system, level of education, social customs, degree of
industrialization and the general standard of the socio-economic development of
people. It also relates to the political situation in a country. Further, it depends
upon the kinds of problems with which society is confronted as well as on the
structure of the industry. It is moulded according to the age-group, sex, socio-

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cultural background, marital status, economic status and educational level of the
employees in various industries. This nature of the concept of labour welfare
makes it very difficult for us to give a precise, all-inclusive single definition of the
phrase.

The concept of labour welfare originated in the desire for a humanitarian
approach to the sufferings of the working class. Later, it became a utilization
philosophy which worked as a motivating force for labour and for those who were
interested in it.

3.2. Interpretations of Labour Welfare.

Labour welfare has been defined in various ways, though unfortunately no
single definition has found universal acceptance.

The Oxford Dictionary defines labour welfare as “efforts to make life
worth living of worker” Another definition implies that welfare is fundamentally
an attitude of mind on the part of management, influencing the method by which
management activities are undertaken1. The emphasis obviously is on the
“Attitude of mind”.

In the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences welfare is defined as “the
voluntary efforts of the employers to establish within the existing industrial
system, working and sometimes living and cultural conditions of the employees
beyond what is required by law, the customers of the industry and the conditions
of the market.”2

Yet another definition is “Anything done for the comfort and improvement,
intellectual and social, of the employees over and above the wages paid, which is
not a necessity of the industry.”3.

Labour welfare is also understood to mean “such services, facilities and
amenities, which may be established in, or in the vicinity of, undertakings to
enable persons employed therein to perform their work in healthy and congenial

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surroundings and to provide them with amenities conducive to good health and
good morals.”4

Some prefer to include under welfare activities, “anything done for the
intellectual, physical, moral and economic betterment of the workers, whether by
employers, by Government or by other agencies, over and above what is laid
down by law or what is normally expected as part of the contractual benefits for
which their workers may have bargained.”5

It is for the “benefit of their employees over and above the minimum
standard of working conditions fixed by the Factories Act and over and above the
provision of social legislation providing against accident, old age, unemployment
and sickness.”6

labour welfare is nothing but “such services, facilities and amenities as
adequate canteens, rest and recreation facilities, sanitary and medical facilities,
arrangements for travel to an from work and for the accommodation of the
workers employed at a distance from their homes, and such other services,
amenities and facilities, including social security measures, as contribute to an
improvement in the conditions under which workers are employed.”7

Here, it may be pointed out that “social security is considered to be one of
the important aspects of labour welfare”8 These services are “rendered to workers
and their families by an industrial enterprise with the purpose of raising their
moral, material, social and cultural levels and so that they may adjust to better
life.”9

The whole field of welfare is said to be one “in which much can be done
to combat the sense of frustration of the industrial workers, to relieve them of
personal and family worries, to improve their health, to afford them means of self-
expression, to offer them some sphere in which they can excel others, and to help
them to a wider conception of life.”10

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the underlying assumption. Thus.’ That the employer has a further obligation and should not attempt to substitute welfare work for better wages and shorter hours is clear from its added pronouncement that the spirit of the age has thrown upon the employers. welfare work is fundamentally distinct from social work. being that ‘the first essentials to the welfare of the employees are steady work. The latter “implies no relation between employer and 41 . More often that many of them give rise to ambiguity and overlap in certain areas of action.12 Anyhow. morally. Any kind of voluntary service will come under the purview of labour welfare if it aims at helping the worker to work better and in more congenial surroundings. bearing a some-what different interpretation in one country from another. what is definite is that labour welfare promotes the well-being of workers in a variety of ways. it is apparent that none is complete or comprehensive. it would appear as if “a series of sharply divergent opinions exist on the motives and merits of industrial welfare work.3. economically and intellectually. duties involving a proper regard for the comfort. health. safety and well-being of the employees”.”11 A significant definition describes labour welfare work as “the voluntary effort of the employer to improve the living and working conditions of his employees. in one respect. of course. the degree of industrialization and the educational development of the worker. physically. socially. definite outline or demarcation in this subject. according to different social circumstances. the meaning or connotation of labour welfare “must necessarily be elastic. There is no precise. However.”13 When we go through the above definitions. a fair wage and reasonable hours of labour. 3. Labour Welfare and Social Work It has to be noted that. and also to live better in a more meaningful manner.

employee. provides coverage only for industrial society.4. but rather suggest the activities of a state department or a volunteer organisation. The Religious Theory. 3. offering assistance to a special group of people consisting of industrial labourers and their families.2. Apparently. Social work offers advice and assistance in the solution of individual or family problems. this theory assumes that man is selfish and self-centered. Labour welfare thus becomes a specialized branch of social work. and always tries to achieve his own ends. Seven theories. Theories of Labour Welfare. particularly in the solution of various problems where the human factor plays a predominant role. employers will not provide even the minimum welfare facilities for workers. it is a resultant area of the latter and make use of the scientific techniques and body of knowledge which have been evolved in the science of social work. This is based on the concept that man is essentially “a religious animal”. even at the cost of the welfare of others. 3. periodical supervision and fear of the punishment. the emphasis is unfortunately on fear and not on the spirit of welfare which should be the guiding factor. whereas labour welfare work.”14 Social work reaches the entire society. In this theory.4. though labour welfare is not entirely social work. These religious feelings sometimes prompt an employer to take up welfare 42 . However. Labour welfare work aims at solving the problems related to adjustment and corresponding activities.4. which is mostly the work of an employer. constituting the conceptual framework of labour welfare. assumption is that without compulsion.1. have so far been outlined 15 These are:- 3. many acts of man are related to religious sentiments and beliefs. Here. Even today. The Police theory of Labour Welfare This is based on the contention that a minimum standard of welfare is necessary for labourers.

4.4. This theory is based on man’s love for mankind.4. This theory is based on the fact that labour groups are becoming demanding and militant. though it has often been acted upon to secure the workers’ co-operation. This is also called the paternalistic Theory of Labour Welfare. its value is related to the moral conscience of the industrialist. “ In Greek.4.3. Trusteeship Theory.5. and also for society. Labour 43 . Philanthropic Theory. for the benefit of his workers. and profits accruing from them in trust”. labour welfare depends on the initiative of the top management. he uses it for himself. too. and are more conscious of their rights and privileges than ever before. The Placating Theory. however. this theory is unsound. This theory thus depends largely on man’s love or other.6. Psychologically.activities in the expectation of future benefit. 3. either in this life or in eternal life.4. This drive may be a rather powerful one and may impel him to perform noble sacrifices. Public Relations Theory. In other words. since it has no legal sanction. cannot be rational. properties. Philos means loving and anthropes means man. This theory provides the basis for an atmosphere of goodwill between labour and management and also between management and the public. It is neither universal nor continuous.” So instinctive urge by which he strives to remove the suffering of others and promote their well-being. Their demand for higher wages and better standards cannot be ignored. and therefore cannot be universal or continuous. 3. Here. 3. according to which “the industrialist or employer holds the total industrial estate. 3. The religious basis of welfare.

Here welfare work is used as a means to secure. Labour welfare is dependent on certain basic principles. higher production through better welfare. in its Directive Principles of State Policy. Principles of Labour Welfare. It can work well if both the parties have an identical aim in views that is. This is also called the Efficiency Theory.welfare programmes. preserve and develop the efficiency and productivity of labour.7.5. also emphasizes this aspect of labour welfare. This principle of self-help will enable them to become more responsible and more efficient. the workers have a right to adequate wages in addition to welfare measures.  Labour Welfare must aim at helping employees to help themselves in the long run. Here welfare may tend to become a publicity stunt. The Constitution of India. Management should be welfare-oriented at every level.  The employer should not bargain labour welfare as a substitute for wages or monetary incentives. In other words. work as a sort of an advertisement and help an industrialist to build up good and healthy public relations.  The employer should look after the welfare of his employees as a matter of social obligation. 3. The Functional Theory. The Underlying rules of Labour welfare are explained under the following points  The labour welfare activities should pervade the entire hierarchy of an organisation. they will tend to become more efficient and will thereby step up production. these programmes do improve industrial relations. 44 . This theory is a reflection of contemporary support for labour welfare. It is obvious that if an employer takes good care of his workers.4. which must be kept in mind and properly followed to achieve a successful implementation of welfare programmes. 3. Nevertheless. under this theory.

This Act was enacted with the objective of helping poor and orphaned children to learn various trades and crafts. Evolution of the Concept of Labour Welfare Labour welfare activity in India was largely influenced by humanitarian principles and legislation. The earliest legislative approach could be traced back to the passing of the Apprentices Act of 1850.  There should be periodical assessment or evaluation of welfare measure and necessary timely improvements on the basis of feedback. Before Independence. Then came the Merchants Shipping Act of 1859. the conditions of labour were miserable.  The labour welfare work of an organisation must be administratively viable and essentially development oriented.1. During the early period of industrial development. and absence of safety measures. Exploitation of child labour.6. long hours of work.6. efforts towards workers’ welfare was made largely by social workers. The next Act was the Fatal Accidents Act of 1853 which aimed at providing compensation to the families of workmen who lost their life as a result of “actionable wrong”. 3.  The management should ensure co-operation and active participation of unions and workers in formulating and implementing labour welfare programmes. harmony and integration of all labour welfare services in an undertaking.  There should be proper co-ordination. accommodation. and necessary articles of personal use. which regulated the employment of seamen and proved for their health. 3. The deplorable conditions in which labour worked in the textile mills in Bombay during those days. philanthropists and other religious leaders. were the regular features of factory life. bad sanitation. as testified by the Factory Commission of 1875 was the immediate cause for the passing of the Act. The Act applied to 45 . Before the introduction of welfare and other legislation in India. mostly on humanitarian grounds.

Women were followed to work for 11 hours in a day with one and a half hours’ rest. It applied to all factories employing 50 persons or more. The Factories (Amendment) Act. 1891 was passed as a result of the recommendations of the Bombay Factory Commission of 1884 and the Factory Labour Commission of 1890. Under pressure from labour.factories employing not less than 100 persons and using power. Anyhow. The Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants of India and Burma (1897) started a number of friendly benefit schemes. was not protected in any manner. The lower and upper age limits for children were raised to 9 and 14 respectively and their hours of work were limited to 7 hours. while those between 7 and 12 years were not to work for more than 9 hours a day. In the meanwhile. voluntary action in the field of labour welfare also made considerable progress. cleanliness and for preventing overcrowding in factories were also made. and so on. unreal allowances. Earlier attempts at legislation in this country were mainly aimed at regulation of employment. Adult labour. It was found inadequate in many respects. the Bombay Mill Owners’ Association conceded the demand for a weekly holiday. educational stipends. Under this Act. Calcutta (1905) and the Bombay Postal Union (1907). it recognized the right of the government to safeguard the interests of the workers by means of suitable legislation. The Printers Union . night schools. A more comprehensive Act was 46 . introduced mutual insurance schemes. the employment of children below the age of 7 years was prohibited. Provisions relating to better ventilation. The Government of India appointed a Commission in 1907 to study the working conditions of labour in industry and make recommendations. An hour’s daily rest and 4 holidays in a month were prescribed for children. however. The movement to improve the working conditions of Indian labour started with the passing of the first Indian Factories act in 1881. The Mulock Commission was appointed by the Government of Bombay Mill Hands’ Association brought the workmen together on two different occasions in 1884 and presented on their behalf a charter of demands to the Commission. Group efforts came to the forefront.

introduced in 1911 on the basis of the recommendations of this Commission. Factory inspection was improved by the appointment of full time factory inspectors possessing technical qualifications. The ILO declared that universal peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice. Children below 12 years of age were not to work in factories and those between the years of 12 and 14 were not to work for more than 6 hours a day. The formation of AITUC (1920). The Indian Factories Act of 1911 was made applicable also to seasonal factories working for less than 4 months in a year. The hours of work for adults were limited to 60 in a week. 1922 which was made applicable to all the factories using power and employing not les than 20 persons. Wages did not keep pace with the rising prices and profits. During the war years (1914-18) the number of factories and the number of persons employed therein increased. The establishment of the International Labour Organisation in 1919 was another important landmark in the history of labour welfare movement in our country. As a result of all these developments. Children and women were not to be employed between 7. the first central trade union organisation in our country.m.30 a. also helped in furthering the cause of welfare movement. The working class became more conscious as a result of the general unrest following the war. The hours of work of an adult male worker were specified for the first time to 12 hours a day. Certain provisions were also made for the health and safety of the industrial workers. Following industrial unrest in 1919 and 1920. the importance of labour in economic and social reconstruction of the world was recognized. In 1910. The hours of work for children were reduced to 6 per day. 47 . All these factors created the background for a new factory law. The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 led to a number of new developments. the Government of India passed the Indian Factories (Amendment) Act.00 pm and 5. The Russian Revolution had a tremendous impact on the attitudes of government and society towards labour. the Kamgar Hitvardhak Sabha was established which helped the workers in various ways. and 11 in a day.

and improvement of working conditions of plantation workers. plantations. while those for women from 11 to 10 in all kinds of factories. minimum wages. The Act also made provision for the improvement of working conditions within a factory. 1931. It drew a distinction between perennial and seasonal factories. the Factories Act . The Commission made an in-depth survey of different aspects of health. conditions of work and relations between employers and employees and submitted its monumental report on March 14. and so on. These Committees conducted detailed investigations regarding housing facilities available in various industries and drew pointed attention of the government towards inadequate and unsatisfactory housing conditions of industrial workers. the Central Provinces Textile Labour Enquiry Committee (1938) and the Bihar Labour Enquiry Committee (1938). the Kanpur Labour Enquiry Committee (1937). The hours of work for children between 12 and 15 were reduced from 6 to 5 per day. welfare. Most of the recommendations of this Commission were accepted by the government and they constituted the powerful influence that led to the enactment of the Factories Act of 1934. need for health insurance for industrial workers. The Royal Commission on Labour under the chairmanship of J. 48 . welfares measures were also thought of and provision was made to provide rest sheds and crèches by big factories. Apart from amending and consolidating all the previous enactments. standard of living. mines. efficiency. 1934 introduced a number of prominent changes. It recommended the enactment of a number of legislations relating to payment of wages in time. For the first time in factories’ legislation. A number of committees also were set up by the provincial governments to enquire into the working conditions of labour including the provisions of housing facilities. Some of these committees were: Bombay Textile Labour Enquiry Committee (1937).H Whitley was appointed in 1929 to enquire into and report on the existing conditions of labour in industrial undertakings.

employment. the grand Charter of Labour. The government took the initiative and actively promoted various welfare activities among the industrial employees. crèches. 3. It was realized that labour welfare had a positive role to play in increasing productivity and reducing industrial tensions. In May 1944. The Committee went into details of the working conditions. The Committee covered different areas in labour welfare such as housing policy. and so on. The 49 . After independence. medical aid. including welfare measures available for workers employed in a large number of industries. After Independence. popularly known as the ‘Declaration of Philadelphia’. educational facilities. occupational diseases.6. The need for sustained and increased production gave a fillip to Indian industry. rest and recreation. the Declaration said that labour is not a commodity and that it is entitled to a fair deal as an active participant in any programme of economic development or social reconstruction. The State began to realize its social responsibilities towards weaker sections of the society. For the first time in India. was adopted by the member states of the ILO.2. this Committee highlighted the importance of welfare measures for workers in improving their social and economic life. The Second World War brought about far-reaching consequences in all fields of activities. housing and social conditions of workers. It also emphasized the need for strengthening the enforcement machinery for effective implementation of various laws. Amongst its aims and objects. relief in the case of old age and death. washing and bathing facilities. A number of legislations for the welfare of the working classes were also enacted. canteens. Another milestone in the field of labour welfare was reached with the appointment of Labour Investigation Committee (Rege Committee) in 1944. the labour welfare movement acquired new dimensions. The number of factories and factory employees increased enormously. The Committee was asked to investigate the problems relating to wages and earnings.

economic and political. However. shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by ensuring and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice. The compliance with the provisions of the Act wholly rests on the occupier of the factory. CITU (1970). It is a comprehensive piece of legislation. safety. 1949. The Factories Act of 1948 came into effect from 1st April. and leave with wages. holidays. He drafted the legislation in detail using his wide experience of Factories’ Law. Mainly on the basis of the recommendations of the Rege Committee. the services of Sir Wilfred Garrett were utilized. UTUC (1949). the Government of India enacted the Factories Act. frame Model Rules and suggest amendments to the Act and the Rules in consultation with the State Chief Inspectors of Factories. The responsibility of administration of the Act rests with the State Government who administers it through their own Factory Inspectorate. It contains many important provision regarding health. NLO (1969) gave a further fillip to the growth of labour welfare movement. employment of young persons and children. social. 50 . HMS (1948). 1948. It is stated in the chapter embodying the Directive principles that “the State. welfare. Equality and Fraternity. though certain obligations were also imposed on workers. The Act applies to all establishments employing 10 or more workers where power is used and 20 or more workers where power is not used and where a manufacturing processes being carried on. BMS (1955). To draft this important piece of legislation. Liberty. The Constitution of India framed a list of Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy for the achievement of a social order based on Justice.emergence of different central trade union organisations like INTUC (1947). hours of work for adults and children. The Directorate General of Factory Advice Service and Labour Institute coordinate the work of enforcement of the Factories Act throughout the country. shall inform all the institutions of national life”. Section 85 of the Act empowers the state governments to extend all or any provisions of the Act to any premise.

A subsidized housing scheme for industrial workers was evolved in 1952. Greater stress was laid on the creation of an industrial democracy. Various states enacted legislation to regulate the working conditions in shops and establishments. 1952 and the Employees’ Provident Fund Act.7. a new Plantation Labour Housing Scheme was evolved which envisages a certain amount of loan for construction of house for workers. the Government of Assam passed an Act called the Assam Tea Plantations Employees’ Welfare Fund Act. were enacted. 51 . Labour Welfare in Five year Plans The phenomenon of labour welfare is considered as an important issue by all Governments. e. The second Five Year Plan saw further developments in the field of labour welfare. for avoidance of industrial disputes and for creating mutual goodwill and understanding. During the Second Five Year Plan (1956-61) the importance of better working conditions had been progressively recognized. New enactments were made to cover seamen and motor transport workers. 1948. The coverage of the Employees’ State Insurance Scheme was also extended ringing to more workers. 1952. So the concept got importance in various five year plans of the government. Since it aims to achieve the welfare of public at large in a labour abundant country. In 1959. The Second Five yean Plan period also saw a number of enactments in the field of industrial housing by various state governments. the Mines Act.3.g. The First Five Year Plan (1951-56) paid considerable attention to the welfare of the working classes. Health and Welfare) was drawn up in 1961. During this period the Plantations Labour Act. In April 1956. A comprehensive Scheme known as Dock Workers (Safety. The state governments passed various laws regarding housing for industrial labour. It laid emphasis on the development of welfare facilities. 1951. the Bombay Housing Board Act.

and to cover shops and commercial establishments in selected centres. Iron-Ore Mines Labour Welfare Cess Act. For promoting industrial safety in increasing measure. the Plan provided for setting up of safety cells in various states. It recommended improvement in working conditions and emphasized greater productivity and more efficiency on the part of workers. During the Fourth Plan period. The plan also recommended stetting up of co-operative credit societies and consumers stores for industrial workers. the Payment of Gratuity Act. An amount of Rs. Some of the state governments have also passed labour welfare fund enactments. The fifth five year plan (1974-79) also laid down programmes for labour welfare. the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act. 1970. The plan directed the programmes for welfare centres. 57 crores was provided for labour welfare including craftsmen training and employment service. 52 . 1961. 1965. Some of the legislative measures during this period include the Maternity Benefit Act.11 crore was made in the plan. 1972 and the Employees’ Family Pension Scheme 1971 were passed. It called upon the state governments to strengthen the factory inspectorates for effective implementation of various labour enactments. For labour welfare programmes.37. 1961 and Payment of Bonus Act. 1961. a provision of Rs. and emphasized the role of trade unions and voluntary organisations in administering such co-operatives. Apprentices Act. and recreational centres should be included under the state plan and stress be laid on strengthening labour administration machinery for effective enforcement of labour laws. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) provided for the expansion of the Employees’ State Insurance Scheme to cover medical facilities to the families or insured persons. holiday homes. The Third Five Year Plan (1961-66) stresses the need for more effective implementation of various statutory welfare provisions.

the Employees Provident Fund and Family Pension Scheme. Genuine and effective voluntary organisations would be involved in the process of organizing and in actual implementation of the schemes” The plan laid down certain major tasks for women labour. fishermen. artisans.”16. handloom weavers. According to the Plan. equipment and practices for reducing their drudgery and increasing their productivity. “effective implementation of the existing legislation would greatly improve matters for the unorganized urban workers. Efforts would be made not only to train and upgrade the skills of the workers but also to educate them and make them aware of the programmatic and legislative provisions available for them. These are:-  To treat them as specific target groups in all rural development programmes  To ensure that in all asset endowment programmes. In the Sixth Plan (1980-85) according to the Planning Commission. In the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) emphasis was given on labour welfare. Special Programmes would also need to be undertaken by the state governments for the benefit of agricultural labour. improvement in working and living conditions of unorganized labour-not only in rural areas but also in the urban areas.  To provide crèche facilities and family planning centers 53 . “the thrust of the programmes should be on implementing effectively the measures contemplated in different legislative enactment and in extending the coverage of the Employees State Insurance Scheme. women have rights over asset and resources  To properly diversify vocational training facilities of women to suit their varied need and skills  To encourage appropriate technologies. leather workers and other unorganized workers in the rural and urban areas.

The Eight Five Year Plan (1992-97) laid stress on strategic improvement in the quality of labour. The objective of Tenth Plan (2002-2007) was to increase the coverage of the labour market institutions. productivity. The present infrastructure for improving labour productivity and for ensuring the welfare of workers covers only a very small segment of the labour force. especially of those working in the unorganized sector for quantitative and qualitative enhancement of employment opportunities. The essential condition for this is the provision of gainful employment to the entire labour force. Appropriate conditions at work are ensured by measures taken to promote safety at the workplace and minimizing occupational hazards. skills and working conditions and provision of welfare and social security measures. The Ninth Five year Plan (1997-2002).  To establish marketing estates at the Sate level  To increase women’s participation in trade unions and in decision making and  To improve and enlarge the scope of the existing legislation for women workers. because number of jobs in the public sector (which has a three-fourth share in organised sector jobs) has reduced and employment elasticity in the private sector has decreased significantly. A reasonable return on labour is facilitated by labour laws that regulate payment of wages and provision of social security to workers. the planning process attempts to create conditions for improvement in labour productivity and for provision of social security to supplement the operations of the labour market. The planning process supports the attainment of economic and social objectives in the labour sector through a set of strategies. 54 .

700 Annual Plan 1980-81 4 Annual Plan 1981-82 5 Sixth Plan 1980-85 2.344 Third Plan 1961-65 1. In Lakhs) First Plan 1951-56 160 Second Plan 1956-60 1.156 Fourth Plan 1970-74 7.330 Eighth Plan 1992-97 1.639 Fifth Plan 1974-79 5.1 Plan outlay for Labour Welfare. The following table shows the plan outlay for labour welfare in various five year plans.940 Annual Plan 1966-69 1.709 Seventh Plan 1985-90 3. Plan Period Outlay(Rs. Table 3.315 Ninth Plan 1998-02 2812 Tenth Plan 2002-07 3416 Source: Various Plan Documents 55 .

both in the public and private sector.K Malavya reviewed at length the functioning of various statutory and non-statutory welfare schemes in industrial establishments. the legislative movement. An ILO study on “Welfare Facilities for Workers in Industry” in Western and Eastern Europe. and cover accident risks and health hazards of industrial employment. Firstly. In most of these countries. minimum protective measures are provided through legislation and through labour administration services. released in 1964.8. Among these countries. In spite of all these efforts. The National Commission on Labour (1966-69) also covered several aspects of welfare services in different establishments and made useful suggestions of their improvement. some are the oldest industrialized states in the world and enjoy high standards of living. In the field of labour welfare the government is now playing a triple role-that of a legislator. administrator and promoter. especially when the Indian Republic is wedded to the ideal of a welfare state with socialistic objectives. They also have very well developed social institutions. However. Over and above these protective minimum standards of legislation in these developed countries. railways. 3. set up by the Government of India under the chairmanship of R. some measures. the welfare work in India is still considerably below the standard set up than in other countries. The above survey of the labour welfare movement shows that there are schemes of two types in the development of labour welfare . a movement through voluntary effort by some of the employers and secondly. The Committee on Labour Welfare (1966-69). and made comprehensive recommendations for their improvement. including mines plantations. ensuring the comfort and positive well-being of workers during working hours 56 . it has come to stay as an accepted feature of employment conditions and is bound to make rapid progress in the years to come. gives us a fairly comprehensive account of the Labour welfare measures existing in European Countries. Labour Welfare Practices in Europe.

Trade unions look after workers welfare by negotiating collective agreements and by participating in national economic plans at different levels. Social service in the past had been offered by several employers to their workers. Drinking water. Educational facilities and vocational training are the responsibility of the state and of public authorities at the national. There is no separate class of private employers. regional and local levels. Trade unions also look after the workers’ transport facilities to and from work. As regards their health. national social security systems are well developed and cover various social contingencies which concern workers and their families such as unemployment. professional social work in industrial undertakings has become quite popular in Western European countries. social welfare schemes on the part of industrial undertakings may not be all that necessary. have been considered.and outside working hours. National schemes providing medical care benefits cover a majority of workers in industry as well as their dependents. Statutory provisions have been made to enforce the responsibility of undertakings for these matters. Due to general rise in the standards of living and increased and improved social services and benefits which the state provides in Western European countries. and offer cultural and recreational facilities for them and their families. 57 . and have been made available to industrial labour as a result of legal provisions. governments and trade unions in Eastern European countries organize medical services for the protection of the workers’ health. old age. In most Western Europe17. washing facilities and sanitary conveniences come under health measures. sickness and death. Governments and trade unions in Eastern European countries take keen interest in the improvement of the health and nutritional standards of workers. But now personal social work that is. for there is no private ownership of capital. In Eastern European countries18. the means of production have been socialized on the basis of national planning.

holiday resorts. They administer and supervise all the services provided for the community as a whole. Industrial undertakings play an important role in administering certain facilities provided at the places of work. A large number of officials. some of them paid and others on an honorary basis. for recreation and cultural facilities. Trade union are directly responsible for the administration of housing allocations and maintenance. rest homes and holiday resort. either voluntary or in accordance with the agreements collectively entered into  Workers payments for such facilities as meals in canteens. Statutory provisions emphasize the responsibility of trade union in the administration of welfare facilities. sports associations and places of culture. 58 . involves any expenditure on the part of workers. The five main sources of finance for workers’ welfare amenities and services are :  The workers funds of an industrial undertaking  Grants from trade union funds  State social insurance funds  Grants by managements.. Works-funds are set up by industrial undertakings and economic organisations in order to provide incentives to workers and to improve the cultural and welfare facilities which have been provided for them. house rent. canteens and other feeding arrangements. club fees. seats for workers. are employed by trade unions to discharge administrative responsibilities and supervise welfare facilities. such as sanitary and hygienic facilities. The management directly pays for sanitary facilities. There is a certain amount of uniformity of practice in all the countries. We could see that most of these services are offered by employers with a view to insuring good working conditions for their employees and very few of these services however. first-aid and measures for health protections at the place of work. They have a partial responsibility for the construction of housing accommodation. workers’ clubs. etc.

Necessity of Labour Welfare in India. But if we make an overall survey of the living and working conditions of these industrial workers. and in other cases . work. it is of great consequence and somewhat easier for her to counteract effectively the harmful effects of the Industrial Revolution which have adversely affected the people all over the world. The need for labour welfare in all sectors is clearly enunciated in the Directive Principles of State Policy. Article 42:.3. to all workers. The State shall within the limits of its economic capacity and development. and in particular. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. primarily because of a lack of commitment to industrial work among factory workers and also the harsh treatment they received from employers.The state shall endeavor to secure. sickness and disablement. Since a developing country like India is still going through the process of economic development. of undeserved want. Industrial workers today constitute functionally a very significant and vulnerable element. agricultural industrial or otherwise. Article 43:. The need for labour welfare was strongly felt by the Committee of the Royal Commission on Labour as far back as in 19831. they also contribute substantially to the nation’s economy. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full employment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities. The State shall make provision of securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. the need for.9. by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. This need was emphasized by the Constitution of India in the Chapter on the Directive principles of State Policy. Article 41:. old-age. particularly in the following Articles. make effective provision for securing the right to work. a living wage. the state shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. and the necessity of welfare services have become necessary to “counteract the handicaps 59 .

increasing the worker’ efficiency and their sense of commitment.to which the workers are employed. and enable them to feel that the state and their employers are interested in their welfare. This absenteeism can be reduced by the provision of good housing. They reduce infant mortality. Good educational and training facilities for workers are also very necessary in Indian industries because of the high rate of illiteracy and lack of proper educational background among them. and to provide opportunities and facilities for a harmonious development to the workers’ personalities”19. or canteens where healthy. They are also far from their village community. As a result they fall a prey to alcoholism. and made it possible for them not to be exploited by moneylenders. family care. child-welfare facilities and maternity care assist workers in a variety of ways. These facilities would also help in decreasing the number of industrial accidents. which demoralize them and sometimes completely ruin them. The close association between efficiency and welfare has been recognized and discussed at various conferences. workers have to put in long hours of work in unhealthy surroundings. and in the meetings of the National Productivity Council . These also would help in reducing the effect of the drudgery of their work. As most of them have migrated from rural areas. Sports. both in their work-life and folk-life. In their work-life. balanced diet is made available in congenial surroundings. They also reduce the 60 . Family planning. entertainment and other recreational facilities help workers to develop their health and personality. improve the health of the spouse and keep the family size to the required minimum. such as the Indian labour Conference. for they want to escape from their environment whenever possible. gambling and other vices. The drudgery of factory work continues to have an adverse effect on them even after they knock off for the day. they are thrown into an uncongenial environment which is also strange to them. The high rate of labour absenteeism in Indian industries is indicative of the lack of commitment on the part of workers.

sub-standard socio-economic conditions. facilities and amenities as adequate 61 . cannot be rigidly laid down for the scope of labour welfare for all industries and for all times. by its very nature. and the minimum basis amenities. in its Directive Principles of State Policy. that the scope of labour welfare would depend on the kind of labour problems in existence and on the types of welfare services which are needed in different situations. They have to be elastic and flexible enough to suit the existing conditions of the workers. Our Constitution. A proper organisation and administration of welfare facilities can play a vital role in promoting better working conditions and living standards for industrial workers and also increasing their productivity. “must necessarily be elastic. These welfare programmes are indispensable in Indian conditions. therefore. and to include all the essential prerequisites of life. according to the different social customs. the necessity of “securing just and humane conditions of work” for them has been highlighted. however. 1969. bearing a somewhat different interpretation in one country from another. 3. refers generally to “the promotion of the welfare of the people. exist despite the vast programmes of industrial development undertake in a planned way. especially in developing countries. but what these conditions actually imply cannot be specified in rigid terms for all times. particularly in developing countries where. the degree of industrialisation and the educational development of the worker”20 limits. It is obvious. positive and dynamic part to play in the industrial economy.worker’s anxiety and absenteeism because of sickness in the family. Labour welfare . Labour Welfare in India. The provision for suitable labour welfare facilities designed to meet the needs of migrant workers can help them settle down more easily in their new working and living environment. In these and many other ways labour welfare has an important. In the Report of the Committee on Labour Welfare. the scope of labour welfare covered “such services.10.” In its specific application to the working class. paradoxically.

while in others. It may include not only the minimum standard of hygiene and safety laid down in general labour legislation.”23. arrangements for travel to and from work. paid vacations. and welfare. it deals with the provision of opportunities for the worker and his family for socially and personally good life. The subject of labour welfare is thus fairly wide and it not limited to any one country.canteens. one industry or occupation. On the one side. In some countries. family and social life of the workers. is mainly concerned with the day-to-day problems of the workers and the social relationships at the place of work. the workers families are allowed to share in most of the benefits which are made available”22. amenities. sanitary and medical facilities. the concept is a very wide one and it is more or less synonymous with conditions of work as a whole. Its scope has been “described by writers and institutions of different shade in different ways and from different angles”. as contribute to improvement of the conditions under which workers are employed. for the accommodation of workers employed at a distance from their homes. but what should be common is that a welfare measure should ameliorate the working and 62 . limitation of hours of work. and it has not always the same significance in different countries. the definition is much more limited. rest and recreation facilities. the use of welfare facilities provided is confined to the workers employed in the undertakings concerned. Moorthy holds that “labour welfare has two sides. in addition to general physical working conditions. while. and facilities. the International Labour Organisation (ILO) observes: “The term is one which lends itself to various interpretations. negative and positive.”21 While offering its own interpretation of the meaning of the scope of welfare. on the other. On the other hand. etc. but also such aspects of working life as social insurance schemes. Sometimes. The line of demarcation cannot be very precise. In other cases. and such other services. one region. including social security measures. and positive side. it is associated with the counteracting of the harmful effects of large-scale industrialization on the personal. measure for the protection of women and young workers .

” It follows therefore.living conditions of the workers and their families and make their lives more meaningful. workmen’s compensation. however. “which are the species of the larger family encompassed by the term ‘labour welfare’”25. retirement benefits. travel to an from work.”24 The scope of labour welfare. Labour services should:  “Enable workers to live a richer and more satisfactory life”. rest and recreation facilities medical assistance. better health.  Promotion of sound industrial relation by creating a feeling among employees that they are in no way ignored by the management. provident fund. trade unions or voluntary organisations fall with the scope of labour welfare.  Contribute to the productivity of labour and efficiency of the enterprise  Raises the standard of living of workers by indirectly reducing the burden on their purse. and be so designed as to offer a cushion to absorb the shock of industrialization and urbanization on workers. education. gratuity. nutrition and sanitation. within or near the undertaking nor can it be so comprehensive as “embrace the whole range of social welfare or social services. and  Be administratively viable and essentially developmental in outlook. so as to 63 . and so on.  Be in tune and harmony with similar services obtaining in a neighboring community where an enterprise is situated. cannot be limited to facilities. the government. housing holiday facilities. Benefits of Welfare Activities. maternity benefits. It can also include social security measures which contribute to workers’ welfare such as industrial health insurance. etc.  Be based on an intelligent prediction of the future needs of industrial work. It brings under its purview all welfare activities and amenities related to canteen. 3.11. that all extra-mural and intra-mural welfare activities as statutory and non-statutory welfare measures undertaken by employers. pension.

have been discussed in this chapter. harmony and industrial democracy with a satisfied family life. 1948. increase their co-operation and reduce unrest and conflict which ultimately establish industrial harmony and peace.11. Employers in India are statutorily required to comply with the provisions of various welfare amenities under different legislations.  Improvement in the motivation and morale of workers which in turn create a sense of responsibility. higher standard of living and good status in the society.  Improvement in the workers capacity and efficiency thus leads to higher productivity and reduced wastage and inefficiency in their part. Motor Transport Workers Act.  Imbibing in the employees a sense of commitment and loyalty towards their enterprise  Improvement in the employees health and morality by motivating them to be away from alcoholism. Statutory Welfare Provisions in India. 1970. The worker who lives in a crowded area has inadequate facilities for washing. Washing Facilities. gambling. criminal activities in slums and so on.12. and bathing at home. and Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act. 3.  Motivating employees to remain with the organisation as its dependable permanent workforce by reducing labour turnover and absenteeism with enhanced interest in the job. Mines Act. Provisions of such facilities would add to his 64 . self confidence and self respect in them. Plantations Labour Act. 1951. 1961. 3.  Promotional and social advantage through higher industrial efficiency. The Statutory Welfare Facilities provided under the Factories Act. prostitution. It was the Royal Commission on Labour which noted that the provisions of suitable washing facilities for all employees though desirable were deficient in many factories.1. 1952.

Section 42 of the Factories Act lays down that every factory has to provide adequate and suitable washing facilities separately for the use of male and female workers. the contractor has to provide and maintain adequate and suitable washing facilities. and the like. pegs. It is only the Factories Act which has incorporated such provision.comfort. 1971. which need not involve any great outlay. 1963.4. such facilities shall include the provisions of separate rooms. particularly for workers who are obliged to work in a standing position. Similarly Contract Labour Central Rules 1971 and the Maharashtra Contract Labour Rules. oil mills. lockers. iron and steel works.12. Section 18(c) of the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act. It enables them to take advantage of any opportunity for rest which may occur in the course of their work. motor garages. First Aid Appliances.12. a first-aid-box of prescribed standard. Under Section 43 of the Act a state Government may make rules for the provision of suitable places for keeping clothing not worn during working hours and for the drying of wet clothing. or other arrangements approved by the Chief Inspector in all classes of factories such as engineering workshops. provides that every contractor employing contract labour in connection with the work of an establishment has to provide and maintain washing facilities. in the case of all factories where mechanical power is used.12. The Royal Commission on Labour recommended that. tanneries. Facilities for Storing and Drying Clothing.3. health and efficiency. Facilities for sitting. chemical factories. Every factory has to provide necessary sitting arrangements. 3. The chief Inspector of Factories may direct the occupier of any factory to provide suitable seating arrangements as far as practicable. 3. should be provided and maintained in 65 . 3.2. As per the Maharashtra Factories Rules.

and space are to be provided for taking food and rest.different departments according to the number of workers employed. open vast workings. under the charge of the driver or the conductor.6. Every factory employing more than 75 workers must provide adequate and suitable shelters or rest rooms and a lunch room. Under Section 19 of the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act. The Mines Rules have laid down that in every mine where more than 50 persons are ordinarily employed. 3. in connection with the work of an establishment. the employer is required to provide rest rooms or any other suitable alternative accommodation at places where motor transport workers employed in a motor transport undertaking are required to halt at night. Section 17 of the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition)Act also made it obligatory on the part of the contractor to provide for rest rooms or such other alternative accommodation where contract labour is required to halt at night. Canteen.5 Shelters . 3. Section 12 of the Motor Transport Workers Act has laid down a statutory obligation on the employer to provide first-aid boxes equipped with the prescribed contents in every transport vehicle. Section 21 of the Mines Act provides for first-aid boxes and medical appliances on the same lines as that of the Factories Act. with provision for drinking water. Rest Rooms and Lunch Rooms. workshops. the contractor is required to provide and maintain a first-aid box equipped with the prescribed contents at every place where contract labour is employed so as to be readily accessible during all working hours. where workers can eat meals brought by them. a state government may make rules for provision of canteen by the occupier in any specified factory where in more than 75 workers are ordinarily employed. According to Section 46 of the Factories Act. According to Section 9 of the Motor Transport Workers Act. The Royal Commission on Labour and Labour Investigation Committee have laid considerable emphasis on 66 . adequate and suitable shelters at or near loading wharves. on the basis to be laid down by the local governments.12.12.

3. Welfare Officer. Section 49(1) and (2) of Factories Act. Section 87 of the Factories Act refers to dangerous occupations and states that the State Government is empowered to make rules for any factory or class of factories in which any operation exposes persons to a serious risk of bodily injury. 3.12. The crèche facilities in different countries are provided either under law or by public authorities or by local bodies as a part of the community facilities. The Factories Act.7. The need for setting up creches in industrial establishments was stressed by the Royal Commission on Labour in its report way in 1931. very common in the industrially advanced countries of the West. and are gaining in importance and recognition in large sized undertakings in our country. 102 adopted in 1956 in its 39th session gave further direction to the establishment and improvement in the existing canteens in factory establishments in the various countries. The ILO recommendation No. Occupational Health Services.12. lays down that:- 67 .9.8. 3. The service includes carrying out periodical medical checks of certain outbreak of serious health complaints. One of the main functions of these health services is to protect workers against the health hazards arising out of the nature of their work or the work environment. Section 48 of the Factories Act provides for the setting up of creches in every factory wherein more than 30 women workers are ordinarily employed for the use of children under the age of 6 years of such women. poisoning or disease. These are essentially preventive.12. Creche. 1948 provides for the statutory appointment of a welfare officer in a factory.the provision of canteen at the work place.

Table 3. In every factory wherein hundred or more workers are ordinarily employed the occupier shall employ in the factory such number of welfare officers as may be prescribed. sanitation services. 68 . working of joint committees.  Supervision of safety.  The State Government may prescribe the duties.1. health and welfare programmes. The table 3. Source: Report of the National Commission on Labour 3. as provided under the law or otherwise.12.2 Appointment of Assistant or Additional Welfare Officers Where the Number But Does Not Number of Assistant or Additional Welfare of Workers Exceed Officers. grant of leave with wages as provided. including housing.2 shows how assistant or additional welfare officers are appointed. qualifications and conditions of service of officers employed under sub-section (i) accordingly those persons who have obtained a post-graduate degree or diploma in social science which is recognized by the State Government are eligible for appointment as welfare officers. Exceeds 2500 3500 One Assistant Welfare Officer 3500 4500 One Additional Welfare Officer One Additional Welfare Officer and One 4500 6500 Assistant Welfare Officer 6500 8500 Two Additional Welfare Officers Two Additional Welfare Officers and One 8500 10500 Assistant Welfare Officer >10500 Three Additional Welfare Officers.9. recreation. and redressal of workers grievances. Duties of welfare officers under the Factories Act of 1948.

etc. The factories Act. and other inspectors with a view to securing a proper enforcement of the various Acts as applicable to the plant. apprenticeship training programme.  Liaison with outside agencies such as factory inspectors.  Advise management on formulating labour and welfare policies.42) b) Facilities for storing and dry clothing (S.  Liaison with management so that the latter may appreciate the workers viewpoint on various matters connected with the plant. for prompt redress of grievances and quick settlement of disputes. appreciate the need for harmonious industrial relations in the plant. 1948 a) Washing facilities (S.  Liaison with workers and management for harmonious industrial relations in the plant. meeting statutory obligations to workers. 3. and for improving the productive efficiency of the enterprise. welfare officer should intervene on behalf of workers in matters under the consideration of the management. medical officers.44) 69 .13. and to understand their rights and privileges.13. helping them to adjust to their environment.43) c) Sitting facilities for occasional rest for workers who are obliged to work standing (S. welfare officers should interpret company policies to workers.1. and persuade workers to come to a settlement when disputes arise.  Liaison with workers so that they may understand the various limitations under which they work. 3.  Counselling workers in personal and family problems. A brief outline of various welfare facilities provided under different labour enactments is given below. Act-Wise Outline of Welfare Facilities.

where 50 women workers are employed b) Provision of shelters for taking food and rest if 150 or more person are employed. 45) e) Canteens.13. 49) 3. if employing more than 30 women ( S.13) d) Educational facilities in the estate for the children of workers. c) Provisions of shelters for taking food and rest. 3. Plantations Labour Act. d) Provision of a canteen. 48) h) Welfare Officer. in mines employing 250 or more workers e) Maintenance of first-aid-boxes and first aid rooms in mines employing more than 150 workers. if employing over 150 workers (S. The Mines Act.13.2. if employing 100 or more workers (S. a) Maintenance of crèches. d) First-aid boxes or cupboards-one for every 150 workers and ambulance facilities if there are more than 500 workers (S. if employing more than 250 workers (S.12) c) Recreational facilities for the workers and their children (S. 1951. f) Appointment of Welfare Officer in mines employing more than 500 or more persons to look after the matters relating to the welfare of the workers. 1952 and the Mines Rules.14) 70 . where there are 25 workers children between the age of 6 and 12 (S.3. 47) g) Creche. a) Canteens in plantations employing 150 or more workers (S. The following welfare measures are to be provided to the plantation workers. rest rooms and lunch rooms.11) b) Creches in plantations employing 50 or more women workers (S. if 150 or more persons are employed.46) f) Shelters.

are to be prescribed in the Rules by the sate governments (S. The Motor Transport Workers Act. 1961 The Motor Transport Undertakings are required to provide cerain welfare and health measures as given below.15 and 16) f) The state government may make rules requiring every plantation employer to provide the workers with such number and type of umbrellas.18) 3. 71 .4. raincoats or other like amenities for the protection of workers from rain or cold as may be prescribed ( S.17) g) Appointment of a Welfare Officer in plantations employing 300 or more workers (S. raincoats to drivers.13. ventilated. if employing 100 or more workers (S.10) d) Medical facilities are to be provided to the motor transport workers at the operating centres and at halting stations as may be prescribed by the state governments ( S. A prescribed amount of washing allowance is to be given to the above-mentioned categories of staff ( S. The Contact labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act. conductors and line checking staff for protection against rain and cold. procedure for allotment and rent chargeable from workers. The standard and specification of the accommodation. 1970 The following welfare and health measures are to be provided to the contract workers by the contractor. blanket. e) Housing facilities for every worker and his family residing in the plantation. well-lighted and comfortable rest rooms at every place wherein motor transport workers are required to halt at night ( S.13.5.9) c) Uniforms.11) e) First-aid facilities equipped with the prescribed contents are to be provided in every transport vehicle (S. a) Canteens of prescribed standard.8) b) Clean.12) 3.

f) Every foreign-going ship carrying more than the prescribed number of persons. h) Establishment of hostels. c) Supply of necessities like beddings. clubs. including the crew is required to have on board a qualified medical officer. medical stores. d) Supply of medicines. i) Provision of medical treatment and hospitals. 1958) Provisions in the Act relating to health and welfare cover. and grant of relief to distressed seamen aboard a ship. towels. mess utensils. a) Crew accommodation. sufficient number of latrines and urinals of prescribed types and washing facilities ( S. e) Maintenance of proper weights and measures on board.19) 3. and provisions of surgical and medical advice. a) A canteen in every establishment employing 100 or more workers ( S.13. and libraries.17) c) Provision for sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water. b) Supply of sufficient drinking water.6.18) d) Provision for first-aid-box equipped with the prescribed contents (S. g) Appointment of Seamen’s Welfare Officer at such ports in or outside India as the government may consider necessary. 16) b) Rest rooms or other suitable alternative accommodation where the contract labour is required to halt at night in connection with the work of an establishment ( S. canteens. The Merchant Shipping Act. and j) Provision of educational facilities 72 .

1961. Health and Welfare) Scheme.13. 1961 A comprehensive Dock Workers (Safety. Other welfare measures provided are a) Housing b) Schools c) Educational facilities d) Grant of scholarships e) Libraries f) Sports and recreation g) Fair price shops h) Co-operative Societies 73 . has been framed for all major ports and is administered by the Chief Advisor. Health and Welfare) Scheme. Amenities provided in the port premises include provision of a) Urinals and Latrines b) Drinking water c) Washing Facilities d) Bathing facilities e) Canteens f) Rest Shelters g) Call Stands h) First Aid Arrangements 3. Dock Workers (Safety.8.13.7.3. Factories (Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes). 1948. It is framed under the Dock Workers (Regulation of Employment ) Act.

Education plays a very important role in motivating and enabling the working population for their mental and physical 74 . 3.14. Inter State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act. 3. to report to the specified authorities of both the States and also the next of kin of the workman.13. There are certain employers especially in the organized sector of industry. The pace of economic and social progress of a particular country largely depends upon the quality of its work force. Voluntary Welfare Measures in India.3. 1979 Section 16 of the Act stipulates that every contractor employing inter-state migrant worker men in connection with the work of an establishment to which this Act applied will have to provide the following facilities. who have promised a wide variety of welfare amenities and services to their employees.1 Educational Facilities. A brief account of such welfare measures given below. free of charge f) To provide such protective clothing to the workmen as may be prescribed and g) In case of fatal accident or serious bodily injury to any such workman. a) To ensure regular payment of wage to such workmen (at least minimum wage have to be paid as fixed under the Minimum Wages Act. 1948) b) To ensure equal pay for equal work irrespective of sex c) To ensure suitable conditions of work to such workmen having regard to the fact that they are required to work in a State different from their own State d) To provide and maintain suitable residential accommodation to such workers working during the period of their employment e) To provide the prescribed medical facilities to the workmen.14.9.

It has an important bearing on the individual’s personality as well as his capacity to contribute to social development.4. and state Governments. Some of the industrial employers both in public and private sectors have provided housing facilities to their employees. Employers whether in private or in public sectors have been providing medical facilities for their workers and their families. Recreational Facilities. 3. both indoor and outdoor. Improvement in the quality of the industrial work force demands accelerated pace of economic development for which education of workers. by and large. The provision of transport facilities to industrial workers forms and integral part of the general transport facility and is. e) Housing Facilities.2. The employees who are not 75 . 3. Hence many of the employers provide transport facilities voluntarily. In the case of public sector undertakings. .3 Transport Facilities. transport corporations. even before the introduction of ESI Scheme. suitably equipped first-aid-centres.14.14. the responsibility of the public authorities like the local bodies. their families and their children is very essential. ambulance rooms and even regular hospitals either in the factory premises or inside the township. it has been a matter of rule that the provisions of adequate indoor and outdoor medical facilities should form an integral part of the project plan itself.development. These undertakings have provide by and large. It affords the worker an opportunity to develop his sense of physical and mental discipline.14. 3. or such other facilities. The workers in departmental undertakings are more or less governed by the medical rule applicable to government servants. Medical Facilities.

Apart from the economic benefits. cultural. the consumer co-operatives have some important social benefits which have morel and social effects on the members.  To provide to the members’ good quality food grains. Consumer Co-Operative Societies.5. 3. cloth and all necessary articles of daily consumption  To keep the prices at a fair and reasonable level.provided corporations quarters are paid house rent allowance at some of the places. The institution of co-operative stores/fair price ships has a definite role to play in providing workers with essential items of need. The objectives of the consumer’s co-operative stores are. literary and many other activities. The community centres that have developed around the public sector townships are the focus of recreational. 76 . lower than the market rate.  To protect the consumers from the vagaries of market and middlemen and from rising prices and adulteration of food products  To protect factory workers from the clutches of the money lenders and to inculcate in them the habit of thrift and saving  To develop habits of mutual aid. sports.14. intimate knowledge and honesty in dealing  To inculcate and pursue group interest jointly rather than individual self-interest  To strengthen the public distribution system to ensure availability of scarce-commodities and help to bring down their prices in the open market.

the Government of India did very little in the field of labour welfare. Central Government.15. Employment of Children Act.15. inside and outside their place of work. State Governments. launched schemes for labour welfare in their ordinance. by the Government and by other agencies. The implementation of many provisions of various labour 77 . efforts in this direction were intensified. Factories Act.14. It was during the Second World War that the Government of India. Maternity Benefits Act.2.1. 3. Indian Mines Act. employers have to provide certain basic welfare facilities to the workers.6. The importance of labour welfare activities in India has been recognized very recently by the employers. Under these Acts. Many a time. workers are able to receive advice and counsel on some of the personnel and sometimes also on personal problems. various legislations were passed for the welfare of different types of workers. Since then. in India includes:- 3. 3. wedded to the idea of a welfare state and to a socialistic pattern of society. Counselling Services By means of this service. The main agencies engaged in labour welfare. Till the Second World War. In small concerns welfare officers or labour officers attached to an undertaking are also known to perform this function. ammunition and other war industries to increase the productivity of the workers and to keep up their morale. a trained social worker is appointed for this purpose in large industrial undertakings. for the first time.15. With the achievement of independence and emergence of India as a Republic.3. Various State Governments and Union Territories provide welfare facilities to workers. The important Acts which incorporate measures for the welfare of the workers are. Agencies of Labour Welfare in India. Plantation Labour Act.

Apart from the agencies closely associated with the industries (Government. The state governments also keep a vigil on the employers that they are operating the welfare schemes made obligatory by the central or state government. They are Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association and the Mazdoor Sabha. Kanpur. vocational guidance. Other Agencies. recreation and training of workers and other welfare centers. on their own initiative have been doing a bit in the direction of welfare. fair price shops. These facilities are apart from their liability under various central or state legislations. 3. They have not taken much interest in welfare work because of lack of proper leadership and trends. some enlightened employers. canteens. Employers. In India. the welfare activities are being brought more and more under the legislation rather than being left to the good sense of the employers. Trade Unions.5. 3. Even then. The state governments run health and family planning centres. The state governments have also been empowered to prescribe rules for the welfare of workers and appoint appropriate authorities for the enforcement of welfare provisions under various Acts.15.15. recreation clubs etc. centers for education. However. Employees and Trade Unions) several other agencies have also 78 .15. hospital and dispensary facilities. Most of the employers consider the expenditure on labour welfare activities as waste of money rather than an investment. a few sound and strong unions have been the pioneers in this respect. They have provided medical facilities. The government has made certain facilities obligatory on the part of employers.laws also rests with the state governments. At present.3.4. 3. trade unions have done very little for the welfare of workers.

However there has been a growing appreciation and acceptance of “utility of welfare work” on the part of employers.16. There may be divergent views about the implementation of labour welfare programmes. Seva Sadan Society. From the primitive policing and placating philosophy of labour welfare. Conclusion. The recent thinking in labour welfare however is more oriented towards increasing productivity and efficiency of the work people.A etc provide facilities for the welfare of the working class on a voluntary basis. mental. The aims and objectives of labour welfare have progressively changed during.M. cannot undermine the purpose of labour welfare.done some work in the field of labour welfare. The approach to this problem or movement differs from country to country. well-organised labour welfare efforts can and do solve some of the labour problems that have resulted from industrialisation. social psychological and spiritual aspects of the employees well being. As long as this appreciation exists. the question of 79 . the Y. In this context. Philanthropic charitable and social service organisations like Bombay Social Service League. But what is invariably called of is sincerity of purpose. the last few decades. it gradually moved to the era of paternalism with philanthropic objectives. according to the degree of development in a particular country. An outstanding trend today is that it has become a comprehensive concept concerned with the development of the total human personality embracing physical. the need for labour welfare in some way or the other is realized all over the world because of the socio-economic conditions and problems which the industrial society has thrown up. charity. Labour welfare has become essential because of the very nature of the industrial system. about who should undertake responsibility for them and who should bear the cost.C. 3. However. the Depressed Classes Mission Society. Even today there is evidence of humanitarian outlook of some of the employers in many employee-welfare programmes. as one of the motives. Be that as it may be.

and it has been solved. over the years. to tackle effectively the resultant problems of social transition. in future. This is the basic problem in labour welfare. the welfare work in India is still considerably below the standard set up in other countries. and understanding of each others problems. and to strive for and attain human welfare. An industry is certainly not a place where workers and employers try to get the maximum from each other. 80 . it has come to stay as an accepted feature of employment conditions and is bound to make rapid progress in the years to come. In spite of all these efforts. Both labour and management can do a lot more if and when they work together as partners in an enterprise. The government is now playing a triple role-that of a legislator. to maintain harmonious industrial relations and lasting industrial peace. especially when the Indian Republic is wedded to the ideal of a Welfare State with socialistic objectives. However. administrator and promoter.benevolence does not arise at all. It is sincerely hoped that the welfare concept will help the industrial community better. at least to some extent. and if they have sympathy with.

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