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THE BOY MECHANIC
BOOKS

PRINTED IX U. S. A.

THE
BOY MECHANIC
BOOK 3

800 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO

HOW TO CONSTRUCT
ELECTEIC LOCOilOTIVE MODEL AXD TEACK SYSTEM, BOYS' MOTOR
CAB, PAECEL DELIVERY' BICYCLE, AERIAL CABLEWAY', MINIA-
TURE TANK, SAILING CANOE, HOUSEBOAT, SUBMARINE
CAMERA, DIVING TOWER, HAMMOCKS, KITCHEN
FOE HIKEES, ICE Y'ACHT

AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 802 ILLUSTRATIOXS

COPYRIGHTED, 1919, BY H. H. WINDSOR

POPULAR MECHANICS PRESS
CHICAGO

The General Arrangement of the Parts is Shown
in the Assembly Views, Figs. 1, 2, and 3. The
Bralie Detail, Fig. 4, should be Considered with DETAIL OF SUPPORT D
Fig. 9. Shown Separately. The Detail Construc-
Frame and Body can be Readily Under-
tion of the
stood by Referring to the Assembly Views in
Connection with Fig. 7

FrG.7
DETAIL OF FRAME AtsID BODY

EVEN though the home-built
"bearcat" roadster, or other fa-
of the axles to the hubs of the wheels,
providing the threaded ends with lock
vorite model, does not compare in nuts. Make the wooden supports for
every detail with the luxurious manu- the frame, as detailed in Fig. 6. The
factured cars, it has an individuality axles are fastened into half-round
that puts it in a class by itself. The grooves, cut in the bottoms of the sup-
amateur mechanic, or the ambitious ports, and secured by iron straps, as
boy, w h o is fairly
skilled with tools, can
build at least the main
parts for his own small
car, of the simple,
practical design shown
in the sketch and de-
tailed in the working
drawings. If neces-
sary, he can call more
skilled mechanics to
his aid. A motorcycle
engine, or other small
gasoline motor, is used
for the power plant. To Simplify This Small but Serviceable Motor Car for Construction by
the Young Mechanic, Only the Essential Parts are Considered. Other
The control mechan- Useful and Ornamental Features may be Added as the Skill and Means
of the Builder Make Possible
ism of the engine and
the electrical connections are similar shown in Fig. 4, at A. Make the side-
to those of a motorcycle. They are pieces for the main frame 2i/2 by 3i/i
installed to be controlled handily from in. thick, and 9 ft. 4 in. long, as de-
the driver's seat. The car is built tailed in Fig. 7. Mortise the supports
without springs, but these may be through the sidepieces, and bore the
included, if desired, or the necessary holes for the bolt fastenings and

comfort provided in part at least braces. Glue the mortise-and-tenon
by a cushioned seat. Strong bicycle joints before the bolts are finally
wheels are used, the l^/^ by 28-in. size secured. Provide the bolts with wash-
being suitable. The hood may be of ers, and lock the nuts with additional
wood, or of sheet metal, built over a jam nuts where needed. Keep the
frame of strap iron. The top of the woodwork clean, and apply a coat of
hood can be lifted off, and the entire linseed oil, so that dirt and grease can-
hood can also be removed, when re- not penetrate readily.
pairs are to be made. The tool box on Finish only the supporting structure
the rear of the frame can be replaced of the chassis in the preliminary wood-
by a larger compartment, or rack, for work. Set the front-axle and steering-
transporting loads, or an extra seat for rigging supports C and D, and adjust
a passenger. the spacers F between them. Bore
The construction may be begim with the hole for the kingbolt, as detailed
the chassis and the running gear. Fit in Fig. 6, and fit the bevel gears and
the wheels with %-in. axles, as shown the fifth wheel G, of y^-in. steel, into
in the assembly views, Figs. 1, 2, and place, as shown in Fig. 5. The gear H
3, and detailed in Fig. 4. Fit the ends is bolted to the axle support. The

is center as possible. and Secured case. designed to suit the engine. in. A tial of a well-known small car. It is con- and 7.pinion J is on the end of a short set the flange counteracts the downward y^-in. and other details of the en- high and 2 ft. in. A satisfactory connected to the shaft by means of an set was obtained from an old difteren. riveted to IV^ by iVa-in. which board. shafting. and set on the gine control and allied mechanism. This extension is from old machinery. and is fitted with wash. The ignition and oiling systems. The 12- the support D. A cut-out switch for the igni- appearance. Suitable gears can be procured shown in Fig. wide. and the control point at which it is to pass through the handles mounted on the dashboard or dashboard. 4 in. The special motors. The drawings show a common air-cooled motor of the one-cylinder type. make the dashboard. as shown. at L. and the power pinion is also pinned. Mark the with light iron rods. 3. 3. as pin. as shown in Figs. and reinforce the hole in other convenient position. Supporting Band under the Crank Case The engine is set so that the crank- shaft extends across the main frame. 1 and 2. mounted on the dashboard. such as is used on ing column by fitting an iron pipe railings. The latter passes through pressure on the steering post. car- and in detail in Fig. 1 as shown in Figs. The exact position shown in Fig. riveted pin. It should be placed as near the like the other half of the coupling. A bracket. fitted up as %-^n. as a strong can. rest for the hood. guarded by a cotter beyond the right side of the frame. Two iron strips. on the front side. and support the engine SUPPORTING STRIPS B by means of bolts and steel clamps. ordinary setscrew collar coupling. collar at A around the post and mounting this . as be undertaken. yet with by a riveted pin. 1 and 3 and detailed in Fig. It is supported. It is 19Vo in. The with an oak block. K. Cross DetailoftheMotor strips of iron steady the engine. 1/4 Fit a in. is bolted to the Before fitting the steering column frame. as shown in Figs. strap iron. are frame and braced to it with 4 by 4 by the same as those used on the motor- lyo-in. and gives a neat tubing. 8. 7. buretor. shaft. strip of wood around the edge of required. type. oak. angle irons. braces the shaft. The center clamp is a band that by Clamps and a passes under the crank case. and. The controls used for the en- is of 'Vs-in. Figs. or boat fittings. angle irons. A brass edging protects nected with the crank case by copper the dashboard. as shown in the assembly view. thick. B. throttle can be mounted on the steer- of iron or brass. pipe fitted as a bearing. to give proper bal- ance. cycle engine originally. and a section of heavy brass into place. The end of this and method of setting the engine on short shaft is joined to one section of the frame will depend on the size and the universal coupling. and Support: The En- gine isMountedon the clamps are bolted to the crank Reinforced Angle Irons. FiG. sufficient play. extend across the DETAIL OF AMGUE main frame. of Ys. The oil tank is made of a the dashboard. end of the kingbolt provided with a One end of the crankshaft is extended washer and nut. gine of the motorcycle can be extended venient for the driver. solidly. Lay out carefully the tion system is mounted on the dash- angle for the steering column. and the lower transmission changed correspondingly. so as to be con. block M.S Other methods may be devised for pinned with a %fl-in. or an angle flange. 3 and T. steering wheel is set on the column ers and jam nuts. of V^ by The fitting of the engine may next 1%-in.

and bolted. by the action openings under the hood. 1. and Set by rear wheel. suitable mountings and pedal mounted on a block. 1. The quadrant is O used. The tank may be The engine is cooled by the draft made of a can. and the front of the hood. 3. preferably white Wheii the pedal is forced down. should be made in the cap. The brake braces being bolted on the axles. the the working surfaces. a wooden split pulley. grooved rim and rope belt. and a Clutch shaft. (^ THICK pended from the side of the frame. are desirable if the car is to be used tings on the rear wheel and axle are on muddy roads. built of %-in. detailed able. strong pipe. be installed. . is mounted across rim. ^Xll'cLUTCH LEVER fitted with a longer pipe. on batteries. with a guards can be installed. The work. and heavy enough. and lock as is necessary to support it. stock.9 The Brake is Controlled by a Pedal. and or enameled. and is 2 ft. as shown in Fig. and connected with a two-blade The idler holds the belt to the tension metal fan. fastened to the connections being installed at the main frame. with a drawbolt passing eted to the wheel. and a grooved pulley rim on the Lever is Mounted on the Central Shaft. and through the belt drawn up gradually. The motor is through the wire-mesh opening in the started by means of a crank. 9. Mudguards and detailed in Figs. The body is the brake wheel by a flexible wire.pipe in the angle flange at the dash. and fitted with a ratchet fitted on the extension of the engine lever. 4 and 9. shaft. wide. and to the pulley through its length. as shown in Fig. In setting the gasoline tank. ried in wooden blocks. prim. The brake arm is connected to the front of the frame. the wood. shaft carrying the clutch lever. SIDE vTeW The transmission of the power from the motor shaft to the right rear wheel is accomplished by means of a leather motorcycle belt. the guard tension spring. 4. as shown. 1 and 3. O. and 7. in Figs. 4 in. run The brake is shown in Figs. with in Fig. 2. giving considerable flexibility The lighting arrangement may next of speed. The metal parts. An iron pipe is used varnish. to engage the pedal. as determined by com- parison with gasoline tanks in commer- cial cars. The fit. A foot accelerator may also be the brake wheel. oiling the washers PLAN with neat's-foot oil. may be painted. riv. except at as a casing for the central shaft. N. and one or two coats of with a setscrew. Means of a Ratchet Device and Grip-Release Rod and detailed in Fig. A wire is wound on the brake wheel. Strong bicycle mud- made of wood. as shown in Figs. as shown the brake when desired. being used. the pipe carrying the brake pedal and board. The muffler from a motorcycle is used. to guard against a vacuum in the tank. desired. properly fitted. The feed is through a copper tube. and sus. with iron caps. The clutch lever is forged. 1 and 3. A drum is supported on iron bands. The central shaft is car- floor. If desir- of a clutch lever and its idler. ing coat should be applied to the wood- thus permitting of adjustment. A grooved iron DETAIL OF BRAKE AND CLUTCH LEVER pulley on the end of the motor is fitted FlO. made by fit- ting leather washers close together over a bicycle chain. and ratchet quadrant. followed by two coats of the pedal is of iron and fixed on its shaft body color. make A catch of strap iron can be fitted on only as much of the body woodwork the floor. A small venthole. may be as shown. gas or electric lamps.

To other yellow. CSteam-pij)e drains should be provided tle trouble of making it. I fixed at any place on the bar. edges of the drawers. G. also for the Baby moves down. shown. or homemade locking device for a tier of similar preparations. D. with metal fingers hold curious-shaped pieces of bright clamped on. with the other Motor-Driven Entertainer latches. likely to accumulate. set on a shouldered a small motor. GLASS JAR ho \v n in the in. as or fastened to the back of the case. is old cases. locking bar sliding in guides. is shown in the -PARAFFIN paraffin on the sketch. Minn. or dish. at intervals. Metal strik- cardboard. spaced apart the distance that each LINES ted paraffin is drawer top is poured on top of above the one GUIDE 5> the material in below. which is then easily ing it downward — removed. The drawers and the rear of the -case. Luers. the tab is imbedded in it. H. as rod at the bottom of the bar. The short t i e. for cases one blue and the too high to be reached handily. — A. A contrivance that keeps the baby and the latch entertained. where water is at all points in the line St. where a space of about l^f. a The other arms V4-in. ing plates are then put on the back The driving motor is run by one two. A. as detailed. and should be small pin wheels. When mel. consists of a from tag board. a master feature. tabs are cut The device. by the hour.— volt cell. when drawer the closed. To per latch is the remove the paraffin cover intact. Arthur M. screwed notched. pointed knife is run around the edge. . St. forc- loosen the cover. The locking bar. Combined Label and Cover Pad Simple Concealed Locking Device for Preserve Glasses for Cases of Drawers A neat and convenient method of Asimple method of providing a making a label for jars of preserves. make the device for a small space. the backs of the was in a made drawers. The up- the jar.be attached the arms. I m connecting bar mounted four is operated by a wooden arms on light coil spring. This is applicable to new or glass. and the device has well repaid the lit. metal rod. one red and the other green. the use of only one keyed for removing lock being necessary. and BEND ON DOTTED line. Lange. Cranford. to serve as a tab drawers. is top Louis. Paul. ends of two of The master latch ma}. wheels amuse baby in his high chair. is available between the back of the s PRESERVES sketch. C. can be used. as de- shown. On the tailed. The top of this is or the glass warmed sufficiently to beveled off. placed at the bottom drawer. as is common -LABEL HANDLE the co\'er of in manufactured cases. and bent Attached to the bar are latches one less on the dotted in number than there are drawers. Mo. fingers engage and is a big help to a busy mother. The revolving colored pin A\^ashington.

and fas- slight pull on the free end. The point of the nail is curled into a hook. — T. arrange it This was made so that the dent of a 30-in.— W. Y. piece is at the point opposite the spout. as heavy cord in shown in the the usual man- sketch. — Livingston Haviland. the stick is tied Candlesticks Wired Neatly by means of a rope. of the candlestick cup. Buffalo. IV. — tened in the usual manner to a stand- ard keyless socket. that can be easily made. the hames of a make a small restless team dent in the edge of horses. and the fingers from being a mowing machine while fastening the burned by the yoke strap to escaping steam. Mich. When the machine is in opera- up out of the way tion. C. were to be fitted with fixtures for electric lights. . In set- pole with a drop ting the Hd into stick. the bottom of the candle socket. the lid cannot easily tip hinged to the underside of the pole as forward. The string is quickly an insulation ring. usual manner. A ber of packages or parcels soon find simple method that their fingers become sore from wa s. which was then Spreen. both A hand}' device. therefore. as shown. and it was found that Maryland. and can be used on various kinds of ve. making a substantial support. The ring is worn on the little finger. 111. finger to form A. it around the A short length of brass tubing. J. or rest. screwed to the end of the tube. was carried through the looped around the hook and cut by a opening for it. breaking the devised. Annapolis. and another through the side ioned from a horseshoe nail. as equipped the shown. B. This appliance for Electric Lamps also lengthens the life of the pole. and ner by wrapping proved practical. A number of wooden candlesticks hicles.by 3 by 5 controlled conveniently at the usual in. Linthicum. A hole was drilled through the side of a string-cutting ring fash- the tube. was screwed into a hole drilled in a cutting loop. place. LaSalle. The wiring. I of the lid. N. when the water is poured from riage shaft. and the inner edge of the hook is The hole in the wood was fitted with sharpened. suitably taped. The lights were CA block of soft rubber. is useful as a pad for sandpaper in wall switches.. C. of an old car. the types ordi- narily available String-Cutting Ring Made could not be at- of Horseshoe Nail tached in the Persons having to tie a large num. Flint. Parks. into the tube. Support for Wagon Pole Aids Teakettle Cover Held by Dent in Hooking Up Team in Edge To do away with the annoyance and To prevent kettle covers from drop- up the heavy pole of strain of holding ping off. is ends of the tube being threaded. as indicated. Thus. H. One end of the rod was the kettle. smoothing curved surfaces. shown.

and bend the notched tabs into place. or other metal. and lay out this dimension on a strip of tin. as shown. emery cloth. An ordi. and an extra strip. Chicago. they are kept clean. is wanted. of miscellaneous parcels to the working parts. 1 in. as is convenient. flash light. and during the process of developing. Red Lens Hinged to Flash Light for Dark-Room Use Amateur photographers will find a red lens attachment for a hand flash light a useful arrangement for the dark room. Texas. This will leave a fine coating of Instead of carrying out an armload. Curl the piece to a cylindrical vehicle. at each end. A spring tab. made a parcel carrier fitted with cast. To fit the device in place. especially in temporary quarters. and handles were fitted at the tabs with a spring ring. on or a boxful. Besides making the work of handling the ar- ticles easier. When a white light cleaning a typewriter with gasoline. 111. . midway Danger of Damage by the Use of along the top edge of the metal. as shown. then smooth the surface with No. A leased. Then add Yg in. To ^ HINGE ^ overcome this trouble. the delivery wagon or the customer's Fort Sam Houston. as shown in the sketch. In snap into place. which is too fine to collect dust. so that the spring tab will rangement carried or rolled along on the casters. — William Doenges. Kinks in Cleaning a Typewriter Irregularities in the feeding of the paper into a typewriter are often due to slippery spots on the platen. wide. oil. Then solder ends. The parcels inder and to the lens holder on the are loaded into the tray and the ar. along the The Parcels are Handled Easily and with Little whole length. Rub the polished parts with Flash Light Is a Convenience for the Dark Room No. The legs were made of light a small hinge to the edge of the cyl- strips nailed as shown. is also This Homemade Carrier made. Avis — Gordon Vestal. an enterprising grocery clerk form and clinch the joint as detailed. when going in or out. measure the dis- tance around the outside of the lens holder. clean the platen thoroughly with a mixture of two parts of denatured alcohol to one part A Ruby Cap Hinged over the Lens of an Ordinary of ether. ers. the red-glass fitting is re- the effect is to leave the parts dry. 2 emery cloth. sections. Handy Parcel Carrier with Caster better method is to use a mixture of one part of typewriter oil to 50 parts gaso- Supports line. which should be cut into i/4-in. Slip a piece of ruby glass into the cyl- nary wooden box was used for the inder and hold it against the notched tray. since it is not necessary to lay them on the walk or other undesirable place.

It Offers No Special Difficulties if Care is Taken in the Shaping of the Top and Shelf The table can be finished in a variety should be cleaned up thoroughly both of ways to suit the furniture of the before and after assembling. . fastening will be exposed. the basement to the rooms above. The far easier. with a rounded Begin the construction by gluing up corner. using faces carefully. yg-in. from them. by pro- bottom view of the shelf. as While they are drying. Most of the and shape it to a perfect octagon. and sand down these sur. By selecting the best glue and screws where practicable. Various kinds pieces for the casters are fastened to of hard wood are suitable. 1% in. neath. as shown in the bottom view of tra care in making this mission center the top. the lower braces. stock being used CThe nuisance of tracking dust and throughout. the latter method being strips for the edging of the top. and use it careful work being the laying out and in marking the layout for the top. as shown in the detail. across from opposite parallel sides. make the pieces indicated in the photograph and the for the legs. is quite simple. table. brace the top with cleats screwed on under- tools will be well repaid for a little ex. from shaping of the octagonal top and the the shelf as a pattern. the edges of the shelf. and the plan of the top. two of the viding carpet mats on two or three braces extending across the bottom and lower treads of the stairs leading from the others butting against them. Fit the lower supporting ashes from the basement can be over- framework together as shown in the come. All the stock BOTTOM VIEW OF The Home Craftsman will Find the Making of This Octagonal Mission Center Table a Novel Piece of Construction. scrape. An Octagonal Mission Center Table By henry SIMON THE homewith craftsman who woodworking skilled is fairly hand When the top and shelf are dry. top being parallel with those of the posed it will also pay the maker to shelf and 1% in. wide. to a considerable extent. upper portion of the legs is of double thickness. Four room where it is used. Assemble the parts as shown. Because of the wide surfaces ex. and pieces of wood and setting their better properly set nails for places where the sides out. the top may be mitered. plane. Lay out the shelf accurately. or butted the pieces for the top and the shelf. quarter. square against the edge of the top. The edging for sawed oak being preferable. the legs with screws. of unusual design. 25 woodwork involved in its construction in. the element calling for Make a strip. the effect is also enhanced.

and the wall will be unmarred. Hub. N. as a Stop The lower end of the leg can be fitted for the Float. jNIendota. to Brick Walls Cork is a good material from which A desirable vine often has not the to make the float. scribed. — C. between the clamps and the top. L. Fastening a hole through the float. the trellis will be hardly noticeable. or other source wall. and the cast made. the casting lead and in mind. An ordinary screw anchor hold an ordinary will float can be altered for use as de- fence staple. 8 Folding Ironing Board Clamps over the wire its ends are pinched to- gether and driven into the anchor on Edge of Table or Window socket. but grips the line tightly walls laid up mortar. Far- go. and Anironing board is usually most will support a considerable load. the Depth at Which the Sinker is Desired can be Easily Regulated with a sliding adjustment. and other interesting features hooks are adjusted as usual. in A ^/ie-in. If carefully done. and a suitable aid must quill. To use it. — Charles Carroll. The bolts QUILL at the clamps are adjustable for grip- ping various thicknesses of table tops. FlSWLtNE neath the top. Meller. A of lifrht. the design float will stop at the sliding knot. First convenient for use when its left end fasten the trellis of wire mesh to the is set near a window. as indicated. hole. and — being otherwi-se the same. etc. . Fit a small wire trellis to such a wall is a good glass bead in the upper end of the float. and fit it over a large and other walls. The staple is held firmly. Staples may also be used in slides easily. The cross cleat near one end. is a float that can be adjusted to the depth of This Rigid Ironing Board Folds Compactly and can water in which it is desired to fish. By Setting a Sliding Knot on the Line. Bolted ^SLIDING KNOT through this are two clamps which engage the edge of the window sill or 1 r^ GLASS t table. and the float slides down on Wire TrellisFastened Neatly the line until it reaches the casting weight. They are clamped by lowering the leg from its folded position.. Screw anchors are used. at the top. especially with a short bait-casting rod. tions. remain on the surface. T. very securely. the knot passes freely through the guides. and a were added. under. The top is of the usual sliding knot on the line is set for the type. D. In reeling the bard. and tied as and expand under the pressure of the shown in the detail at the left. be Set Up with Ease at the Window Sill The float is hollow and slides on the the sketch was designed with this line. as a stop for the knot. A Homemade Fishing Float Adjustable to Depth A novel device for fishing. . method.which provides a smooth-running be provided to support it. and requires a '^p. Cut the cork in sec- natural al^ility for clinging to stone. Baltimore. After the staple has been placed Maryland.-in. The arrangement shown in chalk aids in setting the wire line straight. if the board is used at different heights. line. as shov\m. The knot is which fit into holes drilled for them of the figure-eight type. Arranged underneath it is a depth desired. J. 111. It screw. enough to stop the float.

A. which acts as a guard. A compact outfit. clamped to- In fastening the piece B on the bed. The board is supported on a frame of iron rod. — sketch.Short Time. or with nails. long. long staples are set into the A Toy Tractor Built with Dry back of the brush handle. as post. . They are fastened with screws and washers. as or camper will appreciate. The dry cell is mounted on small strips COTTEP - PIN ^ ROD and held by wires. The end of this frame rod is of the same thickness are set under it. a a board. A. The clamping device is made of Vl by l^/i- A Compact Toilet Outfit for the Soldier in. parts. Lavery. of suitable size. and the necessary wooden the metal "trench mirror" is made. A thumbscrew is threaded a comb. or cut out of thin wood ^"X I4" BAND IRON TABLE BOARD for the rear wheels. A device of this kind. A base. which requires no floor support and can be folded compactly for storage. and will Get Much Fun Out of It lines. Dalton.thick. into the piece point engaging B. Adjustable and Pivoted Bed Table quickly and used for other purposes Attached to Bedpost when desired. Two Garfield. The table proper consists of a %-in. or front wheels serves as the driver. as Cell and Motor indicated. bent '/// /x to the form indicated in the dotted A Boy can Make This Simple Electric Tractor in a . and is bent to fit loosely around the bedpost. 14 in. J. E. band iron. the brass plate. gether. bracket. the backing for small motor. are with the handle portion small enough all that is needed for the making of a to into the staples. A good feature is near the end of the mirror handle. A brass plate. A cotter pin guards against accidental loosening of the joint. From An ordinary two-volt dry cell. and clamped with ^c'in. is made of wood. O. and two axles A table arrangement which can be clamped handily to the bedpost and swung out of the way or removed alto- gether when not in use. The wheels are disks cut iy^' BRASS PLATE from spools. its and mirror. which the soldier is fitted inside of the main piece B. and the shown in the wing nut also tightened. consists of shown. BEDPOST as shown. and that the parts can be taken down holds th£ outfit snugly. One of the be Swung Aside Conveniently. i/^ by 3 by 9 in. bent at an angle and pivoted in a metal J. brush. fit small bras? A toy tractor that will give its builder a strip acts as a spring when placed great deal of fun. and heavier wood for the front ones.brass clamps. the edges of which are banded with metal or thin wooden strips. Cleveland. and Removed Altogether is grooved to receive the cord belt. The motor is fas- THiurhB RAISED EDGE tened with screws and wired to the dry This Handy Table Clamps on the Bedpost and can cell in the usual manner. as shown in the illustration. board. the thumbscrew is set. is shown in the illustration. is a conven- ience that has a wide use in the home. N.

Hop- of the pole and hooked over the tightly kinsville. The result on the wheel. Ind. like on the arm of the machine. having no extra one on hand. Conn. line Bollerer. the portion that extends abo\e the drawer may be bent forward. — is used. the clips. When it is desired to remove talking machine. the ten- leavesby pressing them with an iron rubbed on beeswax may be improved by substituting the following process. may be done if desired. Ky. N. I made small clips.the small. — Mrs. W. The clips may be made large enough to fit Requiring a collar button. usual. Read Elmer. while they remain quite pliable. under weights. holder shown in . advantage of keeping the collar fixed as shown in the illustration. This treatment gives the leaves sufficient gloss. -^ the -^ Pole Supports Rug Handily for Cleaning illustration. and. This is necessary only where the space Emergency Collar Button above the drawer is small.=s»'V . but this. Two with little chance of becoming unfas- stout wires are fastened into the ends tened. Tohn V. . to dry. not be banded is set on the exact center of mention the to the disk. dency being. when only a clothesline papers.. Thompson. I devised the . The piece of china to up the tools. with the rings on the record possible injury as a guide. and fitted of course. The rug is sus- pended on the roller and thus kept is The common method of preserving straight while it is cleaned. to crumple at the middle. Harger. and then paint and iron the upper side in the same way./ l)etter than a collar button for use at A rug may be handled easily for the Iiack of the neckband. ironing it immediately. H. Paint the under side of each leaf with linseed oil. Banding Wheel tool drawers of my tool chest have A ser^nceable wheel banding for often dropped hand-painted china may be had by out. Evansville. Loeffler. as drawers of various sizes. I. as at A. between news. J. — W'illiam S. Bridgeton. and the brush may be rested to them. Caro. New Britain. after I had adapting a disk talking machine for the left them partly purpose. be taken not to injure the them to the back of the drawers. without ironing. It was bent cleaning if the pole on which it is rolled into shape from a hairpin and has the when purchased is used as a support. 10 Preserving Leaves in Specimen Book stretched clothesline. Removable Drawer Stop Disk Talking Machine as China- When I least expected it. so as to bring the surface was a waste of of the upper one slightly higher than time in picking the center pin. — T. It is not neces- sary to press and dry the leaves before- hand. . The tints may even be well preser\-ed The Roller on Which the Rug is Rolled When by painting only the upper side of the Purchased is Used to Advantage as a Support While Cleaning It leaves with the oil and then placing them. that shown in the sketch. It proved to be ' ^ -^.«s=^ Honolulu. Care must. Three old records are placed open.

is as follows was designed to meet these require. Narrow strips are easily bent transportation. bent. birch. 1 cylindrical block. may be obtained at small expense.. are strength and light. three varieties may . 7 " 1 by 1 by 16 " ments. long by 16 in. Making a Coasting Toboggan Br A. M. It may be Made as an Individual Project or as a JointUndertakingbySeveralBoys -'•'^ja^^^is^. hard wood. ^Aeby 4 in. diameter by IS in.. ft. Do not use quarter-sawed oak because of the cross-grain flakes in its structure. by 6 ft. by 10 ft. 12 in. comman boards. by 18 In. Smoothness of finished surface. S^ . both the securing of This Toboggan Is Strong and Light. in. to shape.. free- dom from tendency to splinter. and ability to stand up under abuse being K requisite qualities in the wood used to make a toboggan. wide and for and detailed in the working sketches. but does not become as smooth on the running surface as close-grained woods. in. PARKER ESSENTIALS of a good toboggan. Birch is softer than hickory and easily splintered. the construction must be boards is practical. It will afford the Maker Much Pleasure Both in the In- teresting Process of Construction and in the Use for Coasting or Transportation. Oak stands bending well. material and construction are rather its whether for coasting or use in difficult. but acquires an excellent polish on the bottom. That shown in the ilkistration. " proper and the forms over which it is 2 " 1 by 6 in.. but do not make a durable ness. A toboggan made of four home shop.. long. The mill bill for simple. and oak. the bending frame. While the best toboggan is made of a single board. by 10 in. 6 " 1 by 2 in. The materials for the toboggan 2 " Vz by 1 in. 4 pieces.A- be mentioned in their order of merit hickory. and when it is to be made in the article. one 71/-.':^'.

go Bore a gimlet hole through the between the boards. Carefully plane the side ends. until the clamped end so that their extended ends are parallel. fasten one of the bored pieces is made of the common boards pieces to the block between the boards. when placed opening between boards. Thrust the together. centers of the 1 by 2 by 18-in pieces. Clamp. the strips. Heat to hold it out that distance from the it. the nails which hold it slip- 1-in. and 1 by 2-in. another of the bored cleats. pieces. temporarily. The nails. steamed ends under the cleat nailed on half the depth of the boards. a Vo-in. they form a wide "V" joint. turn the construction over and and 414 in. Now. and the block. boards around the block with more of 6-ft. boards. or boil them in a tank. Bear down should be notched on one side. at the dry burls. the Boards are Nailed to the Form with Cleats. and Permitted to Dry in This Position two Nail the end of one of the others. of course. A block sawed from inserting. 13 The form for the bending of the With 3-in. bore bend up the toboggan.boards to each end of the block. leaving about Y^-in. grain and freedom from knots and or nail. if convenient. piece the end of a dry log is excellent. each side of this hole. edge to edge. on the toboggan carefully. nails. the boards together. to reinforce it. 1 in. following the THE FIRST BENDING OPERATION ^\"X\" CLEATS The Boards for the Bottom are Steamed or Boiled at the Bow Ends and Bent over the Form. nailing on from each end. bevel the edges so that. to receive the side ropes. between two of the intended for the wearing surface. The boards for the bottom Steam about 3 ft. As the Bending Operation Progresses. permit. The 1 by the block. just before bending block. of the ends of the should be selected for straightness of boards. is down between the two 6-ft. when the The two 1/2 by 1-in. the nailed cleats. pieces are to be toboggan boards have been curved placed one at each side of the extreme around the block as far as the floor will end of the bent portion. . pieces are for cross cleats and ping up between the boards.

place on a door with carriage into Trim off uneven ends. The grooves. A 1 by 1-in. TUMBUER while the remainder of the crossbars This Lock is Made Entirely of Wood and cannot be are evenly spaced between the front Picked Easily and back pieces. together with the dimensions of the cross pieces. give a fair job. . and a keeper are required. toboggan with oil. Wooden Lock with Combination Key The lock shown in the sketch and detailed drawings is made entirely of wood. of hard wood. the closer it to prevent it from being moved too together the cleats are the less danger there is of splintering the boards. and it is nearly impossible to pick or open it without the use of the key. and finish the outer side. clinch. scrape and sand. These cleats are wired together to hold the bend of the bow. Clamp the I/2 by 1-in. oak fully and the Parts Made Accurately to Insure Satisfactory Operation being suitable for this as well as for the other parts. afifords an opportunity for elaborate ornamentation. the heads being placed on the paper the bottom well. oolts. The bolt across. Rawhide. Indians overcome the lack of hardware by the use of rawhide. in fact. and 1 in. indicating how grain and connected by open mortises. drill holes through. Three tumblers. laced through diagonally staggered holes bored through the crosspieces and bottom boards. Allow at least four days for drying before removing the boards from the form. The tail end crossbar should be placed not nearer than 21/2 in. The lock and keeper are bolted notched side is always placed down. rope The detailed drawing shows the through the notches under the ends of parts. completed. which they sometimes stretch over the bow as a protection. and TUMBLERS the more perfect the conformity of the boards to the mold. and rivet them. crossbar is riveted to the inside of the bow at the extreme front and another directly under the extremity of the curved end. The casing of the lock is 5 by 5 The Details of Construction must be Observed Care- in. thick. and the toboggan is each. Run a %-in. -T-SLOTS FOR TUMBLERS Screws are satisfactory substitutes for rivets in fastening together the parts. a The lock casing is grooved with two bolt. which must be followed closely. and wire nails. from the end of the boards. 2—Oct. pieces one each side of the extreme ends of the bent bows. taking care that the iar. 13 where it can be held by a piece nailed the tumblers are raised by it. 22. More of the cleats may be is slotted and a screw placed through nailed on if desired. extending the length of the key is shown inserted. of a length to allow for about %-in.

as blers. in addition to using her roded. and SAUAMMONIAC care was taken Electrical Device Transmits Striking of not to punch Clock them near the upper edge of the Converting an ordinary parlor. Md. and requiring a num- and smoothed on its lower side. its practical use. The cells were left in the ironing and solution six hours. mitted to various parts of the home. square and 21/^ in. All the parts of the — • B. this lock is interesting and the key % by %by 5I/2 in. Brook- of it in steaming lyn. about I/4 in. They must not be con- it between two nected or permitted to come into con- hollow tiles and tact with each other while in the thus makes use solution. Aside from required. The tiles not only hold the A Sliding Board for Coasting iron securel}^ in The simple device shown in the this position. Springfield. It is reinforced underneath Finding that drjr batteries had in- by a strip of wood. wide and 2G in. and as a piece of mechanical construction. as shown in the sketch. I de- piecefastened in the form of a bow is vised the following method by which I was able to use the old batteries for a by placing a small cleat between it and the upper piece. Variety of Uses for an Electric Iron within V'2 in. a simple electrical device. sand- mortises and the grooves is shown in papered smooth. coasting down The iron is also used inverted for heat. and oiled to give a the views of the casing. TOP VIEW ry. 14 all 1/2 in. inclines or small ing water. surfaces slightly crusted with ice. either on liquids. The holes were placed about 1% in. the sketch. Baltimore. The spacing of the lock must be fitted carefully. as shown in tion of sal ammoniac.. Y. V2 in. notched as shown. apart. — H. and then became re- pressing. and . cooking cofTee. Long. and aids in keeping cells were nearly exhausted. John F. from black insulation which the striking of the gong is trans- might thus be in. The general arrangement taining the liquid must be filled only to of the batteries. Ihe board is m- Renewing Dry Batteries with Sal tended for individual use only and Ammoniac should be about 10 in... and other hills. single-stroke bells. thick creased in price. are well as protect the wood. Sterling Parker. . jured. The vessel con. . in depth. The strip should be considerable period : When the dry about 3 in. 1 . N. long. velvet trim- mings. The bolt is i/o by 1 by 8 in. I punched holes through the zinc covering with a the sliding board in its course. from the top of the cell. and the cell probably short-cir- electric iron for ordinary purposes of cuited. wide. — nail. but sketch can afford youngsters much also insulate it from overheating or amusement i n scorching adjoining objects or surfaces. The cells may be accomplished by fitting it with were then placed in a saturated solu. or container. clock into a master clock. Francis Dashiell. This ber for experimental purposes. Mo. finish that will aid in the operation. Three tum. long. or the mantel. as well as in providing a warm the snow or on lunch. inverts markably live. otherwise the binding posts will be cor- A milliner.

— into the clock case without defacing it Day. the whole producing a striking tached to its lower edge. STATIONARY ARM moldings and in corners. may be used to well seasoned. is a small lever arm. and also depends on the length of wire through which The General Arrangement of the Apparatus for Trans- mitting the Striking of a Clock Gong is Shown in the current is carried. ' case is shown in Fig. The various rooms to which the striking of the gong is to be trans- mitted are wired with Xo. . drop a small piece of melted seal- properly. At- was fitted to a bracket of ornamental iron. This arrangement has been in operation for several years. Mass. with an adjustable thumbscrew and is with only slight alteration. Pittsfield. The contact of the platinum point of the thumbscrew and the swinging arm must be close. W. A trial should Fig. Headboard of Bed tact key. 1 a detail of the . to the hammer rod of the gong with a silk cord. but will bring the swinging arm into proper contact with the thumbscrew. E. 2. 1. SINGLE-STROKE BELLS tor wire. 2 be made with several batteries and the silk cord in place on the hammer more added until the bells are rung rod. Such an stationary on the bolt fastening. 18 annuncia. The silk cord must not interfere with silk cord and other connections of the the action of the pendulum P. Metal posts or tubes Lr~\ ASHLANd ROOMS fitted over the bolts. is shown in Fig. run carefully behind picture clock bell BATTERIES Silk . The sign was made of black \valnut and was. It was treated with bring the arms the proper distance for. The number of dry batteries necessary varies with the number of bells in the circuit. The adaptation is shown in the sketch. The upper member is fitted such a pattern that they lend them- selves readily for use as signboards. and has been found practical. 15 the contact device within the clock in alinement with the hammer rod. and a Detail of the Contact Device in Fig. at the pivot. and lower arm is made of covered wire and is pivoted on the supporting bolt. co that they will be the action of the weather better. 2. but not too strong. The connecting device may be fitted ing wax or solder on the rod. shown in detail in Fig. To hold contact key and the gong hammer. and the binding posts are fixed into place Antique Signboard Made of neatly. The single-stroke bells are wired up as shown in the sketch. The two sections of the con. by reason of its age. at the points where the arms are attached to the back of the clock case. a i/4-in. This is connected effect. hole is sufficiently large for the purpose. The length of the cord must A Signboard Which be determined by careful adjustment Attracts Attention was Made of the so that it will not hinder the action Headboard of a Walnut Bed of the hammer H. ^\'here the THREAD' SWINGING ARM wires must be carried through a par- tition. The contact should lie made at the instant the hammer strikes the bell. are fastened to the back of the clock case Some old headboards of beds are of with bolts. several coats of linseed oil to withstand ward in the case. by boring holes in its side.

Adisk them at an angle. from the other. — S. resem. desk and occasionally. 16 Auto Horn for Child's Play Vehicle Wall Pocket for Paste Tubes A baking-powder. At a point on the strip. and wire or strap-iron bracket. thick. as shown at A. end of the strip and drawing it care- The notched wheel is placed upon the fully around the center a number of shaft. or other tinned. By ratchet wheel against the pawls is to cutting from one side nearly through produce a loud grating sound. more satisfactory results may be ating against several metal pawls had by the following method De. They are fastened to the support with Draw the Strip with Its Saw-Tooth Brads around the small screws or nails. Buffalo. The action of the times. simple A container may be made for the tube by cutting the carton in which the tube is packed with a penknife. Seattle. N. the sketch at E. the contents may be forced out on papers or on the table. E. The can is fixed Drive a nail through a strip of wood. Four small pawls of sheet metal. Y. They are made by cut- ting pieces of metal to the shape shown 4 — -r:=. as shown at D. disk. so that the ratchet wheel revolves with the shaft when the crank on the latter TT^^L. with a slight space of wood. making it necessary for use on a child's coaster wagon. by driving end of which is fixed a crank. the circumference of the disk. Annapolis. wide and i/4 in. Linthicum. about ^A in. as shown at B. and the warning sound termine the center from which the cir- is produced by turning a small crank cumference of the disk is to be struck. A small paste tube of the collapsible can may be used to make the small au. : within the can. as shown in the sec- bored to carry a shaft. thick. Cutting Out the Disk placed on the end of the can when the device is used. and folding them. by which the contrivance may be sus- — pended on the wall. Wash. It is two sharp brads. so as to expose the upper end of the tube. By grasping the have a notched edge. Woods. The to smooth ofif the circumference of the device consists of a toothed wheel oper. at the end of the can. are fixed on the inner support. T. the board. the diskmay be cut cleanly. . Md. arranging the end of the can. so as to strike A piece of wood is fitted into the can. H. is turned. results. is cut to between the points. and fastened securely to it.^ NAru TEETH at C. Cutting Thin Wooden Disks This Small Auto Horn was Made of a Tinned Can Fitted with a Notched Wheel and Pawls Instead of cutting thin wooden disks with a coping saw. The cover is Center. and then finishing the cut bling that of a horn of the siren type. and at the exposed them to act as saw teeth. if left uncov- ered. as shown in into the center of the proposed disk. The cover and upper end of the back of the carton is doubled over to pro- vide an extra thickness for a support. variety is hard to keep at hand on the tomobile horn shown in the illustration. to the side of the vehicle by means of a about 1 in. drive to support the ratchet wheel. which bears in tional view of the sketch. an especially good job William Freebury.

high and 2 ft. so that the craft may be shown in Fig. 6 in. the wishbone-mast ice as shown in detail in Fig. and is a novelty. at its ends. and side.r^ bi| John F. The main frame consists of a controlled at the stern by the usual line backbone. and adaptability to sailing under runner plank is shown in Fig. The booms may thick. gether and both sails manipulated as a G in. to maintain proper proportions 8 in. in adapting the The runner plank is tapered down to design. The double. Figure 2 shows a view of speed when running with the the framework from below. to which the guides for and safety.. is Fig. constructed economically for one or at each end. the making of the lower framework. the end of the taper at this end. The backbone is tapered single sheet. 1 and 6. Reefing and lowering of from the middle portion. 6 in. 10 in. . manner. The framework is very sub. for stability A side view the forward runners are fixed. and the bow end is fitted two passengers. from the sails are accomplished in the usual the forward end. measured from stantial and the proportions are of mod. 4 in. as . The with working dimensions is shown in guides are of straight-grained oak. and pulley rigging. sailing craft. bolted to the runner a front view of the mast and sail ar. (gi YA(gfr^T -. or "free". of the same ma- ning free. of spruce or white pine. Pjerrou J LARGE spread of canvas and great rangement. conditions similar to those of the com. be spread so that a V-shaped cavity is long. 2 in. 6. wishbone. 3. It is tapered to 4 in. 1 inset into it . clamped accurately at right an- afforded for taking the wind when run. showing by 3 by 14 in. and with a ridge. to dimensions given are for a small yacht. or bone. 4. wide. as shown ture may be omitted if the craft is to in detail in Fig. of the fastening of the backbone and wind. 5. long. and 12 ft. A detail wind. 5 ft. stability under heavy. ly^ Fig. thick. give the greatest strength. tail of the fastening of the masts and mon. the backbone by reason of the particular ice areas being set upon the plank. Only the yacht affords opportunity for adapta. 3 a de. 5. firmly at their crossing. high at the center. 1. terial. or they may be brought to. in Fig. as is the The construction should begin with double-boom and sail arrangement. carriage bolts. with washers and nuts. by means of available. and care must be taken. gles to a runner plank. plank with /le-in. The double-boom fea. 2 viewed from the lower are pivoted at the bow of the craft. with a three-eye metal ring. The runner plank be used where little or no opportunity and the backbone are clamped together is afforded for running before the wind. the forward runners into the runner are the features of the ice yacht sliown plank. as shown in Figs. and the fixture by in the illustration. The runner and which the booms and the yard are at- frame structure is in general typical of tached to the forward end of the back- ice-boat construction. best material should be used in the tion of the var'ous elements of the backbone and runner plank. and 16 ft. 8 in. The stock should be straight-grained. as erate range. For the experimenter with two strap bolts. The booms shown in Fig. long. single-boom-and-sheet ice boat. and the craft described. mast is distinctive. 8 in. in Fig.

S^'o in. at the The floor of the cockpit is fastened to ends. The The cockpit is fixed to the lower side ends of the mast. long. used in guying shown with square corners. 2. If desired. The coaming is also fastened securely this . and fitted with masts. The for. 6. 2. provided with a heavy rubber in Fig. shown in Fig. protected from wear by a metal joint. yard and booms are fitted to the back- construction. as shown in Fig. The to the backbone. the runner plank. will af. to make The stern runner is of oak. and is pivoted in a forged to make such a construction. The guides and the ends of stays. as shown in Fig. and to an tapered edges of the plank. wire-rope in Fig. fitted into the loop of the rope. other fastenings may by 30 in. 1. easily be devised by one skilled enough ners. Metal thimbles may be loosened. 4. if carefully made. II/2 by 5 by are provided with turnbuckles. which is reinforced with tion of the shaft. purpose are countersunk carefully. near chocks. The to receive a washer and nut. The as shown in detail in Fig. end. the guy wires are fastened to the eyes ers and jam nuts should be provided. are ft. since this the runner plank and backbone. espe. high. The wishbone mast is made of two tion of the hanger may be made of a poles of hickory or ash. fitted to a square sec. The controlled properly by the rudder run. they may be adjusted as required. An iron strap reinforces the washer. to carry the cockpit. is clamped securely. The ends of nuts being set to the inner side. and tapered to 3 in. The backbone and runner plank by means of a line and pulley.. fashioned at its upper one. by looping them and clamping the re- or the ends of the bolts riveted slightly. shaped at their ends as shown. and the mast are fitted into sockets in the run- steering handle. bolts. 18 shown in the detail sketch. shod like the forward run. lever nut. at the and drilled to receive a %-in. and sheets are fastened to the yard and track properly otherwise the craft will . on top. at the coaming steamed and bent to the curve. 2% in.sheet iron. middle and tapering to IVU in. The so that they are at right angles. wrought-iron hanger. eyebolt is fitted into ^ slotted plate of The runners. They are fixed the plank are reinforced with oak to eyes on the bands at the bow. 5. strip of the base. 4. with coaming. The stays ward runners are of oak. Fig. and ?'iG-in. 4 in. and cannot be with grommets. and are re- runners are pivoted on %-in. as indicated at the right in Fig. ner plank. bolted in place at each of the the ends of the runner plank. and tied with line. The lower por. mast blocks. so that 36 in. ribs may be fixed bolt and ring on the backbone. They are fitted with metal rings the backbone with lag screws. yard is suspended from the masthead ner. A section lower ends of the poles forming the of pipe is fitted over the shaft. of the same material as the the cockpit rounded. bolted to them and engaging an eye- ciall}' in larsrer craft. 4. being fitted not keep a true course. the . projecting beyond the of the backbone. bolted together. It is fitted with eye bands. bent into a U-shape. each 16 ft. and are held rigidly by four i/4-iii. The U-shaped the masthead. The and shod with half-round strap iron. booms in the usual manner. the inforced with oak blocks. bolt. long and 3 lower side of the runner plank. and an eye. sulting eye with steel clamps made for to prevent the nuts from becoming this purpose. The poles are joined carefully at which the runner pivots. as sliown shaft. construction is convenient. and fit- piece is riveted firmly to a vertical ted to an oak breast hook. thick at heavy iron. wide.. though not The sails are carried on a 3'ard and as good as the type having the ends of two booms. eyebolt below the cockpit. and fastened by a the backbone must be alined carefully. bands near the ends of the runner plank The heads of the screws used for this are fixed to the lower ends of the masts. and the at the ends to prevent splitting. l^/o by a better finish . Wash. afifords a point of attachment for The upper end of the shaft is threaded the forward stay of the mast. and is 5 ft. bone at the bow by means of loops ford ample strength.

2 a View of . 19 JC«V\V^XV«WSWWSSSXWVVVXX«»X«V%NVV\NVVVVXVV\V>VVVVW^^^ The Wishbone Mast Provides a Strong Construction of Marked Stability. the Sails and Booms are Used as One Boom and Sheet. the Lower Side. and the Details are Shown in the Other Figures . Figure 1 Shows the Side Elevation Fig. and the Double Booms and Sails Permit of Great Speed When Running before the Wind. When Tacking.

and a diamond-pointed needle are used. through the pulleys at the stern and the stitch the seam. The ends of the lines are for the sewing of the sails. on the booms. The corner of the sail should be reinforced halyard is fixed to the yard.former being c'eated to the backbone. The The sails are of the lateen type. set. The sail needle and waxed sail designed to be standard and may be twine are used. sandpapered comparatively small space. «titch. with a triangular patch of duck. brass grommet rings venient for the operator to attend to into the holes. by the use of ners are fitted into place. backbone and runner plank. The The craft is designed to be taken woodwork is all comparatively simple. The yard may parallel with the after. and if narrower in Fig. rope which is fastened to the ing along the edge. may be painted suitably. well waxed. Each so that the sails "set" properly. in the lightly. bolts are fastened at the crossing of the The booms are controlled by the oper. also.. respectively. particularly be. of the goods and double. and the bands fitted to the additional boom. simply fold booms are controlled is threaded over 1 in. then down through a second pul- of winter usage. and are made of %-in. The method of set. The run- ator from the cockpit. as nearly as possible. purchase on the lines and makes it con- fitting tv/o 34-in. by means of the turnbuckles. and sewing or stitch. so that and run through a pulley at the mast- it will stand up under the severe strain head. which it is conducted to cleats conven- which is not difficult if a sailor's palm ient to the operator in the cockpit. about 1 ft. %-in. and sails are attached to the yard and should be made of 8-0^. The breadths are sewn to. tarred rope. The main sheets are rigged as shown Sail twine. of spar varnish. and can be stored in be smoothed carefully. passed The edges of the sails adjoining the through pulleys. 1. ing rigging is adjusted. grommet holes by means of which the from the ends. or deal- the usual type. the backbone is fitted for use on metals exposed to the with the forward ring and the strap weather. and the forward end of the lat- ton duck. except mast is set into its steps. The rigging by which the laps or bights are desired. at the proper point. The edges of the sail ley fixed to the runner plank. and the steer- lines and pulleys. ers in marine hardware and fittings. . sails are attached to their supports. and booms should tween seasons. whipped at the ends to pre. unbleached cot. or may at intervals. from the ends. The wishbone rangement used on sailboats. This rigging gives good holes in the sails. Yard-wide ma.'i-in. similar to the ar. ter supports are fixed into place. The gether by lapping one edge over the pulley at the masthead is fitted with other about 1 in. as indicated terial is satisfactory. 1. The lines are cleated lower ends. The reef points are of purchased from ship chandlers. The masts. as shown. the method of taking it fittings should be finished with two down. should be used in Fig. and the helm and the lines at the same time. First. and the metal trate. and finished with several coats knockdown form. cotton rope. yard. at the stern of the yard and booms are provided with backbone. or other good paint reversed. one at each side. clamped at its that a duplicate set is required for the masthead. The other woodwork ting up the ice yacht will serve to illus. 1. The bights should run ends fixed on the cleats. or leach. The special metal parts may be made vent raveling. from may be bound with ^. down when not in use. then down to the cleats at The grommets are made by punching the cockpit. lashed to the ends of the booms. The guy wires at the bot- on the backbone convenient to the tom and that at the masthead are then cockpit. edge now be hauled up and the craft trimmed of the sail. and sewed to the sails by one of fair mechanical skill. and 5 ft. in that the process is practically coats of red lead. at the proper points. yard. booms. as shown in Fig. overcasting them with a buttonhole The fittings are. be made by local blacksmiths.

on a craft of the ordinary type. containing a single and given a coat of shellac or varnish. tinuously. All the ling sounds. The manipulation of this craft is in The cap is li/^ in. . the booms are brought together. wide and 6^. may be made easily. bore 1-in. Tacks will hold firmly in them and used as hi dden dowels. The stand should Stand for a Test-Tube Flower Vase be stained a dark color. boats. and the resulting holes filled carefully. square. long. and the joints new corks may be inserted as needed. causing the liquid to run out The base is 2^/2 in. in the quickly with a circular motion. The uprights is at the highest point of the end rather may be of ^s to Vi-'m.square. The air may thus notched together as shown. and they should be sunk into the wood. The pieces When running before the wind free — the booms are separated and the wind acts against the sails in the pocket be- tween them. and tle. A test-tube vase. and rests rapidly and without intermittent gurg- on two cross strips. are fitted together with small brads. the vessel should be held with the affords a support and protection for the opening downward. a portion until the container is empty. whose work demands the use of drawing paper of uniform size. They are enter and permit a continuous flow 1 in. the pieces together. made of oak. or left natural. Insert corks large Office Desk or in the Home enough to be forced into the holes and trim them off flush with the surface. and its edges general similar to that of the common are chamfered slightly. rather than hori- test tube. Colorado Springs. pieces of thicker stuff'. holes nearly the Test-Tube Vase on the through the board. F. The straight-line mission style. — E. stuff". A simple wooden Containers stand. and swung stand of this type. are glued. and the sails act as one sheet. being cut out to receive the test tube. sometimes experience difSculty in lix- ing thumb tacks solidly in the board. Pittsburgh. Colo. finished to harmonize with the In pouring a liquid from a jug or bot- surroundings. or it may be used with effective- ness in the home. Thompson. wide. When tacking. or other sail and ice. and are than at the bottom. thick. It may be liquid will rotate and in leaving the adapted to other woods and to various opening will permit air to enter con- designs in straight or curved lines. At Provides a Support and the four points where the tacks are Protection for generally placed. The sketch shows a small zontally. F.4 in. as are those on lateen-rig. but container is at one side it is best to it is desirable to have the base and cap hold the container so that the openins. if convenient. the upper edge of the base. blossom. adds color and a certain in- dividual touch to the business man's Pouring Liquids Quickly from desk. Brads may be used to nail — G. Koke. Cork Plugs Save Wear on Drafting Board Draftsmen. Pa. 1 in. This is caused b}^ the continual placing of tacks in the same spot and may be overcome by the use of cork plugs The Stand which can be removed when worn. If the opening of the material may be about 14 in.

show windows where the curtain string Lay the wood would otherwise mar the appearance. to easily raise and lower a cur. . black stick. Raising and Lowering Curtain at a stop at any place Distance desired. The wand and ring are ex- amined again by the audience. long. window. After the wand is returned. pass To enable an invalid. and the ribbon passed carded safety- over it. To produce this little trick. If desirable to operate about 2 in. hand. Mich. In tain from a position at a distance from the final stage remove the thread and the window. about l-t in. to the bottom. razor blades of This plan is especially adapted for the heavier type. Marion. Mov- ing the wand slightly from oneself will A Ribbon or Tape Attached to a Curtain Roller to cause the ring to move upward. and at last fall from the person. and it will always be ready for with the other. a flat pul- and 21/2 in. sharpener can be fastened with a hinge so that it will swing inside of the then makes mesmeric passes drawer. and drops the slot two or three times. about 18 in. wand. and still operate the curtain as such as cigar. Y. a piece of No. run it through ward. 33 A Table-Knife Sharpener the roller. long. down the cen- ter for about 1% in. and causes the Pontiac. well as with the regular cord attached box covers. and Operate It at a Distance relaxing it causes the ring to fall. and ring. New York. or any other backward. Turner. E. He holds securely attach the other board over the wand in his them. Tie one end of the thread to the top button on the coat and to the free end stick the beeswax. pieces and saw together a slot — and be hard to get at. climb ring to toward the top. or through a ring. long. Lay the two The Mystic Climbing Ring razor blades at an angle of about 2° The performer hands out a wand on each side of the slot. then drop the ring on it. a ribbon can be attached to hand out the wand for examination. use. as shown. Contributed by L. The ribbon may ex- The knife sharpener shown can be tend across the room in line with the easily made of two pieces of thin wood. that the knives are over the wand kept in. ley may be conveniently fastened to the and two d i s- ceiling or wall. and a small bit of beeswax. for examination and borrows a finger fasten them to one of the boards. secretly stick the waxed end to the top of the wand. the per- former must first provide himself with a round. N. point up- To sharpen a knife. or box. wide the curtain by a vertical pull. which is stuck to the lower button until ready for the trick. — Contributed by Henry J. as shown. at the center and on the inner side of the curtain. The the ring on it. 60 black cotton thread.

surface is its weight is about the same. and pine drawing that the sides also 'are gently is open to the same objection. Maple curved. bends. 1. ash to combine in the fullest measure at the toe. and the total practiced. Ash resembles hick." which runs from the heel to sesses the requisite lightness. but the provided with a hollow. and while some experts much less flexible than either hickory approve. and while hickory. This type arch will practically form a concave is practically identical with the most running surface and retard the speed. j^ellow pine." In almost all ory so far as elasticity is concerned. finished very smooth so as to slide more This curve affords a somewhat greater easily than the other woods. "groove. is probably the The "arch" of the ski is necessary to choice of the sportsmen wherever the avoid bending when the weight of the exhilarating sport of ski running is body is on the runner.. 3By ^tillmanThylcKl "'l^te*# popular model so long used in Tele- marken." while the front or toe as merits. known as the wood contains soft layers. -' and tough call for a hard. birch. but it is bend at the heel. one running its entire length to enced ski runner considers hickory and form a graceful arch." and the other every wood has its limitations as well curve the "bend. It will be noticed in the too brittle to prove serviceable. the experi. thus making the ski a trifle makes an excellent ski. and skis the under. or it will The Telemark-Model Ski prove a handicap and make it difficult This form of ski. and the rule for its selection is to choose a pair whose length reaches the middle joint of the fingers when the arm is stretched above the head. . white ash. flexible. and the second. but heavy. and while the modeling w'ill be found to differ but little. The Telemark model is shown in material. Fig. others disapprove of it. Hickory is elastic and fairly end of the ski is called the "point. and spruce are all used. known as the "arch." and toug-h. the rear end the "heel. there are numerous PART I —Prominent Types of brands sold which are fashioned of cheap and flimsy material. most ski runners agree that the curve should not be pronounced. and conse- Modern Skis quently unsatisfactory in every re- 'X' HE requirements of the modern ski spect. so called from the for the runner to secure a firm grip at Telemarken province of Norway. for a too exaggerated use the Telemark-model ski. but is far the bend. or running. high order of skill. which can be broader at the ends than in the center. where the edge when ascending steep slopes the art of ski running has reached a covered with hard snow. Birch pos. and from this sketch it will be white maple. Of course. The first one is technically the qualities most desired. but or ash. white seen that the wood has two curves or pine. and the larger portion of the height of this important curve should members of the numerous skiing clubs not exceed %in. There are various makers of this type of ski.

but side slipping deep. wax. but steadiness and immunity To attach the ski binding. of course. A sliglit arch may be reckoned neces. and while a groove. This is the usual sesses no decided advantages over the manner of attaching the foot binding. while others are provided with value in actual use. average use. The Lilienfeld ski two. but the great length and quick. and the round-faced groove is by far the best modeling is inferior to the Telemark form. making it difficult to steer the craft and Lilienfeld Ski interfering with the turning. This type of ski is com- broader at the bend than at any other monly used in Lapland and to a less point. 24 since it will run on two edges. is all that is ever The Swedish Ski required. and I have seen one marked with is made without a groove. has apparently little groove. mum cun'e of 6 in. will be less affected by ers stain the wood. it makes turning more diffi. part of the ski. tent than the use of bolts. ski. or other metal instead of on tlie entire running surface. and that the Telemark model is preferable. Ease in turning is a desirable qualit}^ cult. Not all the bend is abrupt and stiff. and can scarcely be considered suited to the as the latter may be made too deep. the usual type of ski. This applies to the upper surface only." adapted for ordinary use. most sary to offset the weight of the body. and for all-around use is com. fastening. To one who has used both to a certain extent. which se. and the great length makes turn- prevent "side slip" when running ing doubly difficult. which will make it way. from side slipping are far more valuable cures the shoe to the runner. while the Telemark skis are thus fashioned. how. easily accomplished. For special condi- straightaway. Norwegian makers finish their skis with but the utility of the ski. When purchasing skis the sportsman . turning is more eral use. a hole in qualities in a ski designed for all-around the form of a narrow slit is made just use. So far as finish is concerned. but it be compared to the keel of a boat. %or % in. with a deep a good bow. is good enough for straightaway is. considerably increased. which must never be abruptly with linseed oil and made smooth with formed. A good ski is told at a glance by its the running surface being rubbed down bend. As a rule. The groove in the running surface is rectangular groove slows down the so formed as to make the ski steady and speed. Amaxi. ning on the level or for gliding down the ski should be fashioned a trifle slight slopes. groove. since the deep. the This type of ski is made quite long bend must be gradual like the curve of and comparatively narrow. so will the badly formed groove interfere with the This type of ski is favored by but control of the ski. or "backbone. some being made without the ing in loose brush. or points. and since the three parallel hollows. the Lilienfeld model pos- back of the center. weakens the wood to a much less ex. running. is monly made y^o or ^'^ in. the weakest. and some finish the too little arch than by too great a curve wood in the natural color by varnishing. and to prevent breaking at this. The Telemark comparatively few ski runners. In short. and the wood should be pared extent in the northern parts of Nor- moderately thin. while other mak- every instance. In fact this groove may tions this type is probably useful. in nearly a coat of black paint. thus making it more flex. The arch excessive in height. fashioned to prevent stick- ever. and is well adapted for run- ible and elastic at this point. The shallow whole model is shorter and broader than groove is the most satisfactory for gen. it is the best method models there can be no question but for making a secure foot fastening. at this point. nor carried too high. strong and resilient with plenty of short bend make this model less spring. but has many points of and while it cannot but weaken the ski inferiority. Telemark type. to be sure. deep. round point.

but if there is not much The finish of skis is purely a matter straight work to be done. to which a little wax has been added. and it special use in certain localities. Ash is well [Ii!lE%] The Telemark. ski amount of straight running is done. and for Teleniark model. For elderly factory wood than our American hick- and less active persons. Norwegian skis are painted black on tor. allows the grain to show through. must not be varnished. For youths and children shorter or hickory. 7 ft. 25 inake no mistake in selecting the infill straight running. but practically all turning is regarded as an important fac. the running surface should be made the upper side. A good hickory. and the Lilienfeld Is Short with a Round Point. being filled with several coats of linseed oil equally good for all kinds of work. and for an active per. for practically all ready. the made by any reputable maker will give running surface should be provided the fullest measure of satisfaction. stained. from 5 to 6 ft. the length ranging from 6iA to As a rule. the Tele. son the skis should be long enough to The best materials are hickory. Swedish. skis nent makers in Europe are now fashion- reaching to the wrist joint will be about ing their skis from American timber. While running surface must be as smooth as other types are at times preferred for possible to obtain the best speed. More Abrupt Bend. and Lilienfeld Models with Grooves and Grooveless Bottoms. even grain when the arms are stretched above the running from end to end. or ash. the reliable "earmarks" of first-class For all-around use where a large material. in length. while a few of the smooth. with a groove. a groove may be easily cut is generally preferred by experts. but it heel. This necessitates making the cheaper maple and pine implements are skis to order. The plain varnished finish made skis of the Telemark model are protects the wood as well as paint. but fashioned with a shallow groove. jumping. and the ski is stood upright on its liked by many would in- experts. with a straight. is heavier in weight than skis. white ash. In fact. The length of a pair so selected deed be more satis- difficult to find a will be from TVo to 8 ft. and without a Groove head. and ease in of personal taste. the wood being mark-model ski is the standard. and this is why the ing to the size and strength of the expert skier considers weight as one of person. and for ladies. accord. are of course required. and However. The in at any time if wanted later on. the Swedish Is Long and Narrow with Upturned Heel. the best well-seasoned ash. an inferior grade. uphill skiing. or reach to the middle joint of the fingers. . many of the most promi- of short stature. for individuals ory. right. the Telemark Being the Standard and Best AU-Around Ski.

When fitted with the Ellef- sen tightening clamp. about right for most persons. Again the heel of the skier should be In short. thus the body unaided. which allow all neces. and reasonably light foot at- Swedish makers. preparation is mostly employed by strong. One excellent feature of this since it is light. but rather a hindrance. the sides. Bamboo of less constant chafing of the metal toe good quality is generally preferred.. worker or blacksmith can supply the marked the first metal toe pieces. 3. in climbing or work. For this type of binding. but should ac- sprains at the ankle and knee. or ash. that he may 3 in. For down- Fig. A large number of experts while various kinds of "bindings" are prefer this binding above all others. It is desirable ning. of ski runners consider one stout stick tachment will suffice. are as . 26 Tar is used to some extent. a good nary conditions met with in ski run. the one stick being all that is required these toe pieces must be firmly wedged for braking. In choosing a stick. the novice should practice both free to move up and down for at least with and without the stick. its in position on the ski. that he ski is slid forward. the stick. without this aid early in his practice. fications are so well incorporated in the The use of two sticks may be of help Huitfeldt model that the description for mountain climbing. equipped. On the av- shoe having a stout sole is desirable so erage. and proportionately shorter stick will be re- be heavy enough to stand the more or quired for boys and girls. These essential speci. and very stiff binding is the arrangement of the toe and strong. but if fashioned from sary vertical movement of the foot. provement over or the foot may be secured at the heel Fio. may rely upon its assistance whenever ing on the level. and it is a good The Requirements of Foot Binding plan to order the Huitfeldt model so The manner in which the foot is se. a stick 5 ft. necessary. a many prefer a shorter one. as well quire the knack of handling the skis as avoiding breakage of the straps. the boot is wedged into a firm hill running. many fancy turns and swings. although and well. and the skiing height may be such that it will reach shoe should fit between them snugly to the shoulders of the skier. yet straight-grain hickory. To secure a rigid support. the Huitfeldt bindings are for many While there are occasions when the reasons considered the best by experts. and often a help on a level. plates. proficient ski runner can dispense with The ski runner must have a foot bind. elastic. Hardwood sticks are a and heel straps. made by the skier if desired. As shown in to be of more real service. the skis are easily put on and cured to the ski is highly important. trifleheavier. while a sure of the body at various angles. withes originally The Skiing Stick used by the peasantry of Telemarkcn.2 the twisted birch by leather thongs. thus preventing possible upon the stick. but the majority and illustrations of this admirable at. from the the Huitfeldt type of binding may be pimple cane bind. be completed by adding suitable straps. and the binding may substantial im. Any metal- i n g which . as in jumping and practicing ing that is well secured under all ordi. but every skier ought casing the foot of undue strain when the to know how to use the stick. however. the extra stick is of no position between the metal toe piece at value whatever. tachment. but this at the same time provide a fairly rigid. and it must be quite rigid and plement for climbing and downhill run- without lateral play. but in use. long will be found that it may keep rigid under the pres. The also that the foot be freed whenever a beginner should not depend too much fall occurs. stick must be reckoned a valuable im- ning. and taken ofif. but the binding should check the learn all the little points of balancing vertical movement at this height.

which is . or other mate- winter wear. vided with a metal ice peg. Handmade for the Sport. since each run- ner is made from a single piece of plank. over which cloth puttees.ris. If it is desired to fashion the skis terial will serve as well. and Boots. the soft.satisfactory as the bamboo. secured with thongs or straps. should and no intricate filling is required. able. but are heavy woods. rials. or disk. procure two material the best in all cases. I prefer choosing the wood. ful for assisting braking in soft snow. because both the heel strap to the special heel. and this "snow washer" senses to keep the stick from sinking too deeply into the snow. Wicker rings.3 flexible and fastened to the stick with Skiing Sticks with Staff of Bamboo or Hard Wood clamps so that it can be easily shifted Having an Easily Removable Aluminum Washer or removed at will. or hickory. For hence the detachable arrangement is of value in that it supplies an easy way to ladies. concave heels. the shoes should job. the making of a pair of nicely balanced and durable skis is a very easy able. shoes for skiing must be amply large so that one or two pairs of woolen socks may be worn two pairs of thin. are much used. . the end of the stick should be pro. are somewhat expensive. either hickory or ash will give satisfaction. firmly sewed in place at the extreme end of the heel. Specially designed skiing shoes. strap and buckle. Personally. because is ash. smooth finish of the regulation mackinaw garments cannot be improved upon for outdoor thinner than birch. The sticks are shown in Fig. as well as strong and any cobbler can fit the shoes with either flexible. Regulation mackinaw trousers. a mackinaw. For clothing. split at the bottom and fastened with rule to strengthen the wood at this tapes to tie close to the ankle. as are also disks of metal and hard rubber. Necessities of the Skier's Outfit How to Make Skis For skiing an ordinary pair of heavy. although any suitable ma. Of course. and a fer. Ski making is far easier than have broad. since the washer is often use- the snow. For the coat. is fastened. Should the maker wish . or boots. A decided improvement over these materials has been brought out in a cup-shaped snow washer made of aluminum. This feature is a or leggings. are as point. To anyone who can use a saw and soled lace shoes that fit well are suit- plane. fir. leggings are generally preferred when a short skirt is worn. Heel Buckles because most of them are imported. ring. Afew inches above the peg a good as any. may be worn to keep out good one. In be fitted to them. close-fittingknickerbockers and take off the washer whenever desired. given me the most satisfaction. with belt and flap pockets secured with a button. about 9 ft. planks. and may be worked down much one. but is likely to catch and throw the made Norfolk-style. or a small snowshoe construction. with and without while good. long cloth of rough texture will cause the and 3 in. 4. In any snow to stick and make it uncomfort- case. thick. are to be Specially Designed Skiing had at the sporting-goods dealers'. have runner if used upon crusted snow. 3. Smooth-finish from the rough material. but to keep the heel strap of a binding from slipping. as shown in Fig. woolen stockings being less bulky and very much warmer than one extremely heavy pair.

In Fig. E. and split. is the material is hickory. hence the more grain present in the trace around it to get the correct out. and C show the run of the log in the crotch of a stump and cut a grain produced by the ring growth of groove along its length with the ax. in depth. an open. the less durable the material will be for the buyer should endeavor to obtain a the purpose. the tree. That represented by B wood splits. plank which has been sawed out from When drawing the dimensions on the lower portion of the trunk of the green. While the plan of the ski quickly grown soft wood formed in — may be drawn directly on the plank. select a sound how to pick out this desirable material and straight tree.greater. in the run of the and about 1 in. The over and make a like groove in the op. not be able to assist in choosing lumber hence be sure to allow for this and make for this particular purpose. hence the the width about I4 i'l. plank and the closer it runs. ski. the more line.. to start the of good and elastic wood run deep. timber.--.FROM HEEL TO BEND HEEL ARCH BEND lOt A Complete Layout Pattern for an Eight-Foot Ski: From These Dimensions It Is an Easy Matter to Fashion Skis Longer or Shorter by Making Use of These Well-Balanced Proportions and fell it during the winter. contain a will very likely split away from the larger percentage of soft layers. As ioned from this kind of material. and drive in small wood wedges. yet if ash is the correct length. for this is to be the chosen whenever it is possible to do so. When buyer should know something about the working seasoned lumber. because the layers grooves lightly with the ax. running surface of the ski. this need not growth of good wood in the tree. only enough that of wood showing the grain as A of the outside should be hewn away to and D. And this is so because in all by making use of these well-balanced trees the grain represents the more proportions. Skis may While wood of fairly close grain does be made in any length and width. best possible choice for wood is repre- posite side. Place the ters A. free from knots for at least 10 ft. The dealer will tain amount of shrinkage will occur. from the outside. and be taken into consideration. by noting the run of the grain. it the period of greatest growth. fash- split may be kept along the grooves. At some points the wood and E. there is practically no soft layers of gradually working them along as the punky wood. The let- HEEL --*t-. and When purchasing the sawed material. and groove. and often are. the while skis can be. the the strongest and best grain of the wood wood is less strong and flexible than will lie closest to the bark. grain in pref- and from the dimensions it is an easy erence to a close and even-grained matter to fashion skis longer or shorter plank. about 10 in. This eter. and F indicate the taking pains that the groove is straight appearance of rings. which is is an excellent idea to make a paper pat. and that of C and F. 28 to hew his own material. but by cutting these fibers. B. and laying this down on the board. Turn the log grain seen in the sawed plank. in diam. or partly seasoned. 6. soft and punky wood is present. 5 is given a selected. Rap the bottom of the sented by A and D. is very well shown in Fig. or widely spaced. but not necessarily indicate inferiority. the purchaser should select complete layout pattern for an 8-ft. . hence the latter should be make a flat surface. 7 to 8 ft. if for a man of good height. a cer- tree. and D. GROOVE.. in the spring and summer months tern.

it with lead. a stick. form will come in handy. or running sur. To finish the ski. side only. and it is an advantage that the entire ski be finished in the same manner. or cleated. but the novice is more likely to be may be lashed. width. for the foot binding should be put in. in straightened out when cold. never from the toe straps. and from ly when lifted by the top. 7. the hole sawed out. bend is obtained. When of the workbench. This to make the heel is most easily done by heating water in light and weight a wash boiler. as less snow will stick to the tops than Fio.7 seed oil to which a little paraffin. face. That the bend may be gradual The groove in and not too abrupt. the bend way. The ski heel so that they should be worked down to the desired will balance nice- dimensions before bending. and this inay will do as well.6 if varnish is used. The experienced The Wood is Selected by the Way in Which the skier is more concerned about the run- Growth of the Grain Runs ning qualities of his skis than the fin- proper diameter at the bends. should be planed perfectly smooth. the skis may be trimmed off at the from the point to the heel. there is no ad- oughly soak the wood by mopping with vantage in doing the boiling water. or the tips ish. the running surface. about % in. The running surface of the ski should be finished with oil and waxed. When the correct This is the best thickness has been reached. convenient. but a since the w^ood will straighten out small gouge. and durable surface is obtained by . sandpaper top and bottom smooth. ris. deep. is easily and % to 1/2 in. A groov- more bend must be given the skis than ing plane is most the actual curve will be when finished. if somewhat as it dries. Some kind of a carefully used. but of the running gradually work the wood and resort to surface should numerous hot-water treatments until a now be cut in. or beeswax. 29 After the outline of the ski has been After the bends are made. A very easy method varnished tops are wanted. for while a at the point may be put in by soaking few skiers prefer the wood well to make it pliable. tained. the bottom. or upper. and if the wood has been left plenty with the grain running straight and true long. has been added. and rub down with lin. and when the water boils. good 6-in. and if bent too much. place the ski across the top and thor. do not attempt to the exact center bend it to the desired arc at once. be furnished by making a rough frame The groove and placing a short length of log of the should run from the heel to the beginning of the bend. Of course. a glossy is shown in Fig. to the floor attracted by fancy implements. using a cloth tied to so. The arch which is made in the running surface is easily ob.

stir in 1 oz. Place some nails. in the bottle and cover them with a little water. of rosin. After it has expanded as much as it will stand without breaking. Jenkins. the balloon will begin to fill. Bore a hole in a cork. or preferably a rubber How to Polish Instrument Bases stopper. then pour a small quantity of the hydrochloric acid into the bottle and assemble as shown in the illus- tration. pour in small boxes to form cakes of A tube. provid- suitable. and cut off any parts of the mouthpiece that may weigh it down. as preferred. 30 brushing on a couple of coats of good melted. or melt up his cation of wax cannot be called a dis- own. tie the end with the thread. of turpentine and spar varnish. a tight fit is assured by simply about the process of wood finishing. If sufficient gas has been passed into the balloon it will rise to the ceiling. off the stem near the bowl. a few strips of zinc. This is a good method. and have ready a thread found that it is a very simple matter . Hydrogen Procure from a local drug store 1 oz. I have the pipestem. advantage when running downhill. if the mechanical and electrical experiment- hole has been made for the smaller ers that there is something mysterious end. In a few minutes hydrogen gas will be given off. Filling Toy Rubber Balloons with to tie the stem of the balloon when it is filled. as it may cause fright- Apparatus for Filling Toy Rubber Balloons with Hydrogen Gas to Make Them Fly to ful burns. Caution : Do not allow the hydro- chloric acid to come in contact with the skin or clothing. Man- drogen. Both paraffin and beeswax are iron. Contributed by Ralph C. Balloons filled in this man- ner ha\e risen to a height of several hundred feet. in the illustration for filling it with hy. Any boy can easily convert a toy of hydrochloric acid. of it will make the runners so slippery beeswax with 5 oz. A too liberal appli- in tubes and in cakes. When that climbing uphill is difficult. A good cake. of wax should be convenient size. but wax is made by melting up 10 oz. rubber balloon into a real flier by or better still. and if the joints are tight. Procure a clay pipe and break chester. and often one may see a really fine piece Tie the open end of the stem on the of apparatus spoiled by mounting it balloon tightly over the larger end of on a shellacked baseboard. for the running The running surfaces are often surface must have numerous coatings waxed by rubbing the wax on and then that the snow may not stick to the going over the surfaces with a hot flat- wood. pressing the stem well into the cork. Vt. and the skier may use one of ing only a sufficient quantity of wax the several good preparations put up has been applied. As the stem tapers. carried by every skier. or hard. Do not under any circum- a Great Height stance fill the balloon near a flame or constructing the simple device shown allow fire to come near the bottle. selected to fit some bottle and insert the smaller end of the pipestem There seems to be a feeling among in the hole. or cake.

transparent may be efifect the solder on while holding the screw obtained in this way on very ordinary over a blue gas flame. One coat of varnish may to tin thoroughly a small straight rod be sufficient. Straight Rod for a Lead Screw nish is then applied. The Paper Stretched over the Barrel Top was Cut after Feeding the Rats onIt for Some Time Clf kerosene oil is used when drilling.^ Contributed by John lage brush dipped into the soldering D. To make the woods. and when this is thoroughly dried. use an oil stain made quite thin with turpentine. which should be sandpapered A Copper Wire Wrapped around and Soldered to a when dry. parallel screw is desired for color cake into some plain water and regulating. — Con- tributed by H. but if this is not convenient. A simple way of making such a screw is steel wool. barrel. Next morning casing. rub down a piece of ordinary water. in Screw the following manner. Craig. Phoenix. even those as soft as poplar. the second one being A simple device for locating a drop. but within easy reach of an uplifted hand. unwound before soldering. Spreading food on this paper he allowed it to remain until the The Cord Fastened to the Door Casing is Easily suspicions of the rats were allayed. S. Ariz. Adams. rub lightly with fine the apparatus in a straight line. beau. wrap it with a suf- dipped in some abrasive material. Rub the After wiping of¥ all the surplus solder last coats down well with an oily rag while it is yet hot. An even pitch can be secured by winding on two wires side by side at Locating Droplight in the Dark the same time. and running a cord from it to the light. This wire is then finish with a simple oil rub. must be filled with a paste filler during the heating with a small muci- — after staining. although several coats of the required length and diameter. Any open-grained woods. narrow. Minnesota. 31 toproduce almost a piano finish on all How to Make an Experimental Lead woods. brush frequently as oak. it he found seven of the pests in the will make the work much smoother. such ficient length of bright copper wire as tooth powder or metal polish. will produce a richer finish. soft. Quick-drying wood dyes should be avoided. A securely soldered in place by running tiful. . it is A coat of ordinary var. rubbing it in well. some part of apply freely with a rag. It is not difficult to locate the cord attached to the casing and to follow it to the light. light can be had by putting a nail or Self-Setting Rat Trap A suburbanite successfully trapped a bunch of rats by stretching a piece of stout elastic paper on the top of an open barrel. or moving. Any color may be obtained in this way. acid. Simply Often in experimental work a long. such solder run freely. Located and Followed to the Lamp then he cut two right-angled slashes in screw eye into the side of the door the paper with a razor. and and fasten the ends. or turning malleable iron. Next apply a thin coat of shellac. Rushford. reaming. high enough to clear persons passing under it.

fitted. inet proper can then be made. should be rabbeted for a %-in. U by 14 by 28 20 . . frame can be made sufficiently strong. ^ by 2 by 10 in. The Smoker's Cabinet Makes an Attractive Addition to the Furniture of a Den. to hold the panel in place. ^ by 2J4 by Q% in. the drawer bottom. U by 14 by 31 in. while resting on the bottom crosspiece. % by 1014 by 18Ji in. The ma. Upper drawer 1 front. and se- 1 back. The sides In making the drawers. and be fitted and nailed in place. the front can be laid out and cut to the desired should be rabbeted for a groove to fit design. Hhy 3'4 bv IZVi in. 1 top. If it is desired to Lower drawer stiles into 1 front. square 2 rails. and sidepieces can pieces should then be squared up.« in. ma- terial. J^ by 5 by 14 in./ in. cured in place with round-head screws. the outer to crack. keys. % by lO'A by 14 in. H by 2 by 14K' in. The back the design. amount must be added to the length of 1 bottom. to balance the which the bottom and end pieces fit. or fumed oak. The stiles and rails of the door Door: 2 stiles. the rails given in the stock list. if such are desired). frame should first be made. It can be fastened in place with nails. into tenons extending farther. (not including tenons. These the tenons cut as shown. terial necessary for it is as follows The top and bottom pieces of the cab- 2 sides. The top and bottom cross.< 1 bottom. takes sides. when completed. fi by 12j^ by IZVi in. wide by 31 in. panel should not be glued in place. as 2 drawer pulls. the rails. fasten the frame with tenons. ti by 14 by 14 in. 2 sides. . The 1 panel. The 1 pair hinges. J^ by 4 by 14 in. an extra 1 back. after which or brass hinges and drawer pulls will the four parts may be assembled. 33 Smoker's Cabinet or Cellarette for the cabinet is made from %-in. groove. after which the door may be made and i bottom shelf. the bottom should be rabbeted for grooves. and extends out 14 in. 1 top shelf. hammered copper ind cut for the %-in. H by 10>i by 11 M in. Holes should be marked style. and be flush with their top edges up a wall space 20 in. Js hy 9H by 13. 1 piece for keys. if properly glued and held together 1 back. 1 bottom. from the If the cabinet is finished in mission back edge. and should be Made Up and Finished to Match Other Pieces of the Room high. by 4 by 9?/8 in. and go well with the general appearance of suitable keys driven in place. design. ^ by 4J4 by 13 VJ in. squared up to fit between the This design. j5 by 5 by V2li in. K hy 14 by in. _ the shrinkage of the wood will cause it In constructing the cabinet. The top is set in % in. with dowel pins passing through the 2 sides. Screws and nails.

or raising the heel from the ski. To make the foot. A or skating. when to select a frosty day when the snow practicing on the level. The body is thrown for- few scattered trees and rocks will do ward on one ski and the slide is made no harm. or upon a mild day stick will be found assistance enough when the snow is thawing. When this. but bending the weight of the body should rest the knees slightly to slide the ski largely upon the advanced foot with. Swing the ski purpose. he should see that his the ski until the heel rests on the snow. rather than strive to take long 33 . complete outfit is perfectly suited to his as shown in Fig. The feet should be kept as out bending the body at the ankle too close together as possible to make a much. that the other until both are facing in the same novice may get some idea of the cor. 3. narrow track and the stick used to This is the correct position to assume lengthen the slide. ski as high as convenient to avoid trip- Many of the positions required in exe. The expert skier standing on skis are easily mastered moves forward in long gliding steps if the beginner will but remember that without raising the ski. while the rear foot is slid forward How to Turn on Skis without stopping the forward travel. as shown in Fig. for it is a good plan to learn with both feet. most ot the body how to avoid them from the beginning. simply raise the point of '-' tempt to ski. for any active person. ~~H?unnin^umping aniXWitng''' Part II TJEFORE the beginner makes the at. raise the point of the other snugly and comfortably to the feet. This and the correct manner of as shown in Fig. A little rect position of the feet and body as. At the beginning when standing for a rest and for slid. 1. it is a good plan to endeavor to make ing. practice will make it possible for the sumed by expert skiers. When skiing on level ground the — gin with one stick or two if timid correct movement is rather more of a and pick out an easy-sloping hill with slide than the motion used in walking a gradual run to the level ground. the kick turn. couragement will be experienced. For the ini. while if the really indispensable for this practice. direction. and new heel. and this as well as turning should a long slide with each advancement of be practiced on the level. the single heavy snowfall. Be. The stick is under favorable conditions. as shown in Fig. novice to turn quickly. This be experienced later on in attempting will introduce the novice to the sport to turn on a steep slope. 4. around by turning the point out and justed to fit snugly between the metal back until the two skis are point to toe plates of the binding. no trouble will is old and settled by the wind. and if all turns tial practice outside. keep the heel down and swing cuting the various turns and swings the ski around over the heel of the may be practiced at home. 2. ping. The shoes should be nicely ad. first trials are made shortly after a and while two may be used. wherever needed to adjust the harness is assumed. weight being thrown on the advanced ski. it is a good plan are made with the advanced foot. only dis. holes should be punched in the straps the most difficult position of the three. ahead.

5. raises the with Both Feet point of his ski about 3 in. 34 step. If the Rests on the Snow skier knows how to handle his im- steps. The Body is Thrown Forward countered and the ski slips backward. hence it is extremely tiring for other than a short distance." and which is made by ad- vancing the foot with the legs some- what wider apart. sliding is easiest and greater speed obtained. on One Ski and the Slide is Made the skier stands quite erect. while in deep and soft snow less speed is the rule. without pulling it backward or making any attempt to push his body fonvard with the stick." and is shown in Fig. This slap of the ski makes the smooth surface of the runner adhere better than when the runner is slid forward in the usual manner. the skier will cover about the same distance as when walking along a good path. This is known as "side-stepping. four miles an hour is the aver- age speed. of course. If the hill is very steep. and the skis placed at not quite so acute an angle with the hill. the heel of the ski must be raised clear of the snow and the upper foot lifted up- hill. In doing this. is more useful when climbing the ordi- nary steep grade Raise the Point of the Ski and is far less until the Heel laborious. The speed of level run- ning depends. then the lower foot brought up to the last step of the upper foot. A variation of this movement. When traveling uphill.. When skiing on the hard snow of a road. which The Skier Naturally Places His at Right Angles Rather than Permit Skis is known to skiers as the "half side the Slipping Backward . On hard. and slaps it down smartly. the regular sliding gait will suffice if the slope is gradual. upon the condition of the snow. the skier will naturally place his skis at right angles rather than permit the slipping backward. well- packed snow. and for average level run- ning. but when a steep grade is en.

Downhill on One Ski and Fio." the skis being turned out at a less acute angle.9 Uses the Other as a Brake On Hard Snow as shown in Fig. and the skis must be held quite close together so that they touch. to Check the Speed go that the knees are ^'°-^ bent inward and the inside edges of the skis cut into the snow. there being an almost uncon- fie. 7. How- ever. The track of the skier will then resemble the course of a boat tacking through a narrow inlet against a head of wind. 6. Steep Incline When running straight downhill. Skis'nfat°irused at a decided angle. The "herringbone" is another step which is much used when the skier wishes to travel up a short and steep incHne. 35 plements. or nearly so. the body should be perfectly and easily balanced. To make a narrow track. one ski should be in advance of the other a few inches. 6 trollable desire to separate them to . most expert skiers hold the knees together with the back knee slightly bent. more or less. These spe- cial steps for special purposes are all useful now and then in mountain climbing. progress is faster and much. the skier will conserve When Running his energy by mounting the hill in a Downhill One Ski should Be in Advance of zigzag fashion rather than attempting the Other a Few Inches to climb straight up. This is done. This step is made b}^ stretching the legs rather wide apart and point- The Skier Runs Straight ing the toes out. by beginning the run with the body thrown on the ad- vanced foot. but when a long distance is to be covered. as shown in Fig. side-stepping may be done backward when necessary. and when full speed is at- tained the weight automatically shifts to the rear foot. intuitively. The novice will find it difficult at first to keep the skis to- gether. Wishes to Travel up a Short and hard work is avoided. and while more ground is covered than when The Herringbone going straight up the steepest part of is Much Used When the Skier the hill. A variation of this is the "half herringbone.

find falling the easiest manner of When making the start preparatory stopping. to lean backward and fall in this direc- and the skier must step around quickly tion. the novice may. the stick. This ward to check this natural tendency. and one compelled to keep his feet a trifle may fall with impunity providing all apart and make a double track in or. A comparatively will come with a little practice. On most very steep on skis. It tice starting from the slope without would seem that this would be obvious the aid of the stick to anchor the body. and to offset any timidity. This position enables the The Christiania Swing is Accomplished i by Pressing with Both Heels ai skier to control the balance of his body f] the Same Time While the Stick with more certainty. A fall on skis is by no means fraught with danger. secured by bending the skis are too short. reach much speed at the start of the Braking with the stick is only efifect- coast. sary. and . even the slow novice will have ive when the body is properly bal- plenty of time to make the turn and anced. much floundering is necessitated. should be firmly grasped at the upper end with the looped thong. providing the hints given are if the slope is moderately steep. and especially Digs Well into the Snow Above when coasting on a hill where patches of ice. to all. but when the position is reversed practice. or crusted snow. a groove. but if crouching position. and it is a good plan to prac. but this should not be neces- for coasting downhill. The long running surface of the ski will carry the skier over many bumps and hollows without disturbing the balance of the body or causing a fall.the end dragging behind. over the wrist. slopes. It is necessary to practice on rough and uneven ground if the skier desires ever to at- tain much expertness. this is quite out of the question. but not dreaded FjiLia by the beginner. where the best coasting is to be which so verj' often causes the novice had. yet the majority of beginners Owing to the fact that the skis do not often forget it altogether. or made without the knees and the body at the waist. it is a good plan to lean well for- by moving the lower ski first. When coasting. and for straightaway running. and plenty of falls must be expected. and soft spots of unpacked snow are encountered. Bal- ancing is done entirely at the waist. face in well understood and practiced. 36 gain a better balance. Many beginners der to keep from falling. managed if the head is pointing up the which will quickly come after a little slope. How- the desired direction and assume the ever. a condition usually found wherever ski- ing is enjoyed. even an expert would be will much lessen the liability of a fall forward. or sticks. the novice should have no fear of proper position by supporting himself falling if he wants to become proficient with the stick. will be somewhat difficult to do until Getting up after a fall is easily enough the novice gains more confidence. and the stick is kept well for- face in the right direction before much ward and as nearly vertical as possible . or strap. A good track speed is attained. providing the novice does not lose his nerve. the weight of the body will rest largely upon the rear ski. muscles are relaxed.

of the upper ski inward. select a steep hillside. maximum braking by the stopping. This is a very useful movement. the novice will have no trouble in learning this useful knack. While this movement checks down at an angle. the runner may be kept quite flat. or a hillside where the snow is old and not soft. possible and learn to depend upon the This variation of the side slip is easily skis for controlling the speed. pick out a fairly steep hill road.while. sitting upon it. be done while the skier is steering. since the weight of the body lower ski outward. When practicing is accomplished by pressing with these movements. 9. the stick. and is useful for stopping by traveling forward. side-slipping is less tire- with the stick and turn the heel of the some. but on ordinary soft and well-packed snow. turn the toes in and endeavor to con- trol the speed with the skis rather than depend upon the stick. and is especially plished by stretching the legs wide effective when combined apart and at the same time turning the with the braking done with toes in as much as possible. turn and the skier faces uphill and in stemming. For the first prac- tice. This affords the used by all good skiers for braking. spread the legs wide apart. by keeping the skis turning the skiing course uphill. and endeavor to retard the speed stemming. To close together so that the edges almost learn it. Aside from straddling the legs wide apart. decided angle to the course The '"snowplow" is most largely traveled. thus pre. Side-slipping may. with the feet a trifle the speed in much the same manner as apart. the beginner should both heels at the same time. Begin the run as for coast- ing. By turning the heel upon to keep the heel pressing out- of the lower ski outward and the heel ward. coast touch. and when good speed has been attained. and ""^tiiiiil^is^ii^ when one has learned the knack of it. This is well shown in Fig. Christiania swing with. or The "side slip" is useful on steep leaning backward on it held at an slopes. as in Fig. This is accom. and is largely used when coasting down steep slopes. the skis will Closely akin to side-slipping is the travel downhill with a sort of snow. done. skis alone. while endeavor to use the stick as little as the stick digs well into the snow above. and the skier is turned sharply . The knack of "stemming" is a vari- ation of the snowplow. the muscles are called comes to a stop. This makes the gives the required braking efifect. which plow movement. and turning. stemming will serve for braking and of course. are slovenly methods which so that the runners are at a every novice should avoid. On hard snow the edges of the ski may be used to check the speed. 37 Straddling the stick. inasmuch as the skier runs straight downhill on one ski. and is done by turning the skis angle. the stick. senting the side of the ski to the snow and retarding the speed. and turns the heel of the other ski outward and downward and uses it as a brake. 8.

To make it . Now throw the weight more forward and upon the made by taking a zigzag course down grade. hence the apparently un- natural position of the body is essential for a good turn. the right a trifle in advance. gether. and the toes close together. as shown in Fig. The Christiania swing. the skier uses his staff as a pivot upon which the turn is made. When to the right. If this is done with the right ski. made with- out the stick. The swing may be made both to the right and left. without the neces- sity for stopping to make the ordinary kick turn. and pressing it outward while the stick is carried ahead and below the skier. re- duce the speed to a comfortable walk- ing pace with the stick. and stem with the ski. If the heels are kept well apart. sidered a bit too steep to take straight. To the novice this at first seems to invite a fall. A good way to learn this useful movement is to run straight downhill in a snowplow position. The '•S"-turn may likewise be used for turning corners. the skier will have no trouble about swinging around in a curve and be off on the other tack. 10. About the only difficulty in making the "S"-turn is the position of the body. which must be thrown somewhat out and away from the hill. stemming. 38 uphill to come to a quick stop. keep the skis close to- a sharp hill is met with. but a few trials will soon prove that the weight of the body must be thrown on the foot which circles on the outside of the cur\'e. or "tacking. steering clear of any obstacles by snowplowing. the "S"-turn is made by throwing practically the whole weight of the body on the right ski. By bringing the stick well forward and downhill. and turning the cor- ners. with the weight of the body equally this swing with on both feet and with knees slightly the stick may be bent. is a favorite with expert ski runners when running on rough and steep ground and is a good way of stopping. or side-slipping. that is con." by making use of the Christiania swing and the stick. at the heel.

place the easier it is to keep the bal- tance of the jump. and not before hill with the level ground below. and well distance of the jump depends upon padded with 2 ft. where the skier is in a crouching position with jumping competitions are held. While but a few skiers may is really needed at the landing place have attempted such high leaps as the and at the take-off. in Fig. and as In making a jump of any height. While touring on skis across a rro. and constructed with the take-off will send the jumper well framework extending out from the up into the air. and becomes more and more difficult to make as the speed increased and the turn is made is more sharply and quickly. steep hillside. to repeat the jump. and a thickness of 2 ft. rocks. other turns. regulate the dis. stumps. and safe jumping hill. hillside. or erly sections. for drifts. Fiskertorpet. then. take-off may be level. The Telemark swing. and it is a pity that it is not more popular wher- ever a medium-heavy fall of snow oc- curs. When within a dozen yards perienced in keeping the balance. downhill or be fashioned level. 13. 39 ancing by running straight downhill place. make good jumping-off course essential. a Ruck Sack of Good Capacity ural jumps to encounter. or a pile of logs. or steeper. thick padding of snow is of with snow. an un. it is an easy matter to shovel since. all who have done much ski falls. To make the jump in good form. since. novice should practice leaping from a less the skier has enjoyed the flying. is easily acquired at slow and this is easily done by packing the and moderate speeds. pointing up or snow may be added to the edge so that even downhill. plenty of snow usually Foldberg. 2-ft. and likewise upon ginning the take-off may point slightly the spring of the body on the take-ofif. of course. is pro. the the skier becomes more proficient. or slope. like all should be firm but not icy or hard.l3 Each Member of the Party should be Provided with hilly country. as shown level place great difficulty will be ex. of the take-off the body is lowered until Therefore the usual jumping hill. the skier is ready to practice the For the safety of the skier. the jumper alights should be fairly the skier assumes the easy position re- steep. the arms extending back as in the act vided with a 30°. Doubt. and this merges gradually into with the weight thrown on one foot. together. In our more north- famous Holmenkollen. there will be many nat. connecting the When this can be done. rise and gradually increase the like sensation of this brief moment. sufficient snow to prepare a good and expected dip is often encountered. height of the take-off by piling more and very likely he has climbed the hill snow upon it to increase its height. well padded more than balancing the body upon with snow. if the skier lands upon a quired for coasting downhill. when running downhill. Arriving within a couple . places. and other rises in the snow down well by means of the skis. the height of the dip. landing of jumping. Moreover. Jumping on skis is one of the most exhilarating winter sports. the speed of the will make a nice take-off. and the place where ance. the outrun. For the be- skier passing over it. or consist merely of a large The knack of jumping is nothing boulder. the and alight several feet below. The height of the slope alighting. the snow turn. a rise in the ground causes the skier to Togain confidence and acquire some leave the ground for a short distance useful experience in jumping. but wherever a few sportsmen get running have done a little jumping. when well covered and padded A good. ground. and the steeper the landing chosen will. this One or two packing cases firmly placed has very likely demonstrated that the upon a smooth. of well-trodden snow.

New Yoik City. as well as time. consisting of an awl. it is well support the number of pieces of cut. This bur should be filed down almost level with the surface of the metal. The piece is notched to ad. 40 of yards of the dip the body and arms with the Telemark or Christiania are thrown forward. Leather take-off.. and up of the body. When taking tours of anj. leaving the edges flat and sharp." is the leap proper and must be sible pack. articles when wanted than if they are — kept in a drawer. it may be necessary to make a joint for the fish rod or perhaps a rod for the gun. the required diameter is obtained. Turner. The beginner will invariably ruck sacks are sometimes used. and bending the knees a bit and a stout cord. In doing so. and Spoon Holder Making Round Rods for Fish Poles The holder is ijiade of a piece of In looking forward to the enjoyment sheet copper of sufficient thickness to that may be had in the spring. These can be easily cut if they are sized and run through holes made in a piece of thin metal as fol- lows Make several holes of the desired : sizes in a steel plate. so as to leave a bur on one side. but are jump too late. It should be made of timed so that the body assumes an 8-oz. ance of the body. 13.length on and the body is straiglitened up and skis. the weight of the body upon the toes. dry sand. and profiting by numerous mistakes. use a smaller hole until lery used. a nice The Holder Keeps the Cutlery in a Position for Easy Selection and Grasping round rod will result. is a good. a few spare straps. and its back saw plate that is not too thin is about edge is bent at right angles to provide the proper thing to use for the steel means of fastening it to a support. a length advancing one ski a trifle to keep the of leather thong. heavier in weight and more expensive. to keep the perfect bal. which transfers swing. The straightening made with two outside pockets. C Celery keeps well in a small box of E. a plate. or string. Fork. temper to make the holes. sen- sats. capacity. known to skiers as "the with gores at the sides. It will be necessary to draw the wall or the back of the kitchen cabinet. That of the expanding type. from the edge of the vent chafing the shoulders. Knife. As the rod be- comes smaller. One member of the the take-ofif will be timed correctly. balance. A mit the different pieces. each member of the party should the arms are raised not unlike the be provided with a ruck sack of good wings of a bird. The jumper ends sacks are shown in Fig. but it is not It will save space. If a rod of wood from which the article is to be made is put in a hole and drawn through from the opposite side to the bur. since necessary to retemper it after the holes it is much easier to grasp one of the are made. to pre- less than 13 ft. . to prepare and o^•erhaul the fishing ap- paratus or the shooting equipment. party should carry some kind of repair- Alighting after a jump is best done by ing outfit. and ream them out with a rather dull taper reamer. but no better. These to lessen the impact. Contributed by L. but after a little practice. waterproof kbfiki and fitted with erect position when the jumper is not shoulder straps of good width.

To make this curve. The holes are countersunk that it will not tip easily. even pressure. The in the surface for the heads of the skis. Let them boil drawings. The top is made of three 6-in. At the points is a good plan to brace the tips of the where the curve is to be formed. When Prices in most stores range from 75 the skis are taken from the water. while the two end blocks are 5I/2 in. The sled will run easier if the skis have a slight rocker curve. side by side. 6 in. have the center block 6 in. and bend them ing the clock the small legs as well as with a slow. long and bolts. If it is not handy to Three designs of clocks are shown. high. from 1-in. plane skis with a 2-in. are cut 10 ft. or runners. It are straight-grained. put them in boiling which can be easily made in oak.on the upper side. for at least one hour. nary alarm-clock variety. A i/4-in. fastened to the crosspieces. ash boards that boards. After select- ing blocks. strip. so that only very are given by the dimensions in the little steam may escape. put cents up and the works are of the ordi- them as quickly as possible in the bend. EGELBERG npHE sled is built low and wide so cross strip. and be sure that at least l^/o ft.flat-head bolt is run through the ski. A good method The clock is a matter of choice. Weight the extending ends and leave the skis in the blocks 8 or 10 hours to dry. steam the skis. Provide a niture. wide. of bending the points is shown. Sharpen the points after they are bent. A Ski Sled By GEORGE J. that will match other fur- of the points are covered. ofif about 1/4 i". The sizes of the pieces required cover for the vessel. but do not plane off any at the very tip Clocks for the Craftsman end. or water. and the The Runners are Shaped Like a Ski and are Joined Together with Knees for the Top Board 41 . other wood. the block. This will allow the skis to be more easily bent.

as cut in the wood for the clock must be a desired. [ -KM . 42 the back plate are removed. and directions for applying it . The hole The finish may be a wax or gloss.

can be readily made from Galvanometer Made of a Compass Set on a Wood an ordinary oil lamp and a small round Base. will never blister un. on the lamp burner. The final coil should be wound lengthwise on a wood core. 43 turns of any magnet or bell wire at A Perpetual Calendar hand around a small piece of wood. by sliding The winding ma}. the maker will have no trouble in determining his par- ticular requirements. when the can. The illustration clearly shows the parts. dar the first of each month. and slipping the coil so formed into the slot It is only necessary to set this calen- on the under side of the base block. By drilling a small horizontal hole through the base. and the whole packed neatly into the slot. It is then placed. as indicated by the two dotted lines in the top view of the working drawings. any time up to 20 years. Yellow. . and if the date is known it will show the day. to get the proper month or week. burner will hold it firmly in place. in diameter. Massachusetts. If the top in raw linseed oil. It is not confusing and can be read either b}^ the day or date. Heater for the Experimenter A convenient small heater for heat- ing liquids in experimental work. having a crimped-on head or bot- duces the time required to bring the tom. H. as it is shown. comes too far from the flame. The calendar. is set for January. i s in. upside primed with white lead made quite thin down. or less. The can should be of such di- needle to rest after it has been violently ameter that the prongs of the lamp deflected. 1916. with Coil and Wire Connections can. A hole should be made in the bottom of CWoodwork about a house. Anderson. Connect up the ends to the binding posts. but after one or two trials. Such a controlling magnet re- the insertions up or down. and then glue in a thin piece to hold the coil in place. and so on. the instrument may be rendered independent of the earth's magnetism and used without reference to the north It Is Only Necessary to Change the Sliding Pieces to Set the Calendar for Each Month point. Worcester. strip around the edge. which can be cut from heavy paper or cardboard.be from two or three turns of heavy wire up to several hun- dred turns of fine magnet wire. — Contributed by ocher priming will cause blistering at Clarence S. If the day is known it will show the date. and even in making a hot drink where there is no gas. Saturday is the first day and Friday the seventh. cut oflf a less moisture gets back of it. and inserting a small bar magnet.

plying the paste or mucilage. its peculiarly solvent effect upon grease obviating all necessity for hard scouring. The The Clipped Corners Prevent sliding surfaces of the runners are the Adhesive from — smoothed with a file. . Con. Mailing prising speed by a light push on the In using a homemade paper wrapper shoulders while the rider rests his feet for mailing purposes cut a triangular on the front of the runners.6 in. and it can be folded up and car. Holes are bored in the ends of the legs to receive the lugs on the runners snugly. which latter will wear the tin coating and gradually cause the article A Camp Chair Constitutes the Body of the Sled to become useless for holding food and and the Equipped with Runners I^egs are more apt to rust into holes. Portland. withdrawal of the paper. Where washing is preferred. Ottawa. 44 Cleaning Tinware with Milk Some housewives advise a system of dry-cleaning for tinware for the reason that it insures a surface free from rust which is less liable to burn. This also permits the easy a pressure of 1 lb. or for use in a crowded car. Contributed by Coming inContact with the Paper Thomas Lappin. a little milk added to the water proves more satisfactory than either soap or soda. Inclosed at the edges and sticking to the paper CA column of water 27. Can. however. Proper Way to Wrap Papers for and a skater can push another with sur. Pouliot. will have it incloses. This ried under the arm. a blacksmith will make the runners cheaply. It is also handy for prevents the adhesive from oozing out putting on the skates. The sled section from each end of it before ap- is light. On a smooth ice surface. the sled shown will run easily. E. If the builder is not equipped with a forge. Ore. per square inch. Any camp stool will do for the main part of the sled. — A Folding Ice Sled tributed by J. or on hard snow.

smooth stave for the The tool is handled like a plane. care runner and securely fasten the upright. and holes made near each end for two screws having round heads. the arrangement F isemployed. long. and a support for the pan. 45 Groove Cutter for Wood A One-Runner Sled to cut some grooves Having occasion Just an ordinar}. between them removed with a chisel. cake pan filled with the cake batter. being taken not to bear down too hard. is nailed on the right side of the handle. to it in the center. I remembered an oven shown me at one time for use on a small gas plate. be pulled from the clamp. . about l^/o ft. tool shown Although in the sketch. nailed to the upper end of the upright. prevents the blade from sliding back under the clamp. For guiding the blade. A. such as may be obtained from discarded dry batteries. D. An extension. with in board and not being properly- a a center post and a crossboard for a equipped for such work. The thought came to me that with all my pots and pans I ought to be able to get some results by the combination of two pie Two Slots are Made with the Cutter. B. shaped to afford a comfortable grip for the hand. which is held with screws. In use. A pin. made of a short piece of hack- saw blade. which consisted of a cover. the guide F is adjusted until The Barrel Stave Has a Sufficient Curve to Make It Pass Smoothly over Hard Snow it is the desired distance from the cut- ter and then secured by the screws. E. The seat is made of a board. and a stew pan. and the Stock tins. which is a flat piece of hardwood with slots cut near the end for screws to pass through to provide for adjustment. two slots are cut and the stock one. which is 1 ft. In cutting a A small pie tin was placed in a larger groove. It con- sists of a handle. as shown on this was placed the . rather crude in appearance it will do good work if properly made. and on between Them Removed with a Chisel trial it baked as fine a cake as anyone as the cutter may bind and cause it to could wish. clamped along the left side of the handle by the strip C. a cake pan. These screws are for secur- ing the sliding stop F. I made the seat.barrel stave. and a cutter.. Substitute for a Gas-Stove Oven Wishing to bake a nice loaf cake one afternoon for dinner. driven into the handle and allowed to project about YiQ in. makes a good one-runner sled. Select a good. and finding that the fire in my range had gone out. a bottom piece. long.

from collecting dirt and germs is Gas-stove Oven shown in the illustration. B. just a little larger tlian the thread. and was then gradually turned than the spool. Ro. % clearance all around the edge of the spool. so that a small wood lower until the cake was finished. which acted as a heat retainer or Dental Floss oven. of such a size that it will easily accommodate the spool of thread desired to protect. Anna M. and of such a if nails or screws are inserted at points length that they along the edges so that they will slip will reach from into holes bored at corresponding the bottom to points in the edges of the other box. and make a frame similar in form to -LARGE pie: TItsI the one shown. and Stew Pan to Make Temporary floss. A good hot flame was used at A Combination A simple and convenient method of of Pie Tins. the top of the jar when the lid is screwed down tightly. is made in the center of the lid. is procured. C. A small cutter may be made by Keep It in forming a V-shaped opening in the lid. ing plenty of beeswax on it and dipped in powdered plumbago. through which the thread is to pass. the spool and frame will remain in a fixed position in the jar.in diameter. Brush the pat. Place through which the thread is' to pass. Pa. with at least in. with a metal screw top. spool firmly on the frame. CThe word "diameter" when applied tern well. formed in the wire and thus hold the mig. Cake protecting a spool of thread. and it will draw easily and to gears is always understood to mean make a smooth casting. A small opening. Procure a short piece of stiff wire. or dental Pan. the pitch diameter. The center portion of -SMALL PIE TIN this frame should be just a little longer first. A small glass jar. key may be placed through the eye Contributed by Mrs. thus preventing it from falling back oughly cleaned with a stiff brush hav. Allentown. The end of the thread will be held under the V-shaped piece after it is cut. The out- side portions of the frame should be such a distance apart that they will Box Cover without Hinges rest against the Two ordinary boxes may be fitted sides of the jar together as one without using hinges. The edges of this opening are smoothed off so that they will not Box Cover Using Pins cut the thread when it is being drawn Instead of Hinges to out. not more than ^ig i". The nail heads or screw heads should The edges of the V-shaped piece are be filed oft'or cut ofif after being placed sharpened to serve as a cutting edge. 46 and over the whole was placed the stew Sanitary Holder for Thread and pan.^ll metal patterns should be thor. . If these dimensions are observed. in position. into the jar.

and . has a mech- common uses. a IS-^^-in. The chief advantages of the auto- the trajectory of a rifle bullet. This rifle has a recoil-operated Fig. drop at the comb. and the details of the breech mech. anism similar to that used in the re- ative types o'f rifles are shown in Fig. action. must Rifles of these types are shown at B have a suitable weapon. anisms and sights in Fig. shown at B. shown at E. and sev. to be constructed at F. and by tions in the use of the rifle a moving- . principally with the hunting as. and that of the falling-breech- target shooting is a favorite sport with l:)lock type of single-shot rifle.The Sportin &n^Ho\¥toUse!f bij S-fillmarr itvijlor SPORTSMEN are interested in The mechanism of the lever-action re- and rifle shooting largely rifles peating rifle shown in detail at J. peating shotgun. A weapon of this type was page illustration shows several posi. and their peating rifle. although Fig. novice. is from the hunting standpoint. at K. which is a eral diagrams of the vital shots. or halfway half — magazine. used by Roosevelt in Africa. 2. Targets The merit of the military bolt-action and a homemade device for backing rifle lies in its great strength and them are shown in Fig. Anumber of represent. in comparatively new weapon. stock. For the from jamming at a critical moment. and plenty of stopping power. so far shown at H has a box magazine. of this article. the sliding forearm 1. magazine extending under the barrel. This discussion of the Several other types of lever-action sporting rifle will be concerned. That the repeater and the automatic. Almost all lever-action repeaters are pects. The subject of stock and trigger ad- The most popular type of American justment is one to which every experi- rifle isthe repeater of the lever-action enced rifleman devotes considerable at- variety. The zine. ease of operation. and the development of skill in — sometimes the full length full maga- the use of hunting weapons. and a hammerless repeater at D. loading and ejecting the cartridge. 1. A high-grade ornamented rifle used either as an automatic or as a of this type is shown in the headpiece pump-action weapon. The lever action tention. shown at G. has been largely supplanted by 1. have at least a general knowledge of The trombone. freedom stock is found a trifle short. action of the blow-back type. shown at A. are its hunting common big game. man of average reach. speed in firing and its almost noiseless The single-shot rifle. For use ex. as well as the good shot. and should and C. re- the types of rifles available. 3. many of them. tice. and as hunting is concerned. simplicity. rifles are shown in Fig. strength. other forms of shooting being of the tubular-magazine type. The rifle shown at I may be suited. with a 1%-in. a heavy sliding of the barrel within a steel rifle of the "Schuetzen" type is best jacket. the considered as good methods of prac. The full. The regular stock rifle is built embodies many good points quickness : to standard dimensions. by the ambitious shot a diagram of . or pump-action. the automatic action is based on the clusively in indoor shooting. other big-game hunters. there. 2. and often the of fire. matic rifle. fore. It is shown target arrangement.

2 at L a . much finer results tions. also. Fig. desirable in a hunting rifle. moving the rear sight. are rifles the shot to the right. drop at the lieel. An arm so hold the front sight just clear of the sighted is useful for all kinds of shoot. and vice versa. nient with the center of the barrel. and the folding-leaf sight is This is shown at R. Automatic. the use of a rifle must have a knowl- edge of the trajectory of such weapons. snap shooting. notch in the rear sight. at the extreme bottom. G. Military Bolt-Action. P. A\'ith peep. Lever-Action Repeater. about Various Types of Rifles in Common Use: A. while the high- power smokeless cartridges have rela- tively low trajectories. sights. into place. It is the . of The sportsman who wishes to master which there are in turn many varia. E. or slow-speed. D. If the sights are properly lined tion. Lever-Action Repeater. is but this may be done by a fair shot. from the muzzle. The black-powder. mounted on The proper way to sight a rifle is to the tang of the rifle. A relatively low trajectory is. and a combination rear aper. yd. Place a bag of sand upon the box. the arm will shoot to the left. Automatic. Only the essentials of the stand. with which the rear sight to the right will bring most are fitted at the factory. how to aline the sights correctly to get satis- factory results. shown at O. so that the barrel may rest upon it. Box Magazine. of course. For a hunting right. rifle the most satisfactory sights are In making the test. and the arms of the marksman upon the other two. and folding-leaf rear sight. with Open Sights and Shotgun fi in. of Every rifle targeted at the factory. then all corrections may be made by and Q. High-Power Repeater. will be obtained. F. cartridge has a rela- tively high trajectory. Rifle sights are of several types. as shown in Fig. I. ture sight. at game. Lever-Action Repeater. circle. and particularly of the rifle he uses reg- ularly. Blow-Back Action. Hammerless. The adjustment of the sights of a rifle is also much importance. front sight so that it is in exact aline- diameter. and adjust the sights for IDO zine: C. the shots should fall quite regularly H. He must know. English Model. Pumo-Ac. using the following method Arrange : three boxes. as in- dicated in the diagram at the bottom of the page illustration. Automatic. Box Magazine. The trajectory is the path which the rifle bullet takes in passing from the muzzle of the rifle to its mark. Put the target Butt: B. with the front ing. the buckhorn rear and the Rocky while if the front sight is moved to the IMountain front sight. The force of gravity acts upon the bullet in flight and the result is that the trajectory is curved. 48 about 3 in. The it must be remembered that to move regulation open sights. Tubular Half Maga. or other target. so that the rifle barrel may rest upon one. will be better than the buckhorn for quick found satisfactory. U]). The combination rear sight is bead barely touching the outer ring of used in deliberate shots at a target or the bull's-eye. at M and N. Single-Shot. In moving the sigiits ard types will be considered. first adjust the a gold-bead front sight of about ^••j-in. Combi- nation Pump-Action within a 10-iii. Sporting Model. 3.

The Diagrams Represent Several Vital Shots. the Moving Target.ihe Ofi-Hand. and Prone Positions in Shooting should be Mastered by the Sportsman. and the Trajectory of a Rifle Bullet ii) . Knee-Support.

The ofi^-hand position. it is desirable that a stand. rather than a few bull's-eye shots and ditions. with palm caliber. By the use of disks notch of the rear sight. shooting may be varied by rigging up a sliding trolley done safely in the cellar or attic. ful for the sportsman in stalking game. Shooting may be tried for a while at a when it is desirable to expose oneself fixed range. should shoot a string of shots every come a practical rifle shot should learn day. then the target may be as little as possible. On the tallest post. a little above been adopted by practically all rifle the wire. and the marksman can try his wind is blowing. The plate must be set at an angle about 10 ft. shooting. properly braced. the sportsman should learn how whereas the hunter often uses it. Then attach a stout cord to . tances. the After considerable practice at the . With reasonable used positions are shown in the page practice. The prone position hand at estimating distance. ard target be used. with a metal sheave wheel. do not cover up the front to draw accurate homemade targets - sight by drawing it down into the from the original. aiming to secure a good average. the prone position. apart. as the majority of records at the top of the pole place a sash are made upon it. and make a wooden target up his work. it is not difficult to score eight illustration. quick firing may be a suitable backstop.23- style of holding the rifle. to cover the bull's-eye. square. Do not how to handle the rifle in the several try to hurry. A arrangement. By fitting up stationary target. 50 rule ofgood rifle shot to "see daylight become familiar with it. The standard target has a bull's-eye The knee-rest position is often use. Another — gummed target pasters one target frequent error is to hold the front sight may be used several times. and. 3. take up outdoor target practice with or elbow resting on the hip. target shooting. If convenient to do so. and is ready to woods. Be- so that the bullets will be deflected to tween the poles. especially if a strong angle.. has wire. Instead is much used by military riflemen. like that shown in the satisfactory backstop may be made by page illustration. measuring 6 in. It to estimate the distance of the mark is easy to learn. tall. with body rest.22-caliber rifle is best. but of changing his sights at varying dis- they are not permitted the muzzle rest. It is easily made l>y fastening a plate of iron into a pack. Z. so that only of black and white paper — known as the top of the bead is visible. the novice The sportsman who wishes to be. about 8 ft. ing box." targets are inexpensive. one about 30 ft. shown in Fig. so that he may be able first. Several of the most widely many wild ones. stretch a length of stiff tele- In order that the rifleman may check phone wire. ground. setting up two poles. block W. The "Schuetzen" For outdoor target shooting the . Having attained monly used and best position for the this proficiency. in diameter for 150 yd. spaced 30 ft. and clubs. in the various positions. bull's-eyes out of ten shots. for use in the regarded as a fair shot. when using with arm extended. is the most com. A steadier aim moved to an unknown distance and may be secured. and more accurate and the approximate elevation of the shooting may be done in this position sights to land the Inillet within the than in the oft'-hand or knee-rest circle. The oft'-hand. This is valuable practice for positions. from the the bottom of the box. good shooting in the woods. but shoot deliberately at useful positions. The paper between the sight and the bull's-eye. and the other 3. and it is easy In any event. the sportsman may be sportsman to practice. to sight accurately under dift'erent con. the sportsman should pulley. fasten a metal pulley. The American so that it may slide freely along the standard target. is good for the high-power rifle. long-rifle cartridge will give rest. 3 ft. as shown in Fig. For indoor practice at a target. is used only in fine match very accurate results up to 100 yd.

Mechanism of Falling.Breechblock 7. Hammer. sight at T. and 2. sportsman who has yet to bring in his This area represents what big-game first head. like the Trigger moose. Firing Pin. Mainspring Plunger Seat. with a high- either the heart or lungs. Straight-Bar Sight. depends upon the In taking long INDOOR OUTDOOR FiG. Gold-Bead Front Sight. but drop the game in its tracks. L. such as a mound or hill. K. the sight should be is 100 yd. J On the shorter post. Folding-Leaf Rear Sight. if the two pulleys. and attach a sandbag. in preference to any game. the only. of it is likely to deflect the bullets. P. The exact spot. and. for if the pole is fairly high. may cause injury through stray shots. take deliberate other weight. because there is a good tances up to 500 chance of the bullet passing through yd. 34. for J. In fact. 46. Used as V-Crotched Sight. than other American big-game animals. Rear. other. Mechanism Lever-Action Repeating Rifle. the sight should taken well forward and a trifle higher be taken at the point S. which is released by pulling a string. to the end of the cord. 51 the target block. reeve it through the this distance. or animal is standing still. and as that the game the hunter more often draws a bead will be wounded while the game is running away. which is filled in with sand or earth. this may be used with safety. or trigger. a latch. 37. is at hand. just as good practice is obtained with a . the weight will cause the target to slide as rapidly as the average game bird travels. Single-Shot and the elk. If on the run and the range game on the run. . often dropping it on the spot. like old railroad ties. 63. within the dotted inclosure. 21. With this easily constructed device. 29. shown hunters call the vital zone. may serve to bring better luck to the aim at U. In using this moving target. land a bullet in a vent use of the forelegs. and may shoulder shot is used more than any escape to die a other. the high-velocity ammunition should be used only on a regular range. It is the object of this shot to It is possible to break the shoulder joint. 2 a rocky hillside is not satisfactory. 46. since the hunter . When a natural back- ground. M and N. Y.Breechblock. and thus pre. T and nose bullet. Front . If less than than the marks given. the caribou. which will power rifle. in the form of a crib.23-caliber repeater as with a high-power gun. Raised and Folded. or more. much valuable practice may be had. Q. Ccmbina- tion Rear Aperture or Tang Sight. will be certain to stop the whenever possible. Firing Pin. at which the lingering death. As our antlered game.3 distance of the animal. and its rate of shots at big movement. This is it is very likely the most effective of all shots. are held in higher esteem Rifle. 36. is fastened to hold the target. Locking Slide. Lifter. placed anywhere within U. The shoulder shot. It is a vital vital spot at dis- shot. Such a backstop may be constructed of heavy timber. and a soft- in the rectangular sketch at S. O. aim should be taken. the Virginia deer. also. is taken by the experienced hunter this spot. and Folded Flat to Barrel a few practical hints on where to sight. or where a suitable backstop is erected to stop the high-power bullets. Main- spring Plunger. Guard Finger Lever. but Fig. Cocking Lever 19.

The head shot. and is be kept clean and very lightly lubri- more easily and quickly removed. and if close to the saturate another square of cloth with game. and if it is de- of several hundred feet. moistened with the A good rifle will give a lifetime of solvent. and carefully swab eye. Such a cam. when it is a rifle is to use strips of cotton flannel. thick oil. Camera for Taking Pictures from a Kite By CHARLES I. or liquid vaseline. Such a lens to obtain a view from the kite. through the use of a kite a small camera. . shooting as possible. Repeat the point to sight for is the inside of the operation two or three times then : the ear at its base. This shot is most effective when sible. by proxy is not expensive and may be taken from as it were. aim to remove the carbon residue. care of it. and repeat until the barrel is service. size of the latter is dependent upon the nary camera taking pictures of fair focal length of the lens and the size of size. so that a kite of ing pictures 2 in. and the Black powder can be removed with a gunstock polished with linseed oil. land the bullet just below the the nitro solvent. square is satisfactory moderate size may carry it to a height for kite photography. also a film of gummy residue on the The front shot. Push a game. as indicated by the out the barrel. and the sight water to make a saturated solution. steelwhich is not apparent to the eye. but smokeless powder not arm and the time the bullet takes to only leaves a little powder residue. clean a rifle from the breech. if pos- ters. with a lens at one end and a would be possible from a kite. 53 must allow for the trajectory of his wet rag. is a brain shot. is is taken at the cross indication on the used to remove it. Any of the ready- breast. cated with any good thin oil. for the powder The lock mechanism of the arm should residue is then fresh and moist. REID WHEN a watching a kite flying at considerable height one fre- to a are box kite. Details of construction shown in the smaller sketches. a single achromatic an aeroplane. turning the rod so that cross. Always eyes and a trifle higher than their cen. It must be obtained camera. shown in the prepared nitro solvents are good for circle. take a clean wiper. dissolved in lungs. but reach its mark. It is a useful shot. midway between the of the metal cleaning rod. since the would be necessary to carry an ordi. sired to enlarge the pictures. but may be easily top of the head. hence it is necessary to devise one the picture to be made. shown at the right. and itwill follow the spiral rifling. The best time to clean a The barrel should be well oiled with firearm of any kind is as soon after any good. difficult to land a shoulder or front cut into squares of such size that they shot. The ear shot. If on a level. A camera tak- of lighter construction. the best point of aim pushed through the barrel on the head is shown at V. is taken at close quarters. or shoots when the game is couple of dry wipers down to the floor charging head down. us can have the experience of a ride in For a kite camera. Then just above the eye. briefly. and the sportsman should take well lubricated with the cleaning fluid. (juently wonders how the landscape A camera consists. has as its object to hit the heart or Common washing soda. A kite of large dimensions before the camera is begun. but it is quite possible lens will suit the purpose. this may era is shown in the illustration attached be done in the usual manner. of a light- appears from such a viewpomt as proof box. A good way to clean by the experienced hunter. and is used only cleaning the rifle. As the brain is well up to the will fit snugly. Few of sensitive plate or film at the other. by resting the muzzle on a few t!ie hunter stands a trifle above the folded papers on the floor.

and the Details of the Shutter Device at the Right ter is drawn back. Given at the Left. and the at its lower end and drawn back by a fuse attached ready for lighting. The size and width of the slit regulates the exposure. severing EXPOSURE SLIT light-weight. having the same measurements as the picture to be taken. A string. The back of the camera is a tight-fitting cover of cardboard. A Sectional View of Its Construction is ted in making the exposure as the shut. sketch at the right. Its sides are of the fuse burns up to the string. and Produces Film Exposures Two Inches Square. reinforced at the corners to insure that no light will enter. The fuse must be long enough to a few trials must be made to determine enable the kite to attain a suitable the most suitable speed of exposure for height before the string is burned. A piece of film. controls the releasing room for loading. The shutter is pivoted When the shutter has been set. 53 The box of the camera is made cone. Simple Con- shutter through which light is admit. to the proper size. as shown in the The Kite Camera Offers a Diversion in Photography. cut of the shutter to make the exposure. and Has Practical and Commercial Uses as Well. The front is provided with a circu- lar opening of a size large enough not to obstruct the view of the lens. and it. to which a time camera may be taken into the dark fuse is attached. the lens used. is placed carefully . It is necessary to de- termine the focal length of the lens and to set it at a distance from the in- ner side of the cardboard back of the — — camera the film surface so that it will focus properly for photographing distant objects. stiff cardboard. the rubber band. as shown in the sketch. The lens is fitted to an intermediate partition. The string holds the shutter closed shaped in order to reduce the weight against the pull of the rubber band until and air resistance. A slit is cut in the The Camera Shown Is of Light Weight. A shutter made of thin pressboard is fit- ted over the opening. struction.

and that the forming of lumps to reach by the use of a ladder. cut as shown in tlie a water-tight container. kite photography offers a pleasur- the required length of fuse may be de. providing loops for picking for the snap buckles of the shoulder many varieties straps.— Edwin R. the sensitive side. plants. or paste. mixing stick that will aid in this proc. AND SOLDER TO PIE TIN It was made as The best apple is usually a little be- follows :Two good-quality pie plates yond reach. On one side. able diversion as well as practical uses termined in order to permit the kite to in photographing plots of ground. be- nickelplated may be joined and pro. tails. of carry the kite easily. For picking apples or In mixing paint. Texas. manufacturing exposure. A wire was soldered at each device is useful side of the screw cap. being placed nearest the lens. spacing them to ofifset those on to form a useful the other sides. A. The nails cause a canteen for the thorough mixing of the paste. attain the desired height at the time of groups of buildings. Mason. 54 into the light-proof sliding cover. Itasca. long. requires care in construction and a rea- When all is in readiness the fuse is sonable knowledge of photography. Ont. By timing experimental flights. but nearly straight down will be obtained. The small sketch shows how the edge ess is made as follows Procure a stick : of the can should be cut to afford the of wood. the be prevented as. A securely at the middle. as from the air should be large enough to with a film pack. ginning the nails 1 in. 2 PIE TINS V i d e d with a Place similar nails on the other two suitable opening. — J. apart. T. much as possible. to a pole was cut into the edge and a screw cap. 111. and other subjects which can- The kite used for taking pictures not be photographed by other methods. The opening. To lighted and the kite started on its the person willing to master the de- flight. where it is almost impossible quickly. ture. Townsend. was pick the apple fitted carefully and soldered over the that I want. from the end. of fruit. Charles. other fruit from the upper branches of sirable that all lumps be broken up trees. that will take nails without best grip on the stem. Hamilton. begin. square sible to cut the twig from above or and 13 in. Danville. How to Make a Canteen ning y^ in. vents and pre- damaging Mixing Stick That Breaks Up Lumps it by a fall. as shown. repeat the process. 1 in. An opening sketch. so kite camera for the amateur has great that when the kite is in flight a view possibilities for experimentation. One of the box course. — below. . al- The camera is attached to the kite though other types may be used. as every boy knows. and can easily taken from a metal-polish can. A tin-can fruit picker is especially handy. so I were soldered at their edges to form fitted a tin can. and cut it about 1 in. making it pos- cracking. On Two sheet-metal plates that are well the next side. type illustrated is satisfactory. ted with a shoul- der strap ready Tin Can on Rod for Picking Fruit CUT opr for use. and by careful stir- shows such a ring will break up all lumps in the mix- convenience fit. drive five 8- penny finishing nails. sides. it is de. or paint camper or hiker. from the end. prevent the forming of lumps of any The illustration considerable size. R.

or coil. a solid ter at the start and set down the history drop forging is milled to make a shell into which the working mechanism is of weapons. and every man will find Advantages health and recreation through it. and for inex- pensive weapons it would be difficult to improve upon. and two types of frames are used hunting arm all the way from the bow down to the modern hammerless shot. This. may be reck- oned the inheritance which our primi. only modern weapons will be discussed. The Shotgun and How to Use It By STILLMAN TAYLOR PART I —How a Shotgun is Made HUNTING and fishing have always mechanism —securing the barrels to held the most important places in the frame — must be simple. and some manu- ism. the may be summed up in this fashion The : lock must be of good quality. the call of the outdoor world is still heard by millions of men and women. This lock is preferred knack of using it. the merits of both types utmost satisfaction for many years. and that the weapon may give the facturers use this type because it en- ables them to make use of a lighter frame. with the on how to pick out a good gun and the striker inside. the The Cocking Hook Is an Ingenious Device. The side-plate lock is really a development gun. of the use of the box type of lock enables the requisite temper. then. He had to be in order to secure food and skins. trace the evolution of the fitted. The Box Type of Frame Likewise Has Its Cham- tive ancestors have bequeathed to pions and Possesses Its every man. and while but few men are now dependent upon this method of getting a living. he will find it an advantage to know something of the way in which a serviceable weapon is manufactured. and serviceable. The box type of frame likewise has its champions and possesses certain advantages. Certainly it makes a strong and rigid frame. the stock being bolted to by some shooters because of its neat — the other contains the lock mechan. it enables the maker to use a spiral. For the frame. spring instead of a flat spring for The Side-Plate Lock Is a Development of the Old operating the locks. It would be interesting to begin this chap. Primitive man was an expert hunter and a skilled fisher- man. which is an advan- Hammer Lock with the Striker Inside tage. While the novice need not know the detailed process of constructing a shotgun. in making the modern shotguns. suitable — The frame of a shotgun that is. with Variations Used on Different Makes of Arms part to one end of which the barrels are affixed. and graceful lines. for with this knowl- edge he is better qualified to pick out a arm for his own particular use. but as this is a practical article of the old hammer lock. and the bolting maker to turn out a better quality of . boxlike form is not graceful in line. In brief. While its square. yet strong the field of sport.

and same purpose. toe of the hammer directly with the vices. Parker gun is pro^•ided with a hook. Both The cocking hook is an ingenious de- are much used by manufacturers of the vice found on American shotguns and finest weapons. owing to the short frame required to secure adequate leverage. This is a well-made gun. working a slide. so hung that as one crank is depressed the other rises and pushes the hammer to the A Hammerless Gun with Roller Bearings to Over- cock position as the barrels are swung come the Short Leverage and Make It Open and Close Easily to open the gun. The Ithaca and Fox guns." them. but in the case of mers into the cocked position. slide must be pushed forward to the . 56 gun at a low price. in which type of gun the hammer must be always at full cock. and long service are concerned. As the gun is "broken. and thus prevents them from or opened. To discharge the gun. it is mechanically weak. blocking mer toe. the principle upon which all cocking able figure. In the Baker. a bent arm The locks of the hammerless shotgun is pivoted to the breech to serve the work inside of the frame or lock. The fancy. To guard against the possibility of accidental discharge of the hammerless gun. placed on top of the tang immediately A Lug Forged on the End of Each Barrel. thus pulling the ham- The Cocking Mechanism of the Hammerless mers to cock. the striker falls back until it is caught in the notch of the sear. of course. American ingenuity may be noted in anism operated by the movement of the lug-cocking devices used on the the barrels when they are opened. To each end of this rod is attached a crank. used pick out the one which best suits his on the difterent makes of arms. hence the shooter may many variations of it are. This simple ar- Anson & Deely cocking mechanism is rangement is made by connecting the one of the oldest and best of these de. projecting into the fore end and the the lower end of the lever is brought opposite end resting beneath the ham. and to the upper part of the lever is attached a slide. The barrel. The hammer is thus made to levers of this mechanism are hung with act as its own lever. moving while the safety is in the "on" ward end of the cocking lever. and while it between them so far as dependability works smoothly and is so simple that it is not likely to get out of order. aiid is still used on many Amer. and position. it presses down the for. lug. close up against the triggers. Perhaps one of the best vari- ations of the Anson & Deely device is one employed by an American manu- facturer who makes use of a rod run- ning through the frame from the fore end to the hammer. Another example of are cocked by an ingenious little mech. This bolt is affixed in the frame in a vertical posi- tion by pivoting it. and is back of the top lever which opens the When Fitted Together They are Brazed barrels. there is very little choice devices are constructed. which is an integral part of the ican as well as European arms. for as the toe por- pivots in the end of the frame one end — tion rises when the barrel is opened. a safety trigger bolt is utilized. selling for a reason. As this safety slide is pushed. the the other end rises and pushes the ham.

gun barrels were made by combining porated into the mechanism of a few bars of iron and steel and weldinsj them American weapons." "four-stripe. Is Strongest ness." "laminated. This type the scatter gun fail to see the utility of of safety is of the nonautomatic vari. an American Invention. and five strips of iron and perienced gunners. By far the larger portion of acci- dents occur through careless handling of the gun and by the untimely pulling of the trigger. The Barrels of a Shotgun To make the shotgun less likely to go off in the hands of the careless gun. This device makes it impossible for the arm The Comparative Sizes of a 20-Gauge and a 12-Gauge to be discharged by the hammer jarring Repeating Shotgun off when dropped. and since the process of manu- but since there should be no excuse for facture is simpler. which moves the lower tolerating the latter. the former. and interposed between the strikers and their firing pins. or bar. This it may serve to do. the automatic safety bar. this block. and if he will pushes the safety bolt over the trig. The modern compressed-steel bar- The Three-Bolt Mechanism Is One Form of the Rotary. and it is impossible to make use Device Known for Locking tlie Barrels to the Frame of a safety device to prevent the acci- triggers must be pressed to withdraw dental discharge. automatically blocking them and the hand-operated safety quite suffi- preventing accidental discharge. dling his chosen weapon. automatically operated by the triggers. When these strips ers and firing pins until the triggers of metal were twisted to make a spiral are pulled. most handlers of end away from the triggers. for he will not be troubled through accidental discharge of his gun. fitted in the frame and extending from the safety The Fore End Is an Extension of the Stock beyond bolt to the post of the top lever. When the Triggers and the Frame the top lever is pushed to one side to open the barrels. sr "off" position. Sometimes bolt is questioned by practically all ex- three. The cient. Its presence is de- steel were twisted together to make signed to make the arm less dangerous the "three-stripe. he will find gers. for the tumbler bar together to form barrels of the proper occupies its position between the strik- diameter or bore. a first-class steel . The automatic t3'pe of safety con- sists of a block. type. or bar. will stand much in the hands of careless and ignorant higher pressure than the Damascus sportsmen. but being comparatively soft. but exercise a little care." and "five-stripe" Damascus barrels. The tumbler safety is a bar. four. Between 15 and 20 years ago shot- ner." and "Damascus" barrels. are very hard. This old type of a barrel was strong and flexible. either by dragging the gun through the brush or by nervous- The Rotary Bolt. The novice should lose no ety and can only block the triggers time in acquiring the knack of han- when the slide is operated by the shooter. rels are fashioned from solid drawn Bolting Principle Used by Many Gun Builders steel. tube they were welded together to The practical value of both the auto- matic safety and the tumbler type of make the familiar "twist. the tumbler safety has been incor. it was easily damaged by denting.

The selected will stand many years of hard shooting. nut. because Althougha great many shooters do of its compensating feature. and is gen- frame with a bolt operated by a lever erally made to order. oiled and varnished. It is strong and strong to resist any pressure exerted durable. considered when selecting an arm. for when the birds are much service. Italian walnut. When and fitted to the most expensive guns. English walnut. as the "hook rib" or. darker in color. and Greener. ican guns. When oiled and Locking the Barrels to the Frame hand-polished it makes an attractive stock for the knockabout gun. Mechanically this locking device is all Self-Ejector Mechanism that can be desired. lected English walnut. fine of steel barrels. This rotary bolt is tapered subjected to long. and when well oiled and pol- by ordinary charges of powder. fine English ican manufacture are labeled "nitro. known as the Smith loosen even when the arm has been rotary bolt. and they are so well de- factory on a good grade of gun. and the several grades are names to distinguish the various grades termed plain American walnut. Various trade names American walnut." etc. hand protecting it from the hot bar- ing devices. it makes a neat stock the cheaper guns are perfectly safe and for the inexpensive gun. score a miss. rel serves to lock the barrel to the sion rib. table gun builders vi^ill be found amply and of better grain. this handy de- the spring forces the bolt farther in as vice will many times prove of great the bearings become worn through value in the field. that is. and fitted on ent barrels sold under the several the cheaper guns. Fine American wal- names. All of these devices are satis. of a rich dark color breech. The several Walnut is exclusively used for gun- manufacturers have adopted trade stocks. hard service." and the cross bolt first used by mechanism. and those of Amer. Many of our well-known coming and the shooter happens to fast builders use this splendid fastening. forming a hinged joint to which and a fine curly grain. and it cannot loosen through manipulation. se- come from abroad. English walnut is of good color and with good grain. the breech end of the barrels is held down to the action and tight up The Fore End against the breech by a slide. closed. 5S barrel may be produced at one-quarter Shotgun Stocks the cost of the old type. The plain American walnut is steel." "armor steel. English walnut is usually fitted to guns loader the barrels were locked to the selling at a higher price. and affords a grip for the extended —— ers use various forms of top-lever bolt. While differences very simply a common quality of black wal- likely exist in the quality of the differ. the celebrated English gun Snal fore ends are both used on Amer- builder. "exten. In this usually supplied to order on the finest device a "lump" is fastened to the guns. It is therefore the fore end is attached when fitting expensive and only finished to order the barrel and stock together. The end is an extension of the fore which fits into the "lump" attached stock beyond the triggers and frame underneath the barrels. and likewise holds the ejector head. The Deely & Edge. but signed and made that it is practically the strongest mechanism is an Amer. or bolt. Italian walnut placed under the fore end. and Circassian steel. walnut. the self-ejector throws out ." "high-pressure walnut. Circassian walnut is the finest under side of the barrels near the wood obtainable. not use the self-ejector." otherwise known as the "doll's frame. impossible for the modern types to ican invention. Different mak. hence ished by hand. Hence and is pushed through an opening in this detail of the shotgun need not be the rib by means of a strong spring. Fine In the early models of the breech. All modern isa dark wood with a fine grain and is guns have the top-lever action. the barrels used by repu- all nut is of better quality.

" get out of order. it is not difficult to understand its popularity. and its cost less than an equal grade of double gun equipped with an ejecting de- vice. The double-barrel is a fer the repeating gun. it is well to make a selection at one of the larger the interval that is required to load the double-barreled gun. The ordinary necessarily more complicated. the shooter has become familiar in han- dling them. It will suf- fice to mention that it will do every- thing that a double-barreled gun can perform. 59 the emptyshell and enables him to as his favorite weapon. but when after That the shooter may not be handi- ducks. shot. Rapid firing is not always an advantage. this must be to believe that the repeater and the au. age man. The automatic. and considering that every pump gun is self-ejecting. the repeater will shoot A Self-Loading Shotgun in the Positions of the Action Open and Closed rather more steadily than the double- barreled gun in the hands of the aver. or self-loading. and while its mechanism is shape of the comb. mighty fine gun. it has thickness of the grip will suit the aver- some merits peculiarly its own. and after two shots have been pick out the type he likes best. and the man shove a fresh load to bring down in who swears by the pump gun is in- the following bird. fired. again the automatic so let the gunner . there remain four more in the How to Select a Shotgun magazine. Both factions can put plenty of time is given each man to reload between shots. dealers' where guns of various sizes. Repeating and Automatic Shotguns The Automatic Ejector Mechanism Enables the Gun- ner to Shove in a Fresh Load for the Following Bird While a good double-barreled gun in the hands of the average shot will very up plenty of argument to support their likely bag as many birds as the shooter opinions. the third shot is often wanted in capped by using a misfit gun. but in the case of unusually devotee of the double barrel is inclined large or small hands. good A shot can pick up almost any gun and do fairly accurate shooting with it. and the drop and repeater. The chief measure- Regular Way Before the Ejector Kicks Them Out ments of a gunstock are the length and gun is the logical development of the drop of the stock. The age hand. So far as accuracy is concerned. The hand-oper- ated. The nonejecting clined to think that the automatic arm arm is plenty good and quick enough is balanced like a club and prone to for trap use. so is the repeater and or pump gun is so well-known that no recommendation is needed. taken into consideration. For the aver- tomatic shotgun do not balance so well age man these measurements will prob- . but he can do better work with a gun fit- The Shells are StartedAbout One-Quarter Inch in the ting him properly. weights and lengths. of course. trombone-action. as well as drops in stocks. may be tried until one is found that fits the gunner the best. the auto- matic ejector is a desirable addition to the double-barreled gun. sliding fore arm. both the repeater and the self- loader will prove very fine guns after on to do this when fitted with a good — automatic ejector many shooters pre. for when shooting "clays. but for upland- bird and for duck shooting. but to the unprejudiced gun- is entitled to — and it may be depended ner.

1/4 in.. but for ordinary duck and upland use the r2-gauge is plenty large enough. with a killing range up to Different Parts When Cocked and after Firing 35 yd. and the standard load for the field is 3 dr. a small hand. In this groove is to as the other so far as accurate handling fit the handle. Butt to the Forward Trigger For the illustrated mission design. barrels. fingers will decide this detail. vantage for trap shooting. 1% wild fowling as well as upland shoot- ing. weighs 7 to 8 lb. and of the Stock from the a very attractive feature. and the standard load is Si/o dr. a T-in. For a Mission Candlestick Even though a candlestick is one of the simplest of the smaller household furnishings. 4 by 4 by % in. which will give cor- shooting. Contrary to the notion.. This gives a killing range up to 40 yd. of powder and IVs oz. The standard 20-gauge. will probably fit vided. For the good idea of a well-balanced gun. the 20-gauge will prove a fine as men differ. every shooter must decide this question for gunner must shoot well with the small himself. The question of a l^-in. 14 to 141/0 in. suitable for with more drop at the comb. The standard 12-gauge gun is fitted with 30-in. of shot.^nts are Taken of the Drop at the Comb ana Keel. in. will bring the most game to the novice's ba?. the small bores will shoot to kill if held correctly. should be pro- while a grip of 7io in. grip is about right.. drop at the heel. the size of the shooter's hand and the length of his small gauge. The 10-gauge may be occasionally useful for long-range duck and goose B-B. of powder and A Repeating Shotgun and the Position of Its 1 oz. The larger the gauge the greater will be the killing zone. range up to 30 yards. with weighs from 5 to 6I/2 lb. However. weighs from 61/0 to 71^ lb. piece of I/2 by 2i/4 by 3%-in. 60 ably be about right Length of stock.. 11/2 to 1% in. for the large hand well. it nevertheless can be made The Measurem. tending from one side to within l j in. for one is as good of the opposite side. shot. of shot. The standard 16-gauge. not the of the grip is concerned. for all practical purposes. and there are as many little arm for upland work. drop at comb.-wide groove. base. a For an all-purpose gun. only th« faces and eyes as there are men. or Size of Bore from forward trigger to center of butt plate. the 12-gauge is the best choice. It . say. responding drop at the heel. barrels. A-A. : The Gauge. but for use somewhat crooked stock in the field. the large bore. Best killing good length may be reckoned an ad. be regarded as shooting quite as accurately and with as much power as the heavier gauges. with the grain.. of pow- 2I/0 to 3 in. barrels. C-C. deep and ex- straight or pistol grip is purely a mat. of shot. will more fully meet the average shooter's although the 16-gauge will be found a hard-hitting weapon. with 30-in. This is cut. which is made from a of the gun is concerned. So far as the circumference bore to kill his bird clean. and up to their ranges the small bores may. A fairly straight stock of der and Vs oz. stock. from and the standard load is 21^4 dr. 28-in. ter of personal taste. with 2%-in. that is.

and three supports. at one end. a hole should be drilled through the top and into the pedestal. however. and squared off to 1% in. Contrib. The parts. whereupon the performer in- and varnish will give a proper finish stantly names the card written. Howard. to fit the handle. A carefully applied mission stain of paper. is a very interesting game. is This tenon is to fit a mortise in the the setting of the center of the base. as it consists of a triangular piece of wood with ten holes bored into it at the proper places. California. This is to serve as a tenon to fit a corresponding mortise in the \-> by 2-in. The chief draw- square. square top. back. No nails or screws need be used. but insures a good setting with the proper spacing between the pins. at the top. should be thoroughly sandpapered. — uted by F. K. as consid- erable difficulty would otherwise be ex- perienced. the dimen- sions of which will be governed by the size of the pins. as good glue will keep the parts together equally well. The per- . the per- Crossley. The pedestal which can be purchased at a depart- can be made from stock 1% by lyg by 5 ment store.long by 1^^ in. Magically Naming a Written Card This experiment consists in request- Mission Candlestick of Pleasing Design. With a lit- is cut centrally in the pedestal. The pins are dropped in the holes and the rack lifted from them. and Each in Its Proper Place interest in the game may be increased considerably. before assembling. Erie. wide pins. It is very simple to make. A tenon. When com- pletely assembled. — Contributed by G. Two persons are necessary. 61 isprovided with a finger-grip hole by % Pin Setter for the Home Tenpins 11/4in. square base to the lower end of the 1%-in. Los Angeles. square tenon. That will ing anyone of a company of spectators Appear Well with Other Furniture of This Class to name a card and write it on a piece used. pedestal and fitted to it. Aslot i/o in. The sides of the pedestal are evenly tapered oft' from the 1%-in. is formed on the lower end. Pa. former and his assistant. Its upper edge should be marked off from the center Bowling with a set of small tenpins. tle rack like the above the lower end. and 2 in. to fit the size of candle to be All the Tenpins are Quickly Set. to the candlestick. It not only helps in setting the pins rapidly. one shown The upper end of the pedestal is cut illustration straight for %in. in. % in.

'62 former leaves the room while the spec. which will suits. Previous a time. In thick. When the name of case. and paint spots to be swung over the upper edge of the from clothing. The cleaning mixture will then be ready for use. of pure castile soap. to this test. spades. The directions for pre- tator writes the name of the card on paring this emulsion should be fol- the paper. quantities of gasoline may be added at nate the name of the card. larger a table in certain positions to desig. Shake well. the assistant supplying the lowed out carefully. which evaporates placing the hinges in this position. on adding the first lot of gasoline and shaking. assistant lays the pencil and paper on When the bottle is half full. chloroform.of gasoline. and may be applied with a rag. and — not run from a bottle. and pour enough of the mixture into a quart bottle to fill it for in. which permits it moving grease. of boiling water. they entirely and is not injurious to any are out of sight and not in the way. clubs. and then add 1 oz. allow it to stand for a few min- the card is written. and the pen. The assistant. Y. 1 standing for Locking Window Sash ace. Zschiegner. strong aqua ammonia. places the to use two small. It is in the form of a lower sash. and pour oft the excess gasoline by the spectator and handed to the which comes to the top. 2 for deuce. until full. but strong. Contributed by diamonds. the upper edge nating the four of hearts. or dial. pour not more than ^4 in. Allow this to cool. locking both securely. E. The and add a smaller quantity of gasoline. it proves that too of Pencil and Paper will be Seen much gasoline has been added. of the lower sash. fabric or color.. assistant with the pen or pencil. viz. a sides of the table represent the card semisolid jelly is formed. hinges. and i/4 oz. the performer and the as. tar. and so on. paper to indicate the suit. and if the addition of minds. hearts. I'/j oz. It is interesting to note that the more sistant must have the positions of the gasoline is added. one fastened on cil is points to the num- laid so that it each side of the ber on the imaginary circle. and 2 oz. . 1/2 oz. in 1 qt. the mixture does not be- The Markings are Memorized so That Only Positions come emulsified. Shake well. of gum arable. % On top of this. divided into twelve parts indicates the number of the card. If. and an imaginary circle H. top sash close to The one shown in the sketch is desig. sulphuric ether. Re- peat the addition of gasoline. the four gasoline and shaking is prolonged. the thicker the emul- paper and pencil mentally fixed in their sion becomes. and shake until creamy. Wellsville. glycerin. In this paper and pencil. Dissolve. Referring to the sketch. N. knowing what has An excellent lock for window sash is been written on the paper. the paper is folded utes. white sirup. or small brush. is much used by dry cleaners for re. shaking each time. This al- lows one wing Dry-Cleaning Mixture of each hinge to An emulsion of gasoline and water swing freely. 1 oz.

As a full. up to 35 yd. since it will shot. The 20- wild fowling. the amount of taper depending on sidered the ideal upland gun. success. gun correctly. The may be had by choosing a quarter- narrowing of the muzzle forces the choked 12-gauge. a pattern of 300 or better. To handle the weapon well is the de- mum distance. it may be used for ducks with good the style of another. providing the produces 70 per cent. ber of pellets which any given choke Shooting with Both Eyes Open will shoot in a 30-in. and thus scatters its charge over throw the charge of shot within a rela. circle at 30 yd.. at longer ranges. the full-choke gun may gauge gives a pattern of about 245 be considered a necessity. although it is very effective make a denser pattern. A gun barrel at the muzzle from ^^5 to %o patterning from 225 to 250 may be con- in. out a half-choked 13-gauge. For a general-purpose gun. This gives the pattern sire ofevery sportsman. and cannot be de- plain cylinder. from the shooter. Guns are bored with varying de.TH£ SHOTGUN AND HOW T / / !'|/ByStillmai PART II— The Choke and Pattern of a Gun ' '' "LTAVING picked out a gun that satisfactory for ducks and upland ' -* "fits the man. the half choke novice will make a good beginning. CO per cent. For trap . should be held in a manner natural to choked 16-gauge will pattern about the shooter.. and the manufacturers pended upon to kill clean when used compare them by recording the num. Chokeboring on upland game. wild fowl. a half-choked 16- charge of shot together and prevents gauge. the pellets from scattering over a wide These are known as "open-choked" area. a The old manner of aiming the shot- pattern from 250 to 275 will prove quite gun by closing one eye and sighting 63 . and the cylinder 30 per cent. a well extended arm his 12-gauge should be capable of gives a better control of the gun when throwing not less than 300 pellets aiming.' the matter of ' game. which is flushed not is accomplished by constricting the over 35 yd. are the most efifective at short grees of choke. the quarter choke 50 per First of all. or a full-choked 20-gauge gun.. by giving free play to all the hence he selects a full-choked gun with muscles of the arm hence the gun . and this may be had by picking choke and pattern should be con. it is necessary to hold the cent.hooting and for ! ing a full-choked 16-gauge. too large a circle to prove effective on tively small circle .in other words. or select- sidered. and while the forward For trap shooting and wild fowling hand may grip the fore end at any the expert considers it essential that convenient point. from the full to the ranges. rather than in imitation of 275. guns. and this the size of the bore and gauge. or any other range selected as the maxi. and this knack from which we find that the full choke is not difficult to attain.

handle a shotgun more quickly and The Knack of Hitting a Flying Target with greater accuracy by following his common-sense method. for to delay even and point it at some small distant ob. points to the object. Should the closing of the left eye alter The rapid swing. or a bit strange at first to disregard the at a flying bird. a second will lose the bird. Of course. or in other words. To make this shot. and throw the the flight of his game. and one eye con. and the charge is thrown directh' at trols the vision. regardless of the eye. the gun more difficult. Doctor Carter and after a little practice this may be was the first great exponent of binoc. ing target. ioned method may be good enough for To make a quick snap shot at the fly- making patterns on a stationary target. and this For shots at quail. and the aim is taken by found when the shot gets there. A more certain way of aim- and when this is done. When a ject with both eyes open. and as the shooter fires point- closed. Vision is always clearer. and is the master eye. To find which is the master often must be taken. but to sight game. and if the pencil still ance of lead or elevation are required. and the charge thrown ular shooting. but for snap-shooting ahead and the charge sent at the point both eyes are kept open. This old-fash. The modern way of must be thrown up behind the bird and . the gun may be directly but it is not much of a success for thrown at the mark and discharged as wing shooting. mastering wing shooting is to point for better shooting may be done by» the gun where both eyes are looking. In shooting. and made for the swiftness of flight and aim the gun by merely pointing it in the distance from the shooter to the the desired direction. there are many good birds are flying straight away or quar- gunners who shoot with one eye tering. however. the right eye con. woodcock. and while but few men more accurately at the object than by can hope to approach this famous gun. It may appear When shooting at clay targets. or the gun may the left eye is invariably closed for cover the mark and be quickly swung target work. of hits. or sighting along the ner's skill. trigger and a fast man back of it can and the objects more accurately judged hope to score even a fair percentage with both eyes open than with one. the sights are where the swiftly moving bird will be disregarded. is the the aim. the bird. keeping both eyes open. and vice versa. right shoulder. the to become a good wing shot should shot must be delivered so rapidly that make it a point to practice with both only a very quick and responsive eyes open. the shooter along the rib and attempt to see the must calculate the speed of the flying bead on the muzzle end can only make target and allow the probable time it a slow and poky shot. the shooter is not barrel below the bird. will take for the shot to reach its mark. shot at the point where the line of the the right eye naturally governs the aim and the flight of the bird intersect. hold a pencil out at arm's length chances of missing. ing a snap shot is to throw up the trols the line of aim. every one can learn to barrel in the old manner. or else the gun must be shot from tance within the killing zone of the iie left shoulder. which is many times weapon. closing one eye. Snap- pointing the gun at the object to be shooting is only possible when the hit. no allow- the left eye. and par- is so because habit has trained the eye tridge in the brush. then close bird rises near the shooter. the right eye must be trained most accurate manner of using the by practice until it becomes the master shotgun. but the novice who is anxious blank at the rapidly moving bird. the quick snap shot to do this. For fine rifle shooting quickly as possible. then rapidly so likely to make mistakes in estimat. done quickly. allowance must be sights and keep both eyes open. 64 along the rib is fast becoming obsolete. at all angles and at any dis- *ye. swing it to the proper elevation ahead ing the distances and the rapidity of of the moving target.

and '^g oz. swing of the arm. measure shooting. of bulk measure. shooting high and low. likely to make is the natural one of of No. and to the field and learn how to handle it the recoil of the gun will appear much by practicing at flying game. Stationary-Target Practice say. 65 then rapidly swung ahead of it. begin your first practicing with a light powder-and-shot charge. and be identical with the flight of the bird. as now strive for is to train the eye.:s- give the proper lead. and and when this can be done without making the hundred and one mistakes flinching. is all right for duck shooting where the game is usually seen approach- ing and thus remains within The Forward Hand may Grip the Fore End at Any Point. and there get than is likely to be felt during is scarcely a poorer way of becoming the excitement incidental to shooting a wing shot. then shove the gun ahead to . plenty of allowance for the time necessary to press the trigger and deliver the shot at the determined point will be made. painting a 4-in. or two. because the gunner is in. this. targets will enable the gunner to make gets to observe the many little points a good score by deliberate holding. and usually useful holding a dead-on to the large mark. To swing deliberately and }%^ cover the bird with the sight. made by obtaining a dozen. well as a trained eye to calculate the and gun to work in unison. snap and wing shooting may of judgment he would not be guilty begin. the novice should To avoid flinching and other move- confine his practice to this practical ments of the head and body. and using the gun. for wild fowling. try a shot. of gunnery. of when practicing at a stationary mark. But '\^yi Well. begin by shooting at a press the trigger without stopping the fixed mark. The inasmuch as the gun follows it. about 3 dr. in the field. circle in the center ot ing the charge without checking the each sheet. 8 or 9 shot. A good target maj^ be upward and even swing of the barrels. throw. In this style of snap. Tack it up on a board fence. The object which the gunner should ing quickness in throwing the gun. There is no ad- supposing that he must take his gun vantage in using a heavier charge. but a range for a longer time. the recoil. and if shot will not the gun is swung about three times as fast as the bird is traveling.. and since the rapid swing is and it an easy matter to de- will be the only accurate manner of cutting termine the result of your skill in down the fast bird. or The firstgreat mistake the novice is its equivalent in smokeless. A dozen shots at these tent upon bagging the game and for.Extenc^ed Arm Gives a Better Control of the Gun this deliberate style of hand- ling the gun is far too slow for the spread very much at this short range. and to do distance from and the speed of the fly. This is greater in deliberate shooting at a tar- by no means the best method. Snap and wing shooting is the Snap and Wing Shooting last word in shotgun handling. the elevation of the gun must off 60 ft. bring the gun quickly to the ing target. requir. uplands. caused by style of wing shooting. At the first few trials some difficulty sheets of stout wrapping paper and may be encountered with the pressing . To acquire confidence in shoulder. or on a board hung on a tree. point it to the mark. hand.

and ing both hands. to side. but rather hard to pic. since it is not how much one Practice swinging slowly. to pass unnoticed when after game. the novice will see the point. and very likely trol of the weapon than many old it will be found that the natural ten. he has acquired better con- of the moving barrel. . being able to hit the mark with the Snap-Shooting at Moving Targets center of the charge pretty regularly. concentrating the set by shooting too long at a time. Do not to practice slowly and master each de- attempt to check the even swing of tail in turn. changing the angle Train the Eye. practically every novice makes when but a little practice will soon tell how in the field. acquires profi- SWING GUN ACROSS TARGET AS IN- ger is not pulled DICATED BY ARROWS AND ciency in swinging by the forefinger SHOOT IN PASSING the gun from side V. "press the trig. fore end pushing and and Pulling the Trigger without risfllt tO left and Up- Stopping the Motion o£ the Barrels^ . but how well. shooters. it will be discovered that point where he can hit the stationary the speed of pressing the trigger must target by swinging his gun both fast also be increased to balance the speed and slow. although the error is likely to time the shots. Hand. Pointing It at the Mark. and he is well prepared to dency is to press the trigger a bit late. increase the speed of the swing. that counts. box of 25 loads is ample for a day's stant the line of aim covers the mark. Note the phrase. of the swing with by Bringing the Gun Quickly to the forward hand on the each shot. The access to a gun club . only making proper grip of the weapon. This possible to hit the mark with a fair is easily done. ture. by guess. as it is the back- ting the mark. 66 of the trigger at the proper moment. but rather let the barrels take of overdoing the thing at the out- swing past the mark. try swing- alone. In When the gunner has reached the doing this. paratively easy. Do not make the mis- the gun. until it is and squeezed at the same instant. from Shoulder. try a snap shot by bone of snap-shooting. i_ closing. right will be rapid if the novice is willing to left and also left to right. A mind upon pressing the trigger the in. and one should always begin slowly and also discover the fact that the recoil of increase the speed of the swing as the arm is much lessened by this he becomes more expert. certainty from a variety of angles. The manner of acquiring shooting to throwing the gun to the expertness sounds easy and is com- shoulder. practice. but rather pressed by clos- ing the gun at dif- ferent angles. and. After a few trials with an empty When trying out the several swings. gun. and the hand i ward. sure to shoot by calculation and not Confine the first practice in snap. and so on. As the gunner ger. the Gun to Work in Unison. and when proficient in liit. at an oblique grasping the stock being drawn back angle upward." for the trig. improvement swinging the gun from the side. take up snap-shooting at flying or mov- This is the common mistake which ing targets. and after shoots.

barrels. at the muz- highly instructive sport. never to put his gun away until it is Better than this is one of the inex. with the mechanism. with tightly fitting corks. much One of the large powder manufacturers future trouble is saved. will the best results can only be had when prove of much value. Practice of this sort rags. For removing The use of the second barrel should any rust deposits. wire cleaner is the only suitable imple- ment for this work. and fail not to the metal. or Practice swinging from various angles gun ropes may be run through the as directed for the initial practice. In cleaning makes a trap of this kind. Clean from the breech end only. since chamois is likely to an old seasoned sportsman who will absorb more or less moisture. outside as well as inside the profit by the mistakes which must in. It is absolutely necessary. at the breech and the gun to cover the second target. but the novice had handling the gun. The sooner firearms are pensive "hand traps" which project the cleaned after the firing the better.50 use an old piece of carpet or a bundle of a barrel of 500. Two-shot practice should rod as it is pushed through the barrel begin by placing two paper targets from the breech to the muzzle. as well as relating better leave well enough alone and not to the haunts and habits of our wild attempt to dismount the locks or tinker game birds. standard clay targets cost about $2. by smearing on a little heavy evitably occur to all who try to master lubricating oil. the idea of becoming an all-around plenty of cloth should be run through wing shot. cleaned.50. taking care that it touches needed to kill a cripple. If a rest is needed. of the average gun repairman. providing the zle will greatly impair the shooting targets are projected from different qualities of any firearm. a brass brush may be not be overlooked in practicing with used. amateur should make it a positive rule panion. in. wire-wheel scratchbrush. but stout woolen covers afield. apart. and bottles. will afford the needed variety. cover proficiency is gained. and if his acquaintance includes are better. but as than to trust it to the crude methods with all tools of the sportsman's craft. There are several Value of Second Barrel in Shooting good cleaners to be had. and a very the barrels. much The mechanism of a gun is not may be learned regarding the knack of exactly complicated. while for ordinary cleaning. barrels after soaking them in some creasing the speed of the swing as good oil. had time to corrode the steel. conducted along barrels before putting them in the these lines. the gunner may venture leather case. Slip covers of chamois the shotgun. to ship it to the factory for repairs liable and dependable weapon. gun wisdom always to clean the bits of brick. and the the air at unknown angles by a com. . ma}' be made a very interesting and as any slight dust. Never use a and unexpected angles. To prevent rusting. muzzle. bird. thrown in weapon after a day's shooting. it is better A good shotgun is a thoroughly re. and regulation clay targets by means of if cleaned before the burnt powder has a powerful spring worked by a trigger. The against the floor. but this is not the arm is in good condition. or burr. thus simulat. After a reasonable are often used to protect the stock and amount of practice. point out the mistakes made. When about 20 ft. never rest the muzzle good trap can be had for $1. but if so injured. or bring down every part of the interior. 67 where clay birds may be shot at. for the second shot is often the barrels. as it will ing the many-angled flight of the live scratch the polished steel a soft brass- . The modern steel barrel is very hard and not easily Cleaning and Care of the Gun dented. This is a bird which has been missed with the easily done by rotating the cleaning first shot. the barrels the first one and continuing to swing should be stopped. then shooting at putting the gun away. since tin cans.

the sec- tions. tions. «s A gun should be given ordinary. be changed if such a change it on wood. The frames in- sary taps and closing the asbestos pieces are hinged dies are not at together. of V's-in. barrels. The screws. good care. wet the wood to one desires to practice trigger pressing. These place the supports under the tray will frames may be made from heavy tin have to be determined by experiment. serve the purpose of legs. time then rub down with oil until the . se. and those of the inner por- or knobs. In needed in small devices. as shown in Fig. the stockis probably finished in oil and wood is saturated with it. b}' placing them at an angle to Snapper-Shell Ash Tray each other. If extra-fine polish. The every purpose very well. The fastening-screw square. or for experi. and when in use. Four brass. do not re- a if one makes a practice of opening it varnish the stock. The it that some of the metal is cut away WOOD KNOB exact points to where the hinges are attached. of metal can be left on each one to fasten course. be folded up and thus occupy much less space. into shape. 1. Snapping the triggers on an mover. the screen consists of a light mental work. Enough size of the different sections can. Of course. with a cloth. put a couple of empty shells in the fine sandpaper. raise the grain rub down with very . outer portions of the frame are given or wood. snapping . and spoil the appearance of the arm. and this size determines the arrangement on these will answer outside dimensions of the screen. in Fig. and polish hand-rubbed to a nice. and it will be a sim- as no two shells are of exactly the same ple matter for a tinner to bend them shape. sheet asbestos. and this is not forthcoming If good finish is wanted. with spe- hand. On cheap arms the varnish is usually and the stock will be as fine in ap- employed to give an attractive finish pearance as if it had the "London oil in the store. but remove all the and letting the barrels drop down with old varnish by using a little varnish re- a bang. are given in Fig. and rub down with oil. using plenty of pressure. as shown at B. After all these pieces are . Brass Machine Screws with Nuts A Portable Fire Screen When small brass machine screws The fire screen illustrated can be and threaded nuts to fit them are constructed at very small expense. ^ and the neces. wet the wood again. as shown at A. 3. sruns. For an empty barrel is likewise foolish. or they can will better suit the existing needs. metal frame surrounding three pieces ^. as joining edges of the frames are made shown. or galvanized iron. 2. By be cut. hole for the nut. durable polish. this varnish finish" supplied with all high-grade will scratch.turtle The dimensions and form of the shell. globe holders and cut out the threaded The asbestos comes in sheets 40 in. and sandpaper a second or a third If one owns a good-grade shotgun. or edges. where the hinges are cured with attached. and otherwise come oft. balls. secure cial hinges made to meet the require- some old brass ments. brief. An odd and unusual ash tray can be which would be required if the screen made from a were in one straight piece. if they are to be making the screen in sections it may soldered to metal. will keep wider than the others for the reason balanced.

to hold the frame in shape. holes are drilled in each of llllillllillllllllllllllllllllllllp'" these pieces as indicated. Slots are cut in the inner edges of the frames of such dimensions as will accommo- date these brass pieces. 69 bent. that can be played instead of solitaire. The as- on the asbestos sheets. Two %-in. Ob- tain eight pieces of Vs-in. the frames are riveted together. Make sure that there is no solder run in between the rod and piece of brass. Notches are cut in the edges of the asbestos sheets at the location of the hinges to allow the lat- SECTION OF OUTER FRAME FlG. inner edges of the frame to hold it making sure that they clamp tightly tightly against the asbestos.fit them together at the corners. The sections of the screen may be made very rigid by plac- ing a number of small rivets around the . 4. steel rod. There is an interesting old game zontal. Tossing a Card at a Mark Accurately The vertical portions of the frame should be placed inside of the hori.2 FiG. The location of these slots is given in Fig. long.S i —'^ FlG. It consists in trying to toss the great- Make four pieces of brass having the form and dimensions given in Fig. After the hinges are in place. 1.4 Fire Screen Made of Sheet Asbestos Inclosed in Thin Metal Frames Hinged Together ter freemovement. as these help bestos may be given a coat of bronze. Place the ends of the brass pieces in the slots in the inner frame and then put the rods through the holes in the ends of them and sol- der the ends of the rods to the inside of the frames. pieces at the corners. provide a small round-head rivet of proper length for each of the holes. about 3 in. or end. as this will prevent the hinge from operating freely. Drill a or be otherwise decorated for appear- small hole in each of the corners and ance.

which is just Concealing the House Key 4 times as fast as the 39-in. seeking to enter The swing amounts to about % in. the house would look in these places and appears so vigorous that it is al- first of all. saw cut. long and key. it will scarcely be noticed by anyone not in the secret. Therefore. hole. the same length as the key. . fo A Comb Cleaner pieces of tin. two being cut to form swings per min- a curved slot. making the projections as wide as the At one end of this cylinder solder a 1-in. The experiment was made as that an unau. If the key is placed in the cylinder and the latter pushed into the hole until it is flush with the surface. it was found that the balance wheel of the watch in question made 210 one- way swings per minute. with the result that the thorized person watch keeps on swinging continuously. 41/^ in. deeper than the length of the spring sheet brass. Notches are cut in der. pendulum. which will make it appear as in the illustration. so that the ends of the brass with a hacksaw. or about mat. according to the foregoing cealing the house key under the door law. illustrated. The brass is sprung into of swings vary- the slot. The the square root wire should be very fine and two of the length.. Matter. about combs can be made from a piece of 1/4 in. the latter will slide easily into the hole. or in the 2y^ in. and by painting it the same color as the railing it will become still — more inconspicuous. when the wheel of the watch. The question the family has then arises as to what would happen not enough keys ifthe watch itself were suspended so as to go around. most incomprehensible that the small A simple and effective hiding place spring in a watch should be able to for thekey can be quickly and easily maintain so much weight in continuous made with the aid of an auger and two motion for Ji4 hours. strands twisted together and run By actual count through the notches. and in the A very handy device for cleaning edge of this bore a %-in. wide. and then fine wire is stretched ing inversely as between the ends in the notches. Portland. The brass is then bent into A pendulum 39. the number third piece. The time-honored custom of con.. which consists of three make 60 one-way pieces of wood. a pendulum Vie ^s long. Ore.1 shape with a special clamp made for in. long will the purpose. then fastened to the ute. disk of tin. would swing in unison with letter box. is to swing as a pendulum of the latter so well known length. A Mysterious Watch A very interesting experiment may be made with the ordinary dollar watch in illustrating the law of the The Twisted Wires Form an Excellent Device Cleaning a Comb for pendulum. Pick out an obscure sec- tion of the porch railing. Contributed by Frank L. Make a piece of tin into a cylin- about 3 in.

and a smooth-running a black bass. more a mat. may be gained after reasonable appli. The A good firearm is necessary to the one-piece rod is classed by many an- good marksman and a well-made. the 5-ft. the superiority of one over curacy only. on the lake. the other in this regard is rather to be siastic casters together. back yard is made for distance and ac. The handling of the short rod friends. while not embodying ev- pike and the muskellunge. although large expenditure is not necessary in obtain- ing from the free reel probably has a ing a satisfactory outfit. is the stiff action of the tip section. rod is better than the is plenty of action in casting from the 5-ft. is the more generally used. shooting a wooden min. the rod than its length. length for fishing purposes. the fun of handling a good outfit is A fairly good rod may be bought for combined with the sport of coaxing out $2 or a trifle less. to which is two-piece rod is handier to pack and is clamped a smooth-running reel. rod is more resilient than the angling of this t3'pe so universally pop. and you may found in the elasticity and quality of have an interesting little tournament. However. moreover. long. The skill of held on a vacant lot. of course. the wall-eyed crimination. ter of skill than of outfit. The pleasure of handling a the caster regards length of cast as the short bait-casting rod is in itself a good important factor. and reel. but the knack the most pleasant to handle. the angler er3-thing that a critical angler would gets a taste of fishing —plus. and it is its variety that has made the 6-ft. The 51/^-ft. An or casting the bait for those pirates of outfit of this kind purchased with dis- our fresh-water lakes. a fairly stiff reason why the angler should be han. The casting wider appeal than any other branch of rod may be from 5 to 6 ft. The nicely balanced rod. A fine-quality casting rod contemplative recreation and when — of split bamboo costs from $10 to $25. tip. reel for another $2. There tor. or on the caster is. the ruling fac- the greensward of a city park. and a well-made rod of this differs from all other angling methods material is a thoroughly satisfactory — it is an active sport rather than a casting tool. Where angling. of more importance than the landing quired before the caster is able to shoot of the fish.-ft. 5Vl. The split-bamboo rod has many cation. rod is desirable. length will sport. even when casting done in the probably give the best satisfaction. The same requirement 71 . desire. Get two or three enthu. A' lillu 1 iDllr k[ Sfillman Taijior THERE of the are many enjoyable phases but fisher's art. bait dicapped by poor tackle. glers as the ideal casting rod. will bring the total up to about $5. True. The chief fault in bait-casting rods Bait casting is. essential equipment of an able angler. the longer rod will prove an accurate plug far ofT. will cast a long and accurate line and stand up under the strain of The Outfit and Its Selection handling our heaviest game fish. considerable practice is re. If the greatest range is not ular. but that is no For tournament casting. cast. while a line for it now among the lily pads for pickerel.

The black and white. reel is its direct opposite — being long- boo rod. the ing. It smoothly. and all the better grades of For practice and tournament casting. has a cork arbor. However. desirable. In the center is a level-wind- guides. but for practical work it is a steel rod in their outfits. of line. A reel band that locks securely is wound upon a drying reel. some anglers prefer to use day's fishing the line shtluld be un- the hook. If the lower grip is prop. ferred by casters. loaded . and costs $26. while the typical casting a well-made solid-wood or split-bam. line is preferable for fish- erly shaped with a forward edge. most anglers have selected. or loosely it.. The one at The guide is an important detail of the left holds 80 yd. casting rods are so fitted. It holds 60 yd. exacting than that of the click reel used The steel casting rod is well liked by in fly casting. The best type of click reel is steel rod is worthy of consideration. holds 60 yd. The average price for a depend- grasps are most satisfactory. or with agate tip able drag placed on the rims of the and hand guides. but only a high-quality ferent. for casting. with plates of comparatively steel rod is springy and flexible. but the additional Any of the better grades of braided grip placed above the reel is desirable silk are suitable for the bait-casting if much fishing is done. Three typical reels are the time-tried wooden rod. reeled and looped around the back of a a detachable hook may be fastened to chair in loose coils to dry. but it is not unnecessary to pay $2. areShown from Left to Right. and a Fine Tournament Casting Reel Costing $26. of line. and small diameter. all white. can be a casting rod.'')0. and usually provided with large metal costs $4. while the better rods are fitted ing reel with thumb click and adjust- with agate guides. forefinger will find a firm grip upon it. and other light-colored. the spool turn- more pleasure in playing black bass and ing four times to one turn of the han- other active "gamey" fish. A guide. ^. of line. After a However. Inexpensive rods are easily taken apart for cleaning. dle. The Center One Has a Level-Winding Device and a Thumb-Click Drag on the Rims of the Plates. Solid-cork hand line. For tournament cast- for this reason is a good rod for casting ing the finest outfit will naturally be for black bass. lines are sat- and the finger hook will not be needed. a High-Grade Reel Costiag $13. jeweled bearings.4 in. The better-grade barreled. As the work demanded of a bait- A Serviceable Reel Costing $4. being less able line is about $1 for 50 yd. in plates. A brown and green. At the right is a very high- enough and will handle the line grade reel for tournament casting. The Tournament Casting Reel Has a Cork Arbor and Jeweled Bearings the best way to test out a rod is by casting reel is different and more casting with it. and sizes G and are E the hand than handles made of other preferred. dark-colored.50. and costs diameter. or other materials. shown in the illustration. The single grip is sometimes pre. at the butt of the rod is large $13. one of the standard 1-4 and i/>-oz. A flexible rod affords choice of the bait caster. isfactory for tournament use. its design is radically dif- some casters. Still. It of large spool diameter and narrow be- is generally not classed as the equal of tween plates. 19 holds good for muskellunge and other The quadruple reel is the logical heavy fishing.5 for a finely as generally used at tournaments as wrought reel. A small • slippery when wet and less tiring to size line is best. and if the rod is not so fitted.

and accuracy of his cast. These wooden and concern himself only with the length enameled lures are used by anglers be. with thumb bearing are provided with one or more eyes for directly on the cross rod of the reel attaching the line. which are usually of Two methods of casts are used by the surface type. Fig. as shown in Fig. and only dive under the sur. thus enabling the with the ball of the thumb resting caster to spin his bait at different lightly on the line. and to meet fully cast is used largely by the practical the different and varying conditions of angler. release the click or drag. of the whole arm and the weight of the body. stretches of water. combined with the elasticity of Suggestions on Making the Cast the pliant rod. practically all of them are good and press the ball of the thumb firmly for pickerel and general fresh-water upon the spooled line. "getting the hang" of is not difficult to attain. the a splash — indeed. The is released so that the spool will re- tackle box may be of sheet metal or volve freely. The folding type of line. . checking it and tackle box. weedless varieties. and then bait caster's outfit are the landing net bring it smartly forward. and other ing. length and accuracy will come only The popularity of bait casting from the through practice. since delicacy cause they bring the catches. typical baits are shown in the page If the novice will thumb the line. baits. and should have a handle projects the bait forward in a straight about 3 ft. may be roughly black bass and pickerel. Carry the rod casting. and a otherwise backlash will occur. handling the short rod and free-run. the overhead and the un- fit is complete unless it includes one derhand or side cast. season. a tournament. When the rod is brought forward net is the most convenient. is ning reel comes quickly. habits from the start. This in diameter. 1. 3. are not fright- classed in three divisions the surface : ened when the bait hits the water with lures for use on top of the water. The net should be well quickly when it reaches an angle made. Bait casting is easier reel has brought forth a large variety than fly casting and the angler need of artificial baits. 2. over the shoulder until it is horizontal The other items which complete the or nearly so. or larger of some -15°. a well-placed cast of 60 or 75 ft. and water. No bait caster's out. All of the wooden-body baits will show the correct manner of spool- will float. but for fishing. particularly the minnow baits. it is a good part in tournament contests. etc. but enough pressure must leather. as in Fig. A variety of and may be more accurately placed. the tension of the thumb on the spool vided with a separate handle. with a steel hoop 13 in. does not enter into this phase of fish- The wooden minnows. 73 wooden or metal plugs may be used. 4. ing. C. The coarser sweet-water fish. The use tackle box will cost about as much. enables the caster to Although much practice is required cover a surprisingly long distance after before the caster can take his place in a little practice. as well as by those who take weather." A convenient and serviceable the line is unreeled from the spool. bass. care being taken to form correct are retrieved the deeper they spin. because plan to select one of each type in light the bait is projected a longer distance and medium-dark colors. bait casters. As soon as long enough to reach promising the simple principles are understood. Many of the baits shown in Fig. the splash of the bait diving and under-water baits. like forms of artificial bait. To make the While many of these baits have been cast. long. as plate at A. and the angling "what vent the reel from spinning faster than not. and is pro. and the attracts them. reel in the bait until it is some G in. The line is retrieved as shown in face when reeled in the quicker they . B. A distance of 150 ft. designed especially to entice the black from the tip. The overhead bait of each class. with partitions for holding be communicated by the thumb to pre- reels. landing net costs $1 or more. one or two trials depths.

Spoon and Minnow Basb. Combination Color. I. D. H. The Overhead Cast is Illustrat- ed in Figures 3 and 4. Taste. C. F. in Figure 2. Wabbler Spoon. The Method of Thumbing the Line is Shown in Figure 1. E. Surface 74 . and the U nderhand or Side Cast in Figures 6 and 6 ii!ii|iiiiiiiii!ili|li Typical Baits: A. and the Correct Form in Retrieving the Line. Fluted Wabbler. Diving. G. Under- water Minnow: B. and Smell. Weedless. Bass.

When wading. by many casters. the rain. water. below the surface. and black bass. stumps. one of may be projected a long distance. when reeling in. but the exposition is not to form a part of this deep water is then the warmest. — equally good for bass and pickerel tiear the weeds and snags. kellunge. During the possesses an intimate knowledge of the fall months fishing conditions are sim- fish he casts for. much in thesame way as the overhead For early-spring casting. slowly to keep the plug spinning well Since the habits and general charac. be- angler's chest. and with practice the bait When the weeds are very thick. and while a lengthy ilar to casting in the spring. bass are cast. and the thumb must be trained to noon hours are the best for midsummer do this through practice. as are also the in range than the pike. As the warmer days of late to revolve freely. For casting on for ounce. dark. but any brooks or streams emptying into the majority keep the reel level and the lake or pond. and close to is one of the green-backed minnows. it is well to per spoons. is classed as the finest game fish. . the following hints apply baits and goldplated or burnished-cop- to both. use red and yellow small-mouth. for example. Thumbing the line is When the sun is low. and he will find it an advantage to match pickerel. Bring the rod forward smartly in the The pickerel will also be found in the direction it is desired to shoot the bait. ounce in selecting his baits. or green min- Lakes or English pike. is more limited nows are good lures. and article. pike. the the bait hits the water. only the rod is swung horizontally likely to be found in the shallows and to the rear. The small-mouth black bass natural conditions. and is made to as possible. This cast is use. being found in silverplated spoon baits. warmer and shallower waters. 75 The underhand or side cast is some. be used. Cast well the Great Lakes region and the waters ahead of the boat. reference to the fish commonly the under-water or diving baits are sought by the caster will not be amiss. Figure 5 shows bass swim out into deeper and cooler the beginning of the side cast and Fig. the several kinds of weedless baits may The chief factor of skill in bait cast. Lawrence River. The best all-around bait cast downstream. a luminous or moonlight bait will The successful bait caster is one who often give good results. the white or easiest done when the spool is well light-colored surface baits may be sub- filled. bright days in clear waters. just enough to allow the spool lures. Cast in the shallows. as shown in Fig. the red. and reel in very of the St. On cloudy days teristics of the large-mouth bass are and in muddy waters. cause the water is cool at this season. and if the casting line is not long stituted for the medium-dark colored enough to do this. successful baits at this time are the div- partly releasing the pressure of the ing minnows. If there are downward while making the cast. so far as possible. and other under-water thumb. As little noise should be made what easier master. often confused with the Great white and red. and for casting after line should be first wound on to fill it. muskellunge. The most check the rod when about horizontal. and the shallow places are the turn the reel sideways with the handle good spots to work over. the angler must cast bait caster are small and large-mouth his bait where the fish are feeding. the tip on a level with the sheltered places during the day. white. and check the line as spring and early summer appear. Some casters casting. 5. The mus. while the pickerel remain close 6 the cast completed. with trees. do not neglect to cast with it in the same position as work this stretch well at the mouth. after a heavy much the same as its near relative. usually the best. sufficient common diving varieties. to the lily pads. The wooden minnows ful when fishing from a shore overhung are excellent baits to use at this season. ing from the reel lies in controlling the The early-morning and late-after- line. The fish generally of interest to the To catch bass.

76 but no one bait can be expected to outside the weed bed. face down.. E.. to remove post. A through the head with a revolver. A hook made from a of cracked wheat. fish will be seen and felt quickly A stifif casting rod with plenty of enough. M. birds in general It should be suspended with the hair prefer bread crumbs to other vari. which is probably the most satisfactory man to handle the oars is a handy com- panion. braided silk line. small screws placed through the end F. are and bait. and this need not be longer the best. and after casting the bait just manner of making an easy landing. When suitable for pickerel the minnows es-— the fish is brought alongside. the size of a walnut.. be made easily. of this ornament in one pint of gasoline. down so that it may dry thoroughly eties of food. post. preferably where evergreen climb. and apply a solution of a *" i ' \ the construction ])icce of paraffin. . with oranges particularly. er clings to the Michigan. Obtain a sheet of clean glass. Any of the wooden baits — than a foot 6 in. Fuller. Shrubbery excess water and to give them a good surrounds the contact with the glass. and when it breaks water backbone is essential for muskellunge. make for deep meet all conditions. and the pointed ends of the peck at the fruit. and when the glass is dry. The loop should be of It is amusing to see the birds Ijalance a size to fit the thin portion of the on one side of the orange while they handle. A twisted. A Cat-Proof Bird Table Making Photographic Prints Glossy Our bird table is a source of great Pictures printed on glossy. Dry the prints table and a light in a warm place. Detroit. The linnets like piece of wire bent to form a loop. Aloop may be made at each provide a small basin of fresh water on end instead of pointing the wire and the table. Sweet. The should have a fair assortment of baits. table braced at Place a clean blotter over them and the top of a 6-ft. semi- enjoyment. and leaps in the air. hence the caster water as soon as a fish is hooked. shoot him — pecially are good for muskellunge. may in two and place the halves on the table. otherwise the strain will must be prepared for the sport. We cut an orange a pointed section at each side of it. roll on it with a print roller. Use a soft in our garden. give it a little slack The angler is out after big game and line quickl)-. jirints in water for 10 minutes and rangement of the place them on the glass. snelled and swiveled. Waynesboro. particularly since the birds glossy. rub The sketch until all traces are removed. cloth. is enough.. loops. Soak the shows the ar. or semimat paper may be given feel secure from a high gloss by the following method -•<^— . without —^ \ ^ emies because of scratches. and 3-0 trace is the best to use between line or 4-0 hooks. A snap the leader. yet does not give the cats Shaving-Brush Holder a good foothold. H. and they are also fond and quickly. and the birds use it as a the device fixed to the wall with two drinking cup as well as a bathtub. size E. We support. cats or other en. bronzed hard. there is a draft. Va.. Experience has A shaving brush is injured by per- taught us that mitting it to remain in the mug to dry. Soon the orange wire are driven into the wall or other peel is almost entirely emptied.

ft. which is the elm and fir being very satisfactory sub- regulation open or Canadian model. wire nails to make form for keel. Oak or ash best for hard knocks. KEELSON. for fastening seats. which are required STE^^. 94 -in. The perience and tools have turned out tools needed are the common ones satisfactory canoes. wide. No. thick. FENDERWALES. is stitutes. thick. for fastening decks and deck beams. rock The craft described. % -in. 30 in. SEAT FRAMES. 2 pieces oak or ash. No. copper tacks to fasten planking to ribs. 2-in. cedar or pine. thiclc. 77 . 1 piece cedar or oak. long. according work must not be hurried. consisting of a directions given here are carefully fol. 2 pieces oak or ash. rip and cross-cut saw. chisel. thick. 24 1-in. in. in. 1 lb. copper clout nails. vise. pendable canoe designed for long serv- ice. % in. and in lengths of 12. BREAST HOOKS OR DECKS. as for a canoe having a length of about it is many times more difficult to patch 16 ft. long.. stems. depth amidships. % in. 18 l^A-in. wide. % in. wide. 2% in. RIBS. depth at the up mistakes in a canoe than it is in ends. the weighing from 60 to 70 lb. wide. SEAT FRAMES. % in. and if the simple found in most homes. thick. of time taken to do each and every part While oak or ash makes the best well and in a workmanlike manner. thick. S in. 3 in. square. wide. other woods may be used. thick. patent marine glue to cement canvas to planking. driver. 1 piece oak. thick. 1 lb. which. awl. % in. and IG ft. long and 5i in. 100 sq. 34 Va-in. 3% in. The list of material given is attention to the workmanship. thick. 8 pieces any cheap stuff. % 1 lb. No. for fastening seat risings. 1 piece any cheap stuff. This will give the minimum amount of waste. 2 pieces oak or ash. long. Best secured by purchasing 25 ft. by % in. for fastening ribs. 14 ft. but a stiff and thoroughly de. 1 piece cedar or pine. 4 lb. cypress. ft. or metal. No. square. barring accidents and given sidered more difficult than build- ing the larger and heavier craft but reasonably good care. long. 31-in. thick. 18-in. four cheap wood. 16 ft. in. 2 pieces oak or ash.. Working with light materials. 3 oz. (inside keel) 1 piece oak or ash. 16 ft. or hr may like- little water.. 16 ft. G ft. of 1-in. wise be employed. the work will proceed rap. long. 32 in. comparatively light and draws very spruce pine. 1 piece oak or ash. molds and ribbands. DECK BE-MIS. cedar. 1 ft. ISy^-in. but plenty to the material. GUNWALES. 14 ft. PLANKING. thick. long. lumber. IVg in. RIBBANDS. beam. The materials for shift. and. any cheap stuff. SEAT RISINGS. half-round molding. It is not a flimsy make. long. ft. BACKBONE. % in. % MOLDS. Where cedar is specified. wide. 1% in. idly and no difficulty will be encoun. 14 if by 1 in. hammer. drawknife. plane. give satisfaction for many years. % in. in. rule. 12 in. % in. long. and three or tered. 8 brass screws. 6 ounce canvas for covering hull. 11% yd. Et^ Stillman Taylor PART I Specifications and List of Materials CANOE making is commonly con. 3G0 running feet. thick. will continue to many amateurs with only ordinary ex. lone. screw the canoe builder must pay particular clamps. copper clout nails. and rowboats or other heavier craft.. Ys in. and having same dressed on two sides to Va in. 2 ounce copper tacks to fasten canvas with. 4 in. thick. ^ lb. brace and bits. screw- lowed out. OITTSIDE KEEL (may be omitted desired). G brass screws. wide. 14. V2 in. wide. wide. wide. %'in. 2 pieces oak or ash.% % in.

which are 1% in. 2. long and the upper edge measures exactly 15 % in. long. then quired. 4 edge of the backbone mortise and in. pine. Begin measuring from the opposite center line. the hull are shown and numbered in the order that they are fastened to the The Backbone and Molds backbone. shown in Fig. To get out No. Two complete No. and that the lower edge is rect bilge curve lay the rule on the % in. long and 11 in. the center. length. is 5 in. from the outside line and 2314 in. such as cedar. towarti each side from the outside ing it a piece of lumber. Each end already marked. but it is more convenient to mark off 2 and 3 the same as for the make each mold in two sections. Cut another 2314-in.. length and number it out the half section. Measure off off %6 in. 4 in. measure to dot and draw in the full curve. which inexpensive soft wood. thick. The space between these draw a second line across the width of two dots is the widest part of the bilge the board parallel with the first. wide as t IP^ d"-23} -V — 15. as 1. measure along the top edge exactly Measure off 2 in. is used. to the left of the center dividing from each end of the backbone toward line and make dot 0.r* 22i -^^^^3i". 16 ft. then 3. center line and make dot 4 on the ver- From this line measure oft' % in.I The First Step in the Construction of a Canoe Is to Get Out the Backbone and the Molds. may be cut The Molds or Formf fiom any cheap stufif. and tical line. Onthe center horizontal line. 2 molds are re- 3214 in. Seven molds are used and side the line and make dot 1. and run a pencil line across. or cypress and for mak. divide it in quarters and mark out the The backbone may be made from any center mortise for the backbone. and make two parallel lines make dot 5. from the left vertical line. Measure as a canoe is tapered alike at both ends 11/2 in. mark dot 11^16 longer than represented in Fig. to A turn the rule. and make dot 2. making the lower edge 1 in.8| . wide or deep. or forms. To obtain the cor- ft. wide. to the left of A. which is in. then cut off at the bevel mark at each deep. as shown in Fig. and it is marked 1. fold on the vertical 3. Run cross lines to rect dimensions and shape of the craft. and 4. inside of the left vertical accurately is first to mark the total line. The board is half is made lli/^ in. This curve. above dot 2. exactly 4% in. above the horizontal 231/4 in. end of the board as in the first instance. ^ FiS. 3. First draw end. 1. Measure spruce. 2. wide and 12 in. a rectangle to these dimensions and . indicate farther to the left. or Forms. YiQ in. and "'§ in. 78 to give form to the craft.. wide. Lay the rule on the bottom line space represents the thickness of the of the gunwale mortise and measure mold. 1 mold draw The first step in the construction of a rectangle on a sheet of stiff paper a canoe is to get out the backbone and exactly 13% in. 1 it will be seen that gunwales. deep and % in. and this will The molds which give the form to reduce the cost somewhat. which Agood way to lay out the backbone will be 14 in. and draw the right side. By mark the mortises for receiving the referring to Fig. -223 (^ ^ I5^9i. Measure 2% in. Which Give the Correct Dimensions and Shape of the Craft the molds. and give it number 1. turn rule at the molds are numbered alike and are right angles and measure up the sheet made exactly to the same dimensions. in- be placed. 91/4 in. 3. longer. The spaces numbered 1 in. Pencil the angle from dot as before and number it 2. 834 in. where the corresponding molds are to at right angles and measure 2V8 in. which give the cor. . giving a total length of bottom line and measure off exactly 15 ft.

Beginning at the upper right. Make the dot 3 at a point 1% in. At inside of the marginal line. 3. wide in the half section. from the center line to the left at of the bilge curve. to the left and % in. as Two Complete Molds are Required shown in the sketch. Measure off 1% in. The space of the line. inside of the line for dot 4. wide and 3i/4 in. draw a second mortise for the keel. Trace the half mortises for the back- bone. then 1% in.to the left of 1. the center of the canoe and only one tween the dots 7 complete mold is required. inside of the line. At a point 3 in. 4 is placed amidships in above it. Make a rectangle 14% in. The dot 4 is 1% up 4 in. inside 21/s in. will be YiQ in. Dot and divide it into four equal parts as 9 is exactly i/4 before. 4 bottom and measure oft" I/2 in. % between gives the widest part of the inside of the left bilge curve. deep. and keel from the No. inside the line as It Is More Convenient to Make Each Mold in Two Sections. farther to the left ginal line. from C and 1% in. 4. long and 12 in. vertical marginal line. long by 12 in. 2 mold pattern. Lay the rule on the Fig. backbone. vertical line. which will bring it in. with dot 7 exactly i/4 in. inside of the line. bilge curve. and is only neces- it the bottom outside line and measure sary to trace in the full curve and cut TOP it out to make a pattern for the other BACKBONE GUN\A/ALE MORTISE 1 MORTISE ] three half sections needed.2 in. inside of the line ters. which. to tjie left along the bottom line from keel mor- tise and make dot 1. inside of the left mar- The dot 5 is I14 in. which is % in. The dot 4 make dot 5 on the marginal line and 6 is ^s iu. At a point 3% in. to the left of this hand corner. which is the beginning 2 in. farther to the left turn only one-half of the complete form. measuring a point li/o in. D and turn the rule at right angles and . These dots pro. Mold No. 3 mold pattern riG. wide. Laying the rule on the outside line im- mediately below the mortise. above dot and 314 in. gunwale. The dot 3 is made by measuring 2Y2 iu. deep and IV2 in. to line This Mold is Located near the Center of a Canoe and the left from the center vertical line is Made a Trifle Wider and mark dot 1. 3 and measuring ^jg in. dot 8. Trace the angle and from it run dot on the mar- 7 the full curve and use this for a pattern ginal line.from dot 5 and 43. /9 run cross lines to divide it into quar. are located near the center of the canoe and are made a trifle wider. inside of the line. mark the mortises for and 31/4 in. C B KEEL MORTISE turning the rule at right angles at B Fig. To make a pattern draw a est part of the rectangle 15 in. along the bottom of the gunwale mor- al)0ve 6 make tise. and keel. Be. being 3. above it make dot 6. to the left of 2 and % the rule at right angles and measure in. The molds No. inside of the trace in the mortises for the gunwale. Lay the rule on duce the angles. in Fig. place dot 2. From the No. 5. 11/4 in.4 in. as shown and 8 is the wid. Fig. in. wide and draw cross line dividing it into quarters. and 3 in. and for cutting out the other molds. which is i%6 in. inside of the line place dot gunwales and backbone.

and make dot 8. long by 13 in. At a point 2 in. in. measure down the ver- F. wood forms exactly alike to have it ly^ in.square. above dot 5 make mold. turn the rule at right angles and measure off 3~(v. After linishing TOP the seven complete molds. inside of lected since it is necessary to bend the bottom line. above dot 7 and in. For the stems dot 4 is 1 in. in. turn at right angles on the bottom line and measure up. % wide. from dot 8. as It Is Necessary to Bend Them to Shape line. % make dot 4. and divide 11/4 in. dot 6 on the outside vertical line and 24I/2 in. and 4 in. Six ribbands are neces- This Mold is Placed Amidships. and inside of the line. From dot 1 mea'^ure the gunwale mortise. Again place the rule at the right- in. to H. measure down 1 in. in the Center of the sary. Lay the rule at the upper right cor- ner and measure down the vertical line 2% in. i^o in. % in. and make dot 0. then draw a pencil line be- bilge curve above the water line and at tween them. and make dot 1. to E. The dot 3 is 1% in. wide. turn the rule up and meas. to the right and the inner edge of the keel mortise. From dot 3 lay the rule parallel with the top horizon- tal line and measure off 9-^4 in. pencil line drawn between them will Draw the line from dot 7 to S. from G and 8. G. Any cheap stuff will do be- cause they are only used to give the E D correct shape of the canoe curve while -15- building it. inside of the bottom Having cut out the pattern make two line and make dot 1. which will bring it them to obtain the requisite curve. fasten them j. inside the top horizontal Stems. turn at right angles and measure down on the center line 214 in. thick. and it is best to use eight lengths Caaoe> and Only One is Required in order to make sure that the ribs are ure off % in. G. inside the line and the one uniform curve. and make a pencil line TOP 7 from 2 to 4 as shown.then 2%in. Lay the rule between dots 6 and gives the widest 1' on the left side at the upper corner. From the upper right-hand corner measure off l-lg in. inside the line and make bent at the required angle and that dot 2. actly 3% in. This gives . make dot 9. Ex. from D.. and make dot G. which marks the beginning of the make dot 2. at part of the correct bilge curve. as shown.. and i/^ enable one to trace the correct curve. 34 in. The dot 5 is II/4 in. long.GUNNA<AJ_E MORTISE securely together by nailing a couple BACKBONE of battens across the halves.. and make the canoe floor is quite flat. draw a rectangle. % Lay the rule along the top horizontal inside of the vertical side line make dot line and measure 2I/2 in. shown in Fig. to the left make a mark. on and measure off %in. above it make dot 7. inside of the left vertical side To make the pattern for the stem line. straight-grained material must be se- to the left of dot 4. farther to both sides of the canoe are ribbed at the left and 11/4 in.. ash or oak. From dot 3 measure straight exactly a straight line. MORTISE The Ribbands and Stems The ribbands are merely strips of KEEL MORTISE wood. 1/(5 in. Measure. to the left of 3 and 2 in. complete. The curve of along this line exactly % in. is used. Lay the rule down 1% in. hand corner. and make dot 7 ex- Straight-Grained Material must be Selected for the actly 1/4 in. but not dot 3. and 14 ill- I ft. The space it into four equal parts. inside the bottom line and a tical line exactly 2 in. 80 measure off %6 in.

. ple of 34-in. inside the line. tain the correct curve begin at the up. and make dot 13. inside the line. 81 the correct contour of the stem where amidships. fourth. . It is unnecessary to go to it joins the splice of the keel. No. 10 screws at each end. angles and a length of 4 in. is made mined by measuring from gunwale to exactly 13 ft. to dot 15. as oft' inside of the line. 8 From dot 16 a line is run to dot 8 The Ribs are Fastened to the Outside of the Keelson and are Curved under the Ribbands which completes the angle of the curve. as shown. They are 1% in. below L and running 8')4 in. The Ribs and Gunwales The dot 14 is made by measuring off 4 in. It is a good plan to saw out several long lengths and cut them off The Inside Keel. and make actly in the center both ways. The dot 15 should be exactly 5 GUNWALE in. which is. and the width at the ends i%6 To finish the irregular curve of the in. cut to a point 3 in. the length being deter- The inside keel. only necessary to make cross lines ex- ure 11/4 in. The dot 11 is placed by meas. from the same material as the plank- Then from point N measure to O li/4 ing. and the beginning is to run a light pencil line from dot 15 to dot 6. the . 1^/4 in. The ribs are put in under the . inside of the line. it is turn the rule at right angles and meas. Measure 1 ft. to M. BACKBONE s From the dot 14 to 15 run a straight line. This detail is well shown in Fig. wide. the sixth.. Allowance for the beveled splice of the stem to the inside keel must now be PLANKINQ made. measured and again make the width 3I/2 in. inside of the right vertical line. bands. 11 in. and this may be drawn on the surface per left corner and measure from dot 1 of the board direct. stem.E. thick. toward one uring down from K exactly 314 in. To ob. gunwale around the curve over the rib- wide" in the center. as the Piece is Merely Tapered Uniformly from Center to Ends. inside the line. . the center measure 1 ft. end and make the width at that point to L. or Keelson as required. the trouble of making a paper pattern The greatest curve and width of the for this because the keel is merely ta- WIDTM of i<E. Fig. and It can be Drawn Direct on the Board Stem is at J on the lower line.l. Continue in this manner.. ing the third station 3I/4 in. From dot 10. of course.INCHES -FEET STATIONS -13-1 I It Is Not Necessary to Makea Paper Pattern for the Keel. or Keelson. The full curve is then easily traced in. to the left of the upright line. long and 3i/o in. pered uniformly from center to ends.0 in. as shown. farther along. measure from J at the center of 7. ing 2% in. turn AINSIDE KEEL the rule at P and make dot 16 exactly ^RIBBAND? ^OUTSIDE KEEL % in. . From dot 15 measure up l/o in. to K. in. 2 in. 13 ft. fasten it to the keel by means of a cou- turn the rule up and measure off i/> in. Bend the stem on the mold and the lower horizontal line 3 in. The board being down the vertical line 41^4 in. when the rule is turned at right 31. wide and Vs in- in. mak- located in the same manner by measur. long and Sy^ in. and then measure up 4 in. or keelson. 2% the fifth. 11 in. The dot 13 is before. from M to N and turning the rule The ribs are best made of cedar.

16 be placed over each mold. The ribs are fastened to the outside of the keelson and are curved under the ribbands. at equal dis- ter will allow sufficient wood for mak. Fasten each rib to the keel by means of two PLANKING %-in.-> in. 10 The gunwales are next put on at the The Seat Frame may be Caned.wide. This will prevent the a good fit with the angle of the back. which is the bot- to the backbone. Fig. thus doing away ft. and place with the trouble of steaming. it is advisable of setting up the hull. wide. then spring them into place and fasten to the gun- Tht Bent Stem Fastened to the Keel with Screws is at Both Ends wales. The four ribbands the nails so that the ends are well im- . Fas- ten the ribbands by driving ly^-in. and the thickness of the lat. possibility of splitting. Hold a clinch iron. are then put on each side. measuring from the keel up toward the gunwale. thick. centers. Fig. apart. Planking the Canoe Having made all the material ready. not directly in mortises cut in the molds to receive it. and as it is built upside down. or any nails exposed to make them easily handy piece of iron.long. Drive in the bone at the ends. As shown in the stem- mold drawing. and fastened to the molds and stems. which should be put on 3 in. leaving sufficient of the the work. the work of setting up the canoe may As a canoe is planked with Ys-in. When all ft. then fasten by nail. The keel. to run the planking the full length from True up the molds with a square and stem to stem. allowing it to fit down in the the plank with an awl. about 1 the ribs while cold. or a Canvas Seat Tacked On. and i. or at 5-in. 8 and 9 before beginning the work which to lay the canvas. but staggered from side to side Take particular care that the stems are along the ribs. and 29- the bevel runs out to the width of the SEAT keel at the lower end. Punch holes in place. begin. 6. %i". allowing the backbone not rabbeted at the stem but is nailed to rest upon the bottom of the mortises to the beveled surface. spacing them so that a rib will gunwales are two straight strips. tances apart. Measure off the keel for the ribs. measuring from the centers. brads through them into the mold. Put the keelson in tom plank at the keel. Study and to give a perfectly smooth skin on Figs. For strength cut in the top of the molds. copper clout nails while the plank is ing through the top edge of the mold kept in place with a clamp to facilitate into the stems. between the gunwale and ing a good fit at the sheer line. copper clout nails. inside and clinch withdrawn later on. I side edge of the stem and then bevel- ing from the inside on each side. or more above the floor. This is cane: or canvas FILLING easily done by marking around the out. The outer edge is left about Ys in. remove the rib- Setting Up the Canoe bands. and begin planking the hull. 82 ribbands. line. Put in all the ribs in the same \vay. as Preferred sheer line. Unlike the molds in the numbered places on heavier-planked craft the planking is the backbone. the splice where h — 6- the stem fits the keelson must be cut out after it is bent into place. Begin by putting on fasten them firmly by toenailing them the garboard strake. the ribs are put in. cedar it is easily bent to the curve of place the backbone on boxes.

and likewise pre- vent the lightly constructed hull from The Deck ^eams and Decks The deck beams are merely straight pieces. good plan to run another thwart across the canoe just back of the forward seat. and are fastened A Center Thwart on the inside for the seats to rest upon. A place. The backbone and molds may now be taken out by sawing the backbone in two. square. should be and the length is 1-i ft. below the gun. 10 screws into the deck. in the center to 1 clinch on the inside of the rising. heavy load is carried. No. wide. These are notched at the ends as shown in Fig. It is shape shown in Fig. since these forms pre- vented doing this work before. at the ends. Oak or ash is the best material. or "hogging. 83 bedded in the rib on the inside." when stored for the gunwale and fasten with a li4-in. it is a canvas seat tacked on. about 4 or 5 in. the winter. in. To strengthen and stiffen the hull a wale. forward of wide. %in. is \ DECK BEIAM 3 Fi&. or cross bar. No. and may be caned. should be screwed to the lower side of the gunwale. or a Although not exactly essential. sticks. first bore a small hole and then piece of oak or ash. No. thick and nail through the planking and ribs. They are about 4 in. To fasten a simple matter to fit each plank in them in place bore three holes through place. or breast. center thwart. butted together with- H out beveling. long. is run athwartships for the pad- the rear seat. The seat frame is fashioned as shown in Fig. planking cut to the width of 3 in. 13. This will make the craft very stiff when a dler's back and thighs to rest against while paddling. 10 screw at each end. so that F10. 10. cure them with three 114-in. The number of planks required will depend upon the width. % in. Tack a couple of strips across the gunwales to keep the hull from sagging out of shape.12 The Shape of the Deck or Breast Hooks and the drive the nails over the sections the Beams That Support Them molds occupied. or paddling bar. Put them in by boring a hole through sagging. in which case a seat bar. one at each end. In any case the top plank or sheer strake should be level with the gunwale from one stem to the other. Two are re- Applying the Canvas quired. 10 screws. the black kind being the best for . The deck. Many canoeists prefer to kneel. long by 8 in. When the hull is com- pletely planked. and while wider strips may be used.13 they will come up and wedge against The Manner of Shaping the Ends of the Canvas to Fit over the Canoe Ends the sides of the gunwales about i/^ in. then FiG. lYs in.ll generally employed. thick. cut off the ends of the planking to the curve of the stems and gunwales. Bore three holes along the Seat Risings and Seats gunwale on each side and turn three The seat risings are simply straight 1^-in. about 8 in. because they are merely a close the deck into the deck beam and se- fit at the edge. To fasten in run across the canoe amidships. hooks are made The canvas is put on with marine 16 in. 11. and %in. wide and of the glue. as preferred. and tapering from 2 in. and a rear thwart some 3 ft.

into one corner of a handkerchief. Before gluing hull. run. screws. and rounded on the tons into these blocks to keep the slat- outside. This is glue. about V/g in. but be sure to apply it as evenly as possible. When made kerchief. thick. as shown in Fig. 13. to outside keel is about 1 in. which are screwed on over it. the bottom of the canoe. Then four coats and iron with a moderately hot flatiron. Fin. and tapers to fit wrap it in the center of the hand- the bands at either end. rub down the second and third ish by tacking the edge of the canvas coats with fine sandpaper. of the canoe's bottom. to by using Ii4-Jn. curved to fit the contour along the edge. Put this on with li/4-in. ished with three coats of good-quality ble at the stem. removable when washing out the canoe. Unlike the narrow and trim so that it will fold nicely at keel. The entire along the edge of the gunwales. wide and i/o be found in an egg. or nailed. The grating should extend from well under the Stem Bands and Outside Keel stern seat up to the stem splice in the The stem bands may be made from bow. lay it smoothly on the hull in rocky waters. ing coat. makes it waterproof. or ash. and should be nicely tapered to wood if desired and bent to shape. By fastening the brass oval stem or bang iron. two or three little blocks of wood so wide. and woodwork of the canoe should be fin- fold the canvas as smoothly as possi. wide and Fenders or Covering Strips 1% thick. The most serviceable keel is about SVa After borrowing a ring. square. especially when the craft is used the canvas. wide. % in. Lay the glued canvas in place. For summer Fenders of i/o-in. of oak or ash. and tack in place. may be footwear is worn. This trick consists in borrowing a tent and keeps the bottom from many ring and wrapping it in a handkerchief a scratch while pulling out. To make a smooth finish- adhere smoothly to the planking. lattice stufif. and touch every bit of the The canvas should be given a coat of canvas with a fairly heavy coating of shellac before the paint applied. it makes a splen. and the canvas will the canvas. but any the glue in a can over a moderately hot form of keel will add several pounds to fire and spread it on one side of the the weight of the craft and is for this canvas with a stif¥ brush. It strengthens the canoe to a certain ex. but instead wrap up the one of %-in. one may screw small brass but- about % in. according to preference. but the planking and tacked to cover the edge parallel strips screwed. thus making it easily and fasten the brass band with %-in. Before . or a strip. but make a neat appearance. round molding may use this is desirable. oak. !4 this particular purpose. The outside keel may or may not be A Ring-and-Egg Trick used. the glue will be too thick to spread Painting the Canoe evenly. outside spar varnish. the flat keel makes the canoe the stems. concealed in the corner. the stems to the width of the stem Obtain a wedding ring and sew it bands. and tapered at ber in a plate. cross strips. pretend to in. 1 in. The grating should sawed from the same material as the not be fastened to the ribs.brads every 3 or 3 in. retaining the did protection for the bottom of the borrowed one in the hand. ning the line of tacks exactly down Aslatted grating. of paint are applied to fill the fibers of This melts the glue. makes a stronger and better fin. Of course. reason often omitted. brads ted floor in place. made of soft-pine the center line of the stem. that they will extend up between the ish. taken from a num- in. The usual from which it is made to disappear. wide in the center. The wood stem band should be slats. but may be be tacked on to cover the edge of the omitted on long trips and when soft canvas. will afford protection to in. Melt easier to turn with the paddle.

When getting For those who desire a quick-acting the cup. A detail is turning the wing over to cover the given of each part. The front jaw can be then moved back and forth to PIPE INLET TO take stock of any size desired. and an oak block was fastened in the bend with wood screws. and then the front part of the vise is pulled up to relieve the roll A. Lock for Gasoline Tank on a Launch Having trouble by thefts of gasoline from the tank in my launch. A strap hinge. . near the outer end. place in A Quick-Acting Bench Vise the bottom of an egg cup a small quantity of soft wax. The other wing of the hinge was bent to the shape shoWn. was procured. This is placed in the egg cup. Hansen. with dimensions. In shown in the illustration. 85 beginning the performance. After locking hard wood. Klamath Falls. A hole was bored in the block to fit over the end of the A Quick-Acting Vise Made of Hard Wood for the Home Worker's Bench pipe. long. As soon TANK as the stock is placed. most of the screws are cov. thus making it fit any surface that may not be parallel with its opposite side. C. I made the following device to prevent them. 111. Filler-Pipe Cover Lock to Prevent the Theft of Gasoline from a Motorboat Contributed by J. the roll A falls into place and clamps the jaw arm C. while the cam in front gives the necessary play. I designed the vise egg is then chosen by anyone in the audience. which proved very effective.— Contributed by Stephen H. An manufactured one. to release or tighten as preferred. In releasing the stock. The roll A binds the vise the device. so pipe end. I fastened a staple made of a large nail. Oregon. and on one wing. The clamp jaw B is pivoted so that it swings loose. or opening. slip the borrowed ring into viseand cannot afford the price of a the wax in an upright position. and near the center a large hole was drilled to fit over the pipe. the staple was brought into that it is not difficult to make it from position for a padlock. May- wood. about 12 in. ered so that almost impossible to it is remove them without taking off the lock. CA practical vacuum will raise water Freeman. the cam is first turned. to the tank. 30 feet. A slot was cut in the same wing at the end to receive the staple. With a button hook break the top of the shell and fish out the ring. the ring in the bottom being pressed into the shell. so that it remains rigid. The handkerchief is then shaken out to show that the ring has vanished.

10 in. or folds. It is best to have it sewed on a spars together. long and Vie in. it is desirable that it be un. 3V^ in. if care. The sail is bighted with of spars. will enable one to make cause it is lighter and tougher than a a sailing rig as serviceable as a ready. wide. for The is made in the form of a sail keeping boom on mast. and whittle a wooden plug. 10 in. 3 brass screw eyes. ^ in. as shown at the left in. long. long. solid wood spar of the same dimen- made outfit. finish. 5 in.. and duly expensive. for clamping leeboards at desired angle. 1 in. thick. wide. thick. from the 1 piece. long. 154 in. parallel strips. and the rig described has erate skill. long. on each one for halyard. for a satisfactory. aft. eye. 8 yd. long. in the illustration. cedar or pine. long. sew the separate widths together. by laying the spars over it and mark- periments with various arrangements. 154 in. making sail. long with J^-in. A sailing rig may be amidships. 2^ in. and ^8 in. be- fully followed. for halyard and main sheet. Stillman Taylor PART II the Open Paddling Canoe SAILING and its recreations are venient. long. vent the former from splitting. Deal- cost. for mast. 6 ft. wide. to it. taking care 1 piece. for leeboard thwart. 1 brass split ring. for clamping mast brass ferrule fitted over the end of the thwart and leeboard thwart to canoe. and rial for a sailing outfitsuitable for a it may usually be purchased of them. The original outfit has been afforded the owner of an open in use for si. 1 brass "S" hook. unbleached cotton sheeting. hole through the cane 2 in. wide. 4 in. 3 in. for some time. 1 brass single-boom jaw for canoe. who will devote a few hours been found to be well proportioned. cedar or white pine. First cut the can- marred. not to split the cane. diameter. 1 yd. for fastenmg ends of side. 10 in. too heavily. Drive small brads 1 in. ing the outline with a pencil. lyi in. A regulation sailing outfit may canoe. cotton rope. purchasing an outfit is un. 16-ft. wide. for mast thwart. than one which is decked fore. sailing rig may be provided at small Ihe lateen rig is best for an open cost. triangle and measures 9 ft. A 4 brass lantern-board hooks. open canoe are as follows: Cut the bamboo to a length of G ft. long. An open and if the canoeist cannot use a sail craft is less suited for carrying sail frequently. sailing. for mast thwart. 2 in. because a shorter mast is re- be purchased. The rig vas to the approximate size and shape described represents the result of ex. and at about one-half the sions. Next and has been found to be safe and con. for fastenmg ends machine. The specifications list of mate-and diameter on which to roll carpets. top. The specifications given. cedar or pine. for through the cane into the plug to pre- . wide. tapering it so that long. 5 ft.. plug it and fix a screw eye and Hin. and into the plug. thick. and is readily procured. 28 in. H-in. quired for the same sail area. Z1V2 in. cedar or pine. VA in. bamboo will make a strong and neat with washers and thumb nuts. 2 pieces bamboo fishing rod. Bamboo is best for the mast. thick. 2 brass stove bolts. but it is rather costly. 10 ft. it will wedge firmly inside. It is not safe to rig a canoe constructed even by one of only mod. and ?8 in. in diameter. as far as possible. two for spars. In converting the paddling canoe for spaced 6 apart. ers in rugs use bamboo of li-i to 2-in. Bore a small 3 pieces. about 3 in. at butTt.x years and will still serve paddling canoe. for mast step. lap- se . 1 piece bamboo.^ 1 piece.SO ft.

for a Satisfactory Sailing Rig may be Provided at Small Cost. The Canoe Is Practically Unmarred. yet the Sailing Outfit is Installed Substantially and may be Removed Quickly. The Canoe Shown Running Nearly Free— before the Is Wind— and the Leeboards are Therefore Only Partly Submerged .Sailing and Its Recreations are Afforded the Owner of an Open Paddling Canoe.

This parallel with the loose ends of the will permit the forefoot of the sail to leech of the sail. Smooth all the both may be kept down without great- work as carefully as possible with ly reducing the speed. The mast thwart is made as shown Steering is done with a paddle. The mast is supported at the canoe. The short not be drawn across the wake. the sail. keeps the blade close to the side of the wales. No dimensions are given.. plied to brushes will soften them. yard should not be tied to the forward vas and sew it to make a 1-in. der where the single sail is used. The sail should then extend forward of the mast. Run a ^/o-in. affect the they conform to the curve of the canoe The lower the weight is placed in a and wedge the thwart into place im. but leeboard in place on each side. but finish it by thrusting the is fastened to the grating. boom. before the wind both boards may be Three coats of spar varnish will give raised to give the greatest speed. without much effort on the part bottom by means of the mast step. the foot. The the novice must be cautious. The experienced ca- vided with a wing nut. A carriage bolt is turning about. even in a leeboards may thus be adjusted at the moderate breeze. from The bights or folds run at an angle and the forward end of the boom. When running sharp tools and sandpaper it lightly. but as the boards are thin sl'ould be applied. tape is fastened to the spar at each but the rope merel}^ looped around the end. in sailing a canoe. This main sheet should never be made fast. The sail is hoisted by running the CPaint may be readily removed from halyard through the screw eye at the windows by applying a cloth dipped top of the mast. as illustrated. When turn- which is a block of wood. A close-hauled the leeboard is the most finish in keeping with that of the canoe effective. It stroke. This at the right in the illustration. bathing costume when learning to sail for it is obvious that they will vary on a canoe. and has method is more convenient than a rud- a hole cut in the center to fit the mast. This ap- close to the mast top. . the point of balance may be Along the edges which are to be lashed found. tape into the fold along within easy reach of the canoeist. fold over a strip of can. until the gaf¥ spar is in hot vinegar or acetic acid. on the floor of the craft. The ends stabilit3^ Hence. of the person guiding it. When tacking and sailing different styles and sizes of canoes. but run under it to the stern. so that it may be released thus preventing that bugbear of sailors quickly if a puff of wind should strike - — a flapping leech. paddle is always used on the lee side board hooks. turn against the wind fitted through each end piece and pro. 83 ping one edge over the other about I/2 The boom jaw is fastened on the in. or to the blade of the paddle away from the ribs if no grating is used. This will tend to keep the The leeboard thwart is also shown canoe in its course. The the leech while sewing the hem. It would be well to desired angle by fixing them with sail in shallow water and to wear only wing nuts. and not with it. thwart. with the open end 18 in. a satisfactory finish. By tying be reinforced at the corners by sewing the halyard at various points along the segments of cloth at these points. or boat. with — away from the wind and the wake which to clamp the thwart to the gun. shaped as ing about make the regular paddling shown to give a neat appearance. the greater will be its mediately aft of the mast. to take up the slack caused by thwart and held in the hand or beneath the stretching of the sail after use. one at each end. which holds the noeist can shift his course readily. The It is also provided with two lantern. and when tened with screws. canoe. gafif. at the right. which upright ends are set at an angle so that would headway of the craft. sit are grooved to fit the thwart and fas. and sewing close to both edges. canoe. hem. and the paddle will in the sketch. For the sake of safety the hal- to the spars.

For a canoe of weight is procured. tings may not operate satisfactorily. long. directly from the canoe. or floor. as the carrying capacity two sheets of paper. if it is neglected. The exact location of Greater speed and the fact that phys. and a light- construction and less than 16 ft. stallation of a light-weight motor of as. by careful planning and the making cient length and beam may be of a full-size diagram of the stern converted into a light. and strongly planked. from the left end of the sheet. or sawhorses. Draw the line CD The actual work of installing the perpendicular to the base line." and use the the various parts of the mechanism and former for the full-size detail and the accessories must be done with the aim other for the making of templates for of balancing the load evenly. in the craft. The fitting cf the other "templates. from the or other material. ters and cannot be used so readily on The motor should be set in the stern. as shown in the illustration. The canoe illus. surface of the ribs. long weight motor. ground. should be placed as low in the canoe trated in the page plate is 18 ft. curved or irregular parts. allowing the flywheel and of 36-in. this fac. taking care that it is sired to transport heavy camping packs. erly disposed. or part. or the motor and fit- comes less available for shallow wa. Fig. portion of the canoe as rebuilt. fi\j Sfillman Taylor PART III Fitting a Motor into a Paddling Canoe ASTANCHLY built canoe of suffi. A canoe of even Aconvenient method of operation is broader beam would tend to give more as follows Place the canoe on boxes. the weight of these parts Begin the diagram by drawing the should tend to lower the center of grav. as this will a power canoe has advantages in that permit the use of a minimum of shaft- longer trips may be undertaken with ing and other fittings which must be less regard for weather conditions. beam. be tested out by placing the motor in tions of such a craft. rendered unsafe. The motor driving mechanism. the canoe and noting the effect on its Unless a motor of extremely light balance in the water. crank case sufficient clearance below. Too and convenient power boat by the in. the depth and draft must be fitted. : stability in rough water. 3. This should increase the value and range of opera. wide and and seaworthiness of a canoe depend 7 ft. Procure considered. properly supported about 2 ft. base line AB. mark one "diagram" and in part on these factors. and 18 motor and fittings should be preceded in. The S8 . serviceable. trips where portages are necessary. ft. as possible. long. whenever convenient. the craft may be about 2 hp. Take measurements tor should be observed particularly. decked. thus rendering it more line of the engine bed and the upper stable. much care cannot be taken in this work. If prop. from the stern is is not likely to stand the jar of the a satisfactory position. the motor may vary with canoes and ical power need not be expended also engines of different types. and if it is de. This is the lower ity of the canoe. accommodated. While the craft thus be. a canoe of frail the dimensions indicated. to be Likewise. 30 in. and braced.

of l^^-j-in. other irregular pieces. are suggestive plete before an attempt is made to fit only. and smaller screws may be used from arrange the installation. Rest the be indicated on the diagram. In the latter case it will marking the curve on the diagram. The slant of the inside if there is room for drawing the engine bed must be made accu. The template cial instances. The cross canoe with bolts. and care should rib. Meas. will also aid in holding the log in place. The curve K. It will be found mensions. proper place. since they must be ob. They may be varied in order to the shaft and its connections. Bolts may when viewed from the forward end. made full size. may be indicated similarly. 5. The heads of the brace at the forward end is important. for the shaft through it. be established with extreme care. The lower rudder support The shaft log O may next be indi. Fig. and en- size and exact position of the engine gine bed may be made of oak. Its di. may then be used as a may be readily and accurately done by guide for the bit. and should possible. be passed through it and fastened on }'et not necessarily so. from which tion. This extended to O. measurements may shaft. A metal long edge of the sheet on the straight. to be set from the stern and indicate The rudder and other parts. The The shaft log. wherever of certain parts and fittings. If the homemade fixing a straightedge to the keel and type of bearing Ris used. and line from C to M. The shaft log should be fixed into gines they are on a horizontal line place before it is bored. It is made provide proper bearing on the floor. stock. bolted together with and so that the bolts holding the bed lag screws and fixed firmly into the may pass through ribs. Use the template as a guide in hardware. This line is fundamental in de. as any deflection from the angle may be used to aid in the fastening of the center line of the shaft will dis. of?er a sufficient clearance for the flywheel convenient method of outlining the and the crank case. for in many en. as at M. ribs. strong hard wood. a flat. up the nuts in the stern. pattern for the curved stern. the the bit is to be started when the shaft planking F. are not directly connected with the uring from the base line. The point P. permitting per patterns. the inside. used for the curve HJ may be altered tained from the particular canoe and by drawing the shaft log on it at the other parts entering into the construc. The upper line of the engine bed be taken that the bolts pass through must not be confounded with the cen. bolts should be provided with cotton and should be fitted carefully over a and red-lead packing. which will thus in. which it by the perpendicular line L. of the stern deck. Large screws rately. bearing may be made. may be indicated height of the center of the motor shaft in detail on the diagram or be made from the floor. bottom of the canoe in order to provide ing. This should be from sketches of a smaller scale. . cut a template or dicated and the center line of the shaft. ter line of the shaft. When the dia- dicate the center line of the driving gram is complete. as probably be necessary to block up the at HJ. except in spe. Indicate the layer of ribs E. be transferred directly from it without termining the dimensions and placing reducing them to figures. should be in- the template sheet. or other bed N may now be indicated. or a suitable edge when fitting the template to the one obtained from dealers in marine curve. shaft bearing. parts should be fitted to it. it should permitting it to extend to A. and. horizontal bearing surface for Determine the distance the motor is the bearing flange. Pa- made as low as possible. indicate the motive-power unit. and the keel G. desirable to have the engine bed com- spective sketch. given in detail in the per. 90 point C is the center of the stern end cated and a template made for use in of the driving shaft. the rudder. The dimensions guiding the bitwhen boring the hole of parts are not given. Using log is fixed into place. Draw a straight parts of the engine bed.

Fio.5

EMGINE BED

A Light-weight, Two-Horsepower Motor Installed in a Stanch 18-Foot Canoe will Increase the Range
and Utility of Such a Craft; the Construction Shown Is Simple and within the Capabilities of a Careful
Novice of Fair Mechanical Skill. A View of the Stern from Above is Shown in Fig. 1. The Engine is
Shown Mounted on the Engine Bed. and near the Stern the Shaft Block is Shown. A Partial Sectional
View is Shown in Fig. 2. the Relation of the Engine and Bed, Shaft and Fittings, Shaft Block, Shaft
Log. and Rudder are Shown. The Construction Diagram, Fig. 3, is Described in Detail in the Text. A
Larger-Scale View and a Section of the Shaft Block are Indicated in Fig. 4, and Fig. 5 Illustrates the
Engine Bed with Dimensions and Fastening Holes

91

92

and the iron straps S, Fig. 3, will insure given for the placing of the gasoline
its rigidity. This is an important point tank, the supply pipes, electrical-energy
in the construction, as if the log is not source, and wiring. The tank may be
fixed positively, the thrashing of the placed in the stern of the canoe high
propeller will soon loosen it. enough to provide a good flow. A
A detail of the shaft bearing is R magneto may be used to give current
shown in Fig. 4. The hole to receive for the sparking circuit, or batteries
the shaft must be bored accurately, and may be provided. They may be placed
the use of the template, as with the at any point convenient, and should be
boring of the shaft log, is advisable. incased in a waterproof container.
Flanged metal bearings are provided to In assembling the parts care must
take up the wear in the bearing block. be taken not to wrench the shaft or
The method of fastening the block, as other pieces out of line, and in general,
shown in the detail view, insures a it is well to fix nonadjustable parts

rigid bearing with a minimum of holes solidly when they are fitted into place.
through the bottom of the canoe. A This applies particularly to the engine
U-bolt, T, binds tlie double angle brace bed and the shaft log. The bearing
U and the block firmly to the keel. block may be adjusted vertically b}'
The angles of the brace are fixed into adding packing, or by reducing the
the sides of the canoe with bolts, and lower surface. The rudder and its fit-
a bolt at the stern end of the block tings may be made in regular course,
supports it further. The block should but should not be fitted until the power
be placed so that it will bear on three unit and driving mechanism is in place
ribs and must be fitted to the curve finally. The propeller may be pro-
of the canoe. tected from possible injury by laying
The rudder is made of sheet metal it aside until needed. All the openings
supported on a rod or pipe. Its gen- in the hull through which bolts or other
eral dimensions are shown in Fig. 3. fastenings are placed should be packed
The fan of the rudder is riveted to its with red lead or other waterproof pack-
supports and rests in a bearing strip ing. The working parts and finished
of i/i hy 1-in. strap iron, which is metal surfaces should be oiled or
shaped as a guard for the propeller. greased thoroughly as the parts are as-
The upper bearing of the rudder post is sembled, and the unfinished metal
formed from a strip of iron, bolted to parts painted with red lead. This will
the stern, and the upper guide bar, to protect them from moisture and aid in
which the ropes are attached, is cut the smooth operation of the mechan- j
from an iron strip. ism. '

The propeller is 8 in. in diameter,
but may
be installed of a size suitable How to Make a Fluorescent Screen
to the power, speed, and type of the
motor used. The stuffing box V, Fig. Many experimenters have occasion
3, the bearings for the bearing block to use a fluorescent screen, particularly
R, the intake strainer W, the exhaust those interested in X-ray work. Such
outlet X, Fig. 1, and the shaft coupling a device is quite expensive if pur-
Y are all of manufactured types that chased, and may be made as follows
may be purchased of marine-supply Mix 1 oz. each of common salt, so-
houses. dium tungstate, and calcium chloride.
The intake strainer Wis placed in Place the mixture in a crucible and J

the bottom directly below the pump heat it dull red in a coal fire, for several]
Z. The exhaust outlet X
is placed hours. It will melt into a clear liquid, I

above the water line, and a muffler and should then be removed and per-|
should be installed to avoid noise from mitted to cool. The liquid will crys-
the exhaust explosions. The exhaust tallize into a hard glasslike mass.
may be conducted under water or to a Break this out of the crucible and crush I

point near the stern. No indication is it into small pieces. Put them into a I

93

jar of clear water. The sodium chlo- ing the wire close to the ground is
ride resulting from the chemical change shown in the sketch. A
peg, notched
by heating, will gradually dissolve and near its upper end, is driven into the
the calcium tungstate will fall to the ground so that the lower edge of the
bottom in fine crystals. Wash this
precipitate until all trace of the salt
disappears ; then pour the crystals
upon a sheet of filter or blotting paper
to dry. After drying, place them in a
mortar and grind them to a fine pow-
der, when they will be ready for use.
To make the screen proper, procure
a piece of thin white cardboard of the
size desired. The calendered board
known as three-ply is satisfactory.
Paint the cardboard on one side with a
thick solution of gum arable in water,
or better still, with celluloid dissolved
in amyl acetate. Permit the gum to be-
come "tacky" before dusting with the
chemical. The latter process requires
care, to produce an even layer on the
cardboard, and it is advisable to prac-
tice with ordinary salt before attempt-
wire mesh is held fast in the notch.
ing it on the cardboard for the screen. Contributed by O. B. Laurent, New-
The calcium tungstate should be Roads, La.
placed in a dry jar, and a piece of fine
muslin fixed over the mouth of it. The
chemical may be dusted over the sur- Jig-Saw Table for Vise
face with this sieve jar.
Shake oflf the superfluous crystals Those wha have occasional work to
and permit the screen to dry thor- be done with a jig saw will find the
oughly. Fasten a piece of mica, or simple device shown in the sketch con-
sheet celluloid, over the sensitized sur- venient. It provides a table for saw-

face to prevent damage to it. Mount ing light work. By holding it in a vise,
the sensitized cardboard in a wooden as shown, a rigid support may be had.
frame of suitable size and arrange' a The table is made of a rectangular
hood around its edges to cut out un- piece of %-m. wood, 8 in. wide and 10
necessary light. The sensitive side of in. long. At one end, a strip, 1 in.
the screen is, of course, held toward the
observer when the apparatus is used.
Contributed by Chester Keene, Ho-
boken, N. J.

Preventing Wire Mesh from Rising
between Fence Posts
Fences which inclose pastures for
hogs, or other smaller animals, are The Jig-Saw Table Provides a Rigid Support for
Light Fretwork
usually stretched to give rigidity and
strength. Often the adjustment of the square, attached for clamping in the
is
wire, after being put into place, causes vise. The other endis notched to pro-
it to rise from the ground between the vide a place for the saw while in use.
fence posts, permitting the animals to — Contributed by Victor A. Rettich,
escape. An effective method of hold- New York, N. Y.

94

An Emergency Dark-Room Light Waterproofing for Fish Lines

The traveling man who "lives in a Dissolve lo oz. of orange shellac in
suitcase" and at the same time wishes I'opt. of alcohol, and add 1 teaspoonful
to enjoy the of Venice turpentine, the same quan-
pleasures of ama- tity of raw linseed oil, and 2 oz. tinc-
teur photo g- ture of benzoin. Shake well, and set
raphy sometimes in a varnish can in hot water.
experiences diffi- Soak the coiled line in the varnish
culty in develop- for two hours, then hang it up to dry.
ing films in a Thin the varnish with alcohol, and re-
hotel room. Soup peat the dipping. When the line is
plates borrowed dry, rub it down well with a wool rag
from the stew- greased with tallow. Silk lines treated
ard, or even the in this manner are pliable, and the
bowl pitcher and fibers of the silk are so united by the
the ice -water varnish that the strength of the line
pitcher in the room, can be used for is almost doubled.
development, but it is very hard to
improvise a ruby lamp. My emer- Making Chest Lock More Secure
gency lamp is a small vest-pocket
flash lamp over which two yellow en- As a rule, ordinary chest locks can-
velopes, one inside of the other, are not be relied upon, since almost any
slipped, as shown. The lower edges kind of a similar
are cut perfecth' square and rest on key will unlock
the table, or shelf, in the closet, and them. I found a
all white light is excluded. At night, good remedy by
the shades may be drawn, and a yellow- taking out the
paper sack may be tied around the pin on which the
electriclight. —
Contributed by J. L. key fits, and
Pinkston, Granite Hill, Ga. making a new
one twice as long
as the one re-
An Ice Creeper
moved, then
The illustration shows a one-piece drilling a hole in
ice for
creeper the deep enough to fit over the
ke}'' _
the heel of a new pin. In case the pin extends too
boot or shoe. It far, a piece of wood block, with a hole
is made from in it to admit the key, can be fastened
sheet steel with over it to prevent bending the pin. No
the arms bent up ordinary key will pass on the pin far
to receive a strap —
enough to turn the lock. Contributed
for buckling it in by Chas. G. England, Washington, Pa.
place on the boot
heel. The zigzag Driving Screws in Hard Wood
cuts in the bot-
tom part are Keep the supply of screws in a boxd
turned down for containing a small amount of powdered!
engaging the ice. soapstone. Shake the box occasionally,]
— Contributed by Chas. S. Snell, and the screws will be dusted with the
Lewiston, Me. powder, which acts as a lubricant. ThisI
is a much cleaner and more convenient
CIn machine work a way must be pro- method than the ordinary one of rub-i
vided for removing dowel pins before bing each screw on a bar of soap before
the}' are driven in place. driving it in hard wood.

PART I—
Kinds of Canoes

THE charm birchen
of the
has long been sung in verse
canoe
and
in the
ness,
wake of ignorance and careless-
and while there are very few ex-
prose, and while the bark that the pert gunners injured by firearms, and
Indian used has been supplanted by still fewer experienced canoeists
a more perfect type of modern manu- drowned, there are numerous sad acci-
facture, the popularity of this, the most dents constantly occurring to the reck-
graceful of water craft, has increased less and foolhardy, who do not knov/
with years, until today we find the how to handle a weapon, nor under-
canoe the choice of thousands of rec- stand the first thing about paddling a
reation seekers who paddle about in canoe. Let us consider then, the prac-
park lakes and quiet streams, or spend tical side of the subject, the choice of
their vacations in cruising down rivers a suitable canoe and the knack of

and other attractive waterways some- handling it in a safe and efficient
times within the environs of towns and manner.
villages, and again dipping paddles in If one would experience in full
the wilderness streams of the far measure the many-sided charm of
north. True, the modern canoe is a paddling, he should get a good canoe.
distinct product of the twentieth cen- Unlike other and heavier water craft,
tury, and while it is so largely used at the canoe is a lightly balanced and
summer resorts, it nevertheless re- responsive conveyance, which may be
tains all the good points of the old, cranky and dangerous, or safe and
while embodying numerous improve- stable, according to the model, the skill
ments which fit it even better for wil- of the builder, and the dexterity of the
derness travel than the Indian model paddler. There are canoes and canoes,
after which it was patterned. The of varying models and sizes, and con-
noteworthy increase in the number of structed of many materials, and while
canoeists in the past dozen years is all may serve as a means of getting
good evidence that this natty craft is about in the water, the paddling quali-
fast coming into its own, and as more ties numerous little idiosyn-
include
and more outdoor men and women crasies which serve to differentiate
understand its possibilities and limita- canoes as well as men. In fact, this
tions and become proficient in handling light and graceful craft may be prop-
it, the long-rooted fear and distrust erly viewed as the highest type of boat
with which the uninformed public re- building, since it must be fashioned
gard the canoe, will pass away. As a strong but light it must be steadj
;

matter of fact, accidents ever follow when going light; capable of carrying
95

96

comparatively heavy loads draw little
; the stroke of the paddle. In an expert's
water, and it must be honestly con- hands the round bottom will be found
structed of good material to stand up a decided advantage, making it faster
under the hard usage which every to paddle and more easily turned and
canoe is subjected to, whether used for steered in swift and rough water.
summer paddling, or up on long hunt- Many prefer the three-piece bottom,
ing and shooting trips. but the bottom made of a single piece
Three types of canoes are in common of bark is stronger and less likely to
use by experienced canoeists, the birch- open up and leak. All birch canoes
bark, the all-wood, and the canvas- will warp and twist somewhat, and it
covered cedar canoe. The birch-bark, is practically impossible to find one
by reason of its rougher workmanship, that is straight and true. The birch-
is slow under the paddle, is easily in- bark canoe has many limitations and
jured, and it grows heavier and more not a few weaknesses, but if one has
difficult to handle ever}- time it is used. the good luck to find a good one, and
The all-wood canoe is most expensive treats it fairly, it will prove a safe and
to buy, and though swift under the dry craft for many hundreds of miles'
paddle, is too easily injured and too travel-. Of course, one must carry a
difficult to repair for rough and ready kettle of pitch for making repairs, and
use. The cedar-planked canoe which be content to travel somewhat slower
is covered with filled and painted can- than with modern canoes, but this may
vas is for many reasons the best all- not be a disadvantage. Birch canoe's

around craft attractive enough for have no seats, as the Indian kneels
park use, and stout enough for use in when paddling, but a low thwart, or
rapid water and for cruising in north- seat, is easy to put in at the bow and
ern lakes and rivers. stern, if one prefers the white man's
paddling position.
How to Select a Birch-Bark Canoe
The Indian-made birch-bark canoe All-Wood or Peterborough Canoe
costs about $1 a foot and is fashioned This type of craft is much used in
of birch bark over an ash, or spruce, Canada along the St. Lawrence River,
frame. The bark is not nailed to the and to a much less extent by American
frame, but is sewed together with sportsmen, owing to its higher cost,
boiled spruce, or tamarack, roots, split and its tendency to break and cause a
to a suitable size. To give the proper leak. Of course, the all-wood canoe
shape to the canoe a double row of is a good craft, but everything con-
stakes are firmly planted in the ground sidered, there can be no question in
and the spruce frame is sprung be- the minds of canoeists who are ac-
tween them. The bark is put on inside quainted with all types of canoes, that
out, and the work of sewing together the all-cedar or basswood craft is less
is done while the bark is fresh, or dependable than the canvas-covered
immediately after it is stripped from cedar canoe. The Peterborough type
the tree. The seams are afterward — so called from a Canadian city of
made water-tight by smearing well this name where many wood canoes
with spruce gum, which hardens quick- are —
made with its relatively low ends
ly and makes a fairly good joint. The and straight sides with but little sheer
Indian model is a good one so far as and tumble home, is the model com-
the freeboard, width of beam, and flar- monly used by practically all manufac-
ing stems are concerned, but the curved turers of the all-wood canoe. While
bottom makes it extremely cranky and a boat of this kind can be, and often is
dangerous for the novice to handle. Be used in rough-water lake paddling as
sure to see that the birch-bark canoe well as in wilderness travel, the all-
is fashioned with a flat, straight bot- wood canoe is better suited for club
tom, which makes the craft steadier use, and in the wider and more quiet-
and less inclined to veer about under flowing streams and lakes.

97

The Canvas-Covered Cedar Canoe price to obtain a good craft, and while
The canvas-covered cedar canoe, various manufacturers supply canoes
when rightly made of the best ma- of similar types at different prices,
terial, is by allodds the best paddling some of them are so inferior that they
craft afloat, being strong and light. will scarcely stand a season's use. Of

with a hull so smooth that it is swift course, the use to which a canoe is put
to paddle, while the mode of construc- will influence the selection. If the
tion makes a very stiff craft, which will craft is wanted for long service on
not warp or twist out of shape. More- hunting and iishing trips, a high-grade
over, it will stand a vast amount of canoe of plain finish is the logical
hard usage and abuse, while repairs choice. If the canoe is for club use, a
are quickly and neatly done by the highly finished craft with mahogany
stream side. In the making of a first- trimmings may be preferred. A
canoe
class canoe of this type, the ribs are for occasional use on some quiet lake
first steamed and then bent and fitted or small stream may be selected from
over a solid form cedar being used for
; the cheaper kinds, which will, no doubt,
the ribs and planking; spruce for the answer every purpose. However,
gunwales, and white ash, or oak, for most manufacturers list what they call
the stems and thwarts. In a canoe an "A" and a "B" grade. The "A"
built according to my instructions, grade provides selected-cedar ribs and
each plank runs to the full length of planking; oak for gunwales, stems,
the craft and all are beveled and thwarts and seats selected from the
lapped together, thus making a per- finest material, and the finish the best
fectly smooth and almost water-tight that can be procured, while the "B"
canoe, before the canvas is cemented grade is identical in model, canvas and
on its surface. The canvas is thor- paint, but the material not quite so
oughly waterproofed before it is put clear or free from minor defects, though
on, then it is drawn tightly over the for all practical purposes it will render
planking, and several coats of filler as much service and give fully as much
and the final finish of paint are applied, satisfaction as the first, or "A," grade.
after which it is rubbed down. A little saving may be made by select-
The well-made canvas-covered canoe ing the second-grade canoe, having
is,if properly designed, a pretty good most of the money invested in the
facsimile of the representative Indian canoe and not so much in the finer
model in that it possesses all the good finishings. The ordinary construction
points of the birch-bark canoe, but is provides for the ordinary solid topwale,
more substantially constructed, of bet- but the open gunwale is sometimes pre-
ter and more durable material, and ferred, because the openings make
more finely finished. In making the washing easy, all sand and dirt running
selection, it is necessary to pay a fair out freely between the wales. This

98

construction detail is supplied by most countered, a lightly rounded bottom, a
manufacturers, when specified, at a trifle lower in the center than at the
slight additional cost. ends, will be easier to handle in white
water, while comparatively narrow
Points to be Considered
ends will give more speed under the
The particular shape, combined with paddle.
the dimensions, of the canoe is com- All canvas-covered canoes are pro-
monly called the model, and since vided with brass bang plates, or irons,
at stern and bow, and if wanted, an
outside keel may be furnished. In
most cases this is not essential, but
when the canoe is largely used in rocky
TOPWALE
\ rivers a broad keel of ^/-i-in. oak, or ash,
Si/2 in. wide in the center and tapered
THWART
at both ends to fit the brass bang irons,
will protect the bottom from hard
knocks. The narrow 1-in. keel is an
out-and-out nuisance, making the
canoe slow to turn and furnishing Ijut
scant protection for the bottom. Any
keel adds to the weight of the craft,
and weight is a factor that must be
considered when much portaging is
done. So far as capacity is concerned,
a canoe, IG ft. long, 32-in. beam, and
12-in. amidship depth, will accommo-
date two men and the usual amount
of camp duffle, weighing from 350 to
The Important Parts of 400 lb. On short trips, a 15-ft. canoe
a Canoe, Giving Names may be made to accommodate two men,
for the Information of
the Novice while on very long cruises, where a
larger amount of duffle must be taken
along, an IS-ft. canoe may be needed.
For three persons, the 17 or IS-ft.
many canoe builders oft'er several canoe, of 34-in. beam, is about right,
different models it is a comparatively but for a party of four it is better to use
easy matter to find a craft which fully two IG-ft. canoes than one large craft.
meets one's ideas of a canoe. Canoes In fact, canoes longer than 18 ft. are
can be had as small as 10 ft. long more properly regarded as freight craft
and weighing as little as IS lb., while and only used on special trips.
others are built all the way up to Moccasins, or rubber-soled footwear,
35 ft. and ranging around 50 in. wide. are most suitable for the canoeist's
For all-around use, that is for cruis- wear, but since heavy-heeled shoes are
ing, hunting, and fishing, the 16-ft. often worn, it is a good plan to protect
length, with 32-in. beam, 12 in. deep the thin planking by running a slatted
amidships, and weighing about 60 lb., floor, 8 or 10 in. wide, in the center of
will meet the approval of the experi- the canoe. Provide this grating with
enced canoeist. In a good canoe of brass buttons, and it will be held firmly
this size a flat floor, medium-high in place, but removable at any time.
ends, and a fair amount of tumble For convenience in towing, a small but

home to add stability and keep the flexible rope — braided cotton is always
water from shooting inboard may be — soft and pliable — about 20 ft. long,
reckoned the "earmarks" of a general- should be tied at both bow and stern.
purpose craft. For exclusive river The ordinary "painter eye," which
work, where many rapids are en- fastens with a bolt screwed to the un-

99

der side of the breast hooks, is good, Pick out the lightest and thinnest
but a small hole, through which the maple paddle that can be found, one
rope is securely knotted, will serve as that fashioned of straight-grained
is
well. wood, and test it for elasticity before
Paddles making the purchase. A couple of
Thebest material for paddles is good
selected spruce, and while this ma-
terial is not so heavy nor will stand
hard knocks so well as maple or birch,
its lightness makes it the choice of
many paddlers. For rough work the
maple paddle may be chosen, and while Canoe Yoke Equipped
with Adjustable
heavier than spruce, it possesses great- Shoulder Pads, and
the Pneumatic Carrier
er elasticity, and this spring offsets to That Serves Two
Purposes
a great extent the larger weight of ma-
terial. Cedar, ash, and pine make ex- coats of spar varnish will keep the pad-
cellent paddles, and the Indians often dles in good shape, but as a varnished
fashion them from these woods. surface is hard on the hands, most
In selecting a single-blade paddle, it veteran canoeists varnish the blades
is well to remember that the length will and finish the shafts with oil. An extra
depend on the paddler's height, for it paddle will, of course, be carried on all
is self-evident that a tall man will re- long trips.
quire a longer paddle than a short per- Thesingle-blade paddle is quite uni-
son can conveniently swing. Hence the versally used, but the double-blade
usual rule is to pick out a paddle as gives more spread for the lone paddler.
long as the paddler is tall, and is a Although the double-blade was de-
sensible one to follow, although there signed for the "Rob Roy" type of canoe
are exceptions. Personal preferences
diiter, and, also, a longer paddle will be
— a one-man craft, decked both fore
and aft, the paddler sitting in a cockpit
required when paddling from seats than
when a kneeling position is adopted.
in the center —
it is sometimes used for
propelling the open Canadian canoe,
For general use, the stern paddle of and when the canoeist travels alone,
5^-ft. length will be long enough, the double-blade is a good choice, espe-
while the bow paddle of 5 ft. will prob- cially on open waters where much wind
ably suit the average man. Ladies, and high seas are likely to be encoun-
boys, and girls will need shorter tered. Spruce is the best material for
lengths. double paddles, and 10 ft. is the best
The shape of the paddle blades varies length. As all double-bladed paddles
somewhat, and while some prefer a are provided with a ferrule, or friction
broad blade and others a narrow one, joint, in the center, they may be un-
it is well to pick out one of medium jointed and each used as a pair of single
size. Large blades are tiresome for paddies. In case the open end of the
long trips, while the narrow blade metal ferrule is objectionable, a wood
balances best in the hand, but affords plug may be fitted to provide a palm
less resistance in the water. When grip, similar to the grip of the single
picking out a spruce paddle, see that paddle.
there is plenty of wood at the juncture
of the blade and shaft, for it is at this Portages for Carrying the Canoe
point most paddles break. Spruce When the weight of the canoe does
being a comparatively soft wood, it not exceed 6-5 lb., it is easily carried by
will fur badly, and the blades should be placing the paddle blades over the cen-
fitted with copper tips to prevent split- ter thwart, the ends under the next
ting. Maple paddles do not need this after thwart and lashing them se-
protection, but most builders err in curely in place; then placing a sweater
making them too thick and heavy. or coat over the shoulder to form a

100

pad on which to rest the paddles to secure the paddles in position, is well
carry the canoe in an inverted position. liked by some canoeists, but the wood
However, when long portages must be neck yoke fits so well that it is hard
undertaken the "neck yoke," or the to find a good substitute. A
large and
pneumatic canoe yoke, may be used. heavy craft can be easily carried by
The neck yoke is fashioned from a two men by turning the craft bottom
block of pine, or other soft wood, to fit side up and resting the weight on the
the curve of the shoulders, and the ends back and shoulders. If the man at the
fit in the grooves made in the gunwales stern lets the gunwale rest on his
or small pieces of wood may be screwed shoulders and his companion lowers
to the under side of the gunwale to the front thwart to rest against his
serve the same purpose. The pneu- neck and shoulders, both may carry
matic cushion, which fits around the a light pack of duffle and will have a
neck and is provided with straps to clear view of the trail ahead.

To Practice Batting for Baseball the strikes are made properly, the ball
Playing
will swing out and come hack in a per-
fect curve, orcan be made to come back
A
boy with a very great desire to bounding and in no straight line. This
make a good ball player fovind that will teach the eye to locate the ball and
he could not hit a ball tossed to him. make hits where it cannot be taught by
having some one toss the ball to the
striker.

Making Impressions of Leaves

A very true and artistic impression
of a leaf, or similar object, can be made
as follows : Grease a piece of heavy
writing paper with linseed oil, and
smoke the surface well by lighting a
small piece of camphor gum and hold-
ing the paper over the flame. Place
the leaf on the smoked surface of the
paper and cover it with several thick-
nesses of newspaper, then press the
leaf into the blackened surface. Re-
move the leaf and lay it with the black-
ened surface on a piece of white paper,
then cover again with the newspaper
and press evenly and thoroughly. A
Learning to Strike a Ball without the Aid of a beautiful and permanent impression of
Pitcher or Fielder
the leaf will be transferred to the paper.
Try as he might, the bat never hit the Care should be taken not to move the
ball. Some one suggested that a ball leaf the least bit either in coating it
hung by a cord would help to a great with the smoke or in transferring it to
extent, and it was tried out with excel- the paper. Be careful not to use too
lent results. An inexpensive ball was much oil. This process can be used
suspended from the limb of a tree so to stamp cloth for embroidery. A
that it would be at the proper height candle can be used in place of the cam-
for the batter. In striking at the ball phor if care is exercised, but the cam-
it was not necessary to make home-run phor gives a very dense smoke with a
hits, as this is liable to break the cord, —
minimum of heat. Contributed by
or get it tangled to its support. If J. H. Beebee, Rochester, N. Y.

Making T- Squares
By J. B. MURPHY
THE making a
any kind presents a
single article of
of
distinct prob-
ness,
each
and the stocks, %
in. Two of
were cut from each prepared
lem in itself, but the production of a piece, first from one side and then from
large number of the same article must
be done in a difterent way, if efficiency
and uniformity in the product are desir-
able qualities. Taking, for instance, the
making of a large number of T-squares,
the material is not made up in the same
manner as for one. Where a number
of these instruments was required, they
were made as follows, with no other
equipment than bench tools and a band
saw. The squares were made of ma-
hogany having both stock and blade
edged with maple. The blades were
fastened to the stock with five %-in.
button-head screws.
Stock and Blade Material for Matting the Parts, and
The material for the heads and the the Jig for Assembling

MAHOGANY
the other. They were then faced off on
both sides, and two more pieces cut.
With careful cutting, six blades and six
stocks were made from each piece.
This left one side of each piece to be
planed after sawing. The holes for the
screws were drilled with a small hand
drill.
For assembling, a jig was made by
nailing a piece of stock, 3,^ in. thick,
to a straight drawing board. One end
of the piece was planed straight and
true before it was fastened in place.
Stops were provided to locate the stock
and hold the blade square with it.
Wedges were used to keep both stock
and blade against the stops while the
screws were inserted. The wedges
Dimensions for a T-Square of Which a Number were were not driven with a hammer, but
to be Made in Duplicate
pushed in firmly with the fingers.
blades was glued up and finished to the
sizes given at A
and B. The material CInsert a scratch awl in common hard
was cut to gauge lines on the band saw, soap for hardening, and it will need no
the blades being a scant %
in. in thick- drawing after the plunge.
101

bark and canvas-covered craft. and he propels the is much the same as that the expert craft largely through the muscles of axman uses when felling a tree. woods do not use this stroke. and while it is be smooth from the beginning to the more comfortable to use them. The swing of the paddle should a seat for each paddler. Fig. it is finish of the stroke. A and B. the kneeling position the stroke is continued with a long is a source of discomfort at first. but to handle a pad. and the stern paddler and the stroke is finished in the rear. 2. and finishing the thwart enables the paddler to use his stroke smartly as it is carried back- back and thigh muscles to drive his ward. and the "accent" of the stroke into the stroke. there past the paddler's body. In the birch. 3. but the long and slow which brings the weight lower in the sweep of the paddle is amateurish. undue jerkiness. Of course. blade is turned edgewise as it is swung ond thwart from the bow. and carried downward the guides of Maine and Canada. The canoemen of the North better able to control his craft. ward. much energy is wasted. Again. But when fore one's energy should be concen- paddling from the knees they are trated upon the first part of the stroke. quick recovery of the for the paddler to put much of his body blade. The paddle is now carried for- practice and experience. The paddle is recov- thwart. dipped into the water in front. are no seats. through the air to begin the second the builders of modern canoes furnish stroke. PART II—The Knack of ^- Handling the Paddle THE knack of paddling a canoe as the majority of amateurs paddle The stroke of the paddle is made with the body motionless. a way of most ama- after a little practice it will be easy to teurs. while the bow paddler usually ered by turning the wrist so that the kneels with his back against the sec. one hand grasping is quickly learned. Aand B. but prefer the use of the seat makes it impossible a shorter stroke. The driving power of the paddle craft ahead with much less exertion diminishes rapidly as the blade is car- and waste of energy than when sitting ried backward. spread out to brace the body firmly. as it is safer. and the paddler is and simple. but backward sweep. A and B. However. 1. used by Fig. that is. There- his arms and shoulders. since it keep the position for several hours. and if the full force of erect. adds nothing to the forward momentum 102 . pure canoe. the shaft of the paddle and the other dle as the expert woodsman and the holding it a short distance above the Indian wield it requires not a little blade. easing up quickly as soon as the blade and the back resting against the is opposite the body. kneels with his back against the rear Fig. free from better to take the kneeling position.

experienced stern paddler always fin- dle quite close and ahead of the canoe. by dle well outfrom the bow and pulling it forcing down the stern. shoot the canoe around an abrupt bend. but one soon will begin his stroke by dipping his pad. since the guide and Indian will bowman merely reaches his paddle out at arm's length over the side and pulls the bow in that direc- tion. To save time and muscle. while the stern paddler sim- dip their blades ply paddles almost twice as straight ahead. straight course by ginning of the stroke. keep up a regular F1G. a fair cruis. Paddling from the stern is of the paddle. which the craft to drag more water after it. slow stroke canoe. Short and while he can strokes. effort than when trailing the paddle ing. will push the canoe faster and with less ef- fort.2 F1G. made by dipping the pad. often. the experienced bowman often considered difficult. and the any kind of a stroke will suffice to drive energy of both paddlers is used in driv- the canoe ahead. paddle he can do much to steer the only be done when a long. and the man in the stern will be on a straight course with much less called upon to use more energy in steer. the bow stroke. which offsets the forces the bow in the opposite direc. while the North-woods To do this is simple enough. In contrast to this faulty handling astern.. When when head winds and rough water are paddling in tortuous and rocky streams encountered. The out for rocks and snags. and he should long sweeping stroke of the summer always be prepared to "draw" the canoe idler will probably whenever it is necessary to clear an ob- average about 2G to struction or assist the stern paddler to 30 strokes per minute. take the usual is used. The stern pad- ing average being FiG. One Hand Grasping the Shaft of the Paddle and the Other Holding It a nothing more than Short Distance above the Blade r. and also causes toward him at a greater angle. ishes his stroke with an outward push The force of the stroke thus made and a turn of the wrist. swing of the bow and keeps the canoe tion. with the keep his craft on a accent at the be. short stroke it is the bow paddler's duty to watch will save both time and muscle. or ing the craft steadily ahead.^. trailing his paddle at the end of each tions. masters it by a little experience.The Stroke of the Paddle is Made with the Body dler usually does Motionless.3-B stroke and watch for rocks and obstruc. For example.3-A dler is the helms- about 45 strokes man of the canoe. and the pad- dler has better control over his craft. The bow pad. 103 of the canoe. but rather retards it. the quick. . but upon long trips. keeps the canoe moving straight ahead For a short afternoon paddle almost without swinging to one side. per minute. but if he is a good hand at the stroke and using it it can like a rudder.

it the bow. who from his point of advan- er a pretty stiff tage can likewise better size up the gale. it is hazardous for the novice ist can "size" up the character of the to attempt it. providing both paddlers the canoe in a heavy sea. — tions on the surface depth of water. the man in the stern. When running rapids where the water lar high comber sweeps by. the inability of the stern paddler to ified. Short and is fairly deep. many dry. and the handle his craft. and while the kneel in the bottom of the canoe. their craft too hard. To be sure. Un- skillful canoeist can handle his craft in known streams are naturally the most the trough of the sea when the need dangerous. inexperienced canoeist who has not ful- but Experts Win Races dle in the water ly mastered the handling of his craft. but it is ance his craft by likewise a dangerous bit of fun for the Dangerous for the Novice. weath. nursing knees. to balance the canoe by leaning to one the regular side. consequently the dling steadily ahead. pad. effect of a high wave upon the craft. since he cannot prevent it entirely long. through breaking crests and shift his it is only necessary to keep the canoe balance whenever the necessity arises. from his position in an even keel. the use of the paddle is clean strokes are essential for handling the better way. and many other de- . Of worth remembering. holding his pad. — sciously perhaps alternate or "split" strength of current. for to keep the course. in This Position while a particu. and the canoeist's own experi. hence the bottom of the river by the indica- the experienced canoeist will uncon. but if the rapids or when bucking heavy seas on craft is well balanced by stowing the a lake. the a good thing to keep one paddle in the trained eye of the woodsman will read water while the other is in the air. To cross a broad more or less and yaw about. and the stern paddler and drive his craft onward at the same must be ever alert to ease the canoe time. submerged rocks. than through altered and mod. balanced or "trimmed" to keep things When paddling in rough water. He can. partner. although the veteran canoe- arises. hard fight. in rough water some spray is canoe right side up when shooting certain to come over the rail. with proper obstructions and pass the word to his handling. his craft over the big ones and often ence and judgment must be called upon turning his bow into the largest comb- to meet constantly changing conditions ers. and much unneces. the canoe will plunge of the wind and water. into heavy seas When traveling in the open waters is slow and tiresome work. quickly note rocks or other will. head on. Here the bow paddler has the canoeists make the mistake of driving best of it his sole duty is to keep pad- . on the quarter. . the bow paddler must stick to camp duffle so that the canoe floats on his seat. that is. means a spin. man in the stern Running a rapid stream in a canoe may often bal. and the stern paddler dling should always be done on the must be ever on the lookout. When paddling Probably more capsizes have resulted against a heavy through the bowman's mistaken efforts sea and wind. but the stretch of wind-swept water where stern paddler merely checks this side whitecaps are running high. is replete with excitement. and most of large lakes where heavy winds and canoeists find it easier to take the seas seas are commonly encountered. while the balanc- canoe will "pound" when it reaches the ing and handling of the canoe rests with trough of the sea. swirl caused by strokes with his bowman. or attempting to dodge the spray stroke must be in rough-water paddling. This point is well sary spray is sent flying aboard. In heavy weather. When running before the wind. it is stream at the first glance. 104 Paddling in Open and White Water To paddle.

below will throw up waves of good size. and a new grip secured for the rapid water must be run. the use of pole may be used to good advantage two poles will make the work easier. the poler around in the current. will show very little. cult for any canoeist who understands nels. 105 tails are evident to him. Again. and across the fast water. when running down shallow rapids. and in a very rocky stream with much water flowing. an eas}^ matter to swing his craft across long. but plunges through the curling streams. rocks 3 or 4 ft. which quickly push. craft may lose as little headway as pos- On a long canoe trip where much sible. The heavy and the current swift. The water. the iron spike being simply tripup a stream where the water is driven in the end of the green pole. ward as quickly as possible. The Double Blade Is Often Useful When Paddling gether unlike the rolling waves of the Single-Handed on a Broad Reach of Wind-Swept Water open lake. When a canoe swings ly planted on the river bottom. 4 or 5 in. To keep the none but an experienced canoeist has canoe under perfect control in white any business in swift. cut by the stream side. long. a "setting next push. but an iron the current and avoid rocks and other shoe. should be carried dling. or spike. the Both persons should pole from the . in that the crests follow one another closely and the canoe cannot When traveling up shallow and swift rise. with the right hand stream must not strike one side of the held stationary about 2 ft. that the gling in the water in the next instant. The waves in a rapid stream are alto. it must be propelled faster than setting pole is gripped with the left the current flows. hour. lower. The pole is again shoved for- swings it broadside and one is strug. with the pole. the power of the leans forward and makes use of his paddles will be unable to cope with the weight and strength to give a quick more powerful current. firm- on the other side. paddle to help steer while his partner rent flow is from three to four miles per stands in the stern and wields the pole. After a little experience pole" should be reckoned a necessity. the canoeist will find it The pole may be a stout sapling. as they split the current. white water. waves are caused by swift water striking the comparatively quiet water of a deep pool and the canoeist should be able to determine the differ- ence between them in order to know what part of the stretch is dangerous and that which may be run in safety. and awkward implement to handle. a little it is only necessary to steer the craft practice will enable the canoeist to pole to one side to pass them safely. and bow with greater force than it exerts as the canoe travels past the pole. If the cur. and the force of the hand near the top. the craft must be shot diagonally the knack of balancing a canoe. When contemplating a long in the kit. but this is neither risky nor diffi- when it is necessary to change chan. The use rapids is to keep the canoe on an even of the pole necessitates a standing posi- keel and the bow into the current. with an obstructions as easily as when pad- iron band or ferrule. but in a 10-mile or swifter cur- rent obstructions 12 or even 18 in. below the surface will throw up swirl- ing ripples. To the novice man in the bow kneeling and using his these signs mean but little. below the surface. and while at first it is an avoided. the setting pole is absolutely crests. rocks or submerged logs. and tion. Rocks on the surface are easily necessary. 10 ft. about 3 in. The his craft with very little more effort one chief thing to do when shooting the than is required to paddle it.

106 same side. Rubber cups. eiTort. of course. the steering while the stern man adds but there are occasions when the canoe his straight-ahead push to force the is used single-handed. from One Side of the Canoe However. or a stretch of rapids is run single-handed. the weight of the outfit keeping the craft on an even keel. But the experi- very often. the man in the bow doing with better speed with two paddlers. since the craft is more difificult to con- trol. to pass through the painter eye. One man can almost vertical. and the more nearly pull the canoe up a swift stream by perpendicular the paddle is swung the walking along the bank while his part. handled more easily and the paddle rises in the air when makinrj . for he always sits making a detour by land rather than — amidships kneeling in the center^ risk a capsize and a possible loss of the and if a load is carried. With a heavily other. when the canoe is loaded. it is placed in outfit. the shaft of for the man at the bow line. the stern position is by no means a good one. This makes the of stout rope should be carried along craft heel at a decided angle. and sufficient length close to the gunwale. and to make the blades travel loaded canoe in very swift and shallow through the air with the least resist- water. or Canadian-model. but when the water is rough. and as is balanced on an even keel. and ance. then carried aft and half-hitched to the because it enables the paddle to be held first and second thwarts. more efficient will be the stroke. Conse- every canoeist will avoid portaging if quently the canoe draws less water and there is a fair chance of getting the can be paddled faster with the same canoe through a bad stretch of water. the canoeist usu- ally balances the craft by sitting on the The Track Line — bow seat or kneels on the bottom with The average wilderness stream of the his back against the bow-seat brace North has enough "tight" places which and using the stern for the bow. ner takes up the opposite side and In using the double blade. The Indian it manner of paddling a canoe alone is the judgment tells the traveler to avoid by only correct one. the paddle being rotated in the hands so that the blade will enter the water Paddling a Canoe Single-Handed with the full breadth facing the canoe- The open. both men must often wade. then on the using a stern line. it is true. This brings the paddler's weight nearer the center and keeps the canoe better bal- anced than when paddling from the Shifting the Paddle stern with the bow high in the air. to catch the drip as is. he moves out until his body is the loaded craft. To "tote" the outfit overland front and back of him so that the craft means more or less hard work. and but this position makes for better speed. while the paddler has the craft the tracking line will come in handy under perfect control. canoe ist. and much more strength is re- quired to driveforward. it is customary to set them at a tump line rigged up as a breast or right angles to each other. The usual ring in the bow enced line paddler does not kneel in the of the canoe is far too flimsy for hauling center. the pad- steers the craft away from rocks by dler dips first on one side. When out for canoe upstream. to the Other many canoeists stow their camp duflle forward and paddle from the stern. a few hours' paddle. The motion shoulder strap will make it easier work is really a push and pull. This answers well enough for smooth-water going.

For making quick repairs. carry dirt. A reliable jeweler will clocks and watches that could be used charge very little for this work. For small while the ends are well supported. turn it bot. the novice will very likely throw a little water in the canoe. at the center as well as at the ends. object of the tool is to pick up and merse them in kerosene and allow them carry a drop of oil and deposit it where to stand for a few minutes. from the case. and the can of white lead. . give quickly. Where High Winds and Seas are Encountered ing float. portion near the hole and on the sur- ard. It consists of a steel for this "mysterious" process. all ordinary repairs may be the bare cloth a couple of coats of shel. wanted. flood the dry part. a can of orange shel- paddler will bend his wrist a trifle to throw the drip ahead and to one side. If the wire. and the of shellac. consisting of a small paddles are set at right angles. face. or turn it bottom side up and on a little white lead under the raised support it with boxes. lor the stroke. cuts in the canvas. Re. Birch bark the lead is dry. give it a couple of coats must be kept out of the sun. and give it a couple of gested for the canvas-covered craft. keep it lac will suffice. cut a patch of the oiled silk to While unused at the camp. im. which are usually held knows the futility of the attempt. are sometimes used by A repair kit should be taken along novices. cut under cover. or a match move and drain. made by the stream side with but little lac before painting. When the handy. A can. but the profitably by others for the same and more crafty ones may ask a good price similar work. sandpaper it repaired in the same manner as sug- down smooth. a coat or two of shel- When storing for the winter. set into a wood handle. but it should not be dragged over the Paddling should be Done on the Knees When Traveling ground or over the boarding of the land. Care and Repair of the Canoe The canvas-covered cedar canoe will stand a vast amount of hard service. resting bottom side down oft' the loose threads of canvas and rub on a floor. or other stand. a feather. This will clean out will do. paint of canvas-covered canoes will last a roll of electrician's tape will come in longer if kept in the shade. When tom side up on the bank. and coats of canoe paint. Oiling Tool for Clocks and a drop applied to each bearing. bluntly pointed on the end and works are not apply the oil with dirty.'. At the beginning. but for bad gashes. Re- place the works in the case and the job Jewelers use a little tool for oiling is finished. any person handy with tools The Tool will Pick Up a Drop o( Oil and Deposit It can fix it at practically nO' cost. and a sheet of oiled silk. When the paint as the shellac is waterproof and dries is worn off and exposes the canvas. loss of time. cover it. but any one of them is apt to the dirt. The with four screws. but these are unnecessary if the on all long trips. Where Wanted move the works. The birch canoe is quickly paint becomes rough. Anyone who has tried to oil the only thing that is the matter with a clock with an ordinary spout oilcan a clock which does not keep good time. then re. but a little practice will soon master the knack. and paste it in position. or smear The oiling tool is dipped in light oil up nonmoving parts. If this is WIRE-' the case. is that it is dirty and dry. Very often the tool. neither should it be so placed that any strain will come amidships lac.

At the ends screws for attaching the wire. across the back hooks. and wood inside of the coat sleeve. but the performer only appears a trifle exerted and finds no difficulty in holding the Shelves for Books Supported with men. An essential point to re- eyes nearest the wall. 108 Easily Constructed Wall Shelves supports. The hooks are hooks are used two placed in the wall . and Making an Excellent Trick for the Lawn Party . the others being member in performing the trick is to placed above the first and connected to keep the fingers well around the rings the outer set of screw eyes with the to prevent the ropes from dropping in wire. which passes up the right the shelves. is lumber for Showing the Strength of a Giant This trick is not so well known as it might be. ihe remaining shelves can be hung to suit by the supporting v/ires. which are fastened with screws to the port the simple set of wall shelves. The performer passes for examination two pieces of rope 10 ft. All that is necessary to make and sup. although for a while it was quite a popular drawing attraction for circus side shows and other amuse- ment places. shown in the illustration. sufficient picture-frame wire to and down the left sleeve. Producing an Effect That cannot be Readily Understood. gloves are slit in the palms to allow the To support the upper shelf four screw hooks to pass through. When top side of the upper shelf are fastened about to perform this trick the per- the four screw eyes. The edge and the others near the outer edge. covered with cloth. It is one of the favorite Hindu tricks. Taking a ring in each hand the performer commands three or four men at each end of the rope to take hold of it and at a signal they pull as hard as possible. lying just form the braces and supports. four screw sleeve of the performer. two near the wall former puts on a pair of gloves. They pull until they are exhausted as in a tug of war. thereby forming strong inclined case of a slack-up on the tension. In one end of each rope a large ring is fastened. ?he Performer Seems to Hold the Ones Pulling on the Ropes without Any Effort. colored to match and spaced to match the set of screw the gloves. end of each shelf. On the of the wire are small hooks. Picture-Frame Wire The secret is in the use of a piece of to the Wall flexible wire. four screw eyes. long.

An adequate shelter from the sun and rain. The Tricks of Camping Out By STILLMAN TAYLOR PART I—The Camping Outfit TO enjoy a vacation in the woods thoroughly. and plenty of wholesome food. the wall tent is often provided with a fly. When Ordered with Tapes along the Ridge. No man or woman requires more. are the important things to consider. The 7 by 9-ft. but rather implies plain and simple living close to nature. and if unwilhng to share the plain fare of the woodsman. it is essential that the The Choice of a Tent There are tents and tents. used to make a comfortable shelter. with more practical necessities. the regula- likely to carry too much rather than tion wall. An extension may also be purchased to serve the same purpose. but when the camp is seldom moved. but fov outer be provided with the right kind average outings in what may be con- of an outfit. The reg- The Old Hand at the Camping Game Prefers to Cut Poles on the Camping Site and Set Them Up on the Outside for the Camp-Fire Tent camp life does not mean that one must be uncomfortable. It can be Set Up with Outside Tripod or Shear Poles 109 . However. or extended over the front to make a kind of porch. for the grouchy. unnecessary luxuries and overlook the It is a splendid utility tent. will af- ford more room. For the perma- nent camp. of all persons. The inexperienced are sidered a permanent camp. which may be set up as an extra covering for the roof. the pampered ones should '/i^^^ -^i^is' be left at home. a com- fortable bed. with a Si^-ft. or army. complaining indi- vidual makes. size. a good cooking kit. tent is generally too little to the woods to include many . wall. companions. the very worst of camping The Wall Tent may be Erected with the Regular Poles. generous ffoor space and plenty of headroom. wall tent will shelter two persons comfortably. the 9 by 12-ft. or.

one along the ridge. wide. one slender pole fastened with The canoe or "protean" tents are tapes along the ridge and supported good styles for the camper who travels at either end in the crotch formed by light and is often on the move. The 9 by 9-ft. of hot rain an A. it to form an open-front lean-to shelter. running along the ridge and erected by sus. tents will give fair service. outside. from 6 to 12 in. the grom- a somewhat lighter and less bulky form mets are apt to pull out. duck heavy enough. to form a crotch hand at the camping game rarely uses to support the ridge pole. and the woodsman is likely to should be waterproofed. the protean style is made with a square The "Baker" style is a popular tent. or dark green khaki. wall. giving good floor space and fold- tent. but the For traveling light by canoe or pack. vided with a bag in which to pack it. bucket dis. These tents are not provided with tents. All tents chosen. tents are quickly set up. 110 Illation 8-oz. by oi:tside poles. The wall either with or without hood. or wedge. and in a separate ranger tents with tapes may be pur. and each pro- select the forester's or ranger types. in the following manner : Dissolve % fact. The 7 by 7-ft. extending The forester's tent is another good around the bottom and sewed to the one. either with a with a 8-ft. a 9 by 9-ft. if preferred. as each ous if taken internally. or is sured a good shelter in case one be- the same tent may be obtained in tan comes separated from his companion. The acetate of lead is poison- good tent for two on a hike. or it may be ordered with tapes saplings. if required. and while convenient. without the flap. this is the same as the Baker tent lb. This makes a water. tent cloth isdesirable. is well to pay a fair price and obtain The "Dan Beard. and will shelter set shear-fashion on the outside. and the wall is attached to the giving a large sleeping capacity. shear-fash- the shop poles supplied with most ion. Many of the cheaper the regular poles may be used. or the open. It may be had are by no means necessary. although these may camping site and rig them up on the be ordered as extras if wanted. standard-weight fabric. and is as. or proofing process. When thor- man carries his own half. single inside pole or with two poles fortable home for two. A three. of acetate of lead chased and fastened together to form — — sugar of lead in 4 gal. An ordinary tent may be waterproofed wall and the entire front is open in . The ranger is a half tent with a 2-ft. yet back and along the two sides. manship. tripod or shear. workmanship is often poor. or even four. canoe tent has a circular front. The dimensions waterproof. it may be thrown back over the ridge Whatever stjde of tent is chosen. canoe or protean tent with a entire front may be opened to the fire 3-ft. cloth." or camp-fire. wall makes a comfortable home in by extending it to form an awning. If desired. oughly dissolved. The cheaper tents are made having a slightly steeper pitch. Both folding compactly. lb. but prefers to cut them at the sod or floor cloths. but this as well as weighing about 51. two half of hot rain water. while the better grades are are practically the same as the Baker. front. size. and is tent may be erected with the regular quickly erected by using three small poles. An extra piece of canvas or floor ing up very compactly. tent a good quality of material and work- is a modification of the Baker style. and the seams of tent than the above styles may be rip after a little hard use. makes a good com. from peak to ground. while fashion. and one on each pending between two trees. The old side of the opening. tent. of ordinarj' powdered alum in 4 gal. when made of the fly are extras.solve i/o lb. The setting up two poles. Jet the solutions .. with a of heavier material to render them smaller front opening. fashioned from light-weight fabric of and it may be pitched by suspending close weave and treated with a water- between two trees. In and a tight shelter when the two make any case the tent should have a sod camp together.

Ill How to Pitch a Tent It of course. In some places the woodsman cuts a straight ridge pole. and One on Each Side of the Opening a sod cloth is used. to pitch a tent almost any- where. The wall and other large tents may be pitched in several ways. but for the sake of comfort. or where Using Three Small Saplings. The ridge pole is passed The Ranger's or ' er's Tent Comes * through the opening in the alves. or Both Joined Together to Make Room for Two Persons with tapes sewed to the . One along the Ridge. and they may be omitted except- ing when en route to a tree- less region. but is not often necessary if the soil is The Forester's Tent is Quickly Erected by sandy or porous. about 3 ft. 1 ft. Hang the cloth up without out. Let the solution stand for an hour or two. possible is. and two crotched up- rights. longer than the tent. or fastened Jt '3? Independently as a to the outside of the ridge Lean-To Shelter for One Man. it is well to select a site with natural drainage. This is a good idea for the per- manent camp. The Canoe or Protean Tents Are Good Styles for the Camper Who Travels Light and Is Often on the Move. or more longer than the height of the tent. and They can be Quickly Set Up with a Single Inside Pole carry the regular poles to the camping ground. Many campers dig a shallow trench around the tent to prevent water from running in during a heavy rain. then pour the alum solution into a tub and add the lead solution. then pour off the clear water and thor- oughly soak the fabric in the waterproofing mixture by rubbing and working the material with the hands. Each Half may be Used peak of the tent. to Form a Crotch for the Ridge Pole is rarely necessary to Stand until clear.

will suffice for the average per- of the tent. chairs. they are tent. a couple of sizes larger than The aluminum cooking outfits are the tent. placing the poles in the center of the or the blankets used at home may be entrance. at half the price. should be carried. order a fly.not being quite so light nor so The Camping Kit attractive in appearance as the higher- The camping kit. tables. When providing the tent is ordered with going light. long. in tin and steel. Set up — the de-luxe couch the air mattress or the four corner guys first to get the sleeping pocket use — the ordinary tent in shape. of course. the floor cloth is spread to live comfortably without them. A comfort- at the back and the other in front. one vacation in the wilderness. . In making detachable handle two plates cups . and a smaller one Poles may be dispensed with entirely. or a common bag ting up the side guys is to drive four made of ticking. the stretcher bed. Folding camp cots. GV. fixed sod cloth is provided it is turned under camps. from ente-ring. then peg down the side sleeping bag. The fold-over combination bed. . and drop a fairly heavy son. having the good fea- heavy rains. The regulation army blankets are a To overcome the disadvantage of good choice and reasonable in price. This should be set up by light in weight. up a list. and spoons.. by lashing two poles together near the A good ax is the woodsman's every- top to make a crotch and spreading day companion. from each corner leaves. which is stuffed with browse or somewhere near 3 ft. The two upright stakes are are really essential for a comfortable then firmly planted in the ground. nest compactly. ture of nesting within each other. but. When a have their places in the large. thus affording an air space to somewhat expensive. including the few priced outfits. Ili a wooded country this man. and using separate poles and rigged some will stand many years of hard usage. ing bags. the guy ropes to this pole. and ideas of the camper. but the woodsman can manage on the inside. providing down and prevent insects and rain the sleeping bag is not taken along. to hold it included for each person. 6 or 8 in. it a good plan to is give sufficient light for camp life. may be obtained serving to keep things dry during long. ft. crotched stakes. pole in the rest so formed. to transport unless placed in it is ner of setting a tent is generally screw-top cans. weighing 3 or 4 lb. The "Stonbridge" and preferred. A good substi- temper the heat of the sun and also tute. and a good-weight tool. wide. other folding candle lanterns are the Where a wall tent is used in a more most convenient for the woods and permanent camp. and able bed must be reckoned one of the the ridge pole is lifted and dropped chief essentials. that only comparatively few articles be bought for any number of persons. and an outfit for two in- fit. A over it and the camp dufifel distributed good pair of warm blankets should be along the walls of the tent. may be either elaborate or simple. Another good method for set. as articles steel outfits are put up in canvas carry- well as the bedding and cooking out. since the fuel is difficult trees. each about 4 ft. it is a good plan to remember knives forks. higher than the ridge of the but like other good things. or court slumber on one guys and slide them taut so that all of the several other styles of camp of themwill exert an even pull on the beds. the uprights may be formed pressed into service. and one may choose into these crotched supports. 113 cloth. tapes for attaching a rope to suspend The oil lantern is only suited for the the ridge of the tent between two fixed camp. then fasten and other so-called camp furniture. the belt ax will suffice. Both the aluminum and handy needed in the woods. the bottoms to form a pair of shears. of 11/2 lb. tent. Outfits may . long by 2 ft. cludes a large and a small cooking pot according to the personal experience coffee pot frying pan with folding or .

and Other Greasy Necessities are Carried The Compass Is by Far the Most Useful Instrument for the Woods. but Any Reliable and Inexpensive Watch may be Carried A Pack Basket with a Waterproof Canvas Lid and Cover. Butter. a Wood Salt Box. Is a General Favorite with Woodsmen and Guides A Good. Pork. 113 The Stretcher Bed may be Stuffed with Browse or Leaves. or Reflector. Having Straps to Go over the Shoulders. and a Water-Tight Can for Matches Camp Life . and may Include a Folding Baker. with Bread Board Give Sufficient Light for n Canvas Bag. Tempered Knife Should be Worn at the Belt Folding Candle Lanterns are the Most Convenient The Cooking Kit may be of Aluminum or Steel. All Nesting within the Largest for theWoods and They E'ot. Ham. or Suspended from Poles and Stakes to Make a Camp Cot Food Bags with Friction- Top Tins to Fit Them. in Which Lard.

When are comfortable for winter. pork. A file for keeping the ax in shape. foodstuffs in a compact and sanitary etc. whetstone and necessary for everyday comfort. a wood salt box. should not be overlooked. An old ordinary suit that is not worn pact bundle for stowing away In a too thin is sufficient. is needed when enabling the outer to carry different the outfit must be carried on portages.. is a general fa- place to keep them and will take up vorite with woodsmen and guides. capacity. having straps to compact tin box will form a convenient go over the shoulders. making a very com. etc. the smallest cases con. Pack harness. strings at the top. etc.and twist a length of mend- . . with draw- will fully meet the camper's needs. or re- only the most useful articles. with bread board in a canvas member of the party should be pro. and all-wool tent with fly. hangers. . both safety and the common trips. and an- taining a few of the common remedies other of 10-lb. although the Baker or khaki.35.. in a protecting case. and a water-tight vided with a dunnage bag of canvas to can for matches. The best for the average trip. the canoe or the best material for undergarments . linen. lantern may be used in a wire a length of strong twine a few . coat and trousers camp-fire styles are also good. or wood boxes. consists of a full-sized ax. swer as well. The two-man outfit in going very light by pack. 114 and almost all sporting-goods stores protean tents are recommended. cluded. fixed camp. but an oil. Can- little room in the dunnage bag. and canvas is too stiff and noisy Carrying List for the Camp Outfit for the woods. will an- ers are desirable for transporting lard. the canoe dufi'el and pro. with a tumpline to go vision bags are a great convenience. Packing cases of different sizes. The food bags slip into the larger duffel bags. Sod and floor while the same outfit duplicated in steel cloths and mosquito netting are op- is priced at $3. ester's or ranger's tent. Cots. veteran usually stows away a bit of or acetylene. A med. pack basket. and a Furniture for the permanent camp smaller. A canteen may be in- ing cotton buttons a few needles and . or tomahawk st\le with straight han- longings which most everyone finds dle. and it is surprising to the fixed camps. When carry them. vas packs or dunnage bags may be used icine case and a first-aid outfit are well if preferred. fit to the camping ground. and friction-top tins fiber may be used for shipping the out- may be purchased to fit them and one . nails and tacks rivets. butter. ham. Cotton khaki is ex- For permanent camps. The cooking kit may be of aluminum The Camper's Outfit or steel. and these are the W'hen carrying food by canoe or best for carrying provisions. double-blade gether the toilet and other personal be. all nesting within the largest The personal outfit should include pot. cabin is built. or '"ditty. Wool is traveling light by canoe. use the for- heavy aluminum will cost $9 or $10. and other greasy The Personal Outfit necessities. but ordi- or more of these liquid-proof contain. novice how handy these several odds A pack basket with a waterproof- and ends are found while in camp. Include a folding baker. Food bags may be had in baskets are used. tables. or mackinaw. containing a few yards of shovel and saw will be needed when a silk. A mending kit. Corduroy is too canoe or pack harness. hold bedding and clothing. There are two sizes of worth packing. and each flector. nary trunks. Afolding candle laptern is the kinds. food bags. but is not required on most pins." bag for keeping to. take the wall cellent for the summer. one holding 5 lb. tional. bag. heavy for the summer and too cold for winter. are only useful in gency use. across the forehead. folding chairs. A canvas lid and cover. for emer- . This may be omitted when pack manner.

is known to most The odds and ends of personal be- woodsmen. are kept. medicines. Three A few sheets of paper and as many pairs of ordinary-weight and one pair envelopes. The extra clothing is carried in its own canvas bag. 115 in all seasons. etc. but ticles which the sportsman fancies will not so with the regular woodsman. woodsman's choice. station. preferably one with. string. or brown. . a bit of neck to protect it from the sun and cold. in sortment of rivets tacks a bit of . and any other small ar- Only few novices will carry one.. Light-weight cashmere is the best length of heavy silk twist is a handy material for socks during summer. . a A gray. pepper by using Agood. as a jackknife pipe and to. The "puckaway. or ditty bag. may be carried. The tomahawk style or oilskins. a joint of bam- I out a hilt and having a blade 5 or 6 in. A camper will find a very clever way ets in tan color are serviceable and in. but any A light-weight.. Also a small leathtv done at night. ery. to- medium-weight gray-flannel overshirt. a notebook. good ground blanket also. are suitable to wear about the camp. are. are usually carried. length of fishing line and hook a few . reliable and inexpensive watch may be sweater a good thing to carry along. pencil. Each member of the party carries a A Camper's Salt-and-Pepper Holder pair of woolen blankets. darning cotton. A small tin box containing an as- A medium wide-brimmed hat. . laxative. ter. brass wire. longings. The larger-size poncho is gives two cutting edges and is there- more bulky to pack. all-wool gray or brown. own knapsack. come in handy. leather A as a shelter by rigging it up with poles. tooth. yet most woods. A postal cards. of course. is better than a cap. high moccasins with single sole bacco map of the region visited . Each member of the party carries his loose matches match box purse note- . heavier weight for tlie winter. in which book and pencil handkerchief. buttons. but the few necessities are carried the The regulation army poncho is more belt ax takes the place of the heavier- suited to the woods than a rubber coat weight tool. a sheet of sandpaper. towel. A piece is selected with the ! A small leather pouch containing a joint in the cen- few common remedies. etc. is carried. . . Doo. silk handkerchief couple of small files a tool holder with . as the washing is personal pack. with extra sole. carried in the pocket of brush. and on trips when men carry one. gether with an almanac page of the with breast pockets having button months covering the intended trip. razor. and a small lirst-aid out- . pouch containing an assortment of ments large enough to allow for shrink. is the On The compass is by far the most use- short and light trips one shirt will do. It is The moccasin is the only suitable foot. A poncho makes a tect the blades. tempered knife should be a piece cut from worn at the belt. . corks. etc. should be included to wear around the tools. Two sets of garments fit should be included in each camper's will be sufficient. i\Iany woodsmen carry a small mous brier catcher. and to carry salt expensive. a few nails. and companion. such things as brush and comb. the coat." is resorted to while in the woods. ful instrument in the woods. A pair of larrigans — ankle. but may be used fore the best tool to carry. or other covering case is needed to pro- lean-to fashion. and the ends are stoppered with . and a few of heavy-weight will be sufficient. It is easily wetted through and a fa. and a age. hatchet at the belt. such as quinine. flaps. Army blank. needles. Be sure to have the gar. emery cloth. gray or brown. surprising how often this "what not" wear for the woods.

In the instructive and exact center of the under side of the will well repay top of this thimble. 116 A Simple Self-Contained Motor hole in the bottom just large enough to permit the magnet to be pushed To say that the subject of this article through with a close fit. The zinc will copper. and around its connection source of electric with the bottom of the cylinder. but the copper the inside. the lower end of If such a magnet cannot be conven. The experi. the thimble. or nails. from the self its o w n top down. to a dull red the zinc over the and then strongly magnetized. it is not improbable that one ment is very in. to make a good is the simplest motor in the world is electrical contact. after which a small struction along steel thumb tack should be filed to a the lines indicat. driving them into the spool. The smaller cylinder is simply a the dimensions piece of sheet zinc bent into a true given. spool and make a hole in it large enough The required to pass over the magnet. net until the ping a coil of insulated wire over it thimble rests on through which the current from a stor. procure a be sprung over about % in. copperplated on have to be changed. to which it is held with a little cordance with wax. small thimble shown at the top should out the use of a be of brass or copper. or paraffin. ric acid into the A square base block with neatly bev. with a prickpunch. outer cylinder. for the apparatus held in place by having it closely fit the is not only a spool and the copper cylinder. long. eled cornersis now in order. cylinder of such The first step a size that it may is to permanent magnet. make a good mark a careful con. and by motor reduced to soldering the heads of a couple of small its essential ele. This end of the mag- may be readily accomplished by slip. magnet. to its under side and ments. age battery or set of primary cells is and then pour passed. with a undergoes no deterioration. point up. but com. soldered. It is cup-shaped. . If these are not at hand. in diameter and C in. The magnet may be not to overestimate it. fine needle point and placed. and while one single piece of can be easily formed of sheet metal and wire. which is after which the trimmed up squarely and a hole bored thimble and at- centrally through it to receive the lower tached zinc will end of the magnet. a piece of tool steel with done. all with. ed. Glue the strength of the acid and the resulting spool to the base after locating it in speed will depend upon the nicety of the exact center. could be made in seamless form from teresting and some small article of commerce. almost some dilute mu- any electrical supply store will mag. the thumb tack. This iently secured. it is only flatends should be hardened by heating necessary to slip it and plunging it in water. Coat the bines within it. or of brass. suspension and the trueness of the ro- The outer and larger cylinder is of tating zinc cylinder. tacks. or sulphu- riatic netize the steel. The power. Procure a neat begin to rotate. even though exactly central on the upper end of the not in strict ac. magnet with pitch.

for experimenting is. range. The Tricks of Camping Out By STILLMAN TAYLOR PART II — Cooking in the Woods COOKING in the woods requires The camp fire is one of the charms more of a knack than equipment. The hard woods are best for cooking and heating. including baking pan and a kneading A satisfactory outdoor cooking range board. the camper woodsmen care to do without is the can suit himself. camps where a considerable quantity ever. and although I have never found bulky. the important item which few of food must be prepared. a large part of the fun of liv- folded flat and carried in a canvas case. At the wide to the fire. in. or meat are easily sticks of hard wood are placed. maple. Woods that burn slowly when green should be tised for backlogs and end logs chestnut. In use. and the smaller reflector is placed close to the coals at size is amply large for a party of two this end. with an 8 by 13-in. the re. flector is placed with the open side close apart at the opposite end.. The and perfectly cooked. and other Bread. and persimmon being best adapted for this purpose. Many woodsmen prefer to ture unsuited for transportation by build a second and smaller fire for cook- canoe. The baker is after all. and evenly and well in any kind of weather. and cooking is accomplished end a few stones are built up. red oak. weighs about 5 lb. and if it is built right and and while a camp stove is well enough of the best kind of wood. apart at one end and about 2 ft. across these. red . since they burn more slowly. or reflector. do without them very nicely. cooking may in a permanent camp. with an 18-in. and the ing the top and bottom sides of two smallest. and placing them about 6 aluminum. of the open. butternut. Patent cooking grates are less ing. The largest size. hickory. fish. folding baker. only 2 lb. its weight and be done over it as well as over a forest bulk makes this article of camp furni. but the woodsman can learn to this excepting in large necessar}'. may be fashioned by roughly smooth- square pan. and the fire is built between or three. and give out considerable heat A Cooking Range Two Green Logs Laid in a V-Shape a Few Stones Built Up at the Wide End over Which a Fire is Made of Hard-Wood Sticks 117 . ing in and oft' the woods. the broiling and frying being done at the narrow-end opening. pan in green logs. ash. the logs. How. game.

wood even though moist. or andirons. Hickory long stick with projecting stubs. and elm. the frying pan on them. Driftwood is good about 2 in. Simply drive a forked stick in differ greatly. ironwood. and in making up a list it is well For cooking the noonday meal a to include only the more staple food- small fire will suffice to boil the pot stuffs. When burns well when green. cherry. tent. the sap is dormant. A Green Pole Placed in Now shave three or four of the larger a Forked Stick Provides a Pot Hanger for a sticks and leave the shavings on the Noonday Meal ends. from the of coals that gives an even and intense ground. For roasting and baking with the re- and sycamore. and white birch. while he or a companion stakes the ory. dogwood. in that it makes a hot fire. When the basket oaks. will serve as well. a pot of water is started boiling woods to split are the elder.green stick in the may be depended upon and will ser\-e fork with the opposite end on the as a guide. The — the limb stubs of a dead pine tree fire is built in the center of the crib are famous kindlers. collect an armful of dry twigs and plenty of larger kindling sticks. and forms a large body Let the pot hang about 2 ft. these on each side of the fire. burn rapidly. The dry bark glowing coals are wanted one can take of the hemlock makes a quick and hot them from the camp fire. is the fire at an angle. . a yard or more long. in diameter. hemlock. Personal ideas are certain to a fry. stand them up beneath the pot. and more parallel sticks are laid on of course. blue ash. and pot has boiled there will be a nice bed ash are the woodsman's favorites. and hang the pot on the pro- fire. A but burn down to dead ashes. and make a hot fire. burning down will give a glowing mass Hard woods are more plentiful on high of coals. a few sticks. and as soon as the meal is pre- birch." he will invariably build split more easily when green than after the fire and start the kettle boiling seasoning. whici are nown to have these and furnish the heat sufficient to make qualities. When the woodsman makes "one- ash. dogwood. sugar maple. 118 and burn down to a body of glowing ground with a rock laid on it to keep coals. a rather high fire is needed and the birches make the best fuel black . sour gum. foods. white oak. or dead. Of the softer woods. set and level heat for a considerable length of time. tripod fashion. are the red oak. for dish washing. long-burning. 4 or o in. thick and pile them in the to start a fire with. Green wood will. and dry pine knots form of a hollow square. and put Next to hickory comes chestnut the . and it is one of the few woods that will throw the heat forward. while the softer woods are Camp cookery implies the prepara- found in abundance along the margins tion of the more simple and nutritious of streams. and trees found on The crib will act as a chimney. ground. beech. and high ground make better fuel than a roaring fire will result. burn better in winter when top until it is a foot or more higher. or crib. flector. The most stubborn pared. or split uni- fire. basket oak. and among them are hick. fire. which upon those growing in moist bottom lands. While the pot is boiling get a couple of bed chunks. Some few woods night stands. sweet gum. jecting stub left for this purpose. and white birch takes fire quickly form billets of green. of coals for frying that will not smoke Among the woods that are easy to split the meal. and place the smaller sticks around them to build a miniature wigwam. but the following list- the ground and lay a . is by far the best firewood of the planted in the ground to slant over North. rest- birch in particular makes a fine camp ing upright against a backlog or rock. Soft woodsare quick to catch it down.

119 Provision List help to replenish the stores. ventures into an unknown region the dings. or white. of raisins. of the woods may be acquired from About 3 lb. It should be of the natural signs of the woods when parboiled before adding to the beans or traveling in the wilderness. such as % lb. but it is good for porridge. greater variety. while on short. occurrence to lose one's bearings and but it will' suffice for the average per. The addition of canned goods will supply a self-raising kind is good. as it is the favorite for flapjacks or griddle cakes. of tion and prevent the "insane desire to molasses. of the self-raising buckwheat flour should be taken along. When cold. They A Limb Supported at an Angle over the Fire Is Another Means of Hanging the Pot can also be served as a vegetable. The regulation camper keeps to the beaten paths and meat of the wilderness is bacon. of common wheat flour. of cof- . If the wiien fried like bacon. . of woodcraft. It is camping out are chapters in the book fine for rolling a fish in for frying. When This of material will be sufficient list going very light by pack. and 5 lb. become temporarily lost. for this possible emergency and spend sional addition of a fish or game will a comfortable night away from the . take 3 lb. Take along about 3 lb. About 3 lb. good for making omelets or can be scrambled. of split peas. lengthens. of shredded codfish is good for creases as the distance to civilization making fish balls. 4 cans of circle. cold. and about 2 lb. For soups. 3 lb. salt. hot. About 2 lb. Oatmeal is less sustaining than rice. for bread-making and frying. corn meal. a good substitute for fresh milk 1 can . but the com. mon flour is better. of granulated sugar. To prepare son on the average trip. the word is generally de- Rice is very nutritious. of the common baking kind will be required. It is well to bring Woodcraft a yellow. take along 1 lb. because it will enable him cles.. or fried mush. of vinegar. little about be served as a johnny 6 lb. easy trips the bag 12 lb. of it is fined to mean the knack of using the provided and carried in friction-top compass. 'Mm to boil or bake with the salt pork. of it is carried in a tin or bag. Carry along 3 lb. to WHiile shooting and fishing and cake. 1 lb. of butter is carried in a the previous articles. For making rice pud. only the most for two persons on an outing of two compact and nutritious foods should be weeks. Salt pork is a stand-by. since the occa. Beans are very nutritious. The woodsman well knows that it is pepper. onions. 1 package each of evaporated an easy matter to stray farther from potatoes. 1 pt. The Emergency "Snack" and Kit egg powder. It is good when boiled with raisins. and 3 camp than he intended to when start- packages of assorted soup tablets. and that it is a common enough This list is by no means complete. easily digested. but if the outer friction-top tin. Other small arti. ing out. of lard in a tin or and sufficient knowledge of the ways bag. and easy to cook. About value of more intimate knowledge in- 1 lb. and in making use tins or a grease-proof bag. it can be fried in slices. and fruits. the map. the trail. used waterways. to keep traveling in the desired direc- fee. he needs no compass."' should one discover he has lost condensed milk 1 can of milk powder. will be sufficient. or sliced when cold and fried. of tea 1 lb. and does not stray far from the frequently 5 lb. 1 pt. 2 oz. Carry in a stout canvas food selected.

will swing a trifle to the west of the of course. When making compass is of little value if a person camp. or rod a belt knife match . and pack it in a i^at tin box. . consult a map. compass right no matter how confused The emergency kit is merely a small he may become on finding that he has leather pouch containing a short fish. lost hisway. select another farther on the sun is obscured by clouds. press the stop. In the West. therefore keep it away safe. study it. but in addi. When this mark lost sometimes. a piece sportsman to take the precaution of of summer sau. the woodsman. true north. Many of the woodsmen as well Consult the compass frequently when as the Indians do not tise a compass. hatchet. and other pipe. poses. when the thread. This magnetic variation ed. includ. always pick- making it more difficult to read the ing out new marks along the line indi- natural signs of the wilderness. I would advise the tablets. while on the Atlantic coast it usual lunch is. with the gun and a few spare The compass needle is attracted to cartridges. These and 12 will be due south. iron and steel. so a leather sheath at the belt and a tin that the needle cup strung to the back of the belt. a little money. may swing free. or tomahawk. thus and continue the travel. and tobacco. who may consider it to woodsman point to the true north. make up the personal metal articles. B = N. need not be taken into account by the tion to this. I carry a double. high The Compass clift". making a detour. or other A small pocket compass affixed to a conspicuous ob- leather thong should be carried in the ject lying in the breast pocket and fastened to a button direction of trav- of the shirt. and so does not know how to use it. as a compass on a clear day by point- surgeon's adhesive plaster. scratching on the back of the case these sage. of . or when the landmark but even the expert woodsman gets passes out of sight. ly to this object. However. . If this is done. hen W true north lies a degree or more to leaving camp for either side. and a small point halfway between the hour hand coil of copper or brass wire. from the gun. meaning blue equals silk. and it may happen that is reached. It will gain a good general idea of the sur- not tell in what direction to go. map. An instrument costing $1 el. a few safety pins. if edge. . outfit without which few woodsmen Hold the com- care to venture far from camp. needle and ing the hour hand to the sun. compass. mark. in it has one. as a prom- inent tree. the the east. In ad. Note some land- ticed until wanted. a day's hunting the needle will be attracted a trifle to and fishing. The small amount of nutritious food. It north. but rounding country and when leaving . The cated by the compass. for instance. articles. Wrap this in oiled letters. where it is out of the way and unno. 120 camp. and go direct- will be accurate enough for all pur. light-weight ax. the novice will will take up very little room in the be certain to remember and read the pocket. and some tea. The watch may be used ing line a few fishing hooks 1 ft. for absolute should carry a accuracy is not required for this pur- couple of soup pose. he carries in his pocket a Httle when the needle is allowed to swing packet of useful articles and stows freely on its pivot the blue end always away a tiny package containing a points to the magnetic north. knife. pass level and dition to the above.

moss growing thicker on the north side portant rivers and lakes in the district. the map should be pended upon. . S. while the so-called signs of the woods. Geological Survey are drawn to a scale of 2 in. or Other Conspicuous Object Lying in the Direction of Travel and Go Directly to the Object. twist It around until the full shadow is cast on the nail. For example. 121 camp. know in what direction he is traveling. as the position of the sun. Therefore. or land. pointing to the north star. If the day is cloudy. of the trees. take full on the back at noon. When traveling through underbrush few tenderfeet would recognize them. However. When right shoulder in the morning hours climbing a hill or making detours. and all im. if a person is going north. he should and when the course is changed. but these and other signs Natural Signs are scarcely infallible. the contours. thus indicating the position of the sun. the woodsman cannot see far ahead. The direction of the wind is apt to change and for this reason is an unre- liable guide. look for and so lays a true course by noting the the Big Dipper or Great Bear. There is absolutely pasted on a backing of cotton cloth nothing in these signs. On the back of each map are printed the Note Some Landmark. High Cliff. and that the branches are back of one of them. take the bearings from the rises justsouth of east and sets some- compass. and Look for the Old Blaze Marks back and over the left shoulder throughout the afternoon. rather shorter and more knotty on the north side. every and then cut up into handy sections. are by no means to be de- For convenience. as a Prom- ^ •^- inent Tree. ^m^ Maps The maps of the U. When traveling by night. bark being symbols showing the character of the thicker on the north side of trees. set the point of a knite blade on the thumb nail. here two end stars are known as the point- in the northern hemisphere the sun ers. and if they were. roads. keep keep the sun on the back and to the the general direction in mind. such as the tips of ever- Ssia green trees pointing north. and on the a mental note of the change in direction and the bearings will not be lost. woodsman is aware that the foliage of Number the sections from left to right trees grows somewhat thicker on the and paste a key to the pieces on the south side. t. to the mile and cost 5 cents each. By so doing a person will where south of due west.

The cool water. This sack also came in wide. long and 1 ft. over. This This is the rule of the wilderness. and if a straight direc- every 15 or 20 ft. The side and top seams maker. When being made. It is a little trick of the candy- to carry it. up in the shapes of animals which are groove around it brought out for the holidays and are so made a water-tight joint with the cloth. as every woodsman is sure to When traveling over old and blind do sometimes. The candies are cast in metal . and the handy while fishing or on the road. which is perfectly clear to me- were made as tight as possible. blaze it by taking brushes down in the direction of travel. in evaporating. If a road will be found that will give one his is encountered. it is easy to tell if it bearings. Of course. the fires will be visible from a consid- rectly. look for the old blaze marks. Build a second fire if the trail is crossed from side to side. kept the ft. a short distance from the first. a single clip from a tree from the side Do not shoot the last cartridge to at- it is approached. dear to the children have caused many Two metal rings were sewed in the to desire to know how they are made cloth at the top for attaching a strap hollow. The afternoon may be windy. tion is taken. for many woodsmen blaze their trail but the wind is certain to die away at by clipping the trees as they pass them. Avoid wast- tote roads lead nowhere in particular. indicating the hoarse. and do not shout until side make two blazes. Sit down and build a fire of way from the camp. Many times a person is nearer and if doubtful about them. sundown. is lost. contents cool. awaits the next day for picking up the When a person becomes lost in the trail. make new camp and companions than it is possi- ones by breaking down the brushes ble to realize. a green wood. do not become is a tote or logging road. set a losthe merely camps on the spot and stick to indicate the right direction. 123 Marking the Trail woods. If the emergency kit and are crooked and wind about the trees lunch have not been forgotten. and on the opposite tract attention. and the smoke rising from Be sure to blaze your own trail cor. 1 ft. In one upper corner A Mold for Making Hollow Candy a large porcelain Figures knob insulator was sewed in for Those semitransparent candies made a mouth piece the . When an Indian gets where two roads or trails fork. Mich. the bent part point. while the logging road is and night in the woods alone is not a fairly straight and broad. and when you come to a place erable distance. edges were sewed Contributed by Earl Zander. hardship by any means. chanics. A strip of heavy canvas water gradually seeped through the was cut about 2' cloth and this.. so person will always know the way back that it will smoke. It was then hung in the shade vised a way to supply the camp with where a breeze would strike it. square. but is the recognized signal of the one who is not always observed to the letter. Bend the points of the breaking a new trail. ing energy by rushing madly about but all logging roads are sure to come and forgetting to blaze the trail that is to a fork and lead to water. a lumber road or a stream ing in the direction of travel. A Camp Water Bag In use this sack was filled with as cool water as possible and tightly While out on a camping trip I de. damp leaves or moss. Above all. sit down and think it trails. a day and rocks. Three up to make a sack Rivers. corked. If this is done. for tote roads frightened.

then it is slits in the allowed to set for a minute. shown by the dotted dle in the position ting down a large tree in front of a lines and securing it with a padlock. and another half with a similar recess is laid on and the manner located with two dowels. the back face A. In use the shown in the il- halves are set on a table resting on then lustration. around it. pipe. Hatch. and a small electric globe is at- sary to make a square box from a few tached to the ends in the jar. A quick and convenient way of mark- ing a hat is to take a visiting card and cave recess in the face gives the shape cut it down in of a horse. Raleigh.A simple light with a square can be made by taking a pint fruit jar. 123 molds just as babbitt bearings are cast Marker for a Hat for motor cars. If the card mold is turned over and the still liquid center is poured out. and allowed to set. hole in the top of the A concrete vase cover. A Quickly Made Door Latch A door latch that is efficient as well as simple may be made by bending a piece of iron rod and pointing one One-Half of a Mold Cut in Metal and Used in Pairs end. a delight to then securing it the child. piece of netting. Every good fisherman knows that a crete. that saves money for the to the door with maker and because of its thin walls staples. the hot liquid is poured make two small in at B until the mold is full. The scrap boards of the desired size. set on the cap. A neat mix. Waynesville. which attracts the fish. mental object in the following An Electric Lure for Fish manner: A cap was made of con. during sweatband of the hat and insert which the portion in contact with the cold metal hardens. as shown in to Make Hollow Candy Objects the illustration. A con. One-half of such a mold is shown in the sketch. This leaves a becomes soiled it can be easily re- placed with another. Ornamenting an Old Tree Stump The door locked by turning the han- is An old stump remaining after cut. built other ends of the wires are attached to up around the stump top. N. Sessions. reinforced light will attract fish. a pocket battery. cutting a Vi-'u. whereupon the the ends of the card. house was made Contributed by Claud M. C. rods may be bent in the shape of a staple and the ends threaded for nuts. 111. . inserting a piece of gas pipe in w a s made and the hole and soldering it to the cover. into an orna. or small makes eating easy. glossy surface like candy. or sheep. Insulated wires are run through the It is only neces. The address can — be added if desired. dog. The jar is placed ture of cement is made and poured in under water and the light turned on. Contributed by James F.

14 in. outside meas. so that it can be converted into a table with the least The Strips in the Corners of the possible work. A set of eight legs. 2. and insert the legs. can be carried diagonally in the bottom Saw the box in two on the center of the box. Fig. such a box will be taken as baggage. long and of such size strips of paper. wide. and fasten the two with the hooks. but this is which are used to lock them togetii'er. in. Novel Homemade Picture Frames Pictures can be mounted cheaply and artistically on stiffpaper. without having them placed in a wooden frame. 1. J. as will slip box. and will pass under it when used as a table. On each of the four . deep. it of each box. a coffee or other large box. The "orners of each box should should fit loosely in the sockets to be wellbraced on the outside. wide. C. The table is shown in Fiar. should be packed in this box. each sheet being sufficiently large to allow a bor- der all around. If a box Rope handles are fastened in the ends with a three-ply top is available. and also a hook and eye. and sert long legs in the sockets of each is of such a size that a person's knees section. Sets of parallel slots can form sockets. remove the packing legs and in- it under the seat of a spring wagon. long. The be cut all around in the border. or two. long. are used for box and camp table may be made from holding the boxes together in transit. open side up. and a strips are I/2 ly^ in. to make them serviceable for decorating the summer home or camp cottage. the frame Table Top on the Legs can be fixed. suitable ribbon drawn through so that and as long as the box is deep. The strips B are weather. The legs depth. as provide for the swelling in damp shown at A. For this purpose a "natural-surface" draw- ing paper should be used. making two wrapped around them and used later uncovered boxes of the same size and as a cover for the table. thick. 20 To pack the boxes place one half in. is convenient. 30 in. rather than provisions. ISf A Table Box for Campers By GEO. If properly roped. A piece of oilcloth can be line of thenarrow way. take up very little space. not essential. 3. A box. With the picture prop- Each Half of the Box Inverted is Used as a erly centered and marked oft". of the urements. Boxes Form Sockets for the Legs To make one table. Then fill it and ex- tend the packing to the level of the leg ends slip the other half of the box . and 29 in. Ordinarily they can be fastened to the inside of the box to wedged to make them rigid. as shown in Fig. on the legs. about 12 in. and other articles which will be re- moved at once upon arrival in camp. Four it is held in place only by the narrow legs. makes a neat appearance. for the legs. Canvas. EASTER A very useful combination packing as to fit in the sockets.

sailors. These figures could then be colored as desired. screw. flowers would probably be best set oiif by some delicate pink shade. Ribbons harmoniz- ing with the subject of the picture Handy pockets for holding notes. Wolcott. as they are most easily traced. The and brooks. The scenes. Another means of decorating the bor- der is to choose some appropriate illus- tration from a newspaper. To this upright piece a is bent piece of copper to form a handle is riveted or soldered. Murphy. a rosette.I cut a piece of celluloid band an upright to the shape shown. Elmira. Show on the Picture over the view finder so that only the CA simple and handy pincushion can view thatwill appear in the picture can be madeof a large cork fastened to — be seen. one from ordinary envelopes. Profile pictures are best for such work. Everett any support or base with a nail or Buchanan. or ships would be suitable for marine gummed flaps of the envelopes are stuck together after spacing the en- velopes to allow a small margin at SBEi. for war neatly fit it. — -RIBBON tributed by H. l«h Handle for a Drinking Glass The Edges of Cardboard Extending Out from a Measure the bottom part of the glass Picture Made to Represent a Frame and make a band of copper that will scenes. neat job is de- sired. J. Y. N. and carefully trace this outline with carbon paper all around the frame. Pa. ends of the cop- scapes. per can be riv- eted. but if a Plainfield. flatten or Rectangular Opening to Use over file the copper Camera View Finder ends on a slant. may be made by any- scene could have a blue ribbon fields . Clipping File Made of Envelopes tion. Ordinary view finders on cameras. Contributed by William King. . soldiers and guns. To overcome this Attach to the difficulty.^ the end on which the contents of each (PICTURE '"h1 cardboard separate pocket may be written. the proper opening is held glass high. Ind. can be placed. The glass is set in the band and the upper end of the vertical piece is bent over the glass The Rectangular Opening Allows Only That Portion — edge. To be in harmony with the The Flaps Hold All the Envelopes Together. for land. and trees or flowers. Contributed by E. or magazine. small articles. of the View to be Seen Which will Monessen. B. some camera users. 135 corners. a marine . are quite confusing to gether. or should be used for example. — Contributed by J. some shade of green while . or similar decora. cuts such as captains. and braze or having the cut-out in the shape of a solder them to- Maltese cross. and in taking a copper piece a little longer than the picture. Goodacre. N. Con. Producing a File of Several Compartments picture.

B and C. They are description may help solve the same held in place under metal straps when problem for others. and top glass jars. about in the boat. the metal plate and blocks. When open Fill the cover with cork used in pack- for use. salt. etc. gether at their edges. and the contents will not Life Buoy be injured great. waterproofing the They are set in covering. tea. and extra com. a snug. and C.~:-ft-'riy Combination Camp-Kitchen Cabinet and Table By J. E. which also Paint the buoy thoroughly. fitting cover. even though circular life buoy drenched by rain may be made by or a mishap in a sewing together craft. The cabinet. are stored inside of the box on the trip. the metal table top F is sup. For cofifee. When about 30 in. ends of the top. and Folds Compactly tion from the cen- necessary when ter of each. and if an armful or two of 13 in. in diameter. D. and perhaps the sketch and when closed for traveling. filling the result- sugar. and sew up the opening. Cut two pocket shelves at disks of canvas both ends. A Homemade proof. A. G.. on each side of the box. D. ported on metal straps. in closed. A serviceable ly. BOYLAN THE combination camp-kitchen cabinet and table is the result of leaf. . is bug. leaving a small the contents will keep quite cool. is strong blocks at B and and compact. rings of canvas. The table will ac. with white act as braces and supports for the table lead. when spring over the closed. one can sit diameter. The could have some home conveniences legs. when out in the hot sun. . and attach hand grips of rope. The bent metal partments may be pieces. even opening at a point on the outer edge. Sew the pieces to- coarse marsh grass is spread over it. ground cork. and held at their upper ends by commodate four persons comfortably. and cut on the box or out a circular por- This Outfit Provides Accommodations for even walk on it if Four Persons.i/. on the added if desired. ing grapes. I ing form with used small screw. This afifords plenty of table surface and one not being able to take the members of can easily get at the contents of the my family on an outing unless they cabinet while cooking or eating. and form the if well made with handles. in use.

. it is pushed back over the head of the hook. permitting in- truders to enter or possibly injuring the door in the wind. can be Hill Mi easily by overcome fitting a small catch over the hook. When locked. and fastened on the screw over which the hook is set. The U- shaped locking device is cut from a piece of tin. 127 Locking Device for Latch Hook on Gate or Door The troublesome opening of a latch hook on a gate or door. and cannot be easily jarred out of place. as indi- c a t e d in the sketch.

and the after nearly losing the sight of an eye in being hit by a cow's tail. Y. shades. locating it just a few inches above the top of the stove. Pa. Wisconsin Live Stock Breeders' Association. E. — F. S. . permitting it to along with the milker and effectually be lowered at night. E. Plenty of light was thus af- forded. often interfere with the proper ventila- tion of sleeping rooms. but found by actual test that some cows dropped down as much as 25 per cent in milk production when their tails were tied. —J. Various adaptations of this arrangement may be worked out.. He- tried tying the tails of the cows while milking them. By arranging these features as shown in the sketch. with free circula- protects his face while milking. Refiected-Light Illumination with Homemade Arrangement "Friend wife" does not complain any This Arrangement of Curtains and Shade Permits Thorough Ventilation in the Sleeping Room longer because of poor light over the kitchen stove. X. The tion of the air at the top and bottom. after some ex- perimenting. B. Two pairs of fixtures are front edge of the gutter. about 10 in. long. It is moved provided for the shade. and the shades and curtains give the The Legend Put On the "SwitcnDoard Dy tne Boys same service as with the usual arrange- Shows How They Value It ment. D. The "switch- board" gives the cows the necessary — freedom. so that the light from an outside window in the storeroom was reflected through the small window in the partition and onto the top of the stove.McCoy. are shown in lengthwise of the stable just over the the sketch. wide hinged bars. The windows in the curtains swung into their closed posi- kitchen were so disposed that the liglit tion. Philadelphia. and similar fixtures. the ventilation is not interfered with. A mirror was placed. device was made by a Wisconsin farmer The shade is quickly raised. at A and B. guarding a person milking a cow from in a partition between the kitchen and being hit in the face by the cow's tail an adjoining storeroom. The curtains are hung singly on ismade of a board. Details of wire hooks from a long wire running the supports. Dalton. Bedroom Shade and Curtains Arranged for Thorough Ventilation Curtains. which may be homemade and 5 ft. 128 "Switchboard" Protects Milker was partly shut off" from the stove by from Cow's Tail the person standing before it. This is hung by two or those used as towel bars. I solved the difficulty in this way : A small win- A and effective device for simple dow was cut directly back of the stove. Brimmer.

so Two coats of white paint and one of that the hod stands easily on a spot white enamel give a good finish. pads were set under the bottom. Three wooden side to side than from front to back. — A. Coal Hod Made from Iron Pipe When my coal hod became worn out. with Pitch or Wax front to back. The ends should around the end of the lace and shape be cut squarely in a miter box. 32 in. The Simple Construction of This Neat Armchair Makes It an Attractive Job for the The upper end was cut to Amateur Craftsman the curved shape shown. and shaped it to the form of the de- sired washer. and press it carefully sandpapered smooth. The piece worn out was a thick rubber washer. T. from . I cut a section from the thick end of a standard rubber faucet plug. and 20 in. 1 by 3 in. The stock is all oft' of a shoe lace. The dimensions may be varied to Toronto. 18 in. from floor. Chicago. I was able to use it in fixing the new washer into place. 129 Coffee Grinder Repaired with An Enameled Armchair Made Rubber Faucet Plug of Wooden Strips A rubber piece that held the glass An armchair suitable for a dressing container on a wall cottee grinder wore table was made by a handy woman out. and then sandpapered and does away with the annoyance of smooth. and sealing wax. taking care not to round the frayed lace ends. when in place. 26 in. fastening it with round-head brass ones being used at ex- nails to the dou. BOTTOM VIEVV the edge for The pieces are fastened with screws. wide : side. suit individual needs.. 17 in. 111. I made one of a length of 8-in. E. By removing the old rivet carefully. that is not quite level. and found it to be handier and stronger than the kind I had used. and the lower shows the simple and pleasing lines of end square. only three sizes of wood are used. wide between When the tag or end fastening comes the front supports. . Roberts. putting the grinder out of commis- sion. with a it to a point. and the mill was soon grinding merril}-. C. —T. The seat is wider from ble bottom of wood. as of old. fine-toothed saw. tapered at one end to form a hollow in the other. Frayed Shoe Laces Repaired wide seat. set in metal eyes riveted to the pipe. I fitted the pipe with an iron handle and with a bail of strong wire.. May Holaday. Calif. Aside from the board holes were seat. This will last a long time. from pine strips. punchedalong 2 by 3 in. posed points. Sizes suggested are back. galvanized-iron pipe.— ]\I. and the construction. Canada. Chico. and 14 by 3 in. high and 2-i in. to top of arm and 19 in. take a little black planed up square to dimensions. ends. The photograph in. so that the glass would not stay.

and finish the wood as desired. Arizona. City. whereas without such an ar- imize this danger. John D. as indicated. A Stepmother for Incubator Chicks The best imitation mother hen for incubator chicks that we have found. . they may crowd together too closely. Screw in the lamp. The paper is placed under the guide strips. keeping safe and common source of fires. The shown. \\'alla Walla. Two irons can be heated by setting is Mc"iri. especially if sketches are set into the copy. similar to small brackets. Stain. and This Efficient Electric Heater for Curling Irons can is moved along under the sliding be Made Quickly and Is Safer to Use than an Open Flame straightedge as desired. and the base. which accommodates 2 doz. Manuscripts with Drawings maybe Prepared Neatly chicks. manuscripts. A porcelain lamp receptacle is used. Drawing in- struments can be used handily along device is valuable. and the upper them in the holes in the top. and fasten down — the body. warm. fill. Wash. They are placed close together. R. cloth board. Four layer is ^^-in. etc. as shown. Adams. thick and of cardboard the next . Salt Lake A Cardboard Writing and Drawing Pad Where neatness is desired in the writing of themes. from coarse cloth or gunny sack- ing. an electrical heating rangement.. The chicks huddle in Heating of curling irons is a not un. box. The bottom piece is Yg- heater. Edwards. floor. or sim- CUOTM BOAPC CARDBOARD ilar. The latter rests on around the edge of the can. and to min. soldered. and their loose ends just touch the is set between the shaded sidepieces. pad is built up as detailed in the sec- cent lamp is mounted in a suitable can. among the string rags. S. The one shown in the sketch can be made easily. In the arrangement the straightedge. The rag pieces are torn 1 in. and Quickly by the Use of This Homemade Writing Pad wide. mounted on a base block. In assembling the parts. The general dimensions or metal tube. is built by attaching rag strings to the PAPER SPACE--' bottom of an inverted cracker. to form the body of the can be varied. Cecil Alter. Utah. both in. as shown. Phoenix. a homemade writing and drawing pad is useful. and is a handy device for school children as well as older persons. and connect the flexible cord through a suitable hole. and preferably nickeled. cardboard. ^-32 in. the straightedge. 130 A Curling-Iron Heater An inlet to the mother box is cut in the edge of it. screw the re- ceptacle to the base. —J. This should be bright. a long candle-shaped incandes. and some of them be smothered. The second layer is inside and out.cloth board. hold it to the projecting guides for the paper. tional views.

as shown. joined at the duck. The can. wide.Pack Tent By J. ground and place The sections for the supports. vas flat on the tailed drawings. the points of the supporting frames tory. and when buttoned ports into the ground. are sewed. buckles.Rope Braces. of three pieces. fitted in the canvas. pieces are joined. The adjoining buttons buttonholes. Homemade Shoulder. 6 ft. and tration. It is of light weight. I made the tent shown in the illus. The shoulder closely is practi. after the other finding any of them entirely to my lik. and are ment. at the middle. and making it is com. edges A are sewed together and the ness snaps may also be used. twisted together vas is supported at the top. tion when the tent rials necessary for is folded. The by frames made ridge pole F of pliable steadies them and branches cut in holds the canvas the woods. Spring them and two. the Supports being Cut at the Camp supports. tent supports D ry-all in packing are pointed at the camping equip.proof. and Supporting Poles are Not it between the of the tent and the Required for This Shoulder-Pack Tent. or har- . The but also as a car. Brass grommets are ing. for the the canvas. easily set pass through them in driving the sup- up or taken down. BOYLAN AFTER sleeping under various edges B. in one piece. The insert the ridge ground section of pole by springing the main portion Stakes. ends E. which are set at the ridge of kinds of canvas coverings and not the tent. through the grom- one for the ground mets. straps C are cally rain. divided into the ends of vertically. rolled into a pack. the ends are made twisted together. which proved quite satisfac. paratively slight. The covering are made canvas is 8-oz.side of it. as indicated. lay the can- shown in the de. and end covering. I Other equipment use it not only as may be placed in- a sleeping tent . they are in posi- The cost of mate. The layout for To set up the the canvas is tent. wind. D. 131 . placed so that and bug . and the fastenings used are snap middle.

the kitchen illustrated was side are located nickelplated faucets constructed. By having the cups and plates compartment. such as space. 21 in. and . Immediately to the rear of the cooking spoons. 3 ft. and ex. Next in line tending about 1 ft. back. etc. drains off rests on legs.. is a kitchen is the other end of the large storage cabinet where the plates. sieves. sugar. The outside dimensions of the On the other side. high. either on a hike or in a perma. while the the kitchen is occupied by the large other half swings down to a horizontal water tanks. The tanks are ac- these coils are connected with a tank cessible from the top of the kitchen for of 'i'-gal. position where it is used as a work with the exception of a small space at board. making all parts easily ac. Wherever there is a gas- Upon passing around to one side oline burner the compartment in which there can be seen a large three-shelved it is located is not only lined with gal- oven. Pans. are lo- large forks. an 18-gal. and or the woodwork. cold-water tank. An air valve and glass with ground cork. it can be moved from enameled milk tank above. which is heated by vanized iron. in turn. the large water tank form excellent long. 3 in. sausage. kitchen is in use. etc. extending all of many members. The sides and one hole dug in the ground beneath it. etc. pails. lemon squeezer. canned goods. so that the and the bottom of the oven are located heat will not ignite the interior packing coils of pipe for heating water.. is heated by a gas burner. which need to its compactness. located just above fillingand cleaning. As it is placed on two which are connected with the hot- wheels. bacon. other side. which are removed when the water tank mentioned a T-gal. pancake turner. bread knives. cleaver. 2S gauge galvanized iron danger from rust. but asbestos in sheets is a gasoline burner. as well as all others near this steam cooker. wide. kitchen cabinet. when closed and in the form two compartments above and below of a large box on wheels. and to the rear. partments. 132 . and adjoining this is boxes and packages of baking powder. capacity. At the rear end along this nent camp. kept in a drawer. and 2i'o ft. etc. wide. butter. which are swung down through an ordinary sink drain to a from the bottom. there is less lined with No. which is also where food is handled and prepared. main feature of this entire kitchen is preserves.. The storage space for ham. are kept in this necessary cooking utensils. white- . as they are kept thor- which makes sanitation a feature also. are placed. place which extends through from the flour. At the front. which. Kitchen for Hikers By PRESTON HELLER WITH a needs view to provide all the of a commissary depart- the 2V2-gal. These faucets all drain into wheels are removed the entire outfit a small sink. Here also are found the larger packages. kitchen. be kept in a cool place. and are packed the oven. this space. ing it to the rear of a horse-drawn when distilled-water ice can be used wagon by means of a shaft. one day's camp to another by attach. Between the burner placed on the inner side. way through the kitchen. butcher knives... This entire cooker. The kitchen has shown its efficiency The next compartment to the rear by giving satisfactory service in camps is a large storage space. oughly dried. ice box. the bottom where the silverware is cessible. end are opened by swinging one half Practically the entire rear end of up and resting it on the top. When the secured. gauge are attached to the tank. cated compartment shelves where the on the shelves of galvanized iron small tin cups are kept. are kept in separate com. are 5 ft. and a forged-copper gasoline tank ment for 36 boys for a period of four occupies a shelf in the upper portion of days. on this side. and milk tanks. found a three-compartment steam cocoa. and an ice-water tank. salt. etc.

The Portable Kitchen Outfit Opened. Below. Exposing the Various Compartments Arranged So as to Be Convenient: Above. Stove and Cooking Compartments. Pantry Compartment and Space for Utensils 133 .

This not only makes a smooth thread to pass through when the job. and not leave any ink on the ruler. Rochester. as shown. or other bevel so that when they are riveted small kegs. or handle make an extension conical hole for the part. CAn excellent method of closing a A piece of thin sheet metal is placed crack in a wall before papering is to between the pieces above the conical paste a thin strip of linen over the hole to make an opening below for the crack. The wire should be of sufficient size to hold the glass firmly. Chicago.— Contributed is placed against the by Bert Fish. and the pitch be- tween each coil will be exact for A Drinking-Glass Holder the entire length. just above the wheel. An accu- in the sides. Revolving-Wheel Ruling Pen It is fastened to the A ruling pen that will do neat work wall. one can be made up quickly by the entrance can winding the wire around in the threads be cut in the of an ordinary ends or sides. — Contribut- and which with its small ink fount draws many ed by Edwin P. can be made iHOLE from an old dis- carded revolv- Needle Threader for a Sewing Machine \ END VIEW ing-wheel glass The threader consists of two brass cutter. The hole is thread to enter free- filled with a piece of felt— a piece cut ly. be formed. To make a glassholder quickly. so that it pieces should be such will bear lightly against the wheel. should the crack widen. Contrib- uted by Harriet AI. but prevents the paper from tear- threader is removed. and the pen is ready for use. lines at one fill- Stott. the conical hole will coincide with the hole in the needle. a They good bird — groove to center the needle. ing. Allen- should be town. The openings When a helical spring is needed for badly. . Kerbaugh. or support. as desired. will together they will form a V-shaped make house. If cut bolt. A Vs-in- pieces riveted together so that they will hole is drilled in the body. bolt with the other. Y. mounted on a square post with braces of light Winding Coiled Springs wood. In removing the spring from the bolt. shape a wire as grasp the coil in one hand and turn the shown in the sketch. The felt is soaked that when the upper end of the threader with the ink to be used. N. 134 Bird House Made of Kegs edges of the brass pieces from the large part of the conical hole are filed to a Two ordinary nail kegs. The length of the from an old felt hat will do— rolled to fit snugly. be sure to make the hole rate spring can between two staves. 111. with a screw and a staple. needle-holder end. Pa. The opposite ing.

]\Ietal straps hold the sections to- bow section folds inside of the stern gether at the bottom of the hinged portion. prevented from tom. plated nails may be used. The The adjoining ends of the sections construction of the seats is shown in should be made at the same time. to allow for expan. The front ]\Iake a full-sizediagram of the plan end of each strip is pivoted in a hole. pieces fastened to the gunwales. it is important that the dimen. throughout. SWIFT A BOAT shown that is inexpensive. It Is Inex- pensive. bolt. The Construction of the Portable Boat Is Simple. to the small sketch at the left. and readily transported in the illustration. Sockets sion. and should Prove a Valuable Addition to the Camping Outfit BOAT FOLDED 135 . but copper. These should be fitted so that sions be followed closely. The joints should not be driven coming off by riveting the end of the together too firmly. to determine the exact sizes of the and the other end is slotted vertically pieces. being held with nuts on both sides of and-grooved stock is best for the bot. A Portable Folding Boat By STANLEY L. the wood. and all joints in the boat should for the oars may be cut into hardwood be packed with red lead or pitch. Tongued. Since the is insure a satisfactory fit when joined. When Folded It may be Transported Readily and may Even be Carried in Three Parts. Braces are fixed into the corners. The material there is little possibility of their becom- used is %-in. Brass screws are best for fas. joints. easily made. A wing nut. on the lower edge. set firmly into the side of the boat. Their bolts are tening this type of work. ing loosened accidentally. holds the slotted end.

experimental work become tangled. depending upon the diameter of the core. and then wrap with string until the glue hardens. sheet of heavy paper. It is therefore advisable to cur AND TURN UP make a bobbin. — on the axle. F. of course. When the animal tethered to by means of a simple contrivance. as the wheel revolves took on a new interest. which consists of a thin. after which the tube ma}' be sandpapered and trimmed up as desired. hard tube with two ends. \\'ind tightly until the thickness is from ^'jo in. The upper illustration shows the method of cutting the paper to fit An old carriage wheel and axle were the ink bottle and stopper. no ends will be neces- a Holder for Ink Bottle and Pen sary if each layer of wire is stopped of the simple inkstand cut from a one-half turn before the preceding one. Y. but for the reason that it is Drawings are not infrequently often desired to remove a coil from a ruined by the spilling of ink.. Philadelphia. Preventing he found that this professional and the Rope from Tangling workmanlike finish could be obtained sketch.. Jr. excepting. 136 Nontangling Pasture Stake sketch. New York. the first 2 or 3 in. but when The Wheel Revolves on the Stake.to ^ic in. wire should never be wound directly on the iron core. The tube may be easily formed by wrapping a suitable length of medium-weight pa- per on the core. since the inkstand can be made in a few min- utes from material readily available. The device will be of the pasture stake shown in the found especially useful when materials -. \\'here the wire is not of too small a gauge and is not to be wound to too A Sheet of Heavy Paper Quickly Transformed into great a depth. in direct con- tact with the core. and the wheel walks around the stake. Contributed by W. having first coated it with ordinary fish glue. Franke. Contributed by Henry C. and to pro- •antag( in the making used to good advantage duce a pen rack. not only because it Inkstand Made of a Sheet of Paper cannot be done satisfactorily in that manner./r^it & for drawing are used away from a place especially fitted for the purpose. which piece of apparatus after it has served its might have been averted by the use purpose. At the outset let it be stated that Ouackenbush. it is a little care and attention to details be- ])ractically impossible for the rope to fore beginning. it was the despair of the writer to try to produce in his homemade apparatus the mathematical regularity and perfection of the wind- ing on the coils of electrical instru- ments in the supply stores. as shown in the as indicated in the accompanying . N. Pa. How to Wind Wire on Electrical Apparatus \\'hen a beginner.

13T

sketch, and is also thoroughly shel- Hourglass Sewing Basket
lacked. With ordinary care magnet
wire may be wound in this manner to Two oblong peach baskets, their
a depth of over one-half inch. bottoms fastened together and the
The tube having been made ready, whole covered with .silk, formed the
with or without ends as may be neces-
sary, the small winding jig illustrated
is to be made. All that is essential is
to provide a suitable means for rotat-
ing by hand a slightly tapering wood
spindle, upon which the tube is to be
pushed. The bearings can be just
notches made in the upper ends of two
standards, through each of which a
hole is drilled at right angles to the
length of the spindle, so that some
string or wire may be laced through
in order to hold the spindle down. A
crank maj^ be formed by winding a
piece of heavy wire around the larger
end of the spindle. A
loop of wire, or
string, is to be attached at some con-
venient point, so that the crank may be
held from unwinding while adjusting
matters at the end of each layer, or
while making a connection. There
should also be provided a suitable sup-
port for the spool of wire, which is gen-
erally placed below the table to good
advantage. Much depends, in this sort
of work, upon attention to these small
details, after which it will be found that Artistic Effects may be Produced by the
Inventive Woman

hourglass sewing or darning basket
shown the sketch.
in Square plum
baskets and other forms trimmed in
cretonne, linen, or inexpensive goods,
depending on the intended use, may
also be utilized. Ornamental details
may be added to suit the individual
taste.
The basket was made as follows:
The peach baskets were wired together
at their bottoms. A piece of silk was
Winding a Coil of Wire so That the Layers will be cut, wide enough to reach from the top
Even and Smooth
to the bottom of the joined baskets and
the actual winding will require very to permit the folding over of a portion
little time. — Contributed by John D. at the top and bottom. One long edge
Adams, Phoenix, Ariz. of the piece was glued to the inner edge
of the bottom and drawn in around the
CA No. 10 gauge shotgun cartridge sides to form neat folds. The upper
shell telescoped with a No. 13 gauge edge of the silk was then glued in the
shell forms a convenient match safe top, being folded over the edge.
for campers, or other persons out of A
cord was fixed around the middle
doors, and is moisture-proof. of the basket, as shown in the sketch.

138

A lining was glued into the top and lower end will tend to move in the di-
bottom. It was folded and stitched rection of the arrows, because in so
along its edges to prevent raveling and doing it is getting farther away from
to give a smooth finish. The bottom the repelling north pole of the horse-
need not be lined, but it is desirable to shoe magnet and nearer the attracting
have it so. south pole, which action will bring it
The pincushion was made by pad- to the corner of the triangle in the fore-
ding a block with cotton and then cov- ground. It will next move down the
ering it with silk. A cardboard box side as indicated by the arrow, because
may be used instead. The cushion was along that line it is nearer the attract-
nailed into place from the bottom. Rib- ing souththan the repelling north
bon may be used to draw the silk to the pole. When
it reaches the end of its

sides of the basket at the middle, and trip, at the angle between the poles of
a cushion may be made entirely of cot- the magnet, the attraction and repul-
ton or cloth and attached with ribbons. sion will be balanced, but a slight jar
— Contributed by Thomas J. Mac- will carry the traveler beyond the
gowan, Mount Vernon, N. Y. angle.
The third leg of the triangle will be
A Perpetual-Motion Puzzle co\ered similarh", the north pole re-
pelling the traveler. On this basis the
The fallacy of perpetual motion is motion should continue indefinitely,
now so generally understood that the but a test will show that it will not
description of a new scheme for attain- do so.
The corners of the triangle should
be rounded slightly and it would be
better to use several hanging magnets,
flexibly connected, so that when one
is at the dead center the others will
carry the traveler on.

How to Transfer Drawings
Soiling of drawings transferred with
carbon paper may be avoided by sub-
stituting a piece of unfinished paper,
The Interaction between the surface of which has been covered
Poles of the Magnets Causes the with a thin coating of lead rubbed
Traveler to Move around the Triangle
from the pencil. If any errors are
ing it only justified in so far as
is made in the tracing, or undue pressure
it may beinstructive. The sketch illu-s- is applied with the hand, the resulting
trates such a device, apparently suc- impressions may be removed readily
cessful, and the discovery of the error with an eraser.
in it is both instructive and interesting. If a copy of a drawing is desired,
Mount a horseshoe magnet on a and not necessary that the same
it is

wooden base, and into the latter cut a relative left and right position be
continuous groove along the three sides maintained, the original pencil draw-
of a triangle opposite the poles of the ing may be placed face downward on
magnet, N
and S. Suspend a long, a sheet of paper and the back of it
narrow bar magnet on a universal joint rubbed with a bone paper knife, or
from a standard. A pin projects into other smooth, rounded object. By
the groove from the lower end, which going over the impression and making
is its north pole, and can move only a reverse of it in the same way a copy
along the triangular course. of the original in the same relations
Start the device with the suspended —
may be obtained. Contributed by j.
magnet in the position shown. The E. Pouliot, Ottawa, Canada.

r^^t'-

Pivoted Searchlight Made of an Old Milk Strainer
By JOHN J.
SPAULDING

BOTH as a safety device and a prac-
novelty, a homemade search-
tical
cells,stored under the bow deck, or in
a box set at some other convenient
liglit for a canoe, or other small craft, place, suppl}^ the current for the 6-volt
is worth while making. An old milk lamp.
strainer was used for the reflector of The main dimensions of the fittings,
that shown, and many equally service- as are
detailed, : strainer, 10 in. in
able makeshifts can be devised easily diameter and 10 in. long; vertical sup-
from old cans, or formed from sheet
metal. The detailed construction, as
indicated, is suggestive only, since local
conditions and materials available will
govern the design of the fittings. The
light has a double control, one cord
governing the vertical adjustment, and
another, arrangerl like that of a ship's
wheel, the hor-
izontal pivotal
range. The ver-
tical adjustment
isdesirable, but
not essential.
The control
cords are run in
screw eyes along ''^t ^-iX^r,^

the coaming of
the craft, so that

MILK STRAINED WOOD BLOC'

//

Canoeing and Boating at Night Is Safer and More
Pleasurable if the Craft isEquipped with a Search-
light. This One was Made of Pick- Up Materials at
Small Cost

port, l^i/o in. over all, and 6 in. wide
CONTROL CORD' at the upper portion the wood used ;

is 1'2 and ^'^ in. thick, except that for
The Support for the Reflector is Pivoted in the Deck,
Reinforced as Indicated the pivot post, which is 1 in. thick.
The reflector is fitted with a wooden
one person can paddle the canoe, and block through which the porcelain
adjust the searchlight as well. Dry socket is set, as shown. A knife switch.
139

140

placed near the stern of the craft, con- Taking Photographs in Falling Snow
trols the connection with the battery
circuit. Falling snowflakes in a camera
The inside of the reflector should be photograph — the large feathery, slow-
])olished with emery cloth, and if the falling kind — often make an exquisitely
surface is rough, it may be painted with beautiful picture out of a commonplace
white enamel. The outer surfaces of scene. And while the great majority
the metal part are painted black. The of the attempts to get them prove fail-
wooden parts may be painted, or given ures, the —
photographer usually an
several coats of spar varnish, to with- —
amateur needs only to provide an ave-
stand the weather. nue in front of his lens a short dis-
tance, that is free from falling flakes,
Gravity-Feed Coal Hopper on Truck by the use of a shelter such as a tree
or porch. The slow snapshot neces-
In the large farm kitchen, in the sary in cloudy weather will not stop the
workshop, and even for firing a small motion of the flakes nearest the camera,
furnace, a coal hopper that will and these passing through greater
hold consider- angles of space in equal length of time
able coal, and than those farther away, will blur on
that can be rolled the negative. We
made some excellent
along the floor outdoor views in deep snow, while
easily, is a con- heavy snow was falling, with flakes
venience. Such splendidly decorating the darker re-
an arrangement, gions of figures and foliage, by holding
made from a sec- a felt hat and two umbrellas in a line
tion of galvan- in front of the camera, and above the
ized-iron
10 in. in
pipe,
diameter
range of the lens.
Cheyenne, Wyo.
J. —Cecil Alter,

and 30 in. long,

A Double-Contact Vibrator
A double-contact vibrator, which
eliminates sticking contacts, spring
troubles, and other sources of annoy-
ance, in addition to producing a fine,
high tone, is shown in the sketch. It
is an instrument easy to construct, by

The Large Capacity of the Hopper and the Ready reason of its simplicity. Special care
Portability of This Arrangement Are
Practical Features
in making the vibrator D
will insure
good vibration. The springs, holding
is shown in the sketch. The pipe was the contacts, are of phosphor bronze.
cut at one end, as shown, so that when The contacts may be made of silver,
the coal was poured into the hopper, it platinum, or other metals, which will
would feed out. A
truck, mounted on not burn and break contact. The coils
casters, was made, 12 in. wide, 5 in.
high, and 25 in. long. The hopper was
mounted on one end of it, and bolted
securely at the sides and end. The
coal is shoveled into the hopper at the
bin, and the load pushed to the furnace,
where it can be easily used as needed.
The construction can be made larger
for use with a coal scoop, in firing a
boiler or large furnace. —
L. R. Mark- When the Vibrator Touches One Contact, the Coil
OR the Opposite Side Attracts the Vibrator,
wood, Factoryville, Pa. This Process being Repeated Alternately

141

B are of the common
bell-ringing type. designs are possible, and the position
The springs on the vibr^itor should not and size of the stumps available will
be too long, nor too weak experiment-
; suggrest suitable construction. The
ing will determine the length at which
they will work best. The adju.stment
is made at the thumbscrews A. The
coils are supported on metal brackets,
bolted to a wooden base. The method
of hooking up the vibrator in the key
WR?
circuit is shown in the diagram.
laylor, Barker, N. Y.
J. L. —
Battery Buzzer Converted into
a Telegraph Sounder
An ordinary battery buzzer may
readily be converted into a telegraph
sounder for use in practicing the Alorse
code. All that is necessary is to connect
the vibrator contact C of the buzzer
to the binding post that is not insulated
from the frame. The other connec-
tions of the key and battery are the
same as in any ordinary telegraph or
buzzer circuit. In the diagram, C rep-
resents the vibrator contact D, the
:

tvire connecting the contact and the

The Amateur can Practice the Morse Code Handily
on This Sounder, Made from a Buzzer

uninsulated binding post, and F, the
uninsulated binding post E is the tel-
;

egraph key, and B, the dry cells. Clar- —
ence F. Kramer, Lebanon, Ind.

Lawn Seats Built on Tree Stumps

A practical use to which stumps, left
from the felling of trees, are put in a
city park is as supports for lawn
benches. This obviates the need of
grubbing them out, while the work of
preparing them to receive the seats is
less than would be required to remove
the stumps. Of course, the location of
the stump will determine whetlier it
is worth while as a support for a seat,
or had better be grubbed out. Many

143

Automatic Flash Light Snaps A Fishing-Tackle Outfit
Chicken-Coop Marauder in a Shotgun Shell
After the wire fence around the At the camp or on the trail, an
chicken house had been torn up, and emergency fishing-tackle outfit is
almost as handy as matches, compass,
and knife, and it may even be the means
of saving one's life. convenient way A
to carry such an outfit is in two old
shotgun shells, telescoped. The hooks,
on a cork, and the sinkers are fitted
snugly into the shell. Several yards
of line are then wound on the outside.
This outfit can be stowed into a pocket
handily, always ready for use. E. —
Everett Buchanan, Jr., Elmira, N. Y.

A Split-Bamboo Lettering Pen

This Photographic Evidence Marking of packages and similar let-
Was Proof Positive as to the tering can be done neatly with a pen
Identity of the Thief
Night made in a few minutes from split
the place entered bamboo fitted with a short section of
13 nights in two watch spring. Select a piece of bam-
weeks, I decided boo, i/i by YiQ in. and about 7 in. long,
on more prepar- and finish the end, as at A. Trim the
edness. Various HINGE end to an angle, as at B. and then point
NAIL~
ways and means it, as at C. Split the point carefully,
failed, so I used as at D, and smooth away the tufts at
a comparatively slight knowledge of the edges. Cut a piece of watch spring
photography in the process. the width of the pen point and bind
I mounted my flash lamp on a piece it into place, arched as shown. To use
of board, 1 by 4 by 8 in. long, and the pen, insert ink into the arch of the
fastened this to a base, as shown. I KK^^^jV^yy^./:^

attached a weight to the lamp, whicli
was supported by a hinged drop, half-
way down the upright board, which in
turn was supported by a nail, to which
was attached a string. The flash was
set off by a slight pull of the string,
which dropped the weight. This con-
trivance I concealed in the chicken
yard, and the camera in the chicken
house. That night I opened the lens
of the camera in the dark, and at-
tached the string to a loose board in
the fence. The next morning, before
daybreak. I closed the lens again. The 9x^yyy/^t^yyXM^y!n^i^yirjtx^aiyx^:rjv-jtKyja-^j-^^

flash had been set off during the night. This Pen, Cut from a Piece of Bamboo and Fitted
with a Spring Fountain Device. Is Especially
Also there were drops of blood on the Useful for Marking Packages
ground. I could hardly wait until the
plate was developed. The result, as spring, and it will work much like a
reproduced, was hardly what I ex- fountain pen. Raymond — H. Lufkin,
pected.— H. U. Scholz. Medford, Ore. Dorchester, Mass.

J--'
->..

^'tf. .'*ma»~gi' --.5?,

How to Make a Houseboat
By H. SIBLEY
'TpHE houseboat shown is of the table. The cooking is done on a two-
* scow design, wide by 20 ft.
6 ft. burner blue-flame kerosene stove, and
long, with the cabin extending beyond the sink is provided
the scow 1 ft. on each side. The scow with running water
tapers up at the forward
end and is protected with
a heavy sheet-iron plate so
that the craft may be
snubbed up on sandbars
without danger of spring-
ing a leak, even though a
submerged log be struck
while running at full speed.
The power plant consists
of a standard 4-hp. revers-
ing gasoline engine which
^ The Hull of the Houseboat is
drives the paddles at their r _ ^~ Built on the Scow Type so That
It can be Run in Shallow Water
most efficient speed, 45 without Danger
revolutions per minute
through a 13-to-l reduction. Cast- suitable for washing dishes, etc. This
iron hubs, into which are inserted cold- water is drawn from a 30-gal. tank on
rolled steel spokes, and wood paddles the roof, which is filled by a centrifugal
bolted to their ends constitute the pro- pump driven from the engine shaft.
peller wheels. The cruising speed is A modern room is installed, and
toilet
about miles an hour.
-4 an on the after deck will hold
ice chest
Two wide bunks, beneath which is supplies and ice for a week's cruise.
locker space, provide sleeping accom- An acetylene-gas lighting system is
modations for a crew of four. In the installed and is used to light both
kitchen the motor and gearing are cabins and a searchlight. A heavy
almost completely con- anchor of special design is manipulated
cealed under the work by a windlass on the forward deck.' A
FUEL TANK

Detail of the Anchor Windlass and Engine Gearing; Also the Deck Plan, Showing the Location of the Parts
and the Arrangement of the Cabins

Hi

144

similai device controls the rudder. size of a quarter. The glass can be
Life rafts, complete with paddles, are cut and ground round on an emery
placed on the roof, and in hot weather wheel, and the edge polished.
these are moved to one end and an To perform the trick advance with
awning erected to make a cool sleep- the piece of glass hidden between the
ing place. second and third fingers of the left
hand and holding the quarter in plain
sight between the thumb and first
Wood Box with a Refuse-Catching finger of the same hand and the hand-
Drawer kerchief in the right hand. Throw the
The ordinary wood box may be handkerchief over the left hand and
greatly improved by adding a drawer gather up the glass piece in the fold
at the top and one at the bottom, as of the cloth, allowing the coin to drop
into the palm of the left hand while
covered. Remove the left hand and
hold out the piece of glass with the
handkerchief drawn tightl}^ around it.
Anyone can touch the cloth-covered
glass, but it cannot be distinguished
from the quarter. While this is being
shown slip the quarter into a pocket.
Spread the handkerchief over the glass
of water and allow the glass disk to
drop. A distinct click will be heard
when it strikes the bottom. Raise the
handkerchief and nothing will be seen,
as the glass will not be visible in the

water. Contributed by Amon H.
Carr, Gainesville, Tex.

Watering Window-Box Flowers
The window box for flowers can be
conveniently watered in the following
manner: Construct a metal box to
The Wood Receptacle Has a Drawer Bottom for receive the box holding the soil and
Catching the Dirt, Which can be Easily Cleaned bore enough holes in its bottom to ad-
shown ill the sketch. The upper mit water to the soil. The inside box
should be supported about 2 in. above
drawer is used for storing the flat-
the bottom of the metal box. Sponges
irons and stove-polishing materials,
are placed in the bottom to coincide
and the lower drawer is the bottom of
The dirt and pieces with the holes in the soil box. A fill-
the wood box.
falling from the wood remain in the
drawer, which can be removed and

cleaned easily. Contributed by ^Vil-
liam Jutila, Astoria, Ore.

Disappearing-Coin Trick ^:^ > ^^ II _
WATER SPACE
To make a quarter disappear from The Soil is Kept Moist by the Water Feeding through
the Sponges from the Under Side
a glass of water after hearing it drop
is a very puzzling trick. The articles ing tubeis made at the end. The water
necessary to perform this trick are a ispoured into the metal box and the
glass of water, a handkerchief, a quar- sponges admit only enough water for
ter and a piece of clear glass the exact the plants at all times.

im^

% in. as shown at D and E. Chinese rice paper is the best ma- terial for covering. pointing to the center of the eye rings. wide and less than Vis The Framework for the Fid 2 Head Section is Made in. As the eyes revolve in the be long enough to pass through the rings they should be made perfectly socket ring D or E. These tant and may be put on if desired. two pieces of bam- boo. thick. each 31/2 in. and it should be stretched tightly so that there will be no buckling or bagging places. so that the parts L and M are exactly socket ring and the axle adjusted. leaving the face white. 146 small rings. The are for the eyes of the dragon. thick. The Eyes The frame for each eye is made of bamboo. Is Very Hideous an axle made of wire passed through the bamboo exactly on the diameter. the halfway between the ends of the pieces latter is fastened to the eye ringwith F and G and radiate out from the center a strip of paper wrapped tightly around of the ring A. The only part covered is that inside of the inner ring A. and should be less than Yiq in. as shown at J and K.in thick- ness and formed into a perfect ring. between the inner ring A and the outer ring H. The shades are put on with a brush and water col- ors. Fig. and the ears. and they are lashed to the Entirely of Bamboo Strips Lashed at the Joints upper crosspiece and to both rings. are lashed to the back as shown by F and G. the horns. and true. To stiffen the whole framework. wide. 3i^ Fjg. in diameter^ cut from stiff paper. wide. or it can be tinted in brilliant colors. N and O. % in. It is made of a bamboo strip. Yie in. Two short pieces are lashed to the two rings. to get the length. 3. leaving the eye rings open. in diam. The rings on the horns and the stick ends may be from ^2 to 2 in.I in. The ears are unimpor- pieces. 3^4 in. as rings are lashed to the two crosspieces shown at P. the wire and pasted to the bamboo of . and in such case be careful to make a perfect ring with the ends well lashed together. The supports "for the horns consist of two pieces. 2. Revolving Eyes. The wire should B and C. are put in between the two parallel respectively. Fig. made of bamboo. long. the other parts. Leave the horns white and color the tongue red. giving the latter a diameter of 18 in. pared down to ]i2 in. This can be done by shaping the after the eye ring is in place in the bamboo about a perfectly round cylin- der. thick. and Section. also.eter. Ears. but if larger. It may be necessary to make from two pieces of bam- this large ring boo. % in. in diameter. There is a space of 3 in. Each ring revolves on The Kite-Head Having Horns. and 20 in. in diameter.

the same as for the head. 20. and thus causes it to revolve on the axle. to Make Them Turn in the Wind. A Section Kite The Harness The ring for the section kite is made the same size as the inner ring of the As previously stated. wide and Yiq in. head kite. more or less. The cords should be as long as the kite stick F. in diam. The from striking the other. are attached to the tip ends of the bal- keeps them apart and the revolving one ancer sticks. The streamers are made of light cloth. ers. or in this case 13 in. spacing the sections 30 in. for a finish. apart. as shown in Fig. 2. wire axle between the socket rings D Small tufts of tissue paper. the Head Piece Having a Ball Balancer Hanging from the Under Edge The balancer stick. are joined together with three long The Section Kites Have Balancers and the Disks are Given Bright Colors So That They will Produce the Effect of a Great Dragon When in the Air. When the eyepiece is given a half turn cover for the section kite is put on in its socket the back side will come to tightly. the the front and will appear just the same colors indicated in the sketch being as the other side. as shown in Fig. allowing suf- . Constitute the Eyes both front and back of the eyepiece. 5. and that shown by S is on the back lower half. and must from the head to the tail. Some kite builders only suggestions. The part R is on the upper front half. sections can be used. placed on the be made small. or feathers. thick. The balancer to reflect the light and cause flashes as on the last section should have stream- the eyes revolve in their sockets. 147 the ring. 4. cords. or E and the eye ring O on each side. 6. The front upper half of the eyepiece is made black. Aglass bead. and the number eter. cated about the same place as the cross.4 paper placed just between the two halves so that half of it will show on Two Bamboo Rings with Paper Coverings. light and well balanced. 36 in. long. as shown in Fig. Placing the two halves in this manner causes an un- equal pressure of the wind on the whole eyepiece. is lo. as the builder can add pieces of mirror glass to the eyes. as shown in Fig. color them as desired. The bamboo for making this ring means so many separate kites which should be Y^ in. Each side of the eye ring is covered halfway with rice paper. and the smaller dark portion extending below the darkened half is a round piece of FiG3 Fis.

each about II/2 ft. from the head kite. 2. both made in and in a necessarily uncomfortable po. pipe. If sticks 30 in. hard. tees are sition is by no means a pleasant occu. as the harness might become entan- individual kites. Flying the Kite apart. The up. or they can all be 9 in. and the crosspiece that supports one end of the canvas consists of two pieces of pipe. and V. in diam. Quite a little run will be neces- in size. These are connected pation. The construction will be much easier ancer was made in the shape of a ball. and the balancer steady flier and will pull very hard. axle. The such a kite will make a hard pull. 7. . and in one instance such a bal- places just 30 in. the three long cords to the head kite As the head is inclined. the lower string is longer than the two cord used should be a six-ply. Other spacing can be used. one serving as a shoulder on the pipe end. but when up the kite will make a eter. ferent position in the breeze. 9 in. or solid circular disks cut out of a board or plank. The posi. long. The seat can be made of a 1 by 8-in. Quite a number of changes may be worked out on these plans. 7. the same way. but it is The Bridle necessary to bear in mind that the dis- The Chinese bridle is usually made tances between sections must be equal of three strings. notched at each end to fit the pipe tees and prevented The Sunshade and Seat are Mounted on Wheels So That the Device can be Easily Moved About from shifting by means of U-bolts . if the head kite is fastened to a wall so A ball made of bamboo strips is shown that each cord may be drawn out to its in Fig. and drilled for a %-in. until all sections are attached just 30 in.^^'^:>^ about 6 ft. inay vary gled. and V. long instead of 36 in. Continue the tying Fig. the distance selected must be uniform and perhaps two. U. Start by tying tion will be presented to the breeze. long. all the section at the points T. A Movable Sunshade and Seat for be avoided if a combination movable simshade and seat is made. in starting the kite throughout the length of the kite. U. and Jie other for the nut.. Four suitable cart wheels should be provided. as shown in Garden Workers the illustration.. but these ai^e only about 1 ft. and is attached as shown in proper length. Ordinary %-in.. long. 8. try re- a kite of uniform sections is much bet. 148 ficient extra length for the knots. adjustment of the bridle or a little dif- ter and is easier to make.which are attached to and that the general construction must the same points on the head kite as the be maintained. sary. in theliite are shown in Fig. Some the next section at corresponding makers prefer a balancer on the head kite. for the upright. required for each. As harness cords. The framework con- Weeding gardens under a hot sun sists of two end pieces. but It will be necessary to have a helper. The axle for the wheels is also formed of two pieces of pipe. T. instead of 12 in. and see tions of the sections as they will appear that the balancers are not tangled. but the first attempt is unsuccessful. screwed into the tee. board. or sections. upper ones so that the proper inclina- twisted seine twine. or at. but much of the hardship can with a 5-ft. Tie kites will also be inclined. Fig. Two %-in. washers are placed on each side of the wheels.

it should be made rela- bit. but Being employed near a glass-blowing there is none simpler than that shown department I procured a small glass in the illustration. Cal. as Two brass gas tips were soldered into '. One among amateurs who are compelled to end of the tube use the bathroom as a dark room. Ohio. Crane. This tube. I closed and Any tinsmith can make a water-jack- flared the other. D. inner tray for the circulation of the per end is flared just right it will fit water. when they can be laid Water-Jacketed Tray for Use in Cooling a Developing Tray with a Flow of Water down again. were tried plate or film. Bakersfield. there by \V. as shown. Cleveland. was attached to one of them. E. the buttonhole and will not be seen. The best way to keep a court free from this growth is to put on sheets of tar paper close together when it is not in use. but the paper covering was the There are many of this class of pho- — most successful of them all. After covering the top with canvas. Mills. I had one made water in it. or at least shaped so that inserted in the whatever method is used in manipu- buttonhole with lating the film will be suited to the size a few drops of and shape of the tray. space fresh for a whole all around the sides and bottom of the day. The paper should be cut in strips the proper length.he tube is hidden beneath the coat the ends of the tray and a rubber tube — lapel. out. a common practice quet holder. so that they can be rolled up and set aside until the game is over. in the bathtub. . keep cut flowers plate and providing about Vi-'ni. the grass will are many who take special delight in die out and disappear altogether. tively deep. —Contributed method under most conditions.bou. To Keep Grass and Weeds Out of Tennis Courts Tennis courts are very apt to be- come covered with grass and weeds unless considerable labor is expended on them. will of zinc to accommodate an 8 by 10-in. The tray development. eted tray of zinc at a nominal price. If then flattened one expects to use it for developing the whole tube a films by hand. If the up. After the court has been covered a few times. Contributed by Frank Reid. Contrib- tographers both among amateurs and uted by W. It is certainly bet- tube and made a ter than letting the developing tray float buttonhole . professionals. acids. the shaded movable velopment for photography is the better seat is ready for service. 149 around the axle on either side of the Cooler for a Developing Tray upright. and a number of other seeing the picture as it develops on the things. because they enjoy use of salt. and they universally ex- perience much trouble in keeping the Buttonhole-Bouquet Holder to Keep solutions cool enough for good work in Cut Flowers Fresh hot weather or a warm dark room. Many schemes have been used. together with hoeing. fastened at each end around the Regardless of the fact that tank de- upper crosspiece.

the wire must be led and con- nected to the battery line. Doorbell on a Screen Door The process of heating wood with- shut. fore. The wood then can be screwed into the larger piece. a piece of wire can be kept as cool as desired without should be connected to it near the bot- slopping water where it is not wanted. Working Wood by the Application of Heat often desirable to fit a piece of It is wood into a piece of metal by means of cutting a thread in the metal and screwing the wood therein. and heating it to the required temperature. M. By connecting an extra button out the aid of steam can be used to on the screen door with the regular advantage in a number of ways. the line may be run down under to place a screw in a fragile piece of the screen-door molding. but after being dried within the door frame. or almost anything of hard wood. Lambert. the size and thread corresponding to the hole into which the wood piece is to be inserted. — Contributed by E. ible when the screen doors are hooked Philadelphia. the service can be made instance. the screen with a short wire. carefully in. by molding or to start with. 150 By connecting this tray to the bath. In either case. as shown. if the screw through the bottom hinge same as with is heated to a blue color and turned . tom. within. If the screen room hydrant the developing solution is used as conductor. 111. and led through the hinge as be- - — Contributed by T. It is then possible to Doorbell Push Button on Screen Door operate the bell either from outside of Push buttons are frequently put in the screen door or at the regular place hallways. one wire. hinge. if this is . the thread. impractical on account of size. where it Method of Connecting a Push Button for a will hold iirmly. or other places. The button they were warmed over a fire and circuit is completed by connecting it to straightened. cues. This can be accomplished by heating the metal to a little over the boiling point of water and screwing the wood piece into the metal while hot or. heating without burning. also billiard To do this. the screen. make a screw plate by cut- ting a thread in a small piece of metal. being concealed in which were almost always crooked any suitable manner. If pre. coming out The Indians at one time made their through the hinge and passing down arrows from small hardwood twigs to the battery line. to heat the metal. Chi. not access. then running the wood with some pressure through TO BATTERY & BELL. a hammer handle that is to go on uninterrupted whether the crooked can be straightened by careful screen be locked or open. the screen Another use for the application of then acting as a conductor. for doorbell line. heat is as follows: When it is desired ferred. B. Pa. Davis. after leaving the cago. from the outside button is It is surprising how easily it is done laid under the upper molding strip of and how permanent the repair will be. and out wood that is likely to split. the other wire at the top. to complete the circuit. sulated.

An excellent wa^' to . In order piece can be added. K 2 side rails. — tributed by James H. A Parlor Table The material required for the par- lor table illustrated is as follows 1 table top. Together with Dimensions of the Pieces To carry out the general arrange- ment of the regular electrical equip- boards. San Rafael. 1 by 1 by 31 in. care. 21 by 33 in. Design of a Table That will Appear Well in the Different Oak Finishes as Well as in Mahogany The bottom shelf can be made of should be cut and fitted with mitered two pieces of 1-in. J. In either tery circuit should have some sort of case. These should be screwed to the outer- fully squared at the ends. ends of the uprights. The resting on the 4 by 4-in. Y. the bat- form a hollow tapered post. — Contributed by H. as to have a tight fit between the side rails. another foot The top is screwed to this. wide. 8 in. by 4 bv 33 in. material. J. and beveled oft to 4 in. square at the upper end. 2 side corner strips.-< 2 end corner strips. Cal. 1 by 1 by 17^ in. a 1-in. This is glued forced on the under side with two to the top and may be toenailed to it crosspieces. are made from solid posts. glued and screwed to it. there will from each side of the bottom shelf and be scarcely any danger of splitting. 2 top cross braces. as the screw is sure to set before it is in place. 2 end rails. a fuse block. In case a center sup. 1 by 15 bv 35 in. N. they should be set in about 4 in. Con. Homemade Fuses for Battery Circuits Detail of the Parlor Table. the rails. 6 by 6 by 26 in. care should be taken that no nails cut through the table top. but to provide a more secure bracing. Roch- ester. 1?^ by 4 by 4 in. If on their upper edges to fit the table desired. 151 into the wood while hot. joints at the corner to form a rectangu- carefully glued together. and rein. or posts. long. The foot pieces are secured to the bot. square strip of material is fas- tom shelf so as to project 1 in. the posts can be made of They should be of such length top. lar frame. and are fastened to these by means of finishing nails driven from the outside. 1 bottom shelf. In fastened to it by means of screws. this case do not try to use oil or a The rail pieces for the table top lubricant of any kind. Gluing and toenailing can also be used to secure the top more firmly to the braces. flush with their upper edge. rocking may result. lumber. 1 by 4 by 195^ in* 4 feet. and tapered end sides of the posts. port is deemed advisable. 2 posts. cut and fastened together to ment of a large power plant. 1 by 26 by 41 in. Beebee. it can be finished to suit. After thoroughly sand- papering and smoothing oi¥ the table. 26 in.M by 4 by 21 in. but unless the floor to prevent tipping when the top is is very level. two cross braces are provided. Blacklidge. on the tened all around the inside edge of ends and sides. 6 by 6-in.

Contributed by J. The brass pieces — served in color. and place it in a dark room to dry. It is easily constructed and glass tube and the ends are bent over inexpensive. many beautiful objects can be pre- shown in the sketch. about 1^/^ in. butterflies. remove the paper with four pieces of sheet brass. B. in width. IMeinberg. This is placed in the suitable. if they are not exposed to a strong light. is cut i/g in. which is 15 in. The uncovered portions will legs if desired. of bichromate of potash and dissolve it in water. Washing as ordinary photographic prints are treated will improve them a The Fuse is'Well Insulated and Protected against Fire the Same as the Large Fuse little. and fill in the print according to the natural colors. insects. as from the sunlight. Go over the outline with crayons or colors. over the and 20 in. Reproducing Flowers and Leaves in Colors A very cheap. uncolored. using a soft brush. leaves. J.. easy. the Dishes in a Fine Spray is placed upon the yellow side of the paper and the whole exposed to the sons. Spread this fluid over the surface of the paper upon which the picture is to be made. IMass. or less. N. Plainfield. long. Dishwasher and Drier A very thin piece of tinfoil. When the desired shade in. gradually turn brown. The tank may be supported on sunlight. deep wrapped around each end. etc. Very beautiful pic- tures may be made in this way. If the instructions are followed. long. and a butterfly made up in natural colors on a dark-brown ground is very pretty. leaf. Contrib-— uted by Charles W.. and pasted these dimensions will hold the dishes to the tube. and quick way to make reproductions of flowers. 153 make such a block is as follows Pro. from a table ser\^ing six to eight per- The fuse thus made is pushed into the spring clamps of the block which are connected in the circuit. Apiece of tinfoil is then ing for the tank. Wniere hot water is available the the size depending on the amount of dishwasher illustrated is especially current used. is the follow- ing: Purchase 1 oz. : covered by the object will remain a cure a piece of glass tubing. A washer of ends of the inclosed piece. about 1 lemon color. Wlien dry it will be a light lemon color. while the part The supports for holding the dishes . are shaped and fastened to a wood base Murphy. and make a mounting for it of brown is attained. and the image of the object will be on the paper. The Hot Water from the Faucet is Forcefl over The or part to be reproduced. Somer- ville. will keep for some time. the only real expense be- the edge. in diameter. These prints. so that their upper ends form a clamp to hold the glass tube.

having a hole 5 in. Hooks are attached to the edge of the hole on which cups and glasses are hung. The wires are set about 1^2 in. Contributed I tried the following method with good by W. Youngstown. heat will pass up through the funnel. The dishes. pipe. 111. and two cided to make the pop corn into cakes. was nailed to the top of an old table A pipe cap is then screwed on the end with its flange upward. about 3 ft. rectangular holes are cut in the pipe This was more easily accomplished end through the threaded part. and it becomes more and the other about 9 in. a fine spray After the pop corn has been prepared of water will be forced out of the w-ith the sirup. is made of mesh wire and hung in place with several wires running to the upper edge of the tank. A plunger of of the pipe. balls. These nuts should be thick bottom removed. Baxter. Two lustration. the tank Having occasion to use a darning can be allowed to remain over the jet needle. apart and radiate from the center The Pop Corn When Formed into Cakes About One Inch like wire spokes in a wheel. the two nuts just a little. In making the cakes. longer than the As a large number of balls were re- depth of the tank. shaped attachment in the bottom of the tank. in diameter in the center. above the difficult as the ball increases in size. K. 153 in a vertical position are made of wire How to Make Pop-Corn Cakes in a U-shape. results. A long thread is cut quired for a church entertainment I de- on the lower end of the pipe. long. The cover consists of a wood disk. with a hole bored in its center for a %-in. New York. Massillon. The body of the former was large nuts are run on the threads of the made of a' baking-powder can with the pipe. Thick is Eatily Handled A funnel-shaped piece. This method offers a much them by moving the pipe up and down better way to serve pop corn than in through the hole in the cover. soon dry in the heat from the gas jet. one near the bottom a ball of pop corn. to insert the yarn in the usual manner. — using a very small flame. The cover of the can enough to cover the slot in the pipe. and plunger must be kept well ciently the hose is removed and the — covered with butter. already heated by Threading a Darning Needle the hot water. If desired. Hopkins. Contributed by Joe Hender- barrel. The piece of pipe used should be 3 or 4 in. cover. . the ends being fastened into two wood hoops that snugly fit the It is very difificult to take a bite from inside of the tank. it is placed in the can holes. The upper end of the wood was made to fit snugly inside of pipe is attached to a hose connected to the can and a lever. After the dishes are washed sufifi. and the loop CTc empty a large sack filled with thus formed was used to pull the yarn heavy material. These than first imagined with the use of a holes are made by cutting through the cake-forming device as shown in the il- pipe as if making a slot for a key. son. turn or roll it over a — through. Contributed by tank placed over a gas jet so that the Howard A. first one. A thread was doubled and passed through the eye. Eldred. The can. the can. By separating attached to it and fulcrumed to the wall. is then lifted When the dishes are in place the out of the cover and the pop-corn cake spray of hot water can be directed over removed. the eye of which was too small until the next meal is ready to serve. O. the hot-water faucet. and compressed.

wide by 4 in. An old clinical-thermometer case 3X4-" ^ ^ can be easily turned into a vial in which Bottle Caps Nailed to a Wood Block for Removing to carry ammonia for insect bites. The per in the case. When through with the towel. Fit Scales from a Fish a small rubber stop- inexpensive and easily made. W. a sliding clip made to hold the towel Contributed by E.ces to adjust them. a of Sight When Not in Use few being nailed on a block of wood. The kitchenette. neglected to take the curry comb to clean the fish. The weight draws the towel into the cabinet. which I constructed The Weight Draws the Towel into the Case Out by using the small tin bottle caps. C. N. then sketch shows the general appearance. Near the bot- All kinds of devices. have been made and patented for use in scaling fish. commodate the towel. as good and effi- It is only necessary to pull out the cient at home as in the camp. long. Bradley. dle into the stopper cago. so that its end will be a little more than midway in the case. Elmira. through a caliper should never be struck on hard weight pulley. and both small panel to get at the towel. but for a novelty I found the following. 154 A Fish Scaler eye at the top. which necessity compelled me to improvise on an out- ing trip. to be as efficient as any of them. . making fastened to the lower end of the towel. in making up the outfit. Long before it became necessary to scale any fish enough bottles had been opened to provide the basis of a tool for the purpose. Chi. a splendid fish scaler. and then tied to a screw surfa. panel fitted in it. To keep the towel out of case is then filled with ammonia. push a darning nee- Contributed by T. A Disappearing Towel Cut or break off the Nothing is more unsightly to a needle end project- stranger entering a home than a dirty ing on the outside and attach a small towel in either the bathroom or the wad of cotton to the inside end. As usual. let loose of it and the weight will draw it into the — opening. and the hanger was attached to a cord run over a pul. Y. and at the same time remembered to take a plentiful supply of bottled goods. Toledo. Contributed by Chas. both simple and tom edge a slot was cut and a small complex. O. B. Everett Buchanan. This small panel is about 3 in. in place. as the illustration. GThe contact points of a firm-joint ley fastened at the top. the commissary. A cabinet was made to ac. Ammonia-Carrying Case for Insect Bites WOOD BLOCK. For sight I made a hanger as shown in the bee stings this works fine. A wire was bent into ammonia completely neutralizes the shape similar to a clothes hanger and formic acid which the bee deposits. Lambert.

. but it comes only in natural colors.. long and right. and the . The upper one is 3 ft. by . in. 2 ft. The bow sticks should be lashed Shown by the Dimensions to the spine. The stick should be straight-grained and without a twist. % in. Wind diag- Steady in the air. but it pays in mak- ing a beautiful kite. 2 ft. thick without increasing the width. 1 ft. and if one is out of true. % If the wood breaks easily it will be better to in- crease the width from 1/2 in. the spine is twisted. long by 1/4 by 14 in. to 34 in. It will be seen that the kites do not extend to the top and bottom of the spine stick. but with a good spruce stick the dimensions first given will be sufficient. then wind between the twOj . the center one. long by 1/4 by in. or the stick might be made % in. It costs a trifle more. in width. 1 ft. lower one. M. but it may be of pine or bass T ft. and each of its ends extends 6 in. the upper one being 4 ft. The Chinese rice paper is the strongest. and the lower pound The one illustrated con- kite. About sists of three tailless kites on one long stick. the If kites willnot lie flat or in a plane with each other. it will cause the kite to be un- The Kite as It Appears with the Festoons Hung to the Ends of the Sticlis five sheets of tissue paper will be re- quired. not nailed. miller PART II—A Festooned Kite MORE than one framework on known is kite the as a same com- by long by 1/4 by I/2 1/4 the center one.. The bow sticks are onally around the two sticks. from the top end of the spine. The so-called French tissue paper is much better. beyond the kite for fastening the fes- rhe Spine with the Bow Sticks Properly Spaced as toons. The first bow stick is placed 13 in. as it comes in fine colors and is much stronger than the ordinary tissue. but more may be needed for color combinations. called the spine. one. There will be needed for the construction of this kite a stick of light wood — spruce is best. 155 How to Make Combined Kites By C. both left three.

A small coil of wire is formed and mounted on top of the cork. To string up the upper kite. 21/2 in. After the fringe end of the bow stick. and also 6 in. and cut small hole through the spine. draw up the string in the manner usual for tailless kites. the top. The electro- motive force generated will cause a current to circulate through the coil from the copper plate to the zinc plate. or at D. and its terminals are connected to the copper and zinc plates. and one that will fly well. there is a acfinite relation between the and a force of repulsion between the . Simple Experiment in Electro. ceed in the same way with the center but if it dodges too much. 57 in. direction of the current in the con- magnetism ductor and the direction. This draws plenty of looseness to the cover. If good combinations of colors are face to be covered. 1 in. paste y^ in. rent. the fringe festoons. This will give result. Pro. The length of the bridle string see if the distance AC is the same as is 87 in. larger all around than the sur. long. at B and C. as shown tied to the spine. 6 in. attach a string from end then through D. and if CD is equal to BD. to prevent further slipping. up through B and back to end of each bow on the back side of to the starting point at A. tightly. from each along the loose edge. The kite should fly without a tail. at A. If has been made. and to the bottom of The cover tissue should be cut about the spine. but give sufficient looseness to the string. and the kite line is attacied AB. drill a of one long edge over a string. attach it as shown in a small drill is not available. If the poles of a permanent magnet be A Small Coil of Wire Mounted on a Cork presented in turn to the same side of Floating in Dilute Sulphuric Acid the coil it will be found that there is a is a magnetic field produced about a force of attraction between one pole of conductor carrying a current. from the upper bow curve and keep the sides well balanced. Tie the outline string To bend the bows of the upper and at A. Measure carefully to at A. of the lower kite. the whole being placed in a glass or rubber vessel partly filled with diluted sul- phuric acid. then pass through the hole at C. shift the string until they are part from this point to F. center kites. Do not stretch it the stick with a knife or saw to hold tightly. but turn over about used a very beautiful kite will be the half of this allowance. attach extra and lower kite. For ail windings up tightly to prevent slip. The current in the experii :ent which may be easily performed. or polarity. stick. sue paper. cut strips of tis- pmg. and that the permanent magnet and the coil. at E. If they to it 30 in. wide. where it is equal and wind at all points. from A. but not enough to spring the Attach the upper end of the bridle spine or bow. Another hole is made in make each length form a graceful the spine 29 in. as shown in the sketch. 156 around the other windings. will is to be produced by a battery consist- ser\'e to prove the theory that there ing of a small copper and zinc plate fastened to the under side of a large flat cork. In tying the kite and spring in short brace sticks the last point. of the magnetic field produced by the cur- The following simple experiment. from slits with scissors at intervals of 1 in. and it will be ready streamers to the ends of the bow sticks for the cover. leaving the lower are not. notch the illustration.

Wagon-Wheel Felly and Spoke there will be no current and no at. and a long lead pencil. and through the spoke at any dis- and the poles of the magnet. uted by Mark Gluckman. Make a slip noose in enter at his pleasure. The spoke is dressed into the shape of a handle and sandpapered smooth. black thread. the pole that attracted the coil in the first case will now repel it. such necessary is so small that it is imper- as ferrules on ceptible. sion of the outer ferrule and allows Kane. and the one that repelled it. follows Cut through the rim at : and A traction or repulsion between the coil B. and if A Well-Shaped Mallet Made from a Section of a the plates be placed in clean water. . Doylestown. answer questions by two rings for rtir~x llllm and the like. to the staples as about 2 ft. Contributed by James M. If the direction of the current around the coil be changed. tapering drinking chased and applied glass. The glass can be made to wood handles. as at C. a piece of thin. the notch and place the thin glass iii the other with the thread near the top. Double Lock for a Shed The section of the felly is used as head Four boys using the same shed as and is shaped properly and fastened to their workshop wished to lock it so the handle with two nails. This may be they will come in handy for several kept up indefinitely. as duces a ring in the glass. The "yes" and one ring for "no. Versailles. Procure a thin. so two A Mystery Sounding Glass locks were p u r." wire screen is re- moved from the end. it will be found that the force between the poles of the When in need of a mallet and if an magnet and the coil are just the reverse old broken and discarded wagon wheel of what they were in the first case is at hand. O. Pa. When the pencil is revolved slowly the Ferrules for Tool Handles thread will be wound on it slightly and it will slip back with a jerk that pro- Discarded metal caps from broken gas-mantle holders should be saved. —Contributed by each end of the thread and slip one into George Alfred Moore. Usually only two New Jersey. — Contrib- that any one of them could enter alone. long. one can be made quickly as that is. tance desired. the pole to be readily pulled apart. Each boy Cut a small groove around the pencil was provided with a key and could near one end. keys are supplied with a lock. will now at- tract it. and the cap is CA lighted match held to the outside fastened to the handle with a nail or of a fish-pole joint causes an expan- — screw. Applying one of the funda- mental laws of magnetism like poles — attract and unlike repel each other it — can be readily seen that the two sides of the coil are of opposite magfnetic polarity. 157 other pole and the coil. Jersey City. the action between the coil and the magnet will be oppo- site to what it was originally. If the same Mallet Made from Wagon-Wheel operation be performed on the oppo- Felly and Spoke site side of the coil. The movement purposes. for instance. shown.

The upper rope on the paddle I decided to net is run over the pulley and is at- try mending it. chains. is the lever shown in the illustration. rings. Cleaning Silverware Tightening Lever for Tennis Nets To clean silver- ware. the rope taut and locks it on the post. but after pay. cured and found I It is easily removed from the post and that over the it fitted can be left attached to the rope and paddle at the break a rolled up in the net when not in use. and pour over them a hot solution of water and carbonate of — — soda washing soda in proportions of one tablespoonful of soda to y^ gal. or any glazed ware put in the articles to . which can be made from in. A barrel of an old bi. the precious quires considerable attention. The is cut to loosely over the post for fit boatman laughed at the net. While paddling a rented canoe one One end of a piece of hardwood board day the paddle struck a rock and is shaped into a handle the other end snapped in two a little below the center being In the latter a hole left large. of the handle. The upper end of the post is the idea of trying to notched and a sheave pulley is placed fixit. each side of the break. Lever on the Post cially so where the posts are not solidly CA machine should never be stopped set in the ground. Contrib. and one that is easy to make. etc. The outside of the an ordinary spindle desk handle was then wrapped with tape for file. dowel pin. If the wire is too about 10 in. such as jewelry. 8 A watch holder for the desk is a bit I bored a hole 8 great convenience for the busy worker. uted by Clarence G. The tached to the lever handle. in. deep in the end of and many calendar devices are sold for each broken part. metals. or any- Tennis nets are always sagging and thing made of to keep them at the proper height re. yet they which formed one cavity when the are no more efficient broken ends were brought together. of water. be cleaned. It was pushed on the handle out of the way.. trifle loosely. is very simple with the following method Place a piece of zinc in a cup. than the one illustrated. — Avatch rinsf. A Desk Watch Holder Then with a No. 158 Kepairing a Broken Canoe Paddle tightener. This is a solution and method used by many jewelers for cleaning pins. dish. down. espe. in it so that the groove will be in line ing his price for the with the net. and many other The Upper Rope on a Tennis Net Held Taut with a small articles made in gold and silver. ward pressure on the handle draws cycle pump was pro. Into these holes. . was forced and glued a tight-fitting IG. Waterloo. INIeyers. Iowa. A very effective net in the midst of a fine cut. this purpose. and long it can be cut oS and the pump barrel was forced down over the bend made in it to this tape until it completely and firmly form a hook for the enveloped the broken ends.

1 is or table as usual in kite making. the string outline. colors. Ato G. and lashed together with The Boy Who Makes a Star Kite of This Type will Have a Construction Different from the Common Run of Kites. and pasted down. will fly to a great height. very prominent. Brilliant and con- poise of the kite. MILLER NEARLY every boy can make kites cord. It is orations are pasted onto this. of four sticks. and B to who wants a kite that is not like those H. even if it The first cover. and also held by a %-in. A little notching of each pair of sticks lessens the thickness of the sticks at the center crossing. Especially If He Decorates It in an Attractive Manner 159 . The darker dec- made. purple and gold. an eight. shaped kite should be laid out accu. joined. trasting colors are best. An Eight -Pointed Star Kite By CHARLES M. the squares cross each other and the nal and interesting manner. etc. and strengthens the frame. from C to E. is well worth while. etc. and if carefully light-colored paper. Any regular. The star kite shown in Fig. The colors may be in many combina- rately. long. brat' at of the several common varieties the center. as otherwise the error appears tions. every other boy makes. decorated in an origi. by -i ft. with strings running from one corner to the second corner beyond. They are set at right angles to each other in pairs. and extra paste. The decora- The frame for this star kite is made tion may proceed from the center out. The points where the strings forming pointed star kite. as from A to C. is plain simple in construction. and unbalances the green and white. The out- balanced by streamers instead of the side edges of the cover are turned over common type of kite tail. The sticks are 1/4 by I/2 in. must be equal in length when tied. which is put on with requires more careful work. For the boy sides of the squares. in various sticks are also tied. 0. as red and white. The strings that form the without special directions. laying it out on a smooth floor time. as indicated in Fig.

The outside edge in the ings at the bottom. Heavy wrap- center design is done in black. the were indicated by dividers set from the handle may be set to one side. Second Handle on Hoe or Rake Saves Photo-Copying Lens Increases Angle Stooping of Camera Anyone who has used a hoe or rake Trying to take some indoor pictures. The next oc. The outside A four-string bridle is fastened to the streamers are at least 6 ft. cloth fringe is of light blue.^Samuel L. Colo. Denver. to the point them. the kite. and 4. The portions. Not having a wide- angle lens. and the tassels rolled into shape. Canada. 2. and the tagonal black line binds the design to. I decreased the focal length of the lens by using a copj'ing attach- ment. leaving a small center on it as shov/n. and arranged to clamp on the strip was . for days at a time will appreciate the I found the angle of my ordinary lens labor saved by the attachment for the was insufficient to "get in" the various objects I desired. are easily made of cord. it is necessary to stop the lens down. Amherstburg. I made a punch from a nail. and frame at I. thin A gether. K.. thick and the points handle of the hoe or rake. dark ping or cover paper is used to cover the blue. It is cut as shown in Fig. The funnel-shaped ends balance where they come together. The points of the star are dark reed.00. causing a pull that steadies The figures are black. with a gilt stripe on each. They are shown in detail in adjusted after the kite line is fastened Figs. there is a remarkable increase in the angle of view. Belt for Sprocket Drive Made of Brass Strips Being unable to purchase a small driving chain for sprockets made by cutting out DIVIDERS every other tooth Much Tiring Labor in Using a Hoe or Rake is of the SPROCKET Overcome by This Simple Homemade Attachment in gears taken from a clock- handle shown in the illustration. Ont. Thomas. and have 1-in. To obtain definition. and L. A. through which the design shown has a li^-hi. as shown. and gilt. is used for the hoop blue. are used for lower ones 32 in. I used a adjustable to various-sized persons by brass strip. Ribbons. prop- means of the holes at the front end of e r 1 y punched. They are of dark blue. upper strings are each 18 in. and must be the kite. the horizontal piece. It is work.. The two parts are and found it 3RASS STRIP each made of strips joined at the middle satisfactory. hoops. The balanced carefully. black stripe. at M. or dark. and the colored lining cambric. Pickett. air passes. long. The which stiffens the top. 4 and The flags are tied on. J. and while there is some distortion and less of the plate is covered than usual. The results were quite pleasing. . — gears. 160 or the reverse. or fine wire. open. In hoeing where the holes were to be punched out iround shrubs and large plants. long.5 in. 3. S. but the pictures are very clear.

IGl and g'inding' the end to an oblong in the job. other places where glass or other frag- ping the bell's ringing. as shown. ile dishes or vessels are used. flows down to the small rubber-tired wheel was made into a end. A drop of water enter. top of the freezer. a con- venient pad on which to rest them can Chabot. is a funnel fixed to the wall. at B. — Edward M. I used a piece of sheet lead as a covered with a hood. and connect to an electric bell. on which to punch the strips. Davis. the corks may be and found that it worked so well that cut to fit closely on the radial joints.Water Contact An annunciating device. was wired to the axle D with wires C. A and the rod on which the turning crank was fastened were set on a block. and the steering die. Quebec. A crosspiece of iron. A. and a dry cell. was set through the wagon bed. be made by stringing corks on a strong cord or wire in the form of a ring. John — M. as shown. Can. Lauzon. perhaps other boys might be interested making the resulting ring more secure. and braced. two separate wires have their terminals. A heavy block was used for a turntable. Chester Bryant. with the gears in it. Rain Alarm with Drop-of. . or rings slightly larger In rebuilding a wagon into an auto. The wheel was set back of it. On the outside of the house. as detailed. At its small end. The top end of the casting was fastened to the hood with a brace. H. The front of the coaster was shape. falling on the terminals of the steering wheel. tainers. shop. Thus Giving Warning of the Rain In the kitchen. laboratory. marks made Ijy the dividers provided The center rod of the freezer was used spots on which to set the center of the punch. is an interesting bit of electrical construction. com. so that he may close is the window. which awakens a person sleeping in a room with the window open and warns him that it raining. stop. for the steering post F. IMSIOE VIEW OUTSIDE Pad for Glass Vessels Made of Corks A Drop of Rain Water Completes the Bell Circuit. L. I used the driving rod may be made for certain sizes of con- and gears from an old ice-cream freezer. Phila- delphia. in diameter than the bottle or vessel mobile coaster. Sev- Coaster Steering Gear Made from eral rings of corks may be used to Cream-Freezer Drive make a mat. The shaft w^here the crank was fastened. Ark. ])letes the circuit. G. and switch inside cuts out the circuit. The casting from the wires. ringing the bell. and acting as a conductor. and the block H steadies the //y//V/// — rigging also. El Dorado. and an old ing the funnel. The A SteeringRig That Works Almost Like That on wires enter the room at the frame of the an Automobile was Made Out of the Driving Parts of an Old Ice-Cream Freezer window. Pa. If desired. making the result quite ac- curate.

C. lower fastening. a small dicated. Ball. into which a band of piece of wire is iron was set near the top. pivoting at their into two loops. cleaned frequently with steel wool. — M. An electric light which is lighted Steel Wool as Aluminum-Ware only while the Cleaner cover of the phonograph i s It takes trouble to keep alum- little raised. and a nonalkaline soap. The contact C. throwing Device for Suspending Parcels from the light corre- spondingly. etc. D. A Overhead Hooks piece of wood. so that it will be To make shaving possible in camp at pushed down to the off position. A. serves as a base. in a nection made to it through B and C. and Meller. plug connections passing through the The light was back of the cabinet. the moment it is raised. so that they may frame wide. The up. setting loop free to be hooked on the nail above. L. changes. Kansas Citv. The is be easily taken arms mirror far enough in will hold the down. Mo. A small electric lamp. The and swings at its backs of most phonograph cabinets base. then formed into a twisted hook. 162 A Shaving Lamp and Mirror for the strip of spring brass. is well inum pots and pans shining if they are worth installing. B. Colo. in the Camp path of the arm. and the lamp lights. and twisted rights move in an arc. Fargo. connection is hind the mirror. A metal arm. — E. Mont. A P. or with little daylight. and give open cover of the the utensils a few rubs frequently. cabinet. the latter presses against the flash light. the needle. ^^'hen the arm releases the mirror was provided with an electric strip B. as shown. when much soiled. the wooden support. I use a pole with Automatic Electric Light on Talking- a nail. — position shown by the dotted line. to raise the placed where little light is available in parcel . the electric circuit is open. Use a supports the very fine grade of the wool. Warren. Garnet. made at C. this rather than attempt to clean them only arm passes through a slot and takes the occasionally. and held between two wire. ward or down- ward. on screws. and above and be. The body of the lamp Avhich I made of is set on a block. A single wooden pieces. this changing the leaves the upper records. To hang small sacks or other articles 114 by 31/4 in. and as long as the mirror out of reach overhead. as in- night. N. mirror was set to is set in the corner. — C.. . is fastened to the inside wall of the cabinet. so that it may be removed easily to make these can be tipped up. and electrical con- swing free. Denver. Langan. B. When the cover is closed. When the cover fastened slightly is down. used. L. water. hooking Machine Cabinet it into the lower In many homes the phonograph is loop. D. I use a front of the lamp to allow room in double-eye hook which to swing.

A. The front bumper flight. reference to Rise and Fly The pieces the sketches. -'. Holes are The wing spars Q are made of drilled through the blocks lengthwise spruce. duction may 9I/2 in. thick. is ed with four cross sticks. E is made of round rattan. fasten a wire The distance hook on one between the end of each " points M and stick with N. G. Its large size and slow. and are designated of a candle. when complete. 1 in. At the opposite ends of just as soon as it becomes cold. % in. ris. each 48 long. has been built. at C. in di- should weigh 9 oz. and the cross For the mo. These hooks are "to hold bamboo is easily curved by W'etting and one end of the rubber bands that act as holding it for an instant in the flame the motive power.. and bamboo. in. 41/2 in. BROWN 'T'HE old-four monoplane model. 1. long and ^10 in. At the Fig.he Mechanical Bird will simple. and L. long. square. each 9 in.in diameter. thread after gluing them. ameter. D. and fly 1. bound and glued on the under side. sticks. Its con. This is made as shown struction is entirely of T. tor bases. %6 in. 11 in. These are also bound in place with Ke in. and wide. % in. square. long.200 ft. The coat of glue. bearings are provided. and 163 . It gives one a true insight into tant each from the other and from the the phenomena of heavier-than-air nearest end stick. %a Run About Five Feet on with careful the Ground and Then in. 11 in. 9 in. long. bar H.. one able flier than the ordinary dartlike near each end and the others equidis- model. and Sg in. of construction. secure rear. The axles are made from wire. made famous by its wonderful The two motor bases A are connect- one of the most graceful that flights. 2. II/3 in. This machine. the pieces two spruce J are 13 in. and then lined with bushings made of Those for the front are 30 in. long. borrowed from a toy automo- 1 in. brass tubing. These are even glide make it a much more desir. The the sticks. each ameter. K. 11 in. How to Make a Model Old-Four Monoplane By RALPH M. and between O and P. wheels are made of tin. long. in di- which consist of blocks of wood. wide and I/4 in. in inside diameter. It will hold its shape by the letter B. Fig. thick. 'jg in. long. wide. long. long. and I/4 the cross piece in. be made. marked F are an exact repro. thick. bile. is 6 thread wound around after giving it a in. ing from the ground under its own The alighting gear is next in order power and landing lightly.

50 ft. These are wound closely between the pellers should be finished with sand. It will require about as much of the success of the model 40 strands of this rubber. long. straight-grained blocks of white cle nipple. and also propeller. 3. on each good plan to shellac them. The face of the blades should It is best. The ribs R Aluminum paint costs but little. which is the most shafts. planes are movably fixed on the motor tion. After this case. %6 'n. leaving only enough consists of rubber bands. but with a little time and 4. wide. in. 19 rubber . The wood is then cut down to important part of the entire machine. cut from a bicy- clear. This rubber can be taken paper to make them perfectly smooth. and and glued on top of the spars. Leave from an aeroplane supply house. 1. This makes dotted lines. 3 in. Another way of obtaining the frame and the alighting gear. are shaped as shown at U. In plenty of stock near the hub. for the rear. and 6 in. using a flour paste. The round ends are made of spoke. which is re- will depend upon them. 8 in. There are material so that they will not break three ways of obtaining these bands. i/o in. as shown paper put on tightly over the tops of at S. 5 in. long for the front plane. They are given a slight upward for the rubber band is bent in the curve. 16J: for the rear. The pro. Fig. l^/^ in. Draw a diagonal line on one The planes are covered with tissue block from opposite corners. These nuts may be turned pine. 2. in di. Turn the blocks over and draw bases A by tying at the four points of opposite diagonals. The T. balance of the machine by changing the ameter. from the threaded %6-in. rattan. if possible. It will be a moved by cutting into the ball. as shown by the contact with rubber bands. easily. 36 in. about 2 in. and % up tightly with pliers. An eye apart. then on the other block the ribs. holes through the position of the planes. 4. long. Fig-. W. from a golf ball. of Yiq- the faces have been finished. the blades in. procure about 100 ft. the bands is to purchase No. Procure two means of two nuts. to purchase them be flat and the back rounded. makes a fine finish for a model aero- square. hooks X. are cut from bicycle spokes. Draw a circle on each it possible to adjust the fore-and-aft side exactly in the center. for each side. end. square rubber. draw the line in an opposite direc. propellers. the lines drawn. Fig. and it are made of bamboo pieces. These are bound Thepropeller shafts V. Drill Ke-in. thick. The end having the threads is It is rather difficult to make good run through the bearing block C. and the propeller fastened on with patience they can be shaped and formed a small washer on each side of it by into good proportions. centers of the circles for the propeller The motive power. plane.

Shift the planes forward or back until it balances and comes to the ground lightly. some Mc-in. With a ma- chine as large as this one. when not release both propellers at once. About 30 strands on each back gradually." to provide a way for taking out sure to wind both propellers the same the rubber bands quickly. slip straight flight. Set the machine on the ground and The rubber bands. Be "S. turning X are made in the shape of the letter them from 400 to 800 revolutions. dark the same time push it forward. chain. With the model complete.. to make them long enough to drill. Stretch the rubber out for about reach between the hooks without 10 ft. Test the plane by gliding it. and at in use. rubber tubing over them. holding it up by the propellers and bearing blocks on a level with your head and throwing it forward on an even keel. Winding up the propellers is ac- complished by means of an eye insert- ed in the chuck of an ordinary hand drill. To prevent number of turns. While an assistant grasps the propellers and motor bearings the rub- ber is unhooked from the front of the . quite a field will be necessary to give it a good flight. should be kept in a cool. machine and hooked into the eye in the fashion. 165 bands and loop them together. and as it is wound up. that is. Wind up the propel- The Alighting Gear is Made Entirely of Bamboo and Attached to the Under Side of the Motor Frame propeller will be sufficient. as this will assure a the hooks from cutting the rubber. flying is the next thing in order. or motor. The hooks lers in opposite directions. let it draw stretching. If place and powdered with French chalk to prevent the parts from sticking to- gether.

not less than % in. hole that is to be drilled at the intersection of the center lines. Ys in. 3. 5. Cut two pieces of brass. The frame pieces are bamboo. which may be had in different widths.. ^ic in. chine carefully made will not fly. thick and has worn off.200 ft. and make a center-punch mark for the %-in. 14 by ^%6 in-. . move it to. 41^ in. The covering consists of writing paper glued in place. which is y^ in. Sometimes a ma- and alighting gracefully. as it requires a very small The Motive Power. and If the machine fails to rise. Mark the lines where the piece is to be bent. To make the machine carry or if the trammels are to be used on weights. after which the whole surface is cov- Trammel Points ered with melted paraffin to make it Made of a Nail water-tight.. such as smaller planes for rac- ing. very satisfactory points can be made of heavy nails.square. descending in a long glide in model building. piece of hard wood. and at the same time forward plane toward the front. 166 rise to 15 or 20 ft. next drilled. BEND ON DOTTED LINES. 4 in. If it adds a little something to the general climbs up suddenly and hangs in the air shop equipment. long. move the no one can make it do so until some seemingly unimportant alteration is made. It is better to plane up a short dotted lines in Fig. constructed as shown in Fig. and four pontoons put in their place. wide. Which Is the Most Important amount of stock and a corresponding Part of the Machine. and fasten them 6 in. How to Make a Pair of Trammels The making of these trammels is a very nice workshop problem for a school. The brass is best procured in strips. as shown by the filing. and fly from SOO Patience is the one thing necessary to 1. and straighten them with a w'ood or rawhide mallet on a surface plate. BRASS 4'thiCK^^ lh~6' The pontoons are made over a light frame. form. build a duplicate set of planes woodwork. The steel for To do this the wheels must be removed the points may be the ordinary steel. Draw center lines both ways through each piece and lay out the openings for the bar with a sharp scriber. Consists of Rubber Bands degree of skill. and the latter finished by ing a tandem biplane. After the novelty of overland flights except the bar. as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. etc. and . wide. larger ones for altitude and dura- tion. and with Framework for Constructing Pontoons by Covering a pair of dividers lay out the ends and Them with Writing Paper Soaked in Paraffin shape them with a file. ward the back. and 2 in. Each one is 8 in. deep.. and a Brass No doubt various methods will be Strip to Fit suggested by the time such flights are the Bar made. try flights over the water. square. long. above the others Thecenter hole and bar openings are by means of struts. 2. and falls back on its tail.

long. 14 in. 1 in. holes are bored in them for the sup- into which several porting ropes. as the upper ends should be I14 i"- apart on the inside when the bending is complete. rubbing it in straight in. A Porch Swing Having a Rail That Incloses Seeding Bare Spots on Lawns the Person Sitting in It A lawn that shows patches of grass with bare spots. all 3 in. N. — Contributed by Ward M. Mills. and the other ered places by using two 18 in. over the lawn the young grass is not so apt to be torn out and destroyed CCover the top and side of ice in a — before it gets a good root. To insure the same angle on both sides. To get into the the earth where there is no grass. Contributed by J. and the pieces are carefully bent to fit it. or only partly covered ner for the ropes. 167 use it as a gauge in filing the rectan. Contributed refrigerator with a piece of Canton by Edmund H. A rope tied to a convenient post or tached to the latter block. Cal. sprinkled into the holes. A handle is at. The ends of It is madeof a block these pieces are finished rounding. a template of wood is used. long. A Porch Swing gular openings than to try to make them by measurement. where they are riveted in place. The supports for the large nails are driven rails consist of four pieces of %-in. wide and % in. flannel. and 1 cloth or paper. wide. long. which is best accomplished in a lathe. thick. Shelly. Brooklyn. The rail at the top with grass can be sown with seed that is madeof four oak pieces. thick. ing out of their holes. the nail heads to keep them from push. Clamp one of the points in an upright position in a \ise with the shouldered end up. 30 in. where they are knotted. two of them will fill the uncov. The points are filed to shape and polished. 30 in. for the sides. thick. and the ice will last long-er. or swing. The ropes are run project about 1% in. This will require some care. with holes bored in each cor- lines lengthwise of the stock. A. for the ends. J. The bending is done by clamping the pieces in a vise and bending first one side and then the other on the lines indicated. Orange. . the tool illustrated. N. raise one of the side rails on the in thin places. Slip one of the brass pieces in place and rivet by upsetting the projecting end — with a light hammer. long. Polish the The seat of the swing consists of a brass pieces with a piece of fine emery board. through the holes in the ends of the Another block is rails. Y. and of wood. Trabold. so that their ends pipe. and the grass seed is rope. 15 in. screw hook makes a handy way to give The tool is used by driving it into motion by pulling. down through the pipes and fastened on top of through the holes in the seat board. The holes for the points are reamed tapering from the inside. In raking Bakersfield.

tie cut the pack from this key. — Contributed by Miriam by F. Gorton. as the scraped edge will contrast with After the rope has been tied firmly to the other soiled cards. Turner. A card is se- lected by a spectator and noted. While doing this. in great numbers. or the color desired. on a acteristic which enables a person to re. New York City. and does not cost very much. or "sheepshank. When returned to the deck and shuffled the pack is evened Only a Small Portion of the Rope will be Left on the Projection up for cutting. Amherst. Michigan. 168 Sheepshank Knot Used to Recover Writing Two Colors on a Plain. or any other color. Catching Minnows for Bait This section is identified as the por- tion which projects through the loops Instead of chasing the little fish up A and B at both ends. between the rib- bon and the paper. To write red. and he suspects nothing of the kind. then returned to the pack.Ribbon Rope Typewriter The knot shown has a pecuHar char. It will hold its place quite well. R. It is simple to some support. . A Simple Card Deception The effect of this trick is not new. This will not show. The minnows will be attracted below it and cut the rope at C then . Contrib-— this knot. A bit of shell can the rope the knot may be loosened. that one of the three sections of the knot holds no part of the weight below. try putting a clean bit of shell When the knot has been arranged. The other sec. The secret is this : When the card is chosen. which is shuttled by the one drawing the card. Close inspection will show olis." as high up uted by John C. The white. — Contributed by Leslie E. Can. Colchester. and it is an easy mat- descend to the ground. but the method is a new one. By shaking ter to dip them up. down from some elevated position. Minneap- as possible. Despite the thorough mixing the correct card is located b}' cutting the pack. Ypsilanti. for bait. A glance at the edges will show a small white spot distinctly. nor can it be detected by the holder. Minn. in a wide-mouth jar and holding it in the slide down carefully to a position just water. Contributed little fellows. does the work as well as a two-color ribbon used on expensive machines. and down the stream to catch enough tions project through at one end only. one-color ribbon typewriter place a cover the rope after letting himself long enough piece of red carbon paper. thumb nail of the index allow the finger to slightly graze the edge of the card. shin- and only a short piece will be left ing shell seems to be a good lure for the — attached to the support. as a limb of a tree. be used also in a net. the chooser is allowed to remove it from the pack. Moorehead. The performer then takes it and holds itup and asks the audience to fix it in their minds.

long. For the householder who does small repairing occasionally at home. obtained by means of a window with panes of red glass. Proper ventilation should. slamming. The fittings being sits down to his worked out neatly. of red cloth instead of black cloth. as detailed. Kane. The amateur can cover the windows with red cloth. which should be a fine hone. M. was arising from the made to hold the end of the pump chair. did not mar the work. will remedy the difficulty. ing lightly on the surface of the stone.. Convenient Tool Drawer ly. P. By grasping the penholder in as the door closed. of rangement is also useful in small shops where a chair or stool is used for tinkering and light bench work. This ar- cylinder. of course. etc. % by IV2 in. An air-release hole was sides of the nibs. By rubbing it at the front view. —James M. A clamp. a slid- ing drawer under Pneumatic Door Check Made his working of Bicycle Pump chair will be A door was provided with a heavy found a conven- coiled spring that caused it to slam ience. 169 Grinding Writing and Lettering Pens bolted to it. The tools shut. Garfield. Pa. be provided. making it write more smooth. and writ. . and in order to overcome this are always nuisance. blocking up the win- PROMT VIEW dows. put them away iron. — P. Albuquerque. the pen is made finer. Red Windows in Daylight Photographic Workroom Instead of the customary dark room. If the pen scratches. — Alfred J. similar iron was fastened to the door. Band. Avery. just Shaped and Polished as handily. This is far superior to the common practice of providing an opaque screen. the photographer who works during the day should have a red room. a check was made from an handy when he old liicycle pump. and the clamp ler. as shown in the of an oilstone. Mil- as shown. provided. so that the air and grinding across the ends makes it was freed from the cylinder gradually coarser. with the expense of red incandescent lamps or the evil-smelling oil lamp. A bracket. S^A in. was used for the again without fittings. and he can appearance of the woodwork. A fine or coarse writing or lettering so as to pivot in a small angle bracket pen can be produced quickly by means attached to the trim. New Jersey. the pen may be ground to the style of the user. as indicated. through which will penetrate a diffuse red light of the desired quality. and the screen can be made This Neat and Effective Door Check was Made of an Old Bicycle Pump and a Strip of Iron. thus preventing the normal writing position. a slight touch- under Chair Seat ing up on the stone. N. Doylestown.. with screws. The end of the plunger was extended and bent at a right angle.

the Tail being Inserted Separately cated in the diagram and provided with Raise the points J and K. long. Napa. so that the shape of the model this little construction ofifers main portion of the model is as shown much instruction and entertainment. and can be Steered end. Calif. George — medium-weight paper on the dotted H. short lead pencils should re- ceive attention. which can be steered by To make this model. 6. f6ld on dot. monoplane can This little foldthem in so that the corners which V)e steered by adjusting the tail. 10. A convenient length- ener is easily made by removing the metal ends from used film-camera spools. 6. 170 A Model Paper Monoplane as shown at A and B in Fig. 1 in the dia- Roll-Film Spools Useful in Economizing Pencils Now that everyone should econo- mize. folded corners A and B into position. lines. the model. 14 in. ners G and H to the corresponding let- tion is a small monoplane made from a ters in Fig. Fig. . and terest in such things will also find it a paste it into position. 3. 6 now come even made to loop the loop in the above them. The pencil is cut to fit the unslotted end of the spindle tightly. This Model Monoplane is Made of a Sheet of Paper. For the boy who Fold the corner N back along the line enjoys experimenting with such a OP. Then bring the fitted up in the workshop. as shown in Fig. of the pupils and having them thus fold it as in Fig. . Fold points J and to K 7-in. Fig. 2. In a school quite a saving was by Bending or Twisting the Tail made by collecting the short pencils gram. This completes worth-while job.ted lines The Method of Folding the Paper is Indicated Clearly in the Diagrams. Moss. 9. fold a square of bending or twisting the tail. 8. T. in Fig. — A. at OP. t'. Stipp. and were below them in Fig. Fold That can be Steered the corners C and D upward to the position C and D in Fig. Fold cor- An interesting bit of paper construc. 4. Make the tail V/^ by and the grown-up who still has an in. 5. Then unfold the sheet and re. the 3i/[-in. length being the best size to use. folded as indi. as indicated in Fig. and a paper tail. varying air currents. as at L and AI in Fig. Which are to be Followed in the Order of Their Numbering. the corresponding letters in Fig. An eraser may be fitted in the slotted Seven Inches Square. square of paper.

a double layer of green sod is fitted S. causing the re. If the region where fishing the pencil. quite moist but not tin box. Telegraph Recorder with Spool-and- Pencil Indicator A simple substitute for the some- what complicated telegraph recorders of the inking type may be constructed venient and practical. P. H. Jr. 18 in. set in a spool. The electromagnet IM is fixed to over it. The arma. The bait cache may then be made as a convenient place in which to keep the bait in good condition for fishing. ers on their arrival is placed into it. The torily in the Buried Bo. or a rifle.. as shown in the sectional view the base. Ivruse.\. a cork large enough to be seen readily The Telegraph Recorder v/as Made of Materials That should be placed in the end of the bar- may be Gathered Easily by Boys rel to prevent rusting. wet enough to be sticky. a dangerous explosion may result. Angleworms for ters pass over the cutting bar at an Fishing Bait may be Kept Satisfac- angle and thus shear off the grass. The base and the up. This may be pre- \ented by passing around the lawn so that the uncut grass is at the right of the operator. A box. ground and should be cut carefully so cording pencil to move vertically. . and the armature A is actu. and in order to make the is to be done is such that angleworms cannot be obtained easily. The upper sod is ar- ated when current is permitted to pass ranged level with the surface of the through the magnet. The cut. square on the end. machine tends to throw the grass oiT Covered with Sod to one side. CAfter cleaning a shotgun. The instrument shown in the sketch is sunk into the ground in a shady was made in a short time and with no place. about of materials readily available to a boy. — William Warnecke. New York City. A that it will not be observed by strip of paper is moved slowly under prowlers. arm discharged without removing it. right support are of wood. Ind. at the right. and all the bait dug by the camp- special outlay. usually toward the left hence the machine should not be per- mitted to throw the cut grass back into the uncut patch. long and 10 in. Fort \\'avne. A few inches The recording device consists of a of the top of the box is left unfilled and short piece of pencil. — W. and folded to a length of 4 in. it is best to dig them before starting for the camp. lawn A bait cache shown in the sketch con- mower cuts like scissors except that one of the members is fixed. black loam. if it is forgotten and the fire- the pencil. The cork record regular a small channel-shaped should not be pressed into the end guide of metal may be arranged under deeply as. The soil used to fill the box should be ture A was made of a strip cut from a rich. 171 How to Use the Lawn Mower Campers' Bait Cache Difficulty in the operation of a lawn Campers desiring a sure supply of mower is often caused by failure to angleworms for fishing will find the use the machine properly.

a high tower. The roof of the plate A. and aid in controlling 172 . square. be pipe D. sive means of providing power for a notched at the corners to receive the home or boy's workshop. at rest. as tained from shown in de- o 1 d machine tail. by means the 'device is of a leather made by boys. The main structural portion is a ver- tail drawings. that shown in the sketch and in the de. and may. around an 18-in. rods. This Novel Wind Motor Developed Power for the Driving of strap. B. and with ordinary provided with tools. The tened to the dimensions wooden plate given are for B. or as an posts. The pivoted on the materials used ridge of the are easily ob. It is 14 ft. through the of course. and 1 o w shaft the construc. C. fixed to the lower side of as thick as that shown. The con- a motor of trol rod F considerable ]) a s s e s up size. and connect with the sail- the structure upon which the device is control wires. from the frame. E. The end of the strap. and can be Made in Various Sizes for Work or Play Purposes which an iron work and swivel. upper end. Machines in a Repair Shop. R. especially in the lower portion. motor is also The lower end worth while of the tower is making. Spiral wire springs are mounted must be well braced and attached to the wire connected to each strong enough to stand the strain. the lower portion. tapered at the ends ous other applications. F. tained by the use of a wind motor like shown in the working drawing-. is experimental built into the device. tical beam. like right sail beam. roof on a hol- tainable. fixed to the portionately control wires. The the left. when the motor is by means of a control rod. strongly substitute for wind motors that require braced. is other parts should be made one-half suspended. as shown only at the sails are headed toward the wind. particularly as a and built up of 1 by l-in. square board. made from a tion can be section of iron carried out pipe. A. and fas- parts. for a lighter reaching the machine. The ends of the strap pass wood used should then be three-fourths over pulleys. and is reduced p r o. The driving The pipe D is connections split at its may be ob. ing washer. as in the driving of a as indicated. HENDERSON AMPLE chines power for driving light ma- repair shop was ob- in a those on a sailboat. for the a metal bear- most part. The device has numer. Asimilar 14-in. high. D. A Sail -Rigged Wind Motor By E. as shown in the detail at as large as the sizes indicated. If sails. and built pump. As an interesting and inexpen. or tower.

as shown in the sketch and detail G. The sails are supported on the working drawing. and The sail beam extends 9 ft." thus gaf?s at the mast ends is also shown neutralizing each other. These springs are adjusted at detail G. as shown as shown at detail H. the sails will J. the sail beam and to the ends of the stuff. and causing at J. The detail of the strap arrangement. The fastening masts. 18 wire. above the shown at detail G. The fastening and bracing of the be witli the edge "into the wind. the sail beam to be at rest. The outer ends of the crosses it at right angles. as shown in booms are joined in pairs.. and also at the to the spring and strap control. out from mounted on the booms. square. as extends through the tower. and extend beyond plate A. and the center of the tower. which also shows . pivoted at their at the ends of the sail beam is made junctions with the sail beam. support- center section is of 1 by 4-in. and is built masts. and connect the perspective sketch. the Arrangement of the Parts is Readily Understood the sails. The center section the masts are weighted with lead. ing the masts are fixed to the ends of and the end portions are of 1 by 2-in. fastened securely. The guy wires N. stock. as shown at detail down to its lowest extent. as shown at brace beam. The ends of the booms nearest up of three pieces. and the brace beam. which the masts. of No. 1 in. The canvas sails are 4 by 4 ft. 173 The Method of Construction is Shown in Detail: By Using the Perspective Slcetch in Connection with These Working Drawings. gaffs. and in guy-wire plates at so that when the control rod is drawn their extreme ends.

. and they belted pulley... at the junction of the bearing should be fitted into the roof. benches. wood. The device should arrangement of the sail beam. or guy wires.-vTj. The is transmitted to the bevel gears.~. :.=_. with the pivot beam_. Tuck.r?--: . The support for the the main tower. bringing the sails into the wind detail L. The towers must be set so as required for the desired speed. and start the device 1-in. should be examined thoroughly both The main tower is supported on the before and after the device is mounted roof by means of strong guy wires. by the addition of a suitable seat. carefully. braces for the masts should be fitted and be secured firmly to the rocf. E.. two sections of the beam. and sail booms is shown at detail shaft set in a suitable support..r . or porch. i Old bedsteads were converted into serviceable lawn. long. so as to have the proper ten. set in place. The top main tower is fixed to of the sion without interfering with the the guy wires by means of a guy plate. O.-_ij.'. as shown in slowly. \ Lawn Benches Made from Old when painted green. and 13 ft.--. in one of thecoil springs...t__. brace be tested on the ground.. to match other Bedsteads outdoor furniture. — F.... . before M. prop- . attached at the top of other structure. Grease the pivoted and other over four built-up guy towers of 1 by moving parts. Calif. before the tower is shown in detail K.. The sail beam is braced by No. -. 13 attempting to mount it on a roof. A plan of the set into its place. All of the that the sail beam has proper play. The power from the shaft at the bottom of the main tower. as shown in the photograph reproduced. action of the sails. Ne- f vada City.. — ^V__». . and similarly as shown.=. and fastenings of the wires and braces from them to the drive shaft and the should be made carefully.

Repadding should. — centered. G. as required. Rubber Band son. For reducing or enlarging maps. It is heated until liquid and poured into the key recess. leaving it until the cement is thoroughly set. Shellac will give good results Covered with Vines Add to the Attrac- tiveness of the Home in putting on pads. Avonmore. After long usage. N. By working quickly and carefull}'. Hamp. For dififerent keys. Morning-glories. spring will make it possible for the of the file. and onally across the lower portion of it. and the strip is quickly laid in place. FIH_ V^ITH SHEIXAC-' or other suitable climbing plants. they become too hard to make an air-tight fit. it may be tapered a trifle smaller at the forward end. which should be heated also. A coating of tallow applied to the joint will make it easy-fitting. Bind a rag around the cork. therefore. may The Cork is Fitted Carefully into Place. A suggestion for a trellis at a doorway and one for a window are shown in the illustration. The corked joint will be too large to go into the joining section of the in- strument. but air-tight and moisture-proof. Rustic Trellises are Easily Constructed and Wnen ticipated. The curved portions of the window trellis SPACE TO CORKED JOINT- may be made easily by using twigs that BE CORKED PREPARED CORK. enable the draftsman to turn out a . replace the ordinary instruments. The pads are disks of felt incased in thin sheepskin. are somewhat green. They are made of straight tree trunks and small limbs. Middletown. be an. householder to shade doors and win- it is spread to give an even. and similar drawings of irregular design. — Donald A. Allshouse. and Glued be trained over the trellises. Before the ce- ment has time to harden. J. 175 strip should be beveled to make a Y^-in. Y. press the cork in. Though the cork should be truly cylindrical. The beveled ends of the strip are similarly treated. Rustic Trellis to Shade Door or lap joint. forming a neat joint. Window A small quantity of the cement is heated over the lamp and six drops Proper preparation in the early poured on the joint then with the end . having the bark on them. File and sandpaper it to a twisting fit. Pa. CA simple method of bracing a screen the device shown in the illustration will door is to stretch a stout wire diag. care being taken to have it well that add not a little to the beauty of the home. it will be necessary to use varying quantities of Making Scale Enlargements with a shellac to make the pad sit higher or lower. dows from the hot summer's sun by The new pad is pressed into the liquid means of inexpensive rustic trellises shellac. the coating on the joint and strip are brought to a plastic state by holding in the flame. thin coat- ing.

James R. ordinarily section poses. about 14 by \<2 by 1^4 in. A and B are tions. along the sec- time than required when proportional tion line at which the contour lines dividers are used. are drawn on the larger sheet as wired into the a base for the reproduction. On the black surface of the band. gram. two thumb tacks. Seattle. The materials intersect it. The keys lines or the boundaries of quarter sec. and the device can be made This Simple Device Is Useful in Enlarging or Reducing Drawings and Maps with this dimension adapted to the work. It is capable of enlarging or two pins. After the points are indicated upon the enlargement. a signal Cement the slits with rubber cement. to prevent lights. Apin is thrust through the By arranging a circuit with batteries. The exposed part of the rubber band is a variable. telegraph may be and place the assembled device under made that will a book weight. — the sketch. in one of these slits and place a thumb tack in the Lights other. The series of intermediate points along the band will be in the same relative position on the enlargement as they were on the original. simple set of signals may be devised tween two "vertical" ones. dot white — the code. the rubber easily so that messages may be sent in band under slight tension. as indi. They can be connected on the enlargement with as accurate a result as obtained by the use of propor- tional dividers. . Also place a dot at each needed are an eraser. and keys. Place the circuit with a device on the original map. irc given amount of work in much less points. a rubber band. the edge of the rubber band red and a green incandescent lamp. the reproducing de- vice is removed and the surface of the rubber band cleaned instantly by touching it with a moist cloth. with water color. Transfer the device to the same rela- tive position on the enlargement. cut at the splice. L. end of the band to indicate the position of the two "vertical" section lines be- tween which the band is set. and more rapidly. Itasca. Insert the end of the rubber Signal Telegraph with Green and Red band. pleasure to boys Assuming that a contour map is to and may be used be enlarged. Make dots at each end. as shown in the dia- the thumb tack from tearing the eraser. for the corresponding lines on the enlargement. Wash. Texas. and a few reducing at a ratio not greater than drops of rubber cement. battery C and a cated. denoting the "vertical" section lines. H. A touching a "horizontal" section line be. eraser and trimmed close. Wiley. From the six to one. Cut deep slits in each end of these pieces. until the cement has afford much set. the rectangular divisions for practical pur- of the original map. above which the rubber eraser two pieces are cut. Townsend. stretching the rubber band. as shown in band approaches its elastic limit.

Directly beneath the point where the chain went around the limb. was an ordi. By its side. During the eight weeks the swing. rod. and suspended ground. greater favorite with all the young people. irr A Circular Swing By DAVIS FOSS GETCHELL WHILE on theswing farm a circular constructed which proved I bob. The Circular Swing will be Found Very Safe and Pleasurable. rope nearly 10 ft. and to the hanging end of this was made fast a 1-in. as in the Case of an Ordinary Swing. Anyone Careless Enough to Get in the Way of It will Get Badly Bumped . into This was very attractive to my boys and their sawed square 2i/4 ft. 3I/2 was ft.'from the tree trunk was looped a length of chain. longer than was needed to reach the ground. from use. Into the top of this post was from the same tree branch. Around a branch of a large elm and 18 or 20 ft. 10-ft. The circular swing was a far the top of the post. It was set in firmly about of our stay the latter was seldom in G in. above the off friends. set a i/o-in. a s de- termined by a plumb but. piece of cedar post the ground. boys and girls alike. set a 6-in. and projected about 3 in. to serve as a pivot for nary swing.

Tie all the knots tightly. and the rope twisted off and then made fast to itself about 3 in a few days. and 1 in. been adjusted so that it would swing just throw a stout cord over the limb throughout its length at the height of by means of a stone or nut tied to the the post. loose. 8 in. make the other end of the board large enough sure to have the post set solidly in the to admit tlie rope. loop. and the second hole. The first hole was ground. fellows would like to get hold of the thick. Two holes were bored in In putting up such a swing. then haul the rope and chain up The swing was then complete except over the limb with the cord. long. The little board.from the ground. The first swing I put up was holes and back up through the other without one. Hand-Operated Motorboat Whistle Anyone with a power boat can cc>n- struct a blower for the whistle very cheaply. as it has a tendency to work 6 in. wide. 178 Astraight-grained piece of pine times about the 90-ft. was procured and a liole bored board in near the post and shove it in one end large enough to make it around. The hanging end of the rope was not look upon the swivel as unneces- passed down through one of these sary. of the post. so that it could be oiled. from the end. Once started. Before for a swivel. 15 ft. will be about right. Do 3 ft. or 21/2 ft. which was put in the rope the chain leaves the ground loop the within easy reach of one standing on end of it and pass the cord through the the board. The whistle is attached to a . with a boy on the end three or four but 25 ft. above the board after the board had It is not necessary to climb a tree. circle. it could be kept turn freely on the pin in the upper end going with very little effort. ft. end. The higher the limb from the One good push would send the board ground the better the swing will work.

ened from the eter. or more in diam. but came back for more. long. %in. K. EDWARDS "OTEP right up. file down suspended from the limb of a tree. as detailed. and notches. becomes 1 o o s - Manila rope. with Ride. should be high enough so that the seats The box a •which attracted customers to the de. The car is made of a section of 2 by 4-in. twisted rope. do not strike the ground. The thriller is serve well. nailed securely. at the top. lights of a homemade merry-go-round of novel design. as indicated at H. Until the Brakeplate I Rests on the Box their inner ends lower. The disk is built up of wood. apart. or the tooth of a other suitable support. The rope is bone comb to cranked up by means of the notched the required disk A. The seats are excellent temporary repair. provided for the ropes. set 15 in. and deep enough so that it can- not slip out. and it will car being lifted off.three twisting supported by rope or strap-iron brack- Odimethrillers for a penny — a tenth of !" was the familiar invitation ets. the jewel needle has broken. long. D. as shown. The power for the whirling thriller is When short of fiber needles or when produced by the heavy. the point. 10 ft. The upper ends of the pieces E are blocked up with the centerpiece F. ¥( 'gSV**^ ^-^ ^r-i^ A Twisting Thriller Merry-Go-Round By R. US'" a 179 . stufif. It stopped when the brakeplate I rests the needle arm on the weighted box L. as shown. The rope is wound up and the car is suspended from it by the hook. of 1 by 4-in. The seats J are sus- pended at the ends of The Supporting Ropes are Wound Up at the Disk A. E. is used for the support. E. about 2 ft. no wax is handy. and the Passengers Take Their Seats for a Thrilling the 2 by 4-in. stufif are fastened with nails or screws. which should b strong. The patrons were not Kinks for the Talking Machine disappointed. and the wire link G is fastened through the joint. to whic braces. C. grasped at the handle B. the Car is Hooked into Place. and is diaphragm. to give a better seating when a bit of soft chewing gum makes an the thriller is in action. bar. and rigged with a spreader.

— Edward R. C tained. Thus the jp^gsii]. so long as We then placed an extra roof on each the motor runs. at H. L. If the machine is too loud for the room. Smith. Chey- An Illuminated Indicating Target Box The joys of target practice are often hampered by the delays in the settle- ment of hits. 180 magnet to pick up steel needles from Double Roofs Provide Ideal Shade the receptacles on the machine. became droopy and the sound at the horn end.— exhausted from the excessive heat. to balance upon the tight wire. Power to turn the thread is trans. leaving a 6-in. Having no native shade in our city placing a piece of loose cotton in the chicken yard. air-circulation space between the roofs. A wire. especially those in the ducer. against the heat of unventilated inclosures on quiet. revolv. the bullets. an illuminated target was stretched. They are fitted with forked wooden box of convenient size is ob- tops. standards. The wire is with this. and weighted. The arrangement proved so effective that the hens sought the coops. The Location Recorded by a Beam of Light of Hits is Streaming through the Hole Shot in the Paper Target mitted from a hand crank or motor. and pulley wheels. To do away that boys can make easily. The side opposite this is runs over the pulley wheels. Weather Bureau thermometer shelter. and made to turn upon the carriage upright J. keeps on hence the inclosed thermometers are gom S. is a toy being supported at the corners only. This Amusing Toy Has annoying to be constantly advancing to an Advertising Value the target to examine it. but constructed that enables the shooter to between two 1 by 1-in. To make the device. I. a square board. Walla Walla. We bins. M. targets used. is formed from a 12-in. is more effective than muffling low brooder coops. F. of the brooder coops. car. or fixed to a base. and a black thread. A Wire-Walking Toy and is no larger than our brooder A daring wire-walking performer coops. G. at E. Attleboro. and braced with thread. figure is always drawn forward. not across Broadway. Mass. S. bv means of the double pullev wheel at fitted with a piece of sheet iron to stop D. studied the construction of the U. A rSHEET IRON pSHEET ROM riage. step may mean destruction. held locate every hit without leaving his upright by guy cords. In one side of this. unmindful of the fact that a mis. arrange . enne. It takes time and is Adapted to Window Displaj^s. post. It has a double roof with free who. or the crank is open air space between. we noticed one summer tone arm. Cecil Alter. INTERIOR OF FRONT VIElVy CROSS SEICTION FRONT ing on the support J at the end of each trip. The figure K is cut from stiff paper. cut a round and D. at L. that the hens. length I WIRES fTARGET- of stiff wire. Inside the box. B. hot days. Wyo. interior white. — J. the top roof turned. directly behind the repro. back and exposed to a true-shade temperature. at A and B. forth. Rob. which usually stands out in the sun. to save for Poultry Coops time and avoid punctured lingers. is fastened to two of hole as large as the largest ring on the the prongs. Paint this iron and the Washington.

materials readily available at most camping places. The arrangement. in diameter. especially a child's rocking hat in its natural straw color. Sharpen Cut a hole in the the butts. ing the day when a siesta is taken. the washing is quicker and more thorough. spots. Films as well as glass negatives are in the same class in the Lithe Branches Cut in the Woods are Used for the matter of washing. Cover the frame with mos- hat against the quito netting. person. CThe annoyance of a chair rocking on or nailed against a wall. also adds to the comfort of the chair. and S or 10 ft. Thomas W. Fargo.atives and Prints Photographic defects. tie a ridge binder the entire To protect the length. and force them into the crown of the hat. A perch is also The fly. Benson. of proper size. painted on thin paper. as indicated. The shelter shown is for one over it. Such a posts or trees. camping on warm nights or dur- tent. as shown. Mel. and the sharp edges must not be permitted to cause a mosquito shelter can be made of scratches. supported on a rope between provided. and the lights are on. hung against the trunk of a tree. Wis. L. N. are fastened over the front of the hole. J. If the negatives are placed film downward and supported at the edges. Milwaukee. about % Abird house of an old straw hat is in.^tc. in a dish. S^^'o ^t. D. Each shot punctures the paper. ground in two rows. Next. Which is Covered with Mosquito Netting stick together. stains. curved rockers. T. apart. may be overcome by tacking painting the rest a dark brown. . and tie them in against a board arches of the same height. affords shade. that hit the target. the water is not changed quickly enough. but may easily be made larger. . — bird house can be Trammell. while shooting. Bend Then nail the hat the tops together. Pa. tected by an iron plate. and chair. Kinks in Washing Photographic Ne^. long. if necessary. C. The targets. Leaving the a bare floor.are often due to inadequate wash- mg. willow or similar growths. The lamps must be out of range of the Whenundesirable to stay in a it is bullets. as shown. as shown. 181 four electric lights so their rays will Camp Shelter Affords Protection be thrown on the hole. In the common method of wash- ing negatives or prints under the tap. -Philadelphia. sections of garden hose along the — duces a satisfactory effect. and pro. put a roof one end. a practical and easily contrived affair. pro. providing an entrance at rain. If properly done this ler. is made as follows: Procure a Bird House Made of an Old Straw Hat number of pliable switches. and the light streaming through the hole will show — the location of the hit. Films should not Framework. from Mosquitoes Candles may be used.

and a mir- ror. New Haven. Novel Masks for Printing Pictures In printing pictures. an automobile for the motorist. Conn. in making a picture for a contractor and mason. — Susan E. B. for some special reason. was inverted. a mask in the shape of a trowel was used for a . Ind. by means of the sweep. The pan was sur- rounded with pebbles. E. that an admission fee was charged to A feature of a bazaar which attracted pass the turnstile. and a frame- work. a star. A corner of the room was marked off by a rail fence and turnstile. a cocoa- nut-shell dipper being used. will suggest good outlines for masks. The floor was covered with green cloth and green excelsior. When the bucket A was lowered into the well. with the head removed. So many persons became curious to . The bucket was then raised and the drinks served from it.5-I an outdoor fair or lawn party. and Music from a Phono. D. C I graph Were Attractions at This Booth :0 >i with the aid of an "old oaken bucket. Indian- apolis. or the background. a Peep into the Well.— Russell Waldo. 188 Rustic Well for a Bazaar or Fair Booth learn how the well was constructed." "m: The arrangement may also be used at 5-. Jocelyn. The well was constructed as shown in the detail sketch. Half of a barrel. 2KT\-D A Pretty Country Maid. W. Sometimes the special interests of persons in a picture. for grass. and those suited to the particular picture. have proved especially popular. The supply of lemonade was kept cool in the tub G. was set in a shallow pan of water on the floor. behind the partition. policeman. built over the barrel. C. and the reward was much attention was a rustic well from a peep at the reflection in the mirror which a pretty girl dipped cool drinks at the bottom of the well. For instance. it was filled by pouring the beverage in the trough F. I have made use of various masks. Delicious Lemonade.

and the toboggan it the rider is carried upward before sled for use on it. since this may result in acci- being projected through the air dents. to insure safety. The Details of the Tobog- gan and the Construction of the Slide are Shown in end of the slide must be strongly the Sketches Above braced on three sides. The slide shown was strongly built of 2 by 4-in. tering the water. by failure to clear it in the plunge. but a proportionately greater incline is pro- vided because the beach slopes grad- ually to the water's edge. It is inadvisable to build the slide un. has thrills and excitement The end the slide nearest the of that appeal to the person seeking a water may be given a slight upward new aquatic diversion. The hold on the group of young men at a summer resort. 183 . HOUGH COASTING down an incline and cline. that were built by a striking the water. It is reached Thrills and Excitement That will Satisfy the Swim- by a ladder fixed to a tree. planks for the bearing for the roller. as injury may result duly high to provide the necessary in. The high end of the slide illustrated is about 7 ft. less than 20 ft. the principle involvet may be adapted easily to others one- fourth as long. material for the framework. from the ground. It may be Adapted to a Smaller such natural support is available. stock. The illustra. Water -Coasting Toboggan and Slide By D. planks for the slide guide's. turn. ing spot. J. 2 by 6-in. or other outdoor bath. the Size and Built by Boys. so that when the toboggan leaves tion shows a slide. but the frame- work should be of 2 by 4-in. than assume danger or risk. toboggan should be retained when en- While the slide shown is perhaps more fxt»^^r**f^^rfs^^^*r^^**^*^^^*^^^^**jff^f^^^f*^r^^*rr*j'^^f^ extensive than most boys would care to undertake. which acts ming Enthusiast and Provide a New Summer Diversion at the Lake or River may be Had from the Water as an end brace for the slide. If no Toboggan and Slide. 2 by 12-in. A location where the ground to plunge into the warm water of a is suitable should be selected rather summer lake. Lighter material may be used for the guides and the roller bear- ing on a smaller slide.

the pieces at B should be nailed plank. The supports A should be The toboggan. the quarry may be taken out at the large opening. and the edges of which should be about diame- 3 in. stock screws. having a ation and under load. Several exten- sions are attached to the 6-in. the Rabbit may be Trapped and Removed at the Cover CVaseline is a good cleaner for com- poses. A tee. nailed into place. but care must be The framework of 2 by 4-in. If lighter stock is to be fitted over the 12-in. Rocks are also placed about this opening. bearing used. gidity. They should be over set directly holes bored through the sidepieces. This permits the toboggan to slide edges.. in these pieces. ners of the toboggan should be rounded tend to the end of the slide at the lower off so that there is little possibility of end. The dimensions of 15 width in. bvit should be set back about 18 injury from slivers or contact with the in. is set in the ground with the large end projecting. in pairs. gan will not stand the necessarily hard work supports. The rabbit enters the trap at the small open- ing and is free to come and go from the burrow. as well as of the bearing ter. The plank forming the kept greased. It may be made of The rollers are fixed in the sides by lighter material in a smaller slide. and 13 in. to insure smooth riding over either case the bearing should be in them. . on the top sur- move splinters. rectly into the air from the bearing on The construction of the slide is the rollers. one on each side of the up. in plank E. or for food pur. tail sketches. The sides are of li/4-in. Tile Trap for Rabbits smaller opening of G in. should be only slightly wider than the A better construction is to use screws guides.wide. are suggestive only. or a bolt may be set joints in it should likewise be maoe through the length of the roller. by the use of the tile trap shown mutators while machines are in oper- in the illustration. countersinking their heads. should be rounded off to re. Bore holes for them through spread toward the ground to give ri. They should be rein. in length. to the hori. The joints in the sec. stock and high rights. their heads countersunk. All the edges and cor- bearing for the roller should not ex. and the end permitted to project slightly from the ground. brace should be fixed strongly with The bearing plank E is of 3-in. nrovided with a cover. B> Closing the Smaller Opening. 184 With experience a dive may be made off smoothly rather than to spring di- as the toboggan leaves the slide. The tobog- carefully and placed over the frame. play on each side. the plank. wear unless good-quality oak. and the latter must be in the guides. and will vary tions of the guides should be made with the materials used. The top and foot wood. is built strongly. face. but not on ^Vashers should be fitted at the sides those over which joints have been made of the bearing?. Rabbits may be trapped in order to Rocks are placed around it and it is rid grounds of them. and is zontal members B. The bearing plank may be shown in detail in the lower sketch. of smooth lumber. is used. The means of screws. or bolted. By closing the small opening. or other forced from the lower side by plates of hard wood. The guides C and D should be enough to accommodate the rollers. opening ±^. and 30 in. material taken to set all nails below the surface. the framework supports. and the supports should be or bolts. as shown in the de- nailed firmly. In carefully. allowing i/4-in.

or even coarse seaweed. The is sometimes confronted with a diiTer. If these together by wooden pins notched into 'ir '(lyf'^F^ J7/ / I ] END VIEW \'. as shown in the illustration. Logs are readily available. particularly of the northern re- water. •^ // OF LOG f- *** ^ •. A Woodsman's Log Raft By A. ent situation :He has only a hand ax is simple and interesting.'v{'4i A !i fj END VIEW kf. method. The woodsman wooden spikes. and to construct of service in the woods even when a fairly safe raft of crude materials other methods of binding the logs into becomes necessary in order to pursue a raft are possible.\<:'A 51. builds a raft of logs. pinned to- who have the usual supply of camp gether firmly with poles and pointed tools and materials. the practical woods- stream. It may be as his tool equipment. cut on the spot. various stringy kinds of sketch shows the completed raft. PARKER MAKING a raft for crossing a are not available. 1 j: The Inventive Woodsman Builds His Log Raft of Simp'e Material's Gathered at the River Bank. 'W y Of CROSS PIECE V . '. is often a diversion for campers. M. The willow withes. and as a practical his course. the Logs and Poles are Notched Together Firmly and Held with Wooden Pins 185 . bound bark. or other small body of man. gions. test of woodcraft for the amateur or and he may be fortunate enough to find boy camper it is of interest.

. for car. 12 to IG the pins into place. The raft may then be floated. this will make a remarkably strong will provide a stable raft. Curved Printing Surface for Sharp surface. ft. Shove the if there is any considerable difference raft out into the water as each log is in the diameter of the ends. 2 in. with its end by the crossed pins. Dry logs diagonally in the notches cut into the are preferable to wet or green ones. dividing its lengfth the outer portions were usually into two compartments. The across the proposed raft. is then floated down and pinned at and sharpened on one end. in diameter. prints. if possible. alternating the butts. need be fas- the water. of the inner logs. sloping gently into only. or 8 by 12-in. added. If there is a strong current it ply of poles of about 3-in. edges of the center partition and the ing between the two gave unsatisfac. brush. rather than toward certain load. Make rifts in the log with the and if the latter are used. on which the bromide paper is mounted. For one passenger. as shown in both ends. Fasten a second pole at the be laid across it to give sufficient foot. and the inset details show the ft. in the top of the log about li/o sculls with a pole at the rear. Poles may joint. projecting slightly beyond the log. made as long as the desired print and mide enlargements. 1 ft. other end of the log. and prop up both ing. and the person controlling it deep. Then cut a last log. A wooden box was of post-card size. 1 in. a relatively ax. poles. and squarely across manner in which the poles are clamped Place a pole in the notch. In select. 9 to 13 in. results were obtained that Focus in Bromide Enlargements are satisfactory except for architec- Practically all of my negatives are tural subjects. Chop notches. some logs and poles as near this place as is of the logs may be left unfastened. sketches. For heavier loads the logs should poles so as to permit the next log to be about the same length and diameter. ends of the box were cut in the shape tory results. form a raft of considerable width and Notch the second log before slipping of greater buoyancy. and. 186 poles. Cut a sup. the logs that are pinned. in making bro. The dunnage the "humped" side toward the outer is placed near the forward end of the edge of the raft. cutting as though to split off a slab larger raft will be needed to carry a of bark and wood. long. one. and spaced to a width of 5 ft. the curve being determined . under the but spaced closer together. I experienced diffi. If it is bowed or crooked. Compromis. and drive two of logs. downstream. place place for the dunnage. and vice versa. of the pole. as shown in the detail rying small or large loads. A partition was the center of the picture was in focus fitted into the box. the detailed sketch. and if time is important. but a height of about 6 by 10-in. is satisfactory. diameter. is desirable to guy the raft with a and of the length necessary to reach pole to the bank. wider. they will rest points must be considered. to provide a dry footing and a ing. The height may be made culty in getting a satisfactory focus on as is convenient. so that when the pins are ing the material for the raft several driven into the log. convenient. and laid to poles. which should also be a large number of pins of hard wood. Alternate ends Select a shore. When 2 in. long. and is — Roll the first log one of the largest ready to be covered with light poles or — into the water until it is nearly float. it finally into place. three the center of the log. By providing a curved of an arc. and This method of construction may be cut a double notch in the upper edge applied to a variety of rafts. The upper blurred. Cut the logs and roll provided they are held tightly between them to the bank. from the ends. raft. be rolled into the water. Properly done. and cut the tened.

it may be used for chopping small kind- and supported by the left hand as shown ling wood as well as for breaking up in the sketch. may be made by joining the broken parts with Talking-Machine Records may be Played with the Finger Nail after a Little Practice a ferrule of tinned sheet metal. When the blow is struck on the wood to be broken the the second finger of the right hand is pieces are thrown away from the per- applied to the record. Brown. Denver. Amherstburg. isr by the distance from the lens to the Safety Chopping Block easel when the center of the picture is in focus. Portland. brads or wire being used to prevent the ends quired to obtain satisfactory results and from working loose. the flat surface be- — ing satisfactor}-. bolted together. The chopping block strips fixed to the bottom of the box. Practice is re- son chopping. rewound with the ends of the material unwound from it. Repairing a Broken Reed Handle Astrong repair for a broken reed handle. creating no little surprise. or workbaskets.-R. George— fitting has been made. like those on market baskets. The record shown was designed in the illustration to overcome element of danger and this is placed over a penholder. The curved surface may be covered with cardboard to give a better backing for the bromide paper. This Chopping Block Makes for Safety in That Pieces son skilled in the process can afford a Chopped are Thrown Away from the Worker party of spectators much amusement. Where only a small portion of the negative is to be enlarged. or if desirable. E. 111. is is fitted to the easel by means of two often dangerous. The device must be broken into short lengths. the C Finely powdered graphite dusted on entire handle may be re-covered with the parts of a motorcycle clutch when material of the original kind or other repacking it after cleaning will act as suitable substitute. planks. which to the curves on the box. and the nail of heavier pieces. this difficulty will not present itself. and extending beyond its ends. the handle is S. Chicago. The smaller sketch shows how the block is built up of 2-in. and the heavy portion may be used as a seat. A. which is held in place by pins or small tacks. — Thomas. Canada. or pencil. S. Tlie bromide paper is fitted Chopping of pieces of wood. The sketch shows the device in use for the chopping of short pieces of wood. Colo. After the metal an old record should be used. handbags. Victor Woodland. . Nissen. and a per. Playing Talking-Machine Records with the Finger Nail Talking-machine records may be played with the finger nail. It is revolved by the fingers of the left hand. an excellent lubricant. Ore.

The decoys result in a considerable tire saving. are cut from a sheet of tinned metal. exposing the metal. —M. Beeswax. Tremendous wear on a single spot re- and are painted to resemble the game. The copper will be depos- ited on the surface of the cup where the thin layer of wax has been scratched ofif. a pressure of 45 to 50 lb. The thickness of the deposit will depend on the length of time that the current is permitted to flow. Dents in the edge of the rims cause undue wear on the tire. McPherson. upon the surface by an improperly inflated tire. the sur- The duck hunter who wishes to face on which the onlaying is to be done economize by making some of his being covered with only a thin layer equipment will be interested in the of the wax. Attach a wire from the negative pole of the battery to the cup. 6 in. Kan. Haberlein. in. sults when the power is thrown in so — Carl A. in the case of 3-in. the fabric be- ing worn through by the constant rub- bing. should be maintained in the rear tire and about 20 per cent less in the front tire. Edwards. connected with the positive pole of a storage battery. and fitted with a bolt at the middle. the Effective Inscription injury being increased liability to medallions is to onlay copper. or paraffin. . scratch the mark- ings desired through the thin layer of wax to the surface of the cup. suddenly that the driving wheel makes several revolutions before gripping the ground. by 3 ft. of Caution in the use of motorcycle soft wood. is fixed to the side of the cup Frame and formed into a dish shape. Rim- cutting from running motorcycle tires underinflated is the commonest abuse. Guessing is a poor or other indications on trophy cups or method of determining the air pressure. tires. and the exact condition should be noted from time to time with a gauge. Bent rims are often caused by Copper or Other Metal may be Deposited on the Surface of the Cup. Making an insufficient air pressure in tires. The proper air pressure must Onlaying Script on a Trophy Cup be maintained in the tires in order to A novel method of inscribing names obtain good wear. or other sim- ilar electrical source. Or- dinarily.. folding frame for duck decoys. shown in the illustration. H. % by 2 in. for it tireswith a minimum of abuse will convenience in carrying. ^\'ith a needle or other suitable instrument. It is made of two Economy in Motorcycle Tires strips. Ten hours of action will per- Duck Decoys Mounted on a Folding Frame mit the depositing of a satisfactory may be Made by the Hunter onlay. so that may be folded. 188 Duck Decoys Mounted on Folding the process illustrated. Pour copper sulphate into the wax cavity. and sus- pend a small piece of pure copper in the liquid. or other when crossing tracks or bumps with contrasting metal. if the onlay is to be of copper.

and guyed by a is suspended between the system of wire towers and wired braces. fastened to cables. tached to the guy wires. The wire to the netting. and is to unhook the net. players are 50 apart. This set on the ground.Down Tennis. Ad- quickly taken ditional support- down for storage. ing wires. and 2 by and can be Raised Quickly by Means of particularly if a the Supporting Cables 4-in. A Knock. and the en. long.Court Backstop By EDWARD R. mak. cannot be harmed about 14 high. are again. winter. and guyed to the sunken extending to the anchored fastenings. The backstop shown in the as a ladder can be leaned against illustration was designed to overcome the end of the tower. As the grass is to be cut netting extends around the back. netting is also \V h e n this is held taut by wire drawn up tightly. Instead of setting. The lower used to draw up edge of the wire the entire length is held down by of the netting hooks pinned to tautly. 189 . guyed securely. as desired. by 4-in. and per. as well as economical to edge of the netting. wire was used for the supporting End braces of heavy wire. ft.ft. about 6 ft. tends under the ing it convenient towers. this objection. and proved efficient on To withstand side motion at the top this score. The towers guy wires. into the wires. ting and wire rigging. pieces of white flag is at- sound yellow-pine timber. supported there ting when the by wires. were made for the towers. the netting is rigging is tire fairly taut. nearly to the end stop. braces. and No. Number 20 gauge the ground. SMITH SEVERE weather soon damages a anchors at the ground. wires are carried on crossarms of 1 by the supports in the ground. support the tennis-court backstop that is built towers against the weight of the net- on posts set in the ground. the ground with The netting ex- tent stakes. with and easily set up vertical leaders to when needed the netting. This is con- mitted to remain in place during the venient in setting up the arrangement. easily by running and built up of 4 The Backstop is Taken Down between Seasons. the supporting build and maintain. 9 for the end braces the top. 2 ft. anchored into from the ground. they are 1-in. Foundations of brick. pieces of wood.

A thermometer tailed. he uses the tender to get a supply. top were fringed with felt to guard Next make the adjusting frame. A tank in the bicycle frame holds several gallons. — John Hoeck. a ly larger than good substitute for an extra chair is the tray. Hinge the back and the seat is used to determine the temperature. and if the owner runs out of gasoline. The box was turning it in I2 in. Philadelphia. The edges of the opening in the adjusting notches. with a provided. An electric-light socket was fas- common woods may be used. and other tray. filling the auto tank by siphoning the gasoline — through a flexilile tube. The lined with black paper and varnished base is an open frame. or on a trunk. according to the dimensions a lamn fitted to it. John Miller Bonbright.one may enjoy the coolness of the veloping in the ground without harm to the person or dark room. Alameda. Heater Keeps Developer at Proper SEAT FOLDED Temperature This Seat Is Useful Out of Doors and Also for Having had trouble with developer Special Purposes Indoors cooling down and failing to work prop- convenient and comfortable. Linthicum. It is useful also light tight box - in the home and elsewhere. and shown. Cover the side of the box. Md. its han- dlebars turned flat against the side. The adjustable back rest constructed the supports the body in various positions. 19ff A Folding Ground Seat with Back Bicycle Carried on Automobile as Rest Tender Those who enjoy sitting or lying Steam yachts often carry a motor- upon the grass while reading will find boat tender. spaced 2 in apart. while de- this. . the light until it reaches the required mitting it to fold. Annapolis. and an automobile may the device shown in the illustration carry a bicycle for emergencies. compact. ing to hold the Oak is a suitable wood. turn on frame to the back with screws. First tened inside at one end of the box and construct. was made slight- ing it across the bed. and its wheels in tire sockets in the running board. the tray could be rocked. The bicycle is strapped on the running board of the car. against light leakage. An autoist whose duties require him to travel through rural districts. to the base. and fasten the adjusting \\'hen the developer cools. With erly. T. I clothing. A wire was at- given. provided with black. — temperature. A small readily transported. as shown. H. three rectangular frames. By plac. California. Pa. per. as de. The seat proper may be removable top folded under and the back rest used as having an open- a prop for reading in bed. apparatus The device is liglit. so that the latter and seat and back frames with heavy duck. at the edges. with tached across the middle of the lower mortise-and-tenon joints. had nu- merous unhappy experiences with a stalledcar until he hit upon this scheme.

are of The the seat ordinary may be a vehicle. of 75 in. strongly lower part of the frame. frame at the top. tings of a boiler. high. which is riveted at the fork and other joints. trans. the machine Gasoline. The en- riding. engine. spread. L. The round boiler. and makes no pretense driver. which is geared to the no clutch is used. the motorcycle shown in the moved and clamped at various places illustration is interesting. or a of gasoline motorcycles manufactured bundle carrier may be fitted behind the commercially. The engine is of the The fork is forged from strips of steel. them from dust and to avoid possible mission chains and gears. The boiler is 16 in. The diately above the water tank. from the fork to the wheel. 1% by %-in. seat. and does not embody the many refinements an extra seat may be installed. is made of a double bar of and 13 in. and the usual fit- to carry the tank. It has a wheel base rear wheel by a chain and sprocket. is carried on the made of 1-in. is carried made by a mechanic in his spare time. partly by reason of its weight. motorcycle type. spread and braced whistle. and boiler.. with gasoline The upper portions of the frame are burners beneath it. gine is supported on the frame imme- and to give very steady power. so as to protect wheels. and weighs about 350 pounds. and the working parts This Motorcycle is Propelled by a Steam Plant and was Built in a Small Shop by a Mechanic in His Spare Time and fitted to standard motorcycle are largely inclosed. It was for the generation of steam. While it along the upper bar of the frame. The handlebars. with which to heat water has a striking individuality. hung below the with only the facilities of a small ma. horizontal type. Steam-Propelled Motorcycle Made by Mechanic By L. 191 . VOELEHERT ASsteam an example power of the application of to the propulsion of other fittings. as well as danger to the operator. It is fitted with valves. steel. Tests and hard usage over contained in the square flat tank under typical roads have shown it to be easy the lower part of the frame. and machine can be reversed quickly and drives a shaft. in the long round tank. immediately behind the front The lower section. steel tubing. of competing with them. The water supply is chine shop. water gauge. in diameter rear axle.

like that shown in the sketch. and two for the store it out of sight. The partition between the top drawers was removed and the fronts of the drawers fastened in place with screws. HAY CHAFF The hinged top provided a support for GLASS JARS the dishes while cooking. or other soft wood being An Old Sideboard was Converted into a Useful Kitchenette. for storing them in the cabinet. the — the top.Which Economizes Space satisfactory. being useful also for four strips. Pack chafT into the useful as a stand or table. 2 in. makes the feeding of bees in winter convenient. Make two pieces. ends. including iron. as shown in the sketch. Make pose admirably. sirup and covering their openings with . and the same size as the top of Storage of the cooking equipment be. was made from hive. Bee Feeder for Winter Use The use of a feeder. strip is nailed over the joint. Sirup is fed to the bees from inverted glass jars. and a 2-in. as shown. It was unsightly in round holes. thick. it is often desirable to have the hinged top open Living in rooms. to fit the necks the room when not in use. The space thus made available was lined with asbestos. wide. after filling the jars with or for other purposes. the jars being incased in a packing of chafT in a wooden covering. as one end. was no convenient place in which to wide. . pieces. and long enough other needs. The device is made as follows Use : wood smoothed on both sides pine. The top could be hinged at the back to protect the wall. and. shown. the openings of which are covered with muslin. The lower drawers of the kitchenette were fitted to hold the cooking mate- rials and equipment. and a small gas stove was fitted into it. or cut in two and the parts hinged one at each end of the cabinet. Nail The top was removed and hinged to the pieces of the box together. in which it was nec- to give free access around the end of essary to use the small living room as a kitchen and dining room as well. S. In the latter operation. and the top over the frame of When the kitchenette is closed it is sides and ends. sketch being suggestive only. and there of the jars. for the sides. Ohio. to fit the four sides of the box. basswood. Hagans. The wooden box is made to fit over the hive. and served the pur. the hive. The gas line was connected to the stove and two pieces of asbestos sheet- ing were hinged to fold under the cover and to be leaned against the wall as a protection while cooking. 193 Sideboard Converted into Kitchenette ing. the dimensions given in the an old sideboard. for dining. Make two pieces. nailing the sides over the end able. box. Into one of these cut two came a problem. Toledo. J. 6% in. % in. The kitchenette. the length being suited to the shown in the sketch. the supports being remov.

A convenient method low recess is otherwise available. Lorain. pack the jars into the box so opposite pillar when the gate is opened. which forms the cover far enough to accommodate a thicker for the recess in which the gate is book. may be driven into gested. is satisfactory. or rivets. 24 to 30 in. nails furnished me with the necessary materials to construct a book-holding apparatus when in a hurry. The nails may be pressed into the hole to coat A piece of board and four finishing — them. with little effort on the part of the keeper. and may be quickly folded out of the way. but must be properly safeguarded to prevent not uncommon accidents and injury by falls. could and the forward end is fitted to the sec. strips around the lower edge of the box so as to cover the joint between the box and the hive. or spikes. and does not mar the finish or general effect of the latter. Porch Gate Folds into Hollow Pillar The porch is a convenient play spot for the children. for the purpose sug- have been cut. other uses by providing a box or cham- line. 193 muslin. Peachland. The cover is hooked to the able. The fold- ing gate shown in the sketch provides a substantial barrier to the head of the stairs. that their openings will be level with Any suitable height may be chosen for the bottom through which the holes the gate. The use of this simple device will prove economical and prac- tical in keeping bees over the winter. C. with holes for the jars. mixed in ber for the collapsed gate. although wood may be used. beeswax. The Gate is Folded When Not in Use and is Kink for Driving Nails Concealed in the Hoilow Porch Pillar Nails. Nail the 2-in. when no hol- equal portions. Root. The gate is made of strips of band Nails Driven in a Board and Bent in the Shape of Screw Hooks to Hold a Book iron. Each nail. into place with screws. Can. so that it may be removed when it is desired to remove the jars for refilling. but. being driven through the board. The hard wood without causing them to device may be adapted to a variety of buckle by applying a coating of vase. Fasten the board. . The feeder is then fitted into place. In fact the device was adjust- housed. B. l)e turned to release. Gus Hansen. and pulled out tion of the pillar. It is hardly noticeable when set in the side of the pillar. the bees feeding from the surface of the muslin. O. The strips are fastened with bolts. and rosin. of applying the mixture is to bore a hole in the end of the hammer handle A Homemade Book Holder and fill it with the material. assuring them a good food supply. Ohio. The chaff pre- vents the sirup from congealing in cold weather and so it is always available for the bees.

con- A forced deck is prepared having 24 cealing the card on the black mat be- like cards. as shown in Fig 4. In this condition it is exhibited are held to the spectators when a card to the spectators and then placed upon is selected. thick. The frame is covered that used by sign painters is satisfac- with a handkerchief. as shown — Harry Marcelle. picking up the frame the performer eral views of the frame in normal posi. One of the cards from the forced stroyed card appears in the frame. In opening being C% by lYo in. A handkerchief is thrown molding 2 in. and the pistol is — tory and tfie frame is ready to receive fired at the frame. so that the black sand and 5. A pane of glass is frame. as placed in an envelope and burned by shown in Fig. turns it over. 1 handkerchief. Honolulu. and the backs of the cards hind it. By in- which it is taken at the back. H. and Filled with Black Sand. 1. 194 The Enchanted Card Frame in detail in Fig. 3. while removing the tion and inverted are shown in Figs. shown behind the card. The gen. Fig. into the frame to form a background which he aims at a small frame. The card is then arranged in the center of the back. wide. the variety and a cap is fired in it. in which edges other than the one having a the performer makes use of the en- pocket. The pistol is one of the toy ners. from deck is placed in the frame. A pocket is cut in the lower runs back into the pocket in the frame. CARDBOARD T N ?l8p -BLACK SAND^ . over it. and on the three fitted into the Amystifying card trick. mitered at the cor. The frame is made of a the table. and set upon a table a few the bottom is filled with black sand feet distant. I. as a bearing for a second the iUustration. the spectator. and a hinged door is the number and suit. who selects a card. SECTION THROUGH CENTER A Pocket is Cut into the Frame. is as follows: pack A piece of glass. Ys in. and of the size indicated. noting of thin wood. On removing the the card for the performance of the handkerchief the selected and de. The pocket at as empty. Obscuring the Card When the Frame is Inverted . 2. trick. verting the latter the sand is caused to The trick is performed as follows run between the glass partitions. strips of cardboard. edge of the frame at the back. chanted card frame shown in detail in are glued. The performer takes A mat of black cardboard is fitted the ashes and loads them into a pistol. The of playing cards is given to one of the back of the frame is fitted with a cover spectators.

50. in illustration meets this need in a prac. strands is exposed. The B. thus endangering be left unfinished. including are nailed in place. and they are cov. shown at A. The wood can be Carried Out without Difficulty by the Home strips that cover Woodworker used for the main its edges. The frames are hinged together. made as shown at may injure. sitting on the The braces only edge of it. the wood side of the frames. and are notched to fit incloses an area of the stile. frames is % by 2 in. Before putting on the wire mesh. cal piece. all ered with wire mesh. The Construction Is Light yet Stable. as shown in A Sate Play Space Either Indoors or Outdoors is face for the wire the working draw. and $3. ROBINSON A CHILD in the "toddler" stage should be provided with a safe place in which to play without disturb- the child. and the joints fence is 25 to 32 at the crossing of in. folded fence is countersunk. The mate. and the head screws. on the outer slightly with sandpaper. Two long and four short mother too frequently. N. Portable Fence for Baby's Play Area By L. The joints at the top and and likewise the bottom of the cen- lawn flowers. The wood may. the joints is fas- This is ample for tened with flat- the child. and mesh and the ings. high. are ster. and those of the shorter frames tical and inexpensive manner. and the Fence may be Moved Easily. of course. into the corners of rials cost less than the frames. as at C. hardware for the This provides a making of the flat nailing sur- fence. as shown in the plan. are cross-lapped by cutting away one- the fence being especially useful in the half the thickness of each strip. Each of about 4 by 6 ft. The corner joints be used in the home or out of doors. or the clothes of passers-by. It may and the stiles 25 in. The folding frames are required. Care should be wiped smooth.. the edges of which the exposed corners should be "broken" are nailed under strips. The thus not too bulky ends of the braces to be transported are cut to fit flush easily. and fold into com- ing the household routine of the busy pact form. and finished with a coat taken to insure that none of the wire of shellac. Cut the top and wood-and-wire fence shown the m bottom rails of the long frames 6 ft. strong the center stiles enough to support and the cross a grown person braces. or verti- which a young. 195 . Provided for the Child. unguarded. length. as latter case. since it protects the child. In fixing the 1-in. ter stile.

196 wire mesh in place. fasten one end of the piece squarely at the end of the frame. Place a strip of wood under each end of the 1: Ur . nailing it with staples.

tion. con- sisting of a bolt and a wing nut. — may be stuck in the cushion. 197 ber of tef ts were made. The holes are provided for a fasten- ing. Ore. The wedge diameter. on which to rest the gripped is clamped under the end A. Several styles of holders for a drink- Large sheets of white blotting paper ing glass are suggested in the illustra- were cut to fit the inside of the re. Can. They may be made of durable flectors. in cut through the bench top. The materials easily obtained in the home bolt Awas flattened at one end and workshop. glass. as was bored through the top of the bench shown. Portland. 2 grips the Machine block E in the same manner as the first A convenient emery pad and needle vise. and the follow. ing a metal cup to a diamond-shaped plate. and the washer C and wing nut D tening it to the wall. The devices shown in the illustration will give good service and can be made of material easily V7 Homemade Holders . A hole to fit it ing a galvanized-iron or brass wire. These Vises may be Made Easily of Materials Available in Most Workshops Emery Needle Cushion on Sewing The vise shown in Fig. The piece to be the upper end. elimi- nating the glare and the reflections. The first istwist. free from rust. with an eye and a loop for fas- B.- ' obtained. The holder at the right is made from a piece of sheet metal cut to the shape indicated below. It is bent to the shape shown. flatter. and other amateurs. G. Drinking-Glass Holders Easily Made ing method proved successful. so that the glare was overcome. Hall. The soft. . the latter being fastened to the wall. 1 These for Glasses and Quickly Constructed Are Useful was made of old machine parts.made by bent at a right angle. somewhat rough sur- face of the blotting paper diffused the light. James E. The upper portion of the holder should be large enough so that the glass may be raised sufficiently to fit into the rest. A cork is fixed to were put in place. M. and sewing it in place around H passes through a mortise in the the arm of the machine. It will thus piece G and clamps against the lower be close at hand and needles and pins side of the bench top. Two Simple Vises for the Home Workbench Boys. The lower sketch shows a This device should be fitted near the holder of the cup type made by rivet- end and front edge of the bench. Noble. St. Toronto. Louis. and will not be in the way. The vise shown in Fig. — Frank L. Mo. and the lower end of the narrow strip is curved upward to provide a rest for the edge of the glass. which is fitted into a mortise powder in a long sack. The jaw F is bolted to a vertical cushion may be made by inclosing the piece. sometimes have need of a vise when a commercial article or one of standard type cannot o\ ' be had readily. and then glued to their sur- face. — C. about 1 in.

\\'hen the second A-frame is compensating principle to carrying and reached the load draws the correspond- transportation problems affords oppor. of resistance to the well as novelty for play car in its course. and spanning streams. upon them. The various positions of the load and as shown in the detail at the right. wire braces supporting them. as in Fig. diagrammatic purposes the load is matically reversing the course of the shown passing from the west slope to cars both for the sail rigging and with the east. shown in cableway shown in the page plate is the illustrations. as shown in Fig. the cables are arranged in units ascends and descends an incline when between supports. with but also worthy of study. 1 to o. between the the load passes to the center position. as indicated in application of hand power suggested the diagrams. the loaded car For use with a multiple-frame sys- causes a sag in the track cable. Fig. and tem. The weight of the 198 . N Edward sw^MmII^J mum and to offer a mini- sible. 1 to 5. first by experiments on models in a and taking out most of the sag in the shop. in down with the track cable. showing the application of the The ends of the cable are fixed to wire compensating principle. in addition to the simple in its various stages. the operation of the system it is desir- as shown in Fig. the track in Figs. or by a motor. flexible compen- shows how the weight of the car is sating cable extends from one tower to compensated. The arrange. the A-frames. as able that the course of a load be traced in Fig. so that a fairly level the other and is fitted to grooved pul- course on the track cable is provided. from which the track cable is in Figs. It is evident from the dia- supporting the car in addition to that grams that the course of the load is caused by its own weight. or gulleys. by enormous weights. The sketch in the page as shown in Fig. By their use it is cable is drawn down at that point imnecessary to have an operator at the corresponding end of the compen- each end of the cableway. 4. Figs. Application of the tion. 2. 3. rais- structional features were worked out ing the opposite end of the track cable. 7. In order to understand The car may be driven by wind power. the latter assumes its normal position In most types of cableways a con. the aim in the compensated cableway is tendency being to level the entire to overcome this sag as much as pos. The details of the the ends of the wire braces supporting constructional parts are also shown. For in the page plate. sating cable is also drawn down. Devices for auto. As the load passes under the the use of electrical power. the track cable re- plate was made from photographs of sumes a more nearly horizontal posi- this construction. not only interesting made by setting up two A-frames. cations. 8. A-frames. are indicated hooks. 7 and 8. are shown first A-frame. The con. and then applied to a large rig. in the page plate. Even in more nearly level than it would be systems of practically constant cable if the sagging of the track cable were tension. A light. As ging spanning over 100 ft.THE possibilities for practical use as . 6. center portion of the track cable. and a multiple system suspended. 6. approaching and leaving a tower. cables. course of the load. The The compensating action is similar. ley wheels at the tops of the towers. ing end of the compensating cable tunity for interesting engineering. and ment assembled in its simplest form mounting the track and traction cables with two towers. The latter is anchored at is shown in Fig. in which the wire is stretched not counteracted. as the load reaches the end of the siderable sag is allowed in the cable course. and experimental purposes make the The simple form of compensated compensated aerial cableway.

^':£:A^^•. '.J. -GROOVED PULLEY WHEELS TRACTION li].g/.. Cars Propelled by Sail Rigging or by a Small Battery Motor may Also be Used 199 . hy^^^''Zr'^J£:.^ CABLE •^ -N This Interesting Built by a Boy for Play and Experimental Purposes The Principle by Which the : Weight of the Car is Compensated in Single and Multiple Systems is Indicated in the Diagrams Above.t-^-.. ^- ^"i"-. COMPENSATING CABLE ~T~ <_TRACK CABLE ANCHdtt •^^IT^'5?r"'!^r^^~-"^W-^. <-^^J?^'7^'^:'^>l^ i\flS. .. iE>6..

The trac- should be made of galvanized-iron tion cable must be drawn sufficiently wire. The size and with a saw. if desired. be refined to a high grade of able groove being cut around the edge workmanship. support a sail car. 8. and weight it properly The Car isPropelled by the Wind Acting on a Sail to provide the necessary load. a wooden block or other object of suffi- cient weight may be used as a load. and A-frames should be joined strongly at since the weight of the cable will cause the top. hanger supporting the car. ing stages at each end of the cable- mental purposes the detail may. but a round rod. may be made by a boy mounted in supports fixed to the land- of fair mechanical skill. width of the pieces making up the A. The track cable bolt which is used as an axle. from which the track cable is sus- A model of the compensated cable. set on the materials available. of course. or traction cable. and looped around the cable. bent so as not to interfere with the H-frame --GROOVED PULLEYS-. been properly set up. but into the ground as shown. build a car with a hollow metal or wooden body. or sandpaper wrapped over proportioned precisely as shown. to provide a flange on small motor. and a heavy wire is bent and set through the center block as a support for the car. the height. as suggested in the sketch. Various types of hangers may be devised to house the two pulley wheels which ride on the track cable. The each side of the cable groove. Grooved pulley wheels. and the towers of 1-in. the on the grooved pulleys. The sailing-car arrangement is often fea- . The inventive boy may. a suit- course. The Trigger Device Releases the Sail. A simple H-frame hanger is shown in the detail sketch in the page plate. An interesting feature of the work. pended are made of heavy wire. car- way. or even for play. set If the frames and other fittings have in housings fixed to the top of the A. taut to provide the necessary pressure line. the compensating cable of fish. The traction pulley is may depend more or less upon the turned by means of a crank. The motive power is provided by Reversing the Course of the Car means of a cord. 200 car and load only is compensated. or it will slip. A wooden block forms the base. when it is not desired to make a more elaborate car. sunk a sag. is to devise a realistic coach model. and smoothed with a small dimensions of the parts need not be round file. as shown in the page plate. For experimental pur- poses. of way. They are made of wood. a smaller scale. especially for a boy. For experi. The grooved pulley wheels are set on bolts. as shown in Fig. the course cannot be level. Rosin applied to the pulleys and the frames being increased in proportion to cable will tend to prevent this. or These may be made of wood. and braced to anchors. Controlled Like the Main Sheet of a Sailboat in Tacking. The hooks may approach this condition. 7. The windows and doors are painted on the metal. carry the compensating cable. and the roof and platforms are made of sheet metal. stuflf. the cableway will frames. shown in Fig. built up a two-cell electric car. or on ried around two large grooved pulleys. driven by a in three sections.

201 I sible. The hanger is an H. The oxidation when it reaches the end of its course. and a cord and wire are arranged to engage a trigger. which is accomplished automatically at the end of a run. the belt from the motor pulley and re- supported by four heavy wires set into placing it to make a figure-eight twist. 7. This chinery bearings. cafions. line. as indicated in the top DRY BATTERIES view. A rubber band is attached to the boom. by Contact of the Lever with the verses the sail. Fig. tests being made for in gorges. and further reinforced by small blocks at the ends. mast. or this purpose before setting them in even in ravines where such a cableway place finally. the center block of the hanger. carries the motor. as shown in the side view. The car can be operated in this manner only at right angles to the direction of the wind. The rubber band re. When the hanger is of the H-frame type with reversing lever and stop are used.Frame on the cable originally so that the for- ward end is in proper relation to the hanger. braced A frame. and should be out. five times the diameter of the one on esting in that it provides self-contained the motor shaft. A cord or small leather might be set up. and the dry cells are fixed CWhen babbitt metal is heated some under it. narrow valleys.Contained and may be end of the run. The attached to the A-frame. For play purposes. of the metal is indicated by the forma- The motor and cells should be disposed tion of a scum on the surface. The motor is of the small of the tin and antimony in it is burned reversible battery type. A nonre- to provide for the small grooved versing motor can be made to drive the driving pulley set on the axle of one car in a reverse direction by removing of the larger pulleys. since a stiff breeze is common so as to balance. and similar purposes. A stop for the trigger is fixed to the A-frame so that it is sprung when the car reaches the The Electric Car Is Self. The power is shut motive power by means of a battery of ofif at the end of the course by a shut- dry cells. REVERSIBLE a boy stationed at each end of the BATTERY cableway can shift the sail. willmake it possil^le to reverse the car after several heatings. . These pulleys should be in wind. making it unsuited for use in ma- provided with a reversing lever. the car having been set Stop Fixed to the A. but the MOTOR - trigger device shown makes this un- necessary. or "tack. supporting a deck on which a JSJ cnOOVED PULLEYS mast is set. or nearly so." by means of the trigger device shown in the top view. Reversed Automatically. as shown in Fig. The sail is controlled in relation to the wind much as is the main sheet of a sailboat. if the Motor Is of the Reversible Type. and that on the hanger should be The electric car is especially inter. 8. the heavy blocks between the sidepieces stop crank is unnecessary. sail with A TOWER boom and gafif is supported by the LEO. and a motor belted to the ofif switch which strikes a stop crank hanger. is suspended from the hanger by four curved wires. A wooden deck. belt connects the drive pulley of the frame having the grooved pulleys motor with the proper pulley on the bolted in it. It is arranged to be shifted around the mast.

2. % by 1% by 11 in. performs over the mechanism. the tank can be increased by using a ally. 1. 1 in. and its left end 3 in. 1. long. The sheet- article. the ends of the wooden center cross- as shown in the heading sketches. the rear axle the working and detailed drawings. destruction on the enemy from armored This process goes on until the motor turrets. shell runs down. hammer. SMITH AMONG the engines of war on land. for the tractor bands is furnished by The construction is best begun by linked rubber bands. the range of which fires 20 projectiles automatic. like a exhausted. piece D % by 1% by 5% in. the The tank will run upward of 10 ft. It bears on angles and crawling over obstructions. into place. with cord. The perspective the rear axle. and has a striking re. -fi-T. as detailed in Figs. The tank described in this wheel. Fig. the initial power of the rubber-band wide. on ports the armor. Shape the on the size and number of the bands support E as shown. probably none . while not as deadly as those on metal armor. pours out missiles of trigger is released. in action has cre- side successively engage the wire trig- ger. As the pulley revolves. with its turret. stretched by a making the wooden frame which sup- winding drum and ratchet device. 6. and crawls over trenches. and can be re- remarkable feats of hurdling trenches. from the The pulley A is belted. 4. drives the fluted wheels on it. 5 and 6. While the rubber motor is turret is mounted with a magazine gun. and makes its action more from the front end. shown in the side elevation." which. from the The trigger device is shown in Fig. as detailed in Fig. and permitting another shell to drop famous "fighting tank. B. as shown in Fig. as the fitting of the 202 . drawing it out of the gun breech ated greater interest than the now. and they will aid in making the latter clear. Four pins on its inner This is important. The frame. the front axle. 5. used in connection with the ratchet is released. with The wire-wrapped flywheel conserves an opening cut in the center. and 1^4 in- motor. is piece of the main frame. as shown in Fig. When sketch. The model. actuated by a rubber band. to side of the frame. large bent up. firing the projectile. Make the cross- nearly uniform. setting the piece D 5% in. removable pins at the ends of this semblance to these war monsters. accord. and is held by full-armored. as Make the frame C. the ing to reports. to fit on in proportion to its size. fabled giant creature of prehistoric The tank is guided by the pilot ages. Fig. on the rubber-motor power. is fitted the battle fields of Europe. in turn drive the tractor bands. long. 1 in. 1. long. The motive power otherwise being similar. shown in Fig. front. as the tank makes its way over strong spring motor. 1. easy to make and install. or the supply of shells is craters. The gun is fired by a spring C and the crosspiece D with screws. I h ?\T H I ? r/*i 1 o «Cx I TT? n r""' n By EDWARD R. and similar obstructions. moved quickly. gun support E.. depending •''s by I'-jg by 6^4 in. as detailed in Fig. from the rear. the construction the rough ground. Fasten the frame used.

and is fastened to it with sheet-metal hangers. the rim of hanger F and a metal angle. Cut the stock 1 and 5. 6. 1-54 by 4%^ in. long. The upper other sheet-metal support may then be . over the top surface at the end of the The drive-wheel axles are carried in crosspiece D. hangers also carry bearing wheels. 6. Cut the stock. and bent double arrangement. These wheels are cut added weight. 1. The i'or the drive-wheel axles. for the flywheel. Fig. small screws or nails. and detailed in Fig. 203 other parts depends on the position of portion is bent at a right angle and fits these wooden supports. 1. and mounted on tailed in Fig. long. which are held between the H. G. Fig. Next make the sheet-metal support Fig. shown in Figs. F. as de- from a broomstick. fi. nail axles. which holds the flywheel at the ends to make a strong bearing so that the belt will be tight. These for the hangers 2 by 6% in. The metal for the hangers and notch it to form the spring F is drilled as shown. as detailed which is wrapped with wire to give it at G.

5. 5. Shape the magazine P forming three sections.in diameter. grooved pulley and the fluted drive The gun and its mechanism can be wheel at the winding-key end. and connect the rubber bands for the eral shape similar to that used for sup. for the rubber motor. and I'^e i". as indicated in on its axle. The tractor bands N are fitted over The driving mechanism can then be the drive wheels. and the fighting tank the drum. high. 4. and wheels. as shown in Fig. and pass required. Make the support from the flywheel to the drive shaft. one end of which is the wind. 6. after tractor bands are gripped until it is the gun support is fastened into place desired to start the tank on its trip. The armor made of one deck piece. and the rubber band that Pawls. Belt it to the front drive- motor is wound up on the drum. 20-i made also. 6. joined solidly. on in Figs. 1 and in Fig. into which the covered tur- crosspiece D. making it 2% in. Drill these metal fit. crosspiece D. as well as the pulleys. and no spring arrangement the winding cord through the spools. to be bent over and pulley on the rear drive shaft. as shown in Fig. as shown. The can be turned in a lathe. with screws. is Mount the hangers F on the center S. thick. and sharpened at its circum- % in. is ready to be tested before putting on to the drive wheels by means of the the armor. allowing for the shaft. The in Fig. Make the projectiles of Then the power is communicated from wood. shown made handily before the support E is in Fig. Fig. as shown in Fig. K from a piece of sheet metal. 5% numerals. The driving shafts which wooden shoes are glued and and their parts. Cut the stock for the front supports J and K into place. are then cut loose the drive . or center section of the axle. as drive wheels into place. for the points of vice can then be operated with the fastening. 1. fitting the axles of the ret is set. hammer R. Ratchet wheels. as detailed in Fig. Fig. and shape it as shown in place. Make the front taken in the order indicated by the axle L. which supports the is turned in a lathe. sewed. and fix it to the drive shaft. in in. When the rubber of wood. -iVs by spools for the rubber-motor cord in 334 in. long. Wires are used as bearings for shafts as detailed in Fig. or made from stitches which reinforce the gluing are spools. the dimensions being made as end in the hook of support J. Make the detailed in Fig. round rods. on wire axles. Mount the mag- wheels being nailed to the center sec. are fitted to the inside of holds it. and mark the places for tlie fluted drive wheels. 2. The wire is middle. Make one left and weighted flywheel. the wheel axle. fixed into place at the front of the wheel on the other end is cut loose. cutting the metal to the exact and the adjoining pieces. the ratchet dimensions indicated. etc. Fit the pulley A into place the two end sections. as between the ends of the center section detailed. setting support J. 5 and 6. as detailed in Fig. and two side pieces T. and arrange the wire tion and soldered to the wire axle. The de- tings. M. 5. bearing on strips holes in which shafts or axles run very of wood for tracks. O. are fitted gun Qfrom a piece of sheet metal. in gen. carefully. 6. supported by a small block iFig. as indicated. it is cut down to wheel and gives it a spring tension to the shape indicated. Make a metal shell. over all. 5. and mount it on its one right sidepiece. thinner at the take obstructions nicely. the grooved wheels being diameter. as shown connected to the rubber motor. ratchet wheels. Solder the shell for the driving axles. 5. wire axle. Make the ing key. The pilot wheel is 2 in. azine and the gun. Fasten one port H. lining it up with the flanges all around. If the rear axle to the double wire. as shown. for it. made. acting on the pawls. U. Fit the used for riveting or soldering the . being provided. and detailed They are built up of canvas strips. Arrange the belt the detail. mounted on the from sheet metal. ference. to provide a place for the cord fastened to the crosspiece D. 3. rubber motor as shown.

as shown in Fig. The bottom extension projecting from the turret. which fitted over the main frame. where it rests on the top of the the armor can be lifted off readily. . and petails of the Metal Fittings. care being taken edge. the resulting strips being alter. which should be point of joining. 205 TRACTOR m 4^p. with the Armor Removed. the Ratchets. not to injure the points of bearing. on which the armor is sup. Small pins on the sidepieces is bent double to form hold the ends of the armor solid against an angle. The turret is fitted to the various parts of the fighting tank can deck by cutting notches along its lower be painted as desired.iB BAND Plan and Side Elevation o£ the Interior Mechanism. the ends of the main frame C. on nately turned in and out along the the axles and pulleys. The hangers F. Silver bronze is a good finish When the armor is completed. and the Tractor Bands armor together. the gun may be decorated with a coat of arms. so that ported. oiled. 3. it is for the exterior of the armor.

and in their stead a short piece of brass wire is soldered to each jaw. Nails support the resistance wire. instead. A Small Rheostat for Experiments and Testing A rheostat made as shown in the sketch has been used successfully for ' BRASS WIRES SOLDERED TO JA\A/S OF TEST CLIP . The bas- ket and frame should be painted. Switzer. Slid- ing the front clip along the span wire venient and sanitary as many which insures a fine adjustment of resistance.calibrating a large number of ammeters This Homemade Rheostat Has a Capacity of One- and wattmeters.50. yet they may be removed with- tionately. Calif. Suspender or display-case clips. — R. on a Six-Volt Circuit designs suggested will be useful for nails provides the coarse adjustment. . The teeth of the clip jaws are filed oflF. To provide connection between the free ends of the cord and the resistance wire or the nails. F. ily. La Vina. One of the general Half to Five Amperes. not including pads or pillows. m. Binney. OETAIU In using the device. A piece of pine. 5-ampere test clips are soldered to the cord ends. which should be soldered to the CCOTHES BASKET I6'X30"XI2' nails to insure good electrical contact. . — should not be over $2. 7 by 9^.many other purposes. It is Gripping the rear clip on the different light enough to roll out on the porch .akes a cradle which is as con. may be substituted for the commercial test clips. pref- erably some light color. suit- ably modified. For resistance Made from a Clothes Basket wire No. Leads of flexible cord are arranged as shown. Denver. forms the base. mounted on excessive oxidation may be employed castors. tion of from 14 to 5 amperes with a 6-volt source of electromotive force. The other is a Convenient Cradle for the Baby gripped to a nail in the rear row. These are soldered to the first and last nails in the series. one clip is moved A Few Sticks of Wood and a Clothes Basket Make along the front span.without difficulty. The dimensions given were used for obtaining a varia. A. are sold for hve times its cost. as indicated in the detailed view. Colo.2 out difficulty. and may be padded WIRE SOLDERED TO NAILS and fitted with pillows until the most exacting mother is satisfied. CGlue applied to door-knob screws For other capacities the proportions will prevent them from loosening eas- may be increased or decreased propor.. but wire of any material which will A clothes basket on a simple but carry the maximum current without ( strong wooden frame. A nick is filed in each of the brass wires so that they will hold firm- ly onto the resistance wire or nail. 206 A Neat and Economical Baby Crib in. The whole cost. 16 gauge "Climax" was used.

and fasten the plate sheet brass. as detailed The roll of paper is placed on the rod in the drawing. from Old Hacksaw Blade -KNIFE BLADE With a little work a hacksaw blade. Bend it as shown. LEAD or a portion of one. the uprights are again fed into the machine. The exposed part of the saw can then be ground as desired. cut a piece of and-cutter plate. in length. as i'SLOT shown. A rod. 1^^ in. to Hacksaw Blade. The construction of a roll-feed attachment which may be mounted on any of the standard typewriters will be described. PAPER MOLD paring knife that will prove very durable because of the' excellent qual- ity of the steel. the slot. ready for clamped into place with the screws. sheet brass. drill a corre- tion is Sections. arms of the uprights. slot is cut almost the entire and roller as with single sheets. can be made into a . constitutes the paper holder. After cutting. 207 Roll -Paper Feed for Typewriter Typewriter paper may be fed from a one at each end of the carriage. A hole is provided for the paper-roll rod in the right-hand upright and a slot in GUIDE AND CUTTER the left-hand one. After fitting a paper mold about the end of KNIFE COMPLETED the handle from which the steel pro- AServiceable Paring Knife Made from a Piece of jects. of the typed paper are torn off as necessary. heat the pieces to anneal them before bending. the paper is held against writer. the article or memorandum being writ- In mounting the holder on the type. PAPER BOLL ceed about 11 in. This practice is followed often in newspaper offices. threaded on A Paper-Roll Holder for Typewriters That can be Attached to Any Standard Machine one end and equipped with two nuts. Then rollwhere only one copy is necessary determine the distance between the and where maximum speed of produc. wide and of a length to the uprights with small stove bolts. The exact location of these off the paper. Two pieces of hard HACKSAW/ wood should be cut into the shapes BLADE DETAIL OF HANDLE shown and riveted together with one end of the blade between them. cut to the width required b\' the user. and Details of Its Construction: The Handle and Blade are Held Together with a form a collar that will hold the parts Rivet and a Lead Ferrule . melted lead is poured into it. the uprights are drilled at the the guide plate and the blade of a base to engage the two small screws at pocketknife inserted in the slot. Both ROD TO HOLD PAPER ROLL are cut from -J/ie-in. equal to that of the carriage. When length of the guide. Handy Paring Knife Made firmly together. another operation. Next. Pass- the side of the carriage back of the ing the blade the length of the slot cuts roller. First make the two uprights. ten is finished. The end of the paper roll is ferent makes. or it may be torn oft' at holes will vary in machines of the dif. For sponding hole at each end of the guide- a guide plate and cutter. The roll paper can be pur- chased at any paper-supply house. not to ex- essential. A and fed between the machine platen Yg-in.

A closet treated in the same manner will likewise keep with Churn Attachment — out insects. —T. is hung in a ver- tical position. M. the elbow of energy. allowing the gate to Cream being Installed as Shown swing open. The owner of a power-driven family Louis. near its center. C. \^an — Horn. Adrian. The horizontal arm of the bracket passes beneath a porcelain knob projecting from a piv- oted bar that engages the elbow catch. By pushing the vertical beam to one Without Impairing the Usefulness of This Washing side with the foot the bar is raised Machine a Plunger has been Attached to the Flywheel Which Does the Work of a Churn. the movement of the plunger thoroughly agitates the contents of the jar. Dale R. If the gate is properly cream at a little additional expenditure hung it will close of itself. Neb. A wooden plunger was catch serving to prevent its being bolted to the outside of the flywheel opened again. North Loup. Bain. This Gate is Unlatched by Operating the Foot Lever ing the interior of a box with this oil as Indicated. or foot lever. a Jar for the above the catch. Paint. extending almost to the ground and having a shelf bracket fas- tened to its upper end. a thumbscrew being provided in its upper end with which the held firmly in place. McDowell." readers who desire the advantages of a cedar-lined box or closet may accom- plish it by the use of cedar oil. washing machine has provided an at- tachment for it with which he churns Barnyard Gate is Operated with the Foot A gate which can be unlatched with the foot has proven a great conven- ience across a path on a farm where laborers frequently pass with both hands occupied carrying pails. St. Robert E. A framework large enough to hold a glass fruit jar was attached to the side of the plunger. jar is As the flywheel revolves. Pivoted to the side of the gate. Treating Closets with Cedar Oil Apropos of the article in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics Magazine entitled "A Cedar-Lined Oak Chest. a beam. Mo. the kind of wood used. except when the bar is and its upper end placed between two rollers set in a metal frame attached to the side of the tub. Enough play was allowed between the rollers to per- mit the plunger to move up and down freely. It Is a Special Convenience When One has Both Hands Occupied Carrying Pails or Bundles will to all intents and purposes con- vert it into a cedar chest regardless of raised. 308 Washing Machine Equipped the oil is not great. The cost of Michigan. .

Nail the sides. the position thus determined. Open screws. back and forth within the of the box. one end con. image will be projected. in An Ordinary Small Camera. for the present. it must be adjusted to operate with the tion. An ordinary camera. A. piece. which con- stitutes a door. as diagrammed. The method of construction is this: Makea box about 8 in. on the back with hinges and provide a hook to hold it shut. of the same SIDE VIEW '^INSIDE PAINTED size as that of the opening in the back BLACK of the camera which is to be used. which provides the lens and bellows. but omit. illuminate the previously dark- ment. is effected watt tungsten lamps. B. thickness of the camera body having tives was assembled as delineated in been determined. bright tinned sheet. hole to prevent light being thrown The adjustment. a slide is fastened to the illustration. A lamp cord. a coat of dead the form shown so that it will hold a black. in combination with a dark- box which can be built in the home workshop. Form the two reflectors. box until the components are in focus. ^PENfNG IN TOP FOB VENTILATION is required. A hole is drilled in its cen. cut a square hole for ventila. This front board is so cut that it fits in the board. A hood is provided over this camera of the type and size available. the shutter. The cards or enlarging photographic nega. In Before it can be used as a projector the top. in a darkened room. to front between the sides of the box instead support this body. Light the tungsten lamps. Cut a square hole. passes through a hole in the floor carried on it. that is. which must be made forward. paint a piece of tinned sheet iron bent to the box. These The card holder is detailed at C. Improvised Post -Card Projector and Enlarging Camera By harry MARCELLE AN outfit which may be used for either projecting picture post A washer is inserted on the screw be- tween the holder and the door. inside and out. E. thus Remove the back from the cam- : Each lamp is mounted in a porcelain era and place the camera in the slide receptacle held on the floor with without extending the bellows. be effected by shifting longitudinally 209 . until the most distinct image iron pieces. planed soft-wood stock. D. the top and the bottom. of on the ends. board. It is adjustments having been made. The two openings thus left will be called the front and the back. It can then be the tin reflectors and the incandescent- fastened to the center of the back door lamp bulbs. The reflectors are bent to a ened room and nail the front board in semicircular contour before mounting. with the camera plug. square out of ^/o-in. subsequent focusing can cither horizontal or vertical pictures. Becomes an Enlarging and Post-Card Projecting Camera will constitute the front board. each having holes along obtainable is reproduced on the screen. This ment. Insert a card in the holder necting the two lamps in multiple and C. having on one of When using the arrangement as a its walls a white screen on which the projector or magic lantern two 40. as does the back. Then. black except the reflecting surfaces of ter for a screw pivot. Everything should be painted post card. The front board having and can be turned into position for been fastened. Now the other fitted with an attachment move the front board. of 8 by 7-in. one of its edges to admit of attach. Fitted with This Attach- another 8 by 8-in. are required. Mount an 8 by 8 by i/2-in.

and the expense seemed too high. John — be easily made from thin pieces of board cut oblong or oval. road. cleats are in Scrubbing fastened to the A little padded platform on wheels underside t o takes most of the drudgery away from which billiard- scrubbing in hotels and office build. A couple eating breakfast and supper ist fails to have a jack at hand when a in their room used a chafing dish for ^_^ tire needs to be cooking. H. . Where ward or forward. A quart of strong board and alcohol lasted about a month. Furse. or film. McGregor. which is screwed to a board which con- ments the tungsten lamps. ative. When employed for enlarge. the shutter is closed and the ray with small clips. The light for the enlargement is fur- To make enlargements with the same nished by another tungsten lamp box. la. or placed beneath the axle. can is then knocked out of the wa}'. Wis. After the board has been Roller Truck for Use cut the proper size. a fit in the holder can be reproduced. are not used. Mo. So a fuel can was filled with pulverized tion is easily met asbestos pipe covering. — George L. Milwaukee. use a film is to be reproduced. The situa. Attractive stands which will pre- ed. natural tints. and then sat- with the aid of a urated with wood alcohol. Plymouth. A hard alcohol was used for T^^ changed on the fuel. Driving the de- sired wheel onto Attractive Table Stands the incline. N. and enables the should be varnished and waxed to — scrubber to keep dry. Changing a Motor-Car Tire Economical Use of Wood Alcohol without a Jack in Small Cooking Stove It occasionally happens that a motor. pro- for Hot Dishes vided in the manner illustrat. King. is held in the opening E. Florence L. If the negative does image of any sort of a picture that will not fill the opening in the camera. which is to be en. a few minor changes are neces. Peters. 210 the lens board of the camera. The are unnecessary. If a glass negative is screen removed. mounted in porcelain receptacle a sary. W'hen focusing has been com- fastened to the inside of the front board pleted. remain in the box directly Ijack of the opening E in the and can be disconnected from circuit front of the box and vmtil the light is by unscrewing them a few turns. moved about in the house until it is They may. The stand well as the scrubber. The distributed equally over the entire neg- negative. move the camera back- larged. it is held a yellow glass. or ray screen. This light source is required for projection. the two additional glass plates lens to bring out detail. To focus. match the table. mask cut from heavy black paper will Colored post cards will project in their be required to cut off the light. Louis. St Clark. and setting the brakes. which are stitutes a base. to cover between two pieces of glass which are the lens. a block is serve the dining table from injuries. The platform carries the pail as tached to serve as supports. cue tips are at- ings. however. — Charles a couple o f A. While focusing. and expose. blocks or rocks. The board heat marks made by hot dishes. Then stop down the used.

as all as illustrated. Westville. OUTSIDE OF WALL INSIDE OF ROOM to be set out in bers. After a size has been cut. Out. Johnson.and hubby of constantly complish such being asked to tighten up the line. Amherstburg. sary for such Thomas. The block slack. A pull at the edge of the curtain will space the rings — evenly every time. round work as table tops. S. Matter. . —A. it is pulled tight through the elevates the rear end of the jjlane. The enlarged con- row of plants tainer is completed by adding a glass has been set in door to the inner end which enables dibble holes and one to ascertain its contents at a watered. — A. The Few amateur craftsmen can afiford jaws of the de. Device for Packing Earth in Transplanting GLASS DOOR When tomato or cabbage plants are considerable num. make it accessible spacing the rings uniformly. The work if equipped cost should not be over 25 cents. and WOOD the like. Conn. half- Cleat and Pulley Fastenings round shelves. own a circular plane. H. Any BLOCK The following kink will relieve the ordinary block housewife of the trouble of sagging plane will ac- clotheslines. Frank L. all of which may be had at any and attached with countersunk ma- ten-cent store. on which it is used. A piece of half-round that is needed is a pulley cleat and hard wood is cut the width of the plane hook. the soil can be packed srlance. Or the cord may be attached at uniform dis- tances to the curtain. Chicago. about their roots quickly while Block Plane Converted for Use one is standing on Circular Work upright. Pertle. a little alteration. the simple The Mail Box is Reaches Lengthened So That It through the Wall to the Inside. ing it to follow the curve of the work S. When the line gets chine screws. yet this tool is to vice are actviated decidedly neces- by means of the hinged lever. with tie a cord from one ring to the next. 211 Cord Used as Spacer Convenient Type of Mail Box for Curtain Rings for Home Use To make the curtain rings space A person having a mail box set flush automatically along the curtain pole. Where a Door is implement Placed through Which the Mail can be Removed shown here from inside the house. Ills. Portland. After removing makes stooping the back side of the box a tin extension over to press the should be soldered to the box giving it dirt about the sufficient length to reach through the plants unneces- wall in which an opening of the proper sary. in the outside wall of hishome can. as indicated. cau.s- pulley and tightened up in the cleat. HADD- to Adjust Clothesline segments. Ore.

The mixture is skimmed. oil. Merton. Next immerse the ar- In making a spraying outfit for gar. camphor in 1 lb. Let stand 48 . piece of ^/4-in. attached rigidly at the rear of the con- tainer with iron straps. very finely powdered. ox- . N. a 3 or 5. A good method of removing rust is the can top to admit air to the corn to cover the metal parts with sweet Dixon. 21/0 or 3 ft. length of i/4-in. long. ticle for a few seconds in a solution of den use. f OtTAILATA U 12" -^ >^ . L. potassium cyanide in a wine gal. A and usually effective. brass pipe tin receptacle. 213 Pressure Spray Made of Old Oilcan hours then rub with finely powdered. it is necessary Old Material Makes a Spray That Is as Good as the to replace the fitting. at Less Cost is around a thread. and a piece of a broom is filed down and wired in the spray handle. Where the leak Manufactured Product. An- other antirust coating is made by dis- solving !{. Ohio. ball check valve is fitted in the top of the receptacle and connection is made between it and the pump with the Corn Popper Made from Coffee Can pump hose. — while it is popping. or similar cock. castile soap. and Broom Handle rubber tubing is wired to the drain With an old coffee can. and after Free from Rust boring two holes in it to prevent its splitting. using a toothbrush.' St. Avery. Clean the tools and smear with PIECE OF BROOM HANDLE^ this mixture. Ky. Take a strip of wood a little shorter than the Keeping Tools Bright and height of the can to be used. and water. and a Piece of a Broom Handle hours. Louis. from — a pinhole ordinarily due to a sand hole in the casting. and allowing the oil to dry ples. kerosene can and tire pump may be glass of water. ^=*\ |{'x| IRON STRAP Potassium cyanide is a strong poison. and rub clean with soft cloth. BALL CHECK VAiyE and should be used carefully. able in many ways to a wire one. E. or Similar Tin Receptacle. corrective. Ila^»^°^Va^ ^3' bolts j-HANOLE whiting. and fine graphite added to make an iron ^TIN CAN color. James Crouse. BLOCK OF >«OOD NAILS should be mixed with the oil. Holes are made in as a film. dle. If this fails. P. or similar purposes. — A. Sometimes the leak can be stopped by hammering the affected spot with the ball end of a hammer. Garfield. as shown. melted lard. drop by drop. nail it to the end of the han- Bright-finished tools can be pre. J. A 6-ft. — Standiford. rubbing it in well. The latter is then fastened to served against rust by coating with the side of the can with two wire sta- linseed oil. as shown. An 8-in. Then clean with a paste of potassium cyanide. Let the tools stand 24 A Corn Popper Made from a Coffee Can. to make a corn popper that is prefer- P.-HOLES IN LID ide of iron. screwing the pipe satisfactorily employed. YoungStown. it is easy end of the hose to serve as a nozzle. unslaked lime. Mo. Repairing Leaks in Pipes Frequently a cast or malleable-iron pipe fitting will leak through its side. 1/4 oz. The latter is or fitting tighter constitutes the only. If more body is desired. oz. . the water oozing.

of the hub. Some ever. a 4-in. and a Few Iron Straps. with tinners' rivets. is provided for the attachment proof bearing having minimum fric. velocity of the wind. its accurate con- vane. The locknut on the hub tion. Place weather bureau consist of four hemi. An Easily Constructed Ball -Bearing Anemometer By THOMAS A. Apply a coat from a piece of galvanized iron. to that of the wind. der the upper locknut on the hub to straight. the ends of the support strips between the spoke flanges and rivet them secure. Prac- rapidity of its revolutions only the tice in Observing Its Motion will Enable One to Estimate Fairly Closely the Wind's Velocity comparative. The supporting upright may be a erate almost as effectively and may be heavy wooden rod. exclude rain from the bearing. How- the spoke flanges of a bicycle hub. REYNOLDS ANwhich anemometer measures is an instrument the velocity of the rangement of the parts. SOLDERED JOirJT spherical cups mounted on the ends 4 of two horizontal rods which cross at right angles and are supported on a freely turning vertical axle. The vanes op. measuring S^/i in. The rivets pass through the spoke should be laid with the heart side holes. in the arrangement to be de- scribed none will be employed. Some trying out may be re. will indicate by the changing This Anemometer is Made from Galvanized Sheet Iron. screws. down. approximately. Each of the four wings is formed clamps it to the yoke. cess to it from all directions. The re- jiroduction of such a registering mech- anism would be rather complicated. Place to permit a good soldered joint. is connected to a dial mounted at the foot of the supporting column. not the real. The length of % by /ic-in. end grain. Solder the curved end of each wing to the inner wind. Hence. Hence. The axle. — a tin cap a salve-box lid will do un. To each wing ciently high to give the wind free ac- is fastened. rotating unit. A yoke of 1 by %-in.. This dial records automatically the rotations. (TBoards exposed to the weather ly. as determined by examining the quired to insure a synmietrical ar. strap iron. which has one end are exposed. if it is made of a form similar to cylindrical object of suitable diameter that shown it will fit sufficiently well will serve as a form for bending. of metal paint to the iron parts which uring -iio by 10 in. dished vanes will be used in. 213 . meas. one of these improvised anemom- eters. strap iron. or a piece of iron combined more readily into a sturdy pipe. to which the rotary motion is transmitted from the cups. when mounted on a high build- ing. Mount the device suffi- cut to a curve as shown. There- fore. stead of hollow cups. — In constructing the instrument. The anemometers used by the surface of the adjacent wing. from edge to struction involves a knowledge of — edge this being the distance between sheet-metal pattern drawing. Since the concave sides of the cups offer more resistance to the wind than do the con- vex sides the device is caused to re- volve at a speed which is proportional. a Bicycle Hub. Form curve at one end of each wing is an ir- each of the strips into a trough-shaped regular one. Abicycle front hub is held to the top of the upright with utilized to constitute a wear and noise.

The Details of the Head- block and the Nipper Device are Showa in Figs. Two Feet Long. Sharpened Poles. Wharves. are Used with This Pile Driver in Building Foundations. and Other Structures of Piling. 2 and 3 214 .

by % by 17 in. J. two % 1-^4 by 11^ in. to fit pieces automatically when it reaches the cap A. deep. fully. by the driving of piling is in- teresting out-of-door play. in. H. as indicated in Fig. may be used. but merely arranged to drop agonal braces. for the brac. as shown of the derrick. Remove rectly to the hammer. piers. A single-hook nipper. by by 33%%% strip or metal plate for the front and in. Reassemble larger parts of the hammer and nipper the parts. as shown. By EDWARD A. buildings. and bolt them in place. . by % by 20 % rear edges. The ladder braces temporarily. 4 and 5. Editor. or white metal. may tie the rope di. is also the bed and the top. and the derrick can be tion is convenient in "knocking down" made of only a few main pieces. I/4 by l^'ie by 1% in. Vg in.l THE wharves. . and the lower ends of posts by means of a winch. % by 1/0 by notch. The the derrick for storing it. F. are suggested. 1. and other struc- tures. and nail hand. in Fig. Cut these pieces slightly the sheave 1% in. Make the undertaken first. thick. as these may be cut or The headblock and cap are shown in melted readily. two braces. if pieces. . apart. 1. C. The the horizontal bracing to the sides of hammer need not be fitted to the the frame. Fit the braces F care- pers or the winch. brass. Assemble the parts. as shown. . and the 314 in. allowing for trimming and fitting. and the method of ladder bracing on the back. . plate. on an angle. Fasten strips in. . and provide a wooden hammer guides B. and foundations for bridges. assembling the parts. Make 261/2 in. and bolt them in place. The hammer is raised % by %. posts E into place. piece. in the page ])late. 1/4 bv 1 by l^o in. in which <^^r boys will find much fun. KRUEGER [These directions will enable boys of vary- ing skill with tools to make a pile driver. headblock. of sheet down. two braces. Fig. I/4 by V2 in. the frame. as a toy or model. Make two pieces for two beveled pieces of the cap by % the bed A. E. fastening them with bolts weighted double-hook nipper drops or screws.. picking up the hammer on the metal. with a groove for the rope. Then fit and nail the di- guides. babbitt. % by Ys by of sheet metal ^to the bevel of the 514 in. detail in Figs.. Several simple methods of mak- ing the parts in the home workshop. and dropping it as desired. drawing it up by the piece C and the braces F.. 1/4 by 11 %o by 1% in. D. Iron. The details of the winch are shown ing on the sides of the derrick and the in Figs. in diameter and % over their finished lengths as given. (5. 3 and 3. and is dropped E. or cop. one bed piece. % by % by striking of the nipper hooks. two bed pieces. The bolted construc- between them. and make the cap for the weight are best made of lead. Make braces G. The 215 . Put on several shown in the detail sketch. Fig. Make two per. two posts. 3. The making of the derrick may be K. with materials easily obtainable. to protect it from wear by the 3414 in. pile driver A for this work is shown in the page Notch the lower ends of guides B. and fasten them at that can be made easily of wire. one means for shaping them are at hand. to steady small bo}^ who cannot make the nip. solid or in plates. construction of small docks. Join the parts of the bed. Fit the next upstroke. Make strips. pieces A being set The drum is then released.

This strikes the notch in the Q-l-^. is 31/2 and the pin- ion 34 in. and riveted to the pawl. as shown in Fig. 4. rod. fastened with screws. 6. grooved at the ends to fit the guides. fastening the gear to and Details of the Hammer Rivet the wire lifting strap R. 2 in. in diameter and S-^io in. if desired. Bolted to the Bed of 3. and bears in holes bored in the supports. I14 by in. and drill a %2-in. or purchased from dealers in model supplies. shown in Fig. and into place. the drum end. The single-hook nipper. metal disks. as shown in the details of these parts. The derrick is then ready for the ham- mer and the weighted nipper. strip of sheet DETAIL OF HAMMER Tic 6 HOOK metal. releasing the ham- CRAWK N -i. cap of the derrick. and fitted with a washer to fit next to the pinion.4-in. The hammer. Make the circular The Supports of the Winch are Made Wood. The nipper weight is made Details of the F.-in- sheet metal. The rope is wired to the hook BRACE P PAWL O as shown. 216 drum may also be driven without with the gear at its proper place.grooves in the vertical edges to fit the guides. Its Driving Mechanism. long. wire at the middle. high. Cut a slot through it. and fasten it with screws. S'vg in. and bolt the supports for the hook.^ -Inch %6 by ]%-in. from old machines. Shape the lower end into a pointed hook. long. and J bend the upper end to form the trip arm. is made of a ^10- in. which is bent from a strip of yic. Fig. The double- . 5.cS" Drum. and reeve it through the head block. 6. may be made easilv from a solid block of lead. shown in Fig. and gears by fixing the crank directly to carefully mark the hole for the crank. semble the parts. Put the pinion into mesh bolt the latter into place. Fig. The gear is set by means of the pawl O. as shown. The shaft is a %-in. The gear... bent as shown. hammer plate of iron Q or brass. Fig. Its ends are 3i. Cut Vie SUPPORT L SUPPORT M by Vs-in. Gears may be obtained Square the end of the crank and the hole in the pinion. the shaft. The crank N. The brace P is bent from a Vie by % by 1%-in. cutting patterns of paper. is made as follows: Flatten a Two DISKS piece of /io-in. 3"_ [t mer. 6. in diameter. hole for the bolt. The drum is of wood. by 4 by % G% in. and fit them to a driving fit. bolt. of a solid piece of lead. 114 by 2% by 25/8 in. Fix the rope to the drum. Make the supports L and M. 5. As- A Simple Method of Making the Tripping Device. 2% and Fittings by 1 in.

— Lloyd C. Minn. to that on a bucket. The handle proper is made by CIn toasting bread over a camp fire. gether. Buf- falo. A Small Library may be Shipped Handily in This Bookcase Weighting a Metal Base which keeps them at the same locality only a few months. sons are sometimes engaged in work erly. The needle is then placed on the machine. and work on "jobs" begun. and Mechanics. found that the easiest way was to fas. If it is used at the water. Those who de- Flaving to weight a shallow metal sire to carry with them a small library base to support a 4-ft. trunk. it fixing a grip in a bail of wire similar is best to cover the fire with a tin pan. Doylestown. The screws were taken out in the neck of a bottle and bolted to- polishing the base. prefer- ably on an old record. Test the action of the nippers. Split Needle Causes Echo on Talking Machine An amusing stunt is to split the end of a fiber talking-machine needle care- fully about 1/4 ill-. Jr. N. The out- side dimensions when closed are 31 by 18 by 18 in. The outer corners are reinforced with metal corner plates. It may be shipped as a ten four screws on the base with nuts. Y. Eddy.. and the points are separated slightly. It may be made of %-m. Other articles than books may be packed in it. and pour hotel or dwelling. fitted around in lead. so that the points play the record successively.. produc- ing an echo. I will find the trunk bookcase. fix metal guards at the lower ends of the guides. Pa. providing for three shelves. and stained. pine or whitewood. engineers. . to prevent the hammer from falling into the water. so as to make two points. Shipment or cut from sheet metal. as shown. and Trunk Bookcase for Convenient may be made of two pieces of wire. Molten Lead was Poured In around Screws Bottle Carrier Made of Pipe Straps Fastened to the Base Two metal pipe straps. — Frank Murphy. 217 hook nipper is better mechanically. and other per- bend or file the hooks to operate prop. or covered with impregnated canvas. slightly separated. The pile driver may then be painted. brass tube. If the work is carefully done. and used as a bookcase in one's as shown in the illustration. form a convenient method of attaching a carrying handle to a large bottle. Kane. convenient. Fari- bault. and suitable hardware is provided. both reproductions will be fairly clear. —James M.

L. . as well as the me- A sink of sheet zinc was fitted in the chanic. Fix a grams make in- small can. Fasten a bracket of strap iron. as shown. kites. tend under the edge of the table. or Etching-Tray Rocker washing and preparing vegetables and fruits. The ROD with a double ends of the rib- angle fastened at bon are fringed. 218 A Developiift. the faucet. Emergency Oar- tect the table top. to pro. made as follows Chicago. and fasten the rod to the tions for the bracket. — L. An oarlock that will give Combination Laundry Tub and considerable ser- Dishwashing Sink vice may be made by fixing a A saving of space and time was ef- loop of rope to the gunwale of a boat fected in a home kitchen by the use at the proper position. to through a buckle of leather. in which the china is worker in a photographic dark room is rinsed and sterilized by hot water from a tray rocker. 111. Mono- board. weighted with lead. la. rock the board and tray without tip- ping the latter toward the bracket. SMALL CAN FILLED - WITH LEAD the end of the as shown. Calif. may be overcome by setting the strip and the sink becomes a dishpan. sink is easily lifted out for cleaning. is for stop for the end of the strip. The weighted end should ex. The handling thin strips while planing them strainer i? closed by a rubber stopper. such as when veloped in a an oarlock is dropped overboard. Ribbon of various sizes may shown in the de. clamped in a vise. The nails pivot on metal pieces. — Mrs. . in- to which are A Leather and Silk Bookmark riveted the An and useful bookmark was artistic pointed ends of made from a silk ribbon passed two spikes. between meals. shown. Another use driven into the groove and acts as a for the sink. dividual decora- able curve. and be balanced so that it will Manchester.. and the tailsketch. Avis Gordon Vestal. tooled the under side with an inscription and a conventional of a board. Two ordinary laundry tubs Planing Thin Sticks Held in Flooring were installed Groove with the faucets raised above the Boys who make thin sticks for tubs. This kink is of a sink de- useful in an emergency. as design. leather left plain IRON port this further if desired. adjusted to a suit. Sup. be used. etc. The in the groove of a piece of flooring. A peg or nail is or for washing clothes. can make good use of the upper part of one tub it has handles. as —Will Chapel. large kitchen. on the teresting and in- end of an iron rod. arrows. lock of Rope Piedmont. The second tub has a wire dish- An appliance that saves time ior the draining rack. leather portion. Llewellyn. following suggestion The difficulty of : and a strainer set in the bottom.

The arrangement described band iron to the shape indicated in Fig. by which the shutter is con- While more careful work is demanded trolled. The exposures imder water involves the chamber is supported by the wires. The illus. as the device to various cameras. the ends to fit pipe caps. A heavy neath the thumbscrew should be large piece of plate glass was fitted into the enough to make access easy.and the necessary equipment A section of 9-in. an exposure opening and a shoulder at This is a fascinating field of photog. providing it the center portion cut away.Cil lili/ XMM&^Km ^nM^-^. The^ general arrange. and the dimensions surface of the camera. on which the plate-glass win- raphy.. when fitted with shape of a ring. dow rests. window. making it water- of the camera chamber. steel pipe ment of the camera in the chamber is was used for the chamber. and many pictures of educa. Reproduced in the oval panel is a pho.AVdI'L SUBMARINE photography should ment of the camera in the chamber is have great attractions for amateur shown in the sectional view. and by the use of materials of the chamber. Sub. on the lower 5-in. 1. and the space be- were fitted with pipe caps. The adjust- reasonable limits.i. and its ends done from the rear. and riveting it to the bottom manner. and in than in ordinary photography. and a rubber gasket tration shows the detailed construction was fitted to the joint. as photographers who have access to seen from the shutter end. method of obtaining good results is not The chamber was made as follows difficult. lar. and the photographer. to provide is reasonabl}' free from foreign matter. Holes were bored into the top of the tograph of fish near baited hooks. and eyebolts were fitted into fishline. pipe cap was chucked up in a lathe and siderable depth of water. within it might be on a tripod. The camera is given are for a container for this size. Its upper surface is that can be obtained without difficulty. bedded solidly in it. The forward •marine pictures can be taken in a con. and threaded on device shown in the illustration. and the method proof when the cap was drawn up of suspending it from a bridge. at A. combines these features in a simple 1. steel pipe was cut may be provided by constructing the to a length of lli/> in. which are fixed to the eyebolts and sure-proof container for the camera. The original was made from them. Fig. The chamber assembled and place convenient to the body of water. A camera forward cap. will be raised sufficiently for 219 . or other tightly. A 9-in. pictures. arranged on the support and clamped The dimensions may be varied to adapt into place firmly by the thumb nut. 3 it is shown in detail. is shown in this view.and other clear waters. Between the eyebolts a hole was a negative exposed by the use of the bored and fitted with a water-tight col- camera chamber described. cal device. in detail is shown in the illustration. made. The electri- lakes. a suitable opening in the container A support for the camera was pro- through which the exposures may be vided by bending a strip of % by 1-in. on a chamber. a secured at the base of operations by means for controlling the shutter. which was cut into the of the size indicated. its lens centering on the center of the posure opening. A graphite paint was ap- tional and scientific value remain to be plied to the rim. flat and was bored and threaded to fit It was made for a camera taking 4 by the tripod thumbscrew B. the rim. provision of a strong water and pres. *». the Fig. to provide the ex. then the glass was made of under-water life. through which the wires leading The problem of making photographic to the shutter-control device pass. ponds. t\ iiiftiiiPiiie iAiiep? Efcau^MMl i.

or vaseline. It is actuated before an exposure is made. This tends current as well as holds the chamber to overcome the movement of the sub- suspended in the water. tance of 10 ft. the window faces the objects to be The ends of the wires are conducted photographed. within the chamber may cause diffi. because reflections of light taken ordinarily. 1 stirred up must be given time to settle and in detail in Fig. waterproof wire. transporting the outfit. This is This is important. flash-light powder. long. The chamber in the chamber in order that the plate should be completed for picture-taking glass may not disturb the focus. If the electrical device opera'-es insure a water-tight joint that permits satisfactorily the plate may be inserted. When attempting under-water pho- culty in obtaining satisfactory results. be watched carefully until it reaches magnet. An electro. the The making and adjustment of the back cap replaced securely. the contact key is pressed. the sediment above the shutter. outfit lowered into the water. and key. since the operator spread as it reaches the chamber and must shift the chamber carefully until fastened to the two eyebolts in the top. the with the chamber lowered to a depth steel hook is drawn from the release of 20 ft. similar to . the proper depth. The ward end of the chamber should be latter are kept in a convenient earner marked on its upper edge with a streak at the base of operations. day is. for. plate-glass window.. The another submarine chamber. be used for this work. may be applied to place. A bright tached to the front of the camera. hence this precau- outside. both inside and of the lens slightly. to aid in identifying it nected to the magnet by a single strand at considerable depth in the water. at the F 8 stop. For this purpose ing an actual trial in the water. The operations by giving it a coat of dull. easy removal of the cap. and are con. be focused in the chamber for a dis- spicuous when in the water. aiud the rubber band draws the fastest plates or films obtainable should lever down. to touch the bottom. in the hand of the operator. glass usually changes the focal length black waterproof paint. of the type used on doorbells. tography in cloudy waters. This will prevent rusting and tion must be taken. of double. and the electrical shutter device requires care. the plate-holder slide withdrawn. and is clamped into Hard oil. The lever. 2. conditions on the surface. and attached to and the exposure is made. 2. The camera should also serves to make the object incon. the depth at which the band is fixed to the lower edge of the pictures are to be taken. The for- by current from two dry cells. 220 convenience in clamping it. or at a con- When the paint is thoroughly dr}^ the siderable depth. Fig. of white paint. A rubber of the water. C. or when only The camera should be focused while partly used. in clear water. is coiled. as this is the average at portant that the interior be painted in which under-water photographs will be this manner. The camera is fitted into the chamber so threads on the back cap must fit snugly that it centers on the center oi the and no paint must be used on them. pivoted at its upper end photography depends on the clearness with a small nail. and. of course. between the eyebolts. as shown in Fig. making an exposure. if it is permitted was fixed to the front of the camera. It should but its operation is simple. and the light shutter lever and its other end is at.. making possible The double-wire cable carries the a fairly rapid shutter speed. the necessary illumina- device may be tested for leakage and tion may be provided by a charge of assembled ready for a test before mak. is ^25 sec. into the magnet by pressing a contact on a sunny day. The release lever is fitted The time of exposure for imder-water to a steel hook. in camera. When the chamber is through the water-tight center opening in position. It is im. desirable for this class When the current is permitted to flow of photography. the magnet. The wire ject and possible movement of the should be about 25 ft. A safe approximation.

1 Shows a Sectional Interior View. 2.. and Eacli E>iposure Has an Element of Mystery in the Uncertainty of the Result. Fig. and " . The Photograph Reproduced in the Oval was Taken with the Outfit Shown. Subjects un^icr Water Is a Fasci- nating Diversion. 221 Photograpiiin. a Detail of the Electrical Shutter Release ^^M'^^KMOM '^J'^JUX/Xfyj-JX/'JVJXnU . The Construc- tion of the Chamber is Shown at the Middle.

11. and 7. remarkable properties are easily con. Thus. But that first square 34. LANYON That there are a great many magic 9. and 12. are facts not generally combinations exclusively to its credit. should be pro. or 15. 16. Add any four numbers arranged around the center. al- magic number of 34.