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3rd Semester Computer Science and Engineering

NMAM Institute of Technology, Nitte

Karnataka, INDIA

September 2008

Given n distinct objects and asked to select r objects, the number of such selections (order

is not important) or combinations is nCr =

There are 3C2 = 3 combinations. They are: { a, b}, {a, c}, {b, c}.

Now assume that there are unlimited repetitions of each of the n distinct types of objects.

How many different selections of r objects (order is not important) are there?

For example S= {a, b, c} where there are unlimited number of a’s, unlimited number of

b’s, unlimited number of c’s. In this case, to be more clear, we shall say that we have

n = 3 categories of objects.

Now the different combinations or selections (order is not important) with repetitions of

r = 2 objects from these n = 3 categories are

{a,b}, {a,c}, {b,c}, {a, a}, {b, b}, {c, c}

The formula is n+r-1 Cr = 3+2-1 C2 = 4C2 = 6. Let us derive this formula using an example.

Assume there are n = 6 jars denoted by Ji. Each jar

s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6

J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J6

contains unlimited number of a particular type of sweet si. So there are n = 6 categories of

sweets. We are asked to select r = 10 sweets from these n = 6 jars of sweets.

How many such combinations with repetitions are there?

To begin with we observe that

• The order of the jars is not important.

• The order of the sweets is not important.

1

Any selection or combination of r = 10 sweets will do.

1s1 + 1s2 + 2s3 + 3s4 + 2s5 + 1s6

is such a combination or selection. How many such combinations are there?

Since we cannot solve the problem directly, we are going to translate this problem into

another problem.

s1 + s2 + s3 s3 + s4 s4 s4 + s5 s5 + s6

Since any selection of r = 10 sweets will do, we do not care about the type of sweets

selected. So we can say that the selected sweets are identical. Hence we may drop the

subscripts. So the selection is now

s+s+ss+sss+ss+s

We may now view the problem as distributing r = 10 identical objects into n = 6 jars.

Again the order of the jars is not important.

Any such distribution of r = 10 identical objects is a combination or selection in the

original problem. And any combination in the original problem is a distribution of

identical objects of this problem. In other words the two problems are equivalent.

Let us see a few examples to make this equivalence of the two problems clear.

Distribution of identical: + s + s s + s s s + s s + s s

Meaning all r = 10 sweets were selected from jar 6.

Distribution of identical: + + + + + s s s s s s s s s s

Meaning all r = 10 sweets were distributed into jar 6.

Distribution of identical: s + s + + + s s s s + s s s s

How can we count the number of distributions of r = 10 identical objects into n = 6 jars?

Since we cannot solve the problem directly, we are going to translate this problem into

another problem.

2

Permutation with Repetitions problem

If we look at the distribution of r = 10 identical objects into n = 6 jars

s+s+ss+sss+ss+s

we note that there are r = 10 symbols ‘s’ and (n - 1) = (6 - 1) = 5 ‘plus’ signs.

In addition to the sweets being identical, we also note that, since the order of the jars is

not important, any permutation of these (r + n - 1) symbols is also a distribution of r =10

identical objects into n = 6 jars or categories.

So now the distribution of r = 10 identical objects into n = 6 jars (where the order of the

jars is not important) becomes a Permutation with Repetitions problem.

There are (r + n - 1) symbols with (n - 1) of one type (the ‘plus’ signs) and r of another

type (the ‘s’ for identical sweets). For this we have a formula:

(r + n - 1)!

(n - 1)! r!

The formula may be written using the combination notation as

n+r-1 Cr or n + r - 1Cn-1

There is another application of this formula. How many non-negative integer solutions

are there to the equation

x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x6 = 10

Here there are n = 6 jars and r = 10 units. There are n + r - 1Cr solutions.

We may vary this problem by imposing some restrictions below. For example:

How many integer solutions are there to the equation

x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x6 = 10

with x1 ≥ 2 and x2 ≥ 1

With a change of variable trick we can convert this problem to a non-negative integer

solutions problem.

y1 = x1 − 2, y2 = x2 − 1, y3 = x3, y4 = x4, y5 = x5 and y6 = x6

So x1 = y1 + 2 and x2 = y2 + 1

Now: (y1 + 2) + (y2 + 1) + y3 + y4 + y5 + y6 = 10

For y1 + y2 + y3 + y4 + y5 + y6 = 10 − 2 − 1 = 7

find the number of non-negative integer solutions with n = 6 and r = 7.

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