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Water Resour Manage (2011) 25:3321–3342

DOI 10.1007/s11269-011-9858-2

Surveillance of Drinking Water Quality for Safe Water
Supply—A Case Study from Shillong, India

Gajanan Kisan Khadse · Moromi D. Kalita ·
S. N. Pimpalkar · Pawan K. Labhasetwar

Received: 25 August 2010 / Accepted: 3 June 2011 /
Published online: 5 July 2011
© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Abstract To ascertain the quality of drinking water being supplied and maintained, it
is necessary to conduct water quality surveillance for evolving suitable strategy for fu-
ture planning. In the present investigation, water quality was monitored in treatment
plants, service reservoirs, and at consumer ends in three seasons to assess the baseline
water quality status at Shillong in Meghalaya. There are three water treatment plants
at Shillong namely Umkhen, Mawlai and GSWS with design capacities of 1.5, 3.4 and
34 Million liter per day (MLD) respectively. Each treatment plant is having rapid
sand filtration followed by disinfection. The study reveals that the physico-chemical
parameters of water quality at consumer end meets Indian drinking water quality
standards (BIS 1991) after conventional treatment followed by disinfection, whereas
the bacteriological parameters for raw water sources exceed the permissible limit
indicating the treatment need for drinking purposes. Throughout year the average
feacal coliform contamination at service reservoir and to consumer end were found as
44 to 156 CFU/100 ml which may be attributed to the general management practices
for maintenance of service reservoirs and the possibility of en route contamination.

Keywords Surveillance · Water quality monitoring · Rapid sand filtration ·
Coliform · Disinfection

1 Introduction

Sustainable water management has become an issue of major concern over the past
decade. It has become increasingly clear that the pressing problem in this field have

G. K. Khadse (B) · M. D. Kalita · S. N. Pimpalkar · P. K. Labhasetwar
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur, India
e-mail: gk_khadse@neeri.res.in

G. K. Khadse · M. D. Kalita · S. N. Pimpalkar · P. K. Labhasetwar
CSIR, New Delhi, India

3322 G.K. Khadse et al.

to be tackled from an integrated perspective taking into account environmental,
human and technological factors and in particular their interdependence (Claudia
2007). Water supply is one of the key natural resource bases that are inevitable for
sustainability of human and environment health (Marobh et al. 2007). There is strong
and direct link between people’s health and improvement and the development of
communities (Gleick 2000; WHO 2003). The adverse impacts on public health from
poor water supply have long been recognized in both developing and developed
countries and take the form of outbreaks and contribution to background rates of
diseases (Esrey et al. 1991; Ford 1999; Payment and Hunter 2001). A report by
the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation
(JMP) confirms that advances continue to be made towards greater access to safe
drinking-water. Eight hundred eighty-four million people in the world still do not
get their drinking-water from improved sources; almost all of them in developing
regions. At the current rate of progress, the world is expected to exceed the MDG
target of halving the proportion of the population without sustainable access to
safe drinking-water. Even so, 672 million people will still lack access to improved
drinking-water sources in 2015 (WHO and UNICEF 2000).
Surveillance of Drinking Water Quality (SDWQ) is the continuous and vigilant
public health assessment and overview of the safety and acceptability of drinking
water supplies (WHO 2004). SDWQ is necessary to avoid risk from chemical and
bacteriological pollutants and to assure consumers that drinking water is safe and
can be consumed without any risk (Leeuwen 2000). SDWQ should identify those
interventions that will result in improvements in water supply and protection of
public health (Lloyd and Bartram 1991; Howard 2002), and those communities where
water supply improvements will deliver the greatest health gain (Lloyd et al. 1991).
Given the link between vulnerability to disease and poverty (Payment and Hunter
2001) this indicates the value of including assessment of poverty within surveillance
programmes (Howard 2002). Water supply access in most developing countries is
complex comparable to those in developed countries Howard and Bartram (2005)
results the change in water quality from treatment plant to the distribution system.
The service provider and the consumers shoulder combined responsibility to see
that needed programs and policies are taken up to achieve objectives and missions
of “providing safe and sufficient water to one and all at minimum cost in terms
of optimum utilization of available resources, adequate maintenance of existing
infrastructures, self sustenance, reduction and loss due to leakage and environmental
protections from degradation and pollutions” (WSSP 2004). Water distribution
systems play a pivotal role in preserving and providing quality water to the public
(Farooq et al. 2008) as drinking water quality deteriorates during collection and
storage (Andrew et al. 2005) and also at distribution networks (Lehtola et al. 2004;
Karavoltsosa et al. 2008). To be operationally sustainable, any system of environmen-
tal management needs to be based on a truly holistic assessment of all of the relevant
factors influencing it. This is of course a daunting task, demanding as it does detailed
and reliable data, not only from both the physical and social sciences, but also in-
corporating some representation of that part of knowledge which could be described
as non-scientific (Sullivan and Meigh 2007).
India in 1981 launched the decade programme to supply safe drinking water
through 100% coverage of urban and rural areas by piped water supply. To achieve
the goals, conservation of water and preservation of water quality in water supply

This include assessment of availability of water resources. 3. personal and private groundwater sources like dug well.e. Umsohlang stream. is situated slightly on the eastern position of state. providing water to Mawlai. Crinoline. There are seven natural springs. little attention has been given to microbial agents in drinking water as human health hazards (WHO 2004). Umkhen river and Umiew river. Shillong are responsible for organized drinking water supply in Shillong city using surface water (rivers and streams) and groundwater (springs) sources respectively. are also available but not considered for study in water surveil- . However. Shillong peak. Madan Laban. Towards the east. As compared with the attention given to the potential for chemical contaminants.4 and 34 MLD respectively. Umkhen and GSWS water treatment plants (WTPs) with design capacities of 1. viz. the examination of water quality at the beneficiary points periodically and study of institutional and financial set-up. 2. which is influenced by the North–East winter winds. tube well etc. the capital of Meghalaya. Wah Jalynoh. There are three surface water sources viz. Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) and Municipal Corporation. In developing countries about 10% of the illness associated with domestic water supplies is related to chemical agents and 90% are due to microbial agents. study of institutional setup and examination of water for physico- chemical and bacteriological parameters. Patta Khana and Wah Dienglieng with different discharge capacities (Table 1). The elements of surveillance include water quality surveillance. 2009). Umjasai.Surveillance of Drinking Water Quality for Safe Water Supply 3323 system assume prime significance. others affect the aesthetic quality of the water supplied and others relate to treatment issues (Ratnayaka et al. Systematic periodic monitoring of microbiological quality of drinking water supplies helps to rapidly identify failures and initiate actions. 2 Study Area Shillong. appropriate treatment. The transmission of waterborne diseases is direct or indirect contamination of fecal material of human or animal origin. The Shillong plateau named after the highest peak of the area i. throughout the year. The paper is aimed to judge the water quality changes from the source to consumer. Shillong city has a bracing climate. Some of these parameters constitute a risk to human health. Wah Risa. safe storage and equitable safe distribution of water. where the capital city of Shillong is situated.5. the plateau extends across the gorges of the Umngot river and continues into the highland of Jaintia Hills district. which is useful in deciding appropriate remedial measures for preventing drinking water from contamination and help in safe drinking water supply to consumers. which are adverse to human health in water supplies.1 Water Supply in the City and Adequacy The two main agencies viz. water quality at different treatment stages and at consumer end was monitored for three different seasons to assess the drinking water quality status. is situated on East Khasi Hills at an average altitude of 1510 m and lies between 25◦ 3 and 26◦ 5 North latitude and 8◦ 4 and 85◦ 6 East longitude. Area of the city is about 20 km2 . In the present investigation the intake water quality of treatment plants.

3324 G. The streams are perennial and supposed to fulfill the future demand of water with normal rainfall.36 0.N. The total water supply in the city is 43.54 2 Umjasai 0.4 1. situated in Mawlai area.0 3.5 4 Population served 223.23 0.13 3 Wah Jalynoh 0. There is a pressing need to increase the capacity of many water distribution pipelines to facilitate transport of water to various water deficient areas. The sustainability of surface water sources are not assured due to changing development scenario.36 6 Patta Khana 0. Table 1 Capacities of the S. Khadse et al. out of which 40.11 0.50 5 Madan Laban 0.55 and 0.29 Total 2. The water distribution system was laid as early as in the year 1930 in old city.0 2.23 0. Treated water is stored in two service reservoirs with the capacities of 0.366 30. assuming that raw water can be made available and transported with limited loss to the WTPs.4 and 2.45 0. Umkhen WTP Table 2 Salient features of the treatment plants in Shillong S. Particular Treatment plant features 1 Location Mawphlang Mawlai Lumdemthring 2 Raw water source Umiew river Umsohlang stream Umkhen stream 3 Capacity (MLD) Design 34.0 MLD respectively.850 5 Type of treatment Conventional Pre-treatment Alum dosing Sedimentation Yes Filtration Rapid sand filter . Name of the source Capacity (ML) underground sources of water Pre monsoon Monsoon (springs) in Shillong 1 Wah Risa 0.23 7 Wah Dienglieng 0.2 Water Treatment Mawlai WTP.N.90 1. The duration of supply is only 4 to 6 hours per day. 2.360 people.0 Present 34. has a design and working capacities of 3.025 ML located at Mawlai Nonglum and Mawlai Motsyiar respectively.0 1.45 0.964 as against design capacity for 33. The water supply to the city is at 162 lpcd.60 lance as they are not used for organized drinking water supply.37 MLD supply is through streams and 2.87 MLD is through springs. The reservoir water is distributed to different areas having total population of 30. In past the system was extended with additional pipeline added to the original system.73 3.K.31 ML. located at different areas in the city.964 14. There are small and large reservoirs in the distribution area made of RCC or MS with a total water holding capacity of about 4.54 4 Crinoline 0.2 MLD.

00 7 Zone VII Mawlai 33. Reservoir 23 27 St.5 Mile Up.N.723 ML .00 3 Zone III Laitumkhrah 11.361.N.00 6 Zone VI Pasteur institute.267.362 3 Bara Bazar Municipal Reservoir 726 4 Bara Bazar Municipal Reservoir 681 5 Mawphrem PHE Reservoir 341 6 Mawphrem Municipal Reservoir 272 7 Barapathar PHE Reservoir 341 8 Lachumiere PHE Reservoir 204 9 Lachumiere Municipal Reservoir 976 10 Upland road Municipal Reservoir 272 11 Pasteur Institue PHE Reservoir 341 12 Assembly complex PHE Reservoir 1.593.571. Meghalaya secretariat etc.647.322. Reservoir 23 15 Mawlai Mawdatbaki Mawlai Zonal Reservoir 55 16 Mawlai Mawdatbaki – 21 17 Mawlai Kynton Massar – 91 18 Mawlai Phudmawri – 113 19 Mawlai Motsyiar – 91 20 Mawlai Nonglum – 68 21 Mawlai Nonglum – 91 22 Mawlai Iewrynghep – 45 23 Mawlai Nonglum – 91 24 Mawlai Nonglum Investigation Divn.00 8 Zone VIII Bishnupur.160 13 Mawlai Mawroh PHE Reservoir 681 14 Mawlai Mawroh Investigation Divn. Edmund’s PHE Reservoir 227 28 Nongrimmaw PHE Reservoir 91 Total capacity—11.00 5 Zone V Nongthymmai 25. Jail road.12 Table 4 Zonal reservoirs fed from GSWS scheme S.991. Thana road. Reservoir 567 26 Mawlai Iewrynghep Investigation Divn.Surveillance of Drinking Water Quality for Safe Water Supply 3325 Table 3 Zonewise feeding of water to various areas. Shillong S. Mawroh Pynthorumkhrah 16. Mawphrem Barapathar 18. Kench’s Trace Laban 25. 2 Zone II Lachumiere.00 4 Zone IV Malki 15. Oakland etc.00 9 Zone IX Jaiaw. Mawkhar. 8. Reservoir 45 25 Mawlai Nonglum Investigation Divn.00 Police bazar.447. Description Areas covered Length of distribution system (m) 1 Zone I Legislative assembly area. Shillong PHE Reservoir 2.724 2 Bara Bazar PHE Reservoir 1.767. Areas covered Zonal reservoir Capacity of reservoir (in thousand litres) 1 4. 24.

K. Greater Shillong Water Supply (GSWS) scheme located Fig. because of increasing demand for drinking water due to increase in population. Khadse et al. Though this treatment plant is designed for 1.5 MLD. it was working with overloaded capacity of 1. 2 Pumping system and treatment plant (GSWS) . and supplies water to 14.800 people. 1 Feeder main for GSWS scheme is located at Lumdemthring and treats water derived from Umkhen stream. Fig.850 people as against the design capacity for 12.3326 G.0 MLD capacity.

Fig. Water from natural springs is supplied without any treatment. 2. 3 Pumping system and treatment plant (MTP) at Mawphlang village. 22 km from Shillong. In addition to this. 4 Pumping system and treatment plant (UTP) . The details of operational service reservoirs with their location and capacities are given in Table 4. and serves a population of 223. The plant works at its full capacity of 34 MLD. Salient features of the existing WTPs in Shillong are given in Table 2.366.m. by gravity flow. 2. The details of nine distribution zones with area covered and length of distribution system are given in Table 3. The water distribution system is shown in Figs.Surveillance of Drinking Water Quality for Safe Water Supply 3327 Fig. Alum is added at 50 mg/L during monsoon and nominal quantity depending on the turbidity of water in other season. The concerned officials carry out leak detection and wastage prevention in the city as and when required. 3 and 4. Through municipal sources water is daily supplied for 4 to 6 h during 6:30–8:30 a. and 4:00–6:00 p.m.3 Water Distribution System and Leak Detection Water is supplied through nine distribution zones in the city covering 95% of the population. bleaching powder solution is applied as post chlorination for disinfection. 1.

The raw water was collected from the inlet point at the plant. 5. Coliform bacteria are microorganisms of fecal origin. 5 Variation in turbility for Mawphlang water treatment plant 3 Materials and Methods Raw water and treated water samples of the existing WTPs at Shillong were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological quality as per Standard Methods (APHA. 1400 700 1200 600 CFU/100ml CFU/100ml 1000 500 800 400 600 300 400 200 200 100 0 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th Days TC Settled Water FC Filtered Water TC Filtered Water FC Settled Water Fig. The combined filtered water was collected and analyzed for turbidity. 6 Reduction of bacterial contamination during treatment stages at water treatment plant in winter . Khadse et al. conductivity and DO were analyzed at site. AWWA. sulphate and bacteriological quality (Figs. Final treated water after chlorination was collected from sumps of the treatment plant. The pH. one can determine if the water has probably been exposed to fecal conta- 1600 800 Total Coliforms (TC). 7. The settled water was collected from the over flow of the clariflocculator/settling tank of the treatment plants and examined for turbidity and sulphate.3328 G. 8). By testing thermotolerent coliform. WPCF 2001).K. Faecal Coliforms (FC). 6. Fig.

7 Reduction of bacterial contamination during treatment stages at Mawphlang water treatment plant in summer mination. The number of colonies counted is directly related to the bacteriological content of the water sample being analyzed.45 or 0. To assess the en-route bacteriological contamination in distribution network and at consumer ends. In this method measured volume of water is filtered through a membrane (pore size of 0. during and after sampling. The container was fully protected against contamination before. 8 Reduction of bacterial contamination during treatment stages at Mawphlang water treatment in monsoon . sterile containers. allowing the bacteria to multiply and form colonies.e.2 μm) which retains the bacteria on its surface. CFU/100ml 80 CFU/100ml 12 60 8 40 4 20 0 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th Days TC Filtered Water FC Filtered Water Fig. from consumer ends for seven consecutive days representing entire city in clean. representative samples were collected from fifteen service reservoirs and distribution network i. Membrane filtration technique was used for bacteriological water analysis. 50 160 CFU/100ml CFU/100ml 40 120 30 80 20 40 10 0 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th Days TC Filtered Water FC Filtered Water Fig. Total Coliforms (TC). It is important to know this because many disease causing organisms are transferred from human and animal feces to water. from where they can be ingested by people and infect them.Surveillance of Drinking Water Quality for Safe Water Supply 3329 120 20 100 Faecal Coliforms (FC). 16 Total Coliforms (TC). the membrane is then incubated on suitable selective medium (for coliform bacteria). 240 70 200 60 Faecal Coliforms (FC).

3 0.0–6.2 – 0.2–0.6 0.3 0.2–2.4 5.5–9.8 – 8.6 0.04–0.2–9.08–0.8 2 Temp (◦ C) 5–8 5–7 4–8 4–8 3–6 6–8 13–14 13–14 13–14 13–14 12–15 12–14 3 Turb (NTU) 0.07 0.2–8.05–0.Alk (mg/L) 8–12 8–12 8–12 12–16 8 8 16–20 32–36 24–32 24–32 16–24 28–32 7 T. .6–5.Hard (mg/L) 16–28 12–24 12–20 20–32 12–16 24–28 16–20 24–28 16–24 24–28 16–20 32–40 8 Ca (mg/L) 5–6 3–4 3–6 5–8 3–5 5–6 3–5 5–6 3–5 6–8 3–5 8–13 9 Mg (mg/L) 1–3 1–4 1–2 1–3 1–2 2–4 1–2 3–4 2–3 2 1–2 2–3 10 Cl (mg/L) 6–8 8 8–10 12–14 6–8 8–12 10–12 10–14 10–14 10–16 12–18 10–14 11 SO4 (mg/L) 1–2 23–29 1–3 5–8 2 6–15 9–15 8–13 7–10 11–15 8–10 12–17 12 NO3 (mg/L) 5 1–2 4 2 1 1 6–13 5–9 7–8 5–8 3–4 3–4 13 PO4 (mg/L) ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 14 F (mg/L) 0.6–7.0–7.1–0.02 0.06 0.05–0.1–6.02 0.07 15 Na (mg/L) 3–4 4 6–8 6–7 3–4 3 5 5 4–5 5 5 5 16 K (mg/L) 1 1 2 1–3 1 1 1–2 2 2 2 1–2 1–18 17 DO (mg/L) 7.1 0.06 0.7–5.7 – 9.8 – 1 19 TC (CFU/100 ml) 1500–8000 ND 700–6600 ND 2300–11600 ND 2600–18300 ND 10000–48600 ND 2300–59000 ND 20 FC (CFU/100 ml) 182–500 ND 240–3000 ND 500–5200 ND 600–11200 ND 1200–19600 ND 940–5900 ND G.02 0.8–0.K.5–5.2 – 0.2–7.1–0.6 – 18 Res.6 1.04–0.0 6.06 0.5–7.9 0.08 0.2–7.1–0.5 – 7.2 5. Seasons Winter Summer Treatment plants MTP UTP GSWS MTP UTP GSWS Parameters Raw Sump Raw Sump Raw Sump Raw Sump Raw Sump Raw Sump 1 pH 6.6 7.06–0.1 6.0 6.6–5.0 – 0.9 6.6–9.5 0.2–6.3–0. N.2–0.8–0.09 0.3–6.9 5.02 0.2–1.Table 5 Water quality of treatment plants at Shillong 3330 S.2–0.0–7.4–6.4 6.07–0.2 – 0.9 7.3 0.9 – 8.9 0.2 4 Cond (mS/cm) 25–36 33–62 35–44 45–74 21–22 31–43 30–53 33–66 56–77 63–83 24–26 80–119 5 TDS (mg/L) 15–23 20–37 21–26 27–45 13 19–26 18–31 20–40 34–46 38–50 14–16 48–71 6 T. Khadse et al.06 0.9 6.2–0.04–0.1 0.Cl (mg/L) – 0.9 – 7.

8 0.9 – – – 18 Res.6–6. N.Hard (mg/L) 28–32 28–44 16–24 24–36 20–24 24–54 300 600 8 Ca (mg/L) 6–8 6–11 3–5 4–8 4–6 2–10 75 200 9 Mg (mg/L) 2–4 2–5 1–4 2–4 2–3 2–7 30 100 10 Cl (mg/L) 20–26 12–16 10–14 12–14 10–14 20–24 250 1000 11 SO4 (mg/L) 4–6 5–6 4–9 5–9 0–4 10–11 200 400 12 NO3 (mg/L) 1 1 1–2 1–2 1 1 45 100 13 PO4 (mg/L) ND ND ND ND ND ND – – 14 F (mg/L) 0.4–7.8 – 7.8 0.Table 5 (continued) S. Seasons Post-Monsoon BIS:10500:1991 Treatment plants MTP UTP GSWS Desirable limit Permissible limit Parameters Raw Sump Raw Sump Raw Sump 1 pH 6.Alk (mg/L) 16–24 20–28 12–20 18–24 20–26 20–32 200 600 7 T.5 No relaxation 2 Temp (◦ C) 14–18 15–17 16–18 14–18 12–15 12–16 – – 3 Turb (NTU) 1.3–1.5 15 Na (mg/L) 3–5 5–6 2–5 2–3 2–5 2–4 – – Surveillance of Drinking Water Quality for Safe Water Supply 16 K (mg/L) 1 1 1 1 1 1 – – 17 DO (mg/L) 8.06–0.5–2.5–7. GSWS Greater Shillong Water Supply Scheme.0 1.Cl (mg/L) – 0.2 0. – not done.4 0.4 5 10 4 Cond (mS/cm) 42–45 46–64 20–24 32–38 18–22 50–75 – – 5 TDS (mg/L) 25–27 28–38 12–15 19–23 11–13 30–45 500 2000 6 T.26 0.18 1.0 6.18–0.07–0.5 – 1.5–8. UTP Umkhem Treatment Plant.2–0.5–2.0–1.2–0.4 1.08–0.4–8.9 7.9–8.3–8.9–1.6–7.7–7. ND not detected 3331 .0 6.0 0.2 – 19 TC (CFU/100 ml) 480–2960 ND 480–1020 ND 220–820 ND Nil Nil 20 FC (CFU/100 ml) 96-925 ND 110–910 ND 35–180 ND Nil Nil MTP Mawlai Treatment Plant.08–0.09 0.7 0.6 – 8.5–6.9 6.1 0.14–0.8 7.0 – 0.6 6.2–0.2–0.3 0.

Tank” 14 Dawalama (Source: Barapathar ) ND 84–4680 20–820 ND–0. Reservoir 11 Nongminsen Reservoir ND 40–360 4–104 ND 64–144 36–90 ND 98–110 20–38 BSF gate 12 Motsyior Reservoir Supply ND 24–176 4–304 ND–0.P. War (PHE Supply) ND 80–2688 16–1200 ND–0.0 ND ND ND 20–48 6–10 7 Umkhem Reservoir (RCC) ND 16–124 2–4 ND–1.5 ND ND ND 400–560 40–74 (Main Reservoir) Bada Bazar 5 Assembly Hall (Pure PHE) ND 40–60 12–22 ND–1 ND–18 ND–6 ND 76–98 2–6 6 4.5 Miles from Mawphlang ND 92–812 24–216 0.1–0. Vida C. 13 Mr. Khonglah Lum ND 32–1676 12–880 ND–0. Near Raid ND 16–560 4–120 ND 40–204 12–44 ND 150–190 40–56 Labon College 10 Umjasai Source Badabazar ND 76–264 22–92 ND 32–152 8–36 ND 160–200 56–88 Mpl.5 ND–124 ND–64 ND 2000–3880 1000–1600 "Sonphoh G.2 ND–84 ND–118 ND ND ND Grave yard GI Tank 15 Smt.0 ND–16 ND ND 26–36 4–8 Nongrim Hills 8 Wahrisa Spring Water ND 136–816 30–92 ND 48–248 16–42 ND 248–404 98–120 Reservoir 9 Wahjalynoh Source. Bada Bazar ND 52–356 2–30 ND–0.I.Cl (mg/L) TC FC (CFU/100 ml) (CFU/100 ml) (CFU/100 ml) 1 PHE. .5 ND–88 ND–28 ND ND ND from Mawlai T.monsoon Winter Res. Location Summer Post. Mawphrem Mpl. Khadse et al.Table 6 Water quality at consumer ends 3332 S. Mixed water ND 80–840 8–240 0.K. K. N.2 ND–332 ND–118 ND 840–1010 200–360 Mawphrem Main Road-1 G.6 ND–40 ND ND ND ND (PHE only) 3 Twin Reservoir.Cl (mg/L) TC FC Res.5–1. ND 24–1160 10–120 ND–1 ND–64 ND–10 ND 300–430 86–120 (Mixed water) 2 Barapathar Overhead Tank ND 20–800 8–180 ND–0.Cl (mg/L) TC FC Res.8 ND–192 ND–92 ND 820–460 100–200 (PHE) 4 PHE + Mpl.

Malki. ND 600–4500 214–608 ND–0.5 ND–48 ND–16 ND 500–620 160–210 Near Smt. Syiemniang (GSWS Water) ND 200–440 28–162 ND–0. Cl.5 ND–24 ND–8 ND 250–420 100–168 Holy Ground Road. War (Mixed) ND 144–1520 38–800 ND–0.5 ND–128 ND–44 ND 180–260 20–32 Nongrim Hills 20 PDENG Shong. Oakland 18 Smt.Chakraborthi (PHE) ND 92–812 24–216 ND–0. B. Madan Laban ND 180–1900 10–360 ND 152–336 8–36 ND 248–320 100–120 22 Umjasai source. TC. N. Umkhems Shop 21 Sh.Cl (mg/L) TC FC Res.2 ND–52 ND–10 ND 120–188 8–16 Headman. ND 76–264 22–92 ND 96–224 36–128 ND 260–302 100–148 Umsahsum park public tap 23 Nongminsen area ND 80–1088 26–430 ND 172–336 28–122 ND 240–302 38–58 24 Mawalai Phudmauri ND 88–600 30–102 ND 48–192 28–102 ND 16–36 ND Surveillance of Drinking Water Quality for Safe Water Supply BIS limits for Res. Jeri Warjri. Laitmukhara 19 Umkhem Reservoir (RCC) ND 80–1100 4–200 ND–0. Location Summer Post.2 ND–144 ND–64 ND 688–740 100–200 Mawphrem Main Road 17 Mr.Table 6 (continued) S.monsoon Winter Res.Cl (mg/L) TC FC Res.Vida C. and FC are given in Table 5 3333 .Cl (mg/L) TC FC (CFU/100 ml) (CFU/100 ml) (CFU/100 ml) 16 Smt.

3 NTU.K. Residual chlorine was recorded in the range of 0.1 to 0.1 to 0. 10 Reduction of bacterial contamination during treatment stages Mawlai treatment plant in winter .1 Mawlai WTP The plant was working with the capacity of 2.9 NTU. 1200 Faecal Coliforms (FC).4 NTU (Fig.2 to 0.2 NTU and in sump water it was 0. summer and monsoon seasons. The raw water turbidity during winter was found in the range of 0.2 to 2. Bleaching powder was used for disinfection of filtered water. 9 Variation in turbidity for Mawlai treatment plant 4 Results and Discussion The results of physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses are depicted in Tables 5 and 6 for winter. During summer the raw water turbidity was found in the range of 1.0 to 1. 200 1000 CFU/100ml CFU/100ml 800 150 600 100 400 50 200 0 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th Days TC Settled Water TC Filtered Water FC Settled Water FC Filtered Water Fig. The finished water quality meets BIS (1991) standard for potability. Khadse et al. During post-monsoon the raw water turbidity was found in the range of 1. 1400 250 Total Coliforms (TC).3334 G.0 mg/L in the treated water. whereas in sump water it was 0.5 NTU while in sump water it was 0. 9).0 MLD.2 to 0.2 to 2. Fig.3 NTU. Water quality of WTPs is summa- rized below: 4.

Disinfec- tion of filtered water is achieved using bleaching powder. Total Coliforms(TC).5 MLD. Total Coliforms (TC). While residual chlorine was observed in some service reservoirs in monsoon.400 CFU/100 ml and 50 to 240 CFU/100 ml in settled water while in filtered water these counts were 150 to 250 CFU/100 ml and 20 to 167 CFU/100 ml respectively (Fig. During summer the TC and FC counts were in the range of 40 to 432 CFU/100 ml and 4 to 240 CFU/100 ml respectively in filtered water (Fig. 11) while during monsoon these counts were 100 to 640 CFU/100 ml and 20 to 184 CFU/100 ml (Fig. 12) respectively and may be attributed insufficient pre- chlorination.2 to 2.2 Umkhen WTP The designed capacity of the plant is 1. 400 200 CFU/100ml CFU/100ml 300 150 200 100 100 50 0 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th Days TC Filtered Water FC Filtered Water Fig. Alum dosing is done for coagulation followed by flash mixing. 160 500 CFU/100ml CFU/100ml 400 120 300 80 200 40 100 0 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th Days TC Filtered Water FC Filtered Water Fig. flocculation. 11 Reduction of bacterial contamination during treatment stages at Mawlai treatment plant in summer Filtered water is disinfected with chlorination with residual chlorine of 0. 4. 12 Reduction of bacterial contamination during treatment stages at Mawlai treatment plant in monsoon . 10).0 mg/L in sump water. Residual chlorine was 700 200 600 Faecal Coliforms (FC). During winter the TC and FC counts ranged from 400 to 1. Residual chlorine was not found in the service reservoir in winter and summer seasons during study period.Surveillance of Drinking Water Quality for Safe Water Supply 3335 500 250 Faecal Coliforms(FC). settling. filtration and chlorination.

while in sump water it was 0.9 to 1. 2000 TC Settled Water TC Filtered Water FC Settled Water FC Filtered Water 800 CFU/100ml CFU/100ml 1500 600 1000 400 500 200 0 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th Days Fig. During monsoon the TC and FC counts were in the range of 60 to 200 CFU/100 ml and 10 to 60 CFU/100 ml respectively in filtered water (Fig. whereas in sump water it was 0.2 to 0. 16).3336 G. whereas in sump water it was 0.2 to 1. 13 Variation in turbidity for Umkhem treatment plant found in the range of 0.1 NTU. Residual chlorine was not observed in the service reservoir samples during study period. Total Coliforms (TC). 2500 1200 1000 FaecalColiforms(FC). During summer the TC and FC counts ranged from 52 to 1400 CFU/100 ml and 10 to 480 CFU/100 ml respectively in filtered water (Fig. 13). 14 Reduction of bacterial contamination during treatment stages at Umkhem treatment plant in winter .K.3 NTU. During winter the TC and FC counts ranged from 270 to 2200 CFU/100 ml and 20 to 1020 CFU/100 ml in settled water while in filtered water these counts were 25 to 360 CFU/100 ml and 1 to 120 CFU/100 ml respectively (Fig.8 mg/L in the finished water.8 to 1. The raw water turbidity recorded during winter season was 0. Khadse et al. Fig. 15). 14).1 NTU.5 mg/L in sump water.6 NTU.2 to 0. The finished water quality meets BIS:10500-1991 standard for potability. Filtered water was disinfected with chlorination with residual chlorine of 0.3 NTU.4 NTU (Fig.2 to 0. During summer the raw water turbidity was found in the range of 0. During post-monsoon the raw water turbidity was 0.2 to 0.

Alum dosing is done for coagulation followed by flash mixing. which may be due to insufficient contact time or chlorine 1400 500 1200 400 Faecal Coliforms(FC). Residual chlorine was not found in the service reservoir during study period.2 to 0.8 to 0. Filtered water was disinfected with chlorination with residual chlorine range of 1 to 2 mg/L in sump water. flocculation. The treated water quality meets BIS: 10500-1991 standards for potability.Surveillance of Drinking Water Quality for Safe Water Supply 3337 1400 500 Total Coliforms (TC). 15 Reduction of bacterial contamination during treatment stages at Umkhem treatment plant in summer 4. Total Coliforms (TC).4 NTU (Fig. Residual chlorine was recorded in the range of 0. settling.2 NTU. Dis- infection of filtered water was achieved using bleaching powder. whereas in sump water it was 0.3 to 0.0 mg/L in the finished water. The raw water turbidity during winter was found in the range of 0.6 NTU while in sump water it was 0. filtration and chlorination.2 to 0.2 to 2.3 to 1.9 NTU while in sump water it was 0. 400 1000 CFU/100ml CFU/100ml 300 800 600 200 400 100 200 0 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th Days TC Filtered Water FC Filtered Water Fig.6 NTU. 1000 CFU/100ml CFU/100ml 800 300 600 200 400 100 200 0 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th Days TC Filtered Water FC Filtered Water Fig.3 GSWS WTP No significant change was observed in raw water quality on day to day basis.1 to 0. During summer the raw water turbidity was in the range of 0. 16 Reduction of bacterial contamination during treatment stages at Umkhem treatment plant in monsoon . During post-monsoon the raw water turbidity was 1. 1200 Faecal Coliforms (FC). 5).7 NTU.

3338 G. During summer the TC and FC counts in filtered water were 20 to 104 CFU/100 ml and 4 to 16 CFU/100 ml respectively (Fig. 18 Bacteriological water quality in winter season . Khadse et al.K. Bacteriological qual- Fig.4 Water Quality at Distribution System Customers rightly expect that the water they drink is safe and wholesome (Bates 2000). while in filtered water this count was 16 to 500 CFU/100 ml and 4 to 48 CFU/100 ml respectively (Fig. Only during monsoon residual chlorine was found in eight out of 12 service reservoirs. 6). During winter the total coliform (TC) and faecal coliform (FC) counts were found in the range of 100 to 1500 CFU/100 ml and 40 to 70 CFU/100 ml respectively in settled water. 2009). 17 Bacteriological water quality in whole year evaporation during resident period. 2004. 7). which can be attributed to contamination of raw water source with run-off water from catchment. To assess the water quality at consumer end with respect to residual chlorine and bacterial quality and enroute contamination in the distribution network thirteen representative sampling points were selected. which might be due to insufficient pre-chlorination. Hashmi et al. Chlorine residuals of drinking water have long been recognized as an excellent indicator for studying water quality in the distribution network (Lienyao et al. 8). During monsoon the respective TC and FC counts were 6 to 280 CFU/100 ml and 8 to 70 CFU/100 ml in filtered water (Fig. 4. Fig.

This trend was Fig. The outcome of FCs from service reservoir. 20 Bacteriological water quality in monsoon season . During winter thermotolerent TC counts were ranged between Nil to 3880 CFU/100 ml and thermotolerent FC counts were ranged between ND to 1600 CFU/100 ml at consumer end. There was variation in bacterial counts among the different service reservoirs and consumer ends. During post-monsoon the thermotolerent TC and FC counts ranges between ND to 336 CFU/100 ml and ND to 128 CFU/100 ml respectively (Table 6). The water quality in terms of bacterial contamination varies from place to place and also during different seasons. Throughout year the average FC contamination at service reservoir and to consumer end were found as 44 to 156 CFU/100 ml. 17). 19 Bacteriological water quality in summer season ity and residual chlorine of water samples at the distribution system were examined. During summer the thermotolerent TC counts were observed in the range of 16 to 4680 CFU/100 ml and thermotolerent FC counts were ranged between 2 to 1200 CFU/100 ml at consumer end sampling location. reservoirs and finally from the consumer end proves that bacteriological water quality deteriorates during supply of water from service reservoir to consumer end (Fig. during treatment stages of the WTPs. It was observed that the bacterial counts increased during post-monsoon.Surveillance of Drinking Water Quality for Safe Water Supply 3339 Fig. which may be attributed to the general management practices for maintenance of service reservoirs and the possibility of en route contamination.

K. Observed bacterial contamination at consumer end demands the proper maintenance of the distribution network. 19. However. 5 Knowledge. This may be attributed to the improper chlorination and monitoring at distribution system and at consumer ends. observed during all the three seasons (Figs. The awareness is higher in literate/educated people than in illiterate people. About 78% of the respondents among general public are aware of cleaning practices and health aspects related to sanitary conditions. About 85% of the respondents among water works personnel have indicated 99% supply efficiency and effective delivery of finished water. Khadse et al. insufficient contact time and poor maintenance of service reservoirs (NEERI 2005). About 65% respondents among general public are aware of the preventive measures due to water borne diseases. 6 Conclusion From the present study. This might be due to regular check by PHED on treated water of WTPs for residual chlorine and microbial contamination. it is concluded that water supplied through the distrib- ution network meets BIS drinking water quality standards for physico-chemical and bacterial quality. About 63% of the respondents among water works personnel indicated the immediate measure for the handling of the reported complaints against water quality. which will definitely help in maintaining water quality within the limits of potable water standards. Awareness about the drinking water quality standards is almost lowest among general public (15%) followed by health agencies (50%) and water works personnel (55%). and 20). the surveillance of water supply and in time measures to control the contamination along with people’s participation will lead to safety and better health of the community. The awareness about drinking water quality is highest among water works personnel followed by educated people and least among illiterate people. 18. Thus. A total of 25% of the respondents among general public do not have knowledge about individuals/institutions with water supply agency services. The presence of coliform in these samples may be attributed to inadequate chlorination.3340 G. the necessary precautionary measures need to be undertaken to avoid any adverse impact on health. No significant change in physico-chemical parameters of raw water quality was observed on day-to-day basis. . Attitude and Practice (KAP) Survey The general survey carried out at Shillong city revealed that 45–55% respondents considered the state of water quality supplied in Shillong as good. The maintenance of residual chlorine is needed at all points in the distribution system supplied with chlorine as disinfectant (Kitazawa 2006). The respondents among general public who indicated the use of private water supply through tube wells to fulfill their own water demand were 50%. This is an essential input towards the efficient water management with following recommendations. awareness about the hygienic and sanitary conditions around the public taps and proper storage of water. awareness is highest (75%) among the respondents from educated class. • The places where the feacal contamination was present at the consumer end.

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