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Massachusetts Geography Unit - Grade Three Social Studies

Learning Outcomes and Standards

Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework

 3.4. Use cardinal directions, map scales, legends, and titles to locate places on
contemporary maps of New England, Massachusetts, and the local community.
Unit Outcome #1

Students will be able to orally describe and sketch objects from different perspectives such as
aerial, bottom, and side view.

Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework

 3.1 (G) On a map of the United States, locate the New England states (Connecticut,
Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine) and the Atlantic Ocean.
On a map of Massachusetts, locate major cities and towns, Cape Ann, Cape Cod, the
Connecticut River, the Merrimack River, the Charles River, and the Berkshire Hills.
Unit Outcome #2

Students will be able to draw an accurate map of the shape of Massachusetts from memory on a
blank sheet of paper.

Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework

 3.1 (G) On a map of the United States, locate the New England states (Connecticut,
Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine) and the Atlantic Ocean.
On a map of Massachusetts, locate major cities and towns, Cape Ann, Cape Cod, the
Connecticut River, the Merrimack River, the Charles River, and the Berkshire Hills.
Unit Outcome #3

Students will be able to label specific bodies of water on a blank map of Massachusetts.

Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework

 3.2(G) Interpret a map using information from its title, compass rose, scale, and legend.
Unit Outcome #4

Students will be able to identify and use a map legend, scale, and interpret elevation levels on a
map.

Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework

 3.2(G) Interpret a map using information from its title, compass rose, scale, and legend.
Unit Outcome #5
Using the information about maps, students will be able to create their own topographical map of
Massachusetts that includes appropriate geographical notation such as symbols and terminology.
Lesson 1:

1) Learning outcomes

a) Students will be able to view objects, such as buildings, from different perspectives and
identify the perspective it is being viewed from.
(Benchmark: Identify aerial and side perspectives as shown on maps)

b) Students will be able to sketch objects from different perspectives.
(Benchmark: Identify aerial and side perspectives as shown on maps)

2) Materials:
a) Teacher:
i) White board
ii) Marker
iii) Projector
iv) Internet connection
v) Google maps (ready on Burr School)
vi) Classroom items to sketch (whiteboard eraser, ruler, marker)
vii) Chart Paper
viii) Three Different Views in class (20 copies)
ix) Three Different Views homework (20 copies)

b) Student:
i) Three Different Views in class (1 copy each)
ii) Pencil
iii) Three Different Views homework (1 copy each)

3) Procedures/Activities:
Teacher Student

Part One: (On rug)

1. I will hold up a whiteboard eraser 1. Students will raise their hands and
and ask students to describe what describe the eraser.
they see.
2. I will explain that what each 2. Students will actively listen and
student’s sees depends on what part learn that what they see and describe
of the object they are looking at. depends on their perspective.
Vocabulary word: viewpoint or
perspective
3. I will hold the eraser in different 3. Students will raise their hands and
positions and ask students to describe appropriately describe what they see.
what they see now.
4. On a large chart paper, I will 4. Students will watch and see how I
sketch each perspective as it is being draw what they describe for each
described and label each perspective. perspective of the eraser.
Vocabulary words: aerial view, side
view, bottom view
5. I will tell students that when a 5. Students will learn that maps are
cartographer or map maker creates a usually made from the aerial
map, they usually make it from an perspective.
aerial perspective.
Vocabulary word: cartographer
6. I will go to google.com and go to 6. Students will turn their attention to
maps and type in the Burr School the whiteboard and see the Burr
address. School on Google maps.
7. I will zoom in on the map and 7. Students will make observations
show the political and satellite maps about the political and satellite maps
of the school. of the Burr School.

8. I will ask the students, “What are 8. Students will raise their hands and
the differences and similarities share the similarities and differences
between the maps?” between the maps.

9. I will point out the roof of the 9. Students will raise their hands and
building and ask the students answer the questions.
questions like, “Does the roof look
flat?” and “Does the building look
tall or short?”

10. I will ask students if they are able 10. Students will raise their hands
to see what is underneath the and state if they can see anything
building from the aerial point of underneath the building.
view.
(Answer: No. You are unable to see
what is beneath an object from the
aerial perspective unless it sticks
out!)
11. I will display the Three Views 11. Students will view the Three
worksheet under the Elmo camera. Views worksheet on the board.

12. I will ask the class to observe a 12. Students will have 1 minute to
desk in the classroom. look at the table.

13. I will ask students to describe the 13. Students will raise their hand and
bottom, side, and aerial view point of describe the table from different
the desk. viewpoints.

14. I will draw the students’ 14. Students will observe as I draw
descriptions in the correct boxes. their descriptions in the labeled
boxes on the Three Read worksheet.

15. I will tell students that they will 15. Students will listen as I explain
be drawing two objects from the directions for the Three Different
different perspectives. I will explain Views worksheet.
the directions of the Three Different
Views worksheet while displaying it
on the overhead.

16. (*IF TIME) I will draw an object 16. Students will guess what the
(paperclip) from the side perspective object I have drawn from one
on the board and have students guess perspective is.
what it is.
17. I will tell the students what the 17. The students will find out what
object is. (paperclip) the object is.
18. I will ask the students if the 18. Students will raise their hands
drawing of the object from that and state their opinion on if the
perspective was helpful to identifying perspective drawing of that object
it. was helpful in identifying it.
19. I will discuss with class the fact 19. Students will actively listen and
that some perspectives provide more participate in the discussion of
information others. perspectives showing information
about an object.
Part 2: (At desks)

20. I will instruct students to walk 20. Students will walk back to their
back to their seats as I pass out the seats after they receive the Three
Three Different Views worksheet. Different Views worksheet.
21. I will distribute rulers and 21. Students will receive a ruler and a
markers for them to draw. marker to draw.
22. I will instruct students to work 22. Students will work
independently to draw views of the independently to draw views of the
ruler, marker, and one other object ruler, marker, and one other object
they choose. they choose.
23. Once the students are finished, I 23. Students will raise their hands
will ask students to share their work and share their work with the class
with the class on the overhead on the overhead projector.
projector.
24. I will show a map to the class and 24. Students will identify the
ask, “What perspective is used on perspective of the map I am holding
this map and most maps in general?” up and most maps in general.
as a review.
25. I will assign Three Different 25. Students will receive Three
Views for homework. Different Views for homework.
3) Assessments:

Description of eraser (pre-assessment)

Students will orally describe a whiteboard eraser from different points of view. This will allow
me to see if students can describe an object from a given point of view without describing the
whole object. It will show me which students cannot think of just one viewpoint when describing
the object and may need extra support during the lesson.

Three Different Views worksheet (in class) (formative assessment)

Students will complete a worksheet by drawing three objects from the aerial, side, and bottom
points of views. This will allow me to see which students could successfully draw given objects
from the three points of view and which students will need more support with perspective. I will
be able to use this information to pull a small group and work on perspective more with them or
use extra support worksheets with the whole class.

Three Different Views worksheet (homework) (post assessment)

Students will complete another worksheet at home by drawing two objects from the three
perspectives. This will allow me to see what students used the information they learned in class
to pick objects and draw them from a given perspective at home. I will be able to see which
students completed the worksheet successfully as well as which students are still struggling and
will need more support in a small group setting.
Lesson 2:

1) Learning outcomes

a) Students will be able to draw an accurate map of the shape of Massachusetts from
memory on a blank sheet of paper. (3.2(G) Interpret a map using information from its
title, compass rose, scale, and legend.)

2) Materials:
a) Teacher:
i) White board
ii) Marker
iii) Projector
iv) Copy of Ms. Achusetts (1)
v) Blank outline of Massachusetts (20)
vi) Plain white paper (20)

b) Student:
i) Blank sheet of paper (1 per student)
ii) Blank outline of Massachusetts (1 per student)
iii) pencil

4) Procedures/Activities:
Teacher Student

Part One: (At desks)

1. I will ask students to describe the 1. Students will think about and
shape of our state. describe the shape of our state.

2. I will pass out a blank sheet of 2. Students will receive a blank sheet
white paper and tell students to label of white paper and label one side
one side Before. Before.
3. I will tell students to draw the 3. Students will draw the shape of
shape of Massachusetts from Massachusetts from memory.
memory. I will tell students to do
their best.
4. I will collect their papers. 4. Students will hand in their papers.

5. I will display the outline map of 5. Students will observe the outline
Massachusetts on the projector. of Massachusetts on the board.
6. I will ask students what viewpoint 6. Students will raise their hands and
this map is from. (Answer: aerial) say what viewpoint the map is made
from.
7. I will ask students what they 7. Students will explain their
notice about the shape. observations about the shape of
Massachusetts.

8. I will introduce the vocabulary 8. Students will learn the vocabulary
word boundary and point out the word boundary and observe the
boundaries of Massachusetts. boundaries of Massachusetts.

9. I will point out that some are 9. Students will discuss why they
straight lines and others are wiggly. I think some of the boundaries are
will ask students why they think straight lines and why others are not.
some are straight and others are
wiggly.

*Students will learn more about
this next lesson!

10. I will read the Ms. Achusetts 10. Students will listen to the story
story. Ms. Achusetts.

Stop at:

11. I will review the main seven 11. Students will walk to the board
basic parts. As I review I will have and point out the part of
students come up to the board and Massachusetts that that the story is
describing.
point out the parts on the map of
Massachusetts.

 short left puffy sleeve
 right, long puffy curved
sleeve
 two big chunks of “material”
that fell from the left sleeve
 many small pieces that also
fell
 scooped, ruffled neckline
 Southwick’s trademark tag
(the notch along the southern
border)
 Uneven hemline
12. I will pass out a blank outline the 12. Students will receive a blank map
Massachusetts. of the state.

13. I will instruct students to fold 13. Students will fold their map in
their map in half the long way. half the long way.
(southern boundary on the fold)

14. I will ask students what they 14. Students will describe what they
notice. notice.
(Only the tip of the left “sleeve” goes
above the southern straight
boundary)
15. I will ask students to put away 15. Students will put away their
their blank outline of the state. blank outline of the state.
16. I will pass back the worksheets 16. Students will receive their
with the Before picture of worksheets with the Before picture of
Massachusetts. Massachusetts on it.
17. I will instruct students to flip 17. Students will flip over their paper
over their paper and write After. and write After.
18. I will ask students to draw the 18. Students will draw the outline of
outline of Massachusetts from Massachusetts from memory again.
memory again.
(“Remember to fold the paper in half
and think about Ms. Achusetts and
Southwick the tailor if you get
stuck!”)
5) Assessments:

Before outline of Massachusetts (pre-assessment)

Students will draw the outline of Massachusetts from memory without and prior information
about the state from a lesson. This will allow me to see which students already have a basic grasp
on the shape of the state before the lesson.

After outline of Massachusetts (formative assessment)

Students will use that they learned in the lesson to draw the outline shape of Massachusetts. This
will allow me to see what students retained the information about the boundaries and shape of
the state from observations and the Ms. Achusetts story. It will allow me to see which students
did not retain the concept of the shape of Massachusetts and who will need more help drawing
the state moving forward in the unit. This assessment will also allow me to see the improvement
from one drawing to another.
Lesson 3:

3) Learning outcomes

a) Students will be able to identify and explain symbols, interpret an elevation key, and
identify the scale and explain its purpose on a legend of a given map. (3.2(G) Interpret a
map using information from its title, compass rose, scale, and legend.)

b) Students will be able to use information and vocabulary they have learned about maps to
complete a scavenger hunt. (3.2(G) Interpret a map using information from its title,
compass rose, scale, and legend.)

4) Teacher Content Knowledge:

A Compass Rose is a circle showing the principle and intermediate directions. It can
either be printed on a map or a traditional magnetic compass. Today it is found on almost every
type of navigational system. A compass is used to see what direction a person is traveling. A
compass can also be used for telling what direction an object is moving such as the moon. To
find out where North is in an area, a person must slowly turn the compass until the red arrow is
directly on the N. Cardinal directions are the most commonly used directions. They are North,
South, East, and West. They are denoted by their initials: N, S, E, and W. The ordinal directions
are Northwest, Northeast, Southwest and Southeast. They are also denoted by their initials: NE,
NW, SW, and SE.

Political maps often show political boundaries between states with solid black lines
although sometimes it is denoted by a dotted line. Massachusetts is bounded by the Atlantic
Ocean on its east coast and New York on its west. Massachusetts is also bounded by New
Hampshire and Vermont in the North and Connecticut and Rhode Island in the South. The
creation of the state boarder came through physical boundaries, such as the Atlantic Ocean, as
well as people that wanted land and fought over it. The boundaries created by humans are the
straight border edges of the state while the ragged borders were created by natural land forms.

The capital of Massachusetts is Boston and it is located in the Northern part of the state.
This city contains the State Capitol building as well as other points of interest such as Logan
International Airport. Newton is outside of Boston. Boston College is Newton’s eastern
boundary.

A legend is a list of symbols on a map and their explanations. These symbols are small
pictures or colors that represent different things on a map. These symbols may show state
capitols, rivers/streams, points of interest, cities, highest points, and cities. These symbols help
people locate specific things on the map they are using.
Sources:
 http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/comprose.htm
 http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-a-map-key-legend-definition-symbols-
examples.html
Vocabulary:

Legend- a list of symbols on a map and their explanations
Boundary- something that points out or shows a limit or end; dividing line
Border- same as boundary
Scale drawing- a drawing that represents an actual object or region but is a different size; the
scale tells how to change the distance on a map to a real life distance

5) Materials:
a) Teacher:
i) Large Rand McNally map of Massachusetts (10)
ii) String
iii) Magic markers
iv) Scavenger Hunt worksheet (20)

b) Student:
i) Large Rand McNally map of Massachusetts (1 per pair)
ii) Scavenger Hunt worksheet (1 per student)
iii) pencil

4) Procedures/Activities:
Teacher Student

Part One: (on rug)
Guided tour of map
1. (Students will be sitting on rug) I 1. Students will be paired up.
will put students in pairs.
2. I will give each pair of students 1 2. Students will receive Rand
Rand McNally map. McNally map in pairs.
3. I will ask students to locate the 3. Students will locate the compass
compass rose on their maps. rose on their map.
4. I will discuss cardinal and ordinal 4. Students will participate in a
with the students. discussion about cardinal and ordinal
directions.
5. I will instruct students to place 5. Students will place their fingers on
their finger on the border of the border of Massachusetts and trace
Massachusetts and to trace it. it one at a time.
“How is the boundary shown?”
(Answer: dotted line. The solid gray
lines are county boundaries.)

6. I will ask students: 6. Students will raise their hands to
 “What is the eastern border of contribute answers to each question.
Massachusetts?” (Answer:
water, Atlantic ocean)
 “What are the northern
boarders of MA?” (Answer:
New Hampshire, Vermont)
 “What are the southern
borders of MA?” (Answer:
Rhode Island, Connecticut)
 “What are they western
borders of MA?” (New York)
7. I will point out the border between 7. Students will observe and learn
New Hampshire and Vermont and about the state boundary between
discuss how the Connecticut River is New Hampshire and Vermont.
the state boundary.

8. I will ask students to talk to their 8. Students will have 2 minutes to
partner about why part of the discuss why part of the
Massachusetts boundary is a straight Massachusetts boundary is a straight
line and another part is squiggly.
line and another part is squiggly.

9. I will ask students to share their 9. Students will raise their hands and
answers with the class. share their answers with the class.

(Answer: The straight part was
created by people and the wiggly
eastern border follows the natural
coastline.)

10. I will ask the students, “Why do 10. Students will raise their hands
you think there are borders or and answer the question.
boundaries between states?”

11. I will ask students 11. Students will raise their hands to
answer the questions.
 “What do you suppose the
blue lines and shapes
represent?” (water)
 “Given this information, what
title would you give this
map?” (Massachusetts Water
Bodies)
Part Two:

(State Capitals and Vicinity)

12. I will instruct students to look at 12. Students will look at the inset
the inset map. map.

13. I will ask, “What is this map 13. Students will share what this map
showing compared to the larger is showing compared to the big map.
map?”

14. I will ask students the following 14. Students will raise their hands
questions about Newton: and answer the various questions
 “What color is Newton about Newton.
shaded on this map?”
 “What are ALL the
surrounding towns and cities
around Newton?”
 “What landmark is right
along Newton’s eastern
boundary?” (Boston College)
 “Name one road or street that
goes through Newton from
east to west.”
 “Are these all the streets in
Newton?” (No)
 “Why are all the streets not
shown on this map?”

15. I will ask the students the 15. Students will use a variety of turn
following questions about Boston: and talk procedures and raising their
 “What color is Boston shaded hands to answer these questions.
on this map?”
 “Name some points of
interest in Boston.”
 “The capital building for our
state is in Boston. It is shown
as a star inside a circle. Is it in
the northern or southern
section of the city?”
 “Find Logan International
Airport. What symbol is
shown? In what part of the
city is it (northern or
southern)?”
 “What would you title this
map?”

16. I will tell students to pass their 16. Students will pass their maps up
maps up to the front and walk back to to the front and walk back to their
their seats. seats.
Part three (DAY 2):
(Legend and Scale)
17. I will put students in pairs on the 17. Students will be assigned a pair
rug. on the rug.
18. I will pass out a Rand McNally 18. Each pair of students will receive
map to each pair. a Rand McNally map.
19. I will tell students to turn their 19. Students will focus on side two
maps onto the other side. of their map.
20. I will ask students to discuss how 20. Students will discuss the
this map is similar and different than similarities and difference between
the map we studied before with their this map and the map they have
partner. studied before with their partner.
21. I will ask students to share what 21. Students will raise their hands
similarities and difference they have and share their answers with the
discussed. class.
22. I will tell students to trace the 22. Students will trace the MA state
state boundary of Massachusetts with boundary with their finger one at a
their finger one at a time. time.
23. I will ask students what states 23. Students will raise their hands
boarder Massachusetts. and state which states boarder MA.
24. I will ask which body of water 24. Students will raise their hands
borders Massachusetts. and state which body of water
borders Massachusetts.
25. I will point out the more obvious 25. Students will observe the more
boundary between New Hampshire obvious boundary between New
and Vermont. (not a river but an Hampshire and Vermont.
actual boundary)
26. I will ask students to locate the 26. Student will try to locate the
legend on their maps with their legend on their map with their
partner. partner.
Vocabulary word: legend
27. I will ask what the students 27. Students will raise their hands
thought the legend was and point out and identify what they thought the
the actual legend if they did not find legend was.
it.
28. I will tell students to put their 28. Students will put their finger on
finger on the symbol for state capital. the symbol for the state capital.
29. I will repeat this process with the 29. Students will put their finger on
symbols for: the symbol for the given focus point.
 Cities
 Airport
 Rivers/streams
 Highest point
 Points of interest
30. I will ask students if they have 30. Students will raise their hands if
any questions about the symbols or they have any questions about the
vocabulary. symbols or vocabulary words.
31. I will tell the students, “Now 31. Students will locate Boston.
using this information from the
legend please locate and put your
fingers on Boston which is our state
capital.”
32. I will ask “Which part of the state 32. Students will raise their hands
is Boston in? North, Northeast, and state which part of the state
South…?” Boston is in.
33. I will repeat this process with the 33. Students will repeat the process
cities and towns of: with the given city or town.
 Newton
 Framingham
 Springfield
 Pittsfield

34. I will ask the students “Why are 34. Students will raise their hand and
names of the cities in different explain why they think the names of
sizes?” (Answer: larger population = cities are in different sizes.
larger font)
35. I will tell students to use the 35. Students will have about 2
information from the legend to minutes to use the information from
identify human-created points of the legend to identify human-created
interest on the map with their partner. points of interest on the map with
 Plimoth Plantation their partner.
 Logan Airport
 Minute Man National Park in
Lexington
36. I will ask students what points of 36. Students will raise their hands
interests they have talked about and and explain what points of interests
where are they located. they have talked about and where are
they located.
37. I will tell students to use the 37. Students will have about 2
information from the legend to minutes to use the information from
identify natural points of interest on the legend to identify natural points
the map with their partner. of interest on the map with their
 Mount Greylock partner.
 The Quabbin Reservoir
 Connecticut River
 Martha’s Vineyard
 Nantucket
 Cape Cod
38. I will ask students what points of 38. Students will raise their hands
interests they have talked about and and explain what points of interests
where are they located. they have talked about and where are
they located
39. I will ask students to locate the 39. Students will locate the scale on
scale on the map. the Rand McNally map.
40. I will ask if any student knows 40. Students will raise their hand and
what the scale means or what a scale explain a scale.
is. If no one does I will explain what
a scale is.
Vocabulary- scale
41. I will tell students that we will 41. Students will hear that they will
use the scale:1 inch = 10 miles. be using a different scale than the
one on the map.
42. I will ask the questions: 42. Students will raise their hans and
 If 1 inch equals 10 miles, then answer how many miles each
how many miles is 3 inches question represents.
equal to?
 5 inches?
43. I will ask students what could be 43. Students will raise their hands
a possible way to measure the inches and state possible ways to measure
between 2 cities or towns on the distance between 2 places on the
map? map.
(Possible answers: finger, string,
ruler)
44. I will model how to find the 44. Students will watch as I model
distance between Boston to how to find the distance between
Worcester on the board with a ruler. Boston and Worcester.
45. I will pass out rulers to the 45. Students will receive a ruler.
students.
46. I will model how to measure the 46. Students will follow along
distance between Newton and Boston measuring the distance between
and how to convert it to miles using Newton and Boston and how to
the scale. convert it to miles using the scale.
47. I will tell students to find the 47. Students will find the distance, in
distance, in miles, between Newton miles, between Newton and
and Plymouth. Plymouth.
48. I will preview the “Rand 48. Students will watch a preview of
McNally Map Scavenger Hunt” with the “Rand McNally Map Scavenger
the students on the board. Hunt” with the students on the board.
49. I will tell students to complete 49. Students will complete the
the “Rand McNally Map Scavenger “Rand McNally Map Scavenger
Hunt” with a partner. Hunt” with a partner.
5) Assessments:

Map Guided Tour (formative assessment)
Students will be answering questions throughout the guided tour of both sides of the Rand
McNally map. The questions will incorporate information about about the shape of
Massachusetts, borders to and boundaries of Massachusetts, what information can be learned
from a legend, directions, using a scale, and locating given places on a map. The amount of
students who are able to correctly answer or agree with an answer given will show me student
success rates on reading a map. If students are struggling to answer questions about certain
information, I will be able to see that more support is needed in that area of reading the map and
can plan the next lesson accordingly.

“Rand McNally Map Scavenger Hunt” (formative assessment)
Students will use the map to complete a scavenger hunt packet. This packet will show me which
students were able to use the legend to find out what symbols on the map stand for, apply
directions when travelling from one place to another, interpret boundaries, and use a scale
correctly. I will be able to see the amount of questions students got correct and which questions
were difficult. I will be able to see how many students struggled with certain topics and if the
students will need more support.
Lesson 4:

6) Learning outcomes

a) Students will be able to label specific bodies of water on a blank map of Massachusetts.

(3.1 (G) On a map of the United States, locate the New England states (Connecticut, Rhode
Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine) and the Atlantic Ocean. On a map
of Massachusetts, locate major cities and towns, Cape Ann, Cape Cod, the Connecticut
River, the Merrimack River, the Charles River, and the Berkshire Hills.)

7) Teacher Content Knowledge:

There are several types of water ways and bodies of water. One type is a bay. A bay is a
broad inlet of sea where the land curves inward. It is connected to an ocean or a lake. A bay
may also be called a gulf, or a bight. Another type is a lake. A lake is a large area of variable
size filled with water, localized in a basin that is surrounded by land. It is apart from
any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. It is away from the ocean and
larger than a pond. A reservoir is an artificial lake where water is stored. Most are formed by
constructing dams across rivers. It can also be formed from a natural lake whose outlet has
been dammed to control the water level. A canal is an artificial waterway constructed to
allow the passage of boats or ships inland or to convey water for irrigation. A river is a large
natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea, a lake, or another such stream. All
river start at the highest point in an area and flow downstream while picking up water from
other rivers or streams. A tributary is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main
stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean.
The Connecticut River is the longest river in New England, flowing 410 miles from the
(north) Canadian border to the (south) Long Island Sound. It serves as the state border
between New Hampshire and Vermont. There are 13 existing dams on the main stream and
many more on the tributaries. The Connecticut River is the sum of hundreds of tributaries,
large and small.
The Merrimack River flows from the north to the south. It flows for 110 miles. The main
cities along the river are Concord, Manchester, and Nashua New Hampshire,
and Lowell, Lawrence, and Haverhill Massachusetts. The Taunton River flows from
northeast to southeast. It is located in in Southeastern Massachusetts, about 30 miles south of
Boston. It flows for about 40 through the towns of Bridgewater and continues through the
towns of Halifax, Middleboro, Raynham, City of Taunton, Towns of Dighton, Berkley and
Freetown. The Charles River flows west to east. It is a small, relatively short river, draining a
total land area of 308 square miles. The Charles River is 80 miles long and located in eastern
Massachusetts. It travels through 23 cities and towns before reaching the Atlantic Ocean at
Boston.
The Quabbin Reservoir is one of the largest man-made public water supplies in the
United States. It is 18 miles long and has 181 miles of shoreline. When it is full, Quabbin holds
412 billion gallons of water. It is located in the central part of Massachusetts.

Source:
 http://nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/
 http://www.crjc.org/facts.htm
 http://www.tauntonriver.org/gen_taunton.htm#2
 http://www.crwa.org/charles-river-history
 http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dcr/massparks/region-central/quabbin-reservoir.html

Vocabulary:

Bay- a body of water partially enclosed by land but with a wide mouth
Lake- a large inland body of fresh or salt water
Reservoir- a natural or artificial pond or lake used to store water
Canal- a artificial waterway used for traveling or shipping
River- a large natural stream of water emptying into an ocean, lake, or other body of water and
usually fed by smaller rivers or streams
Tributary- a stream that flows into a larger stream or other body of water

8) Materials:
a) Teacher:
i) Rand McNally map of Massachusetts (10)
ii) Major Rivers and Water Ways Map (20)
iii) BLANK Major Rivers and Water Ways Map (20)
iv) Colored pencils
v) Major Rivers and Water Ways Map to use on board (1)

b) Student:
i) Rand McNally map of Massachusetts (1 per pair)
ii) Major Rivers and Water Ways Map (1 per student)
iii) Colored pencils

4) Procedures/Activities:
Teacher Student

1. I will pair students on the rug. 1. Students will be paired up on the
rug.
2. I will hand out 1 Rand McNally 2. Students will receive a map and be
map to each pair of students and I told to focus on side 2.
will tell the students to focus on side
2 of the map.
3. I will tell students to locate and 3. Students will locate and identify
identify bodies of water in bodies of water in Massachusetts
Massachusetts with their partner. with their partner.
 Not by name but by type of
body of water
(FOCUS: bays, ocean, reservoirs,
lake)
4. I will ask students what were the 4. Students will raise their hand and
bodies of water they noticed. I will state bodies of water as I make a list.
make a list as they name the bodies
of water.
5. I will define bay, ocean, reservoir, 5. Students will listen as I define the
and lake on the list. bodies of water.
6. I will ask the students, “What is 6. Students will raise their hand to
the difference between a reservoir answer the question.
and a lake?”.
7. I will ask students why they think 7. Students will raise their hands and
this map does not show names of explain why they think this map does
most water bodies. not show names of most water
bodies.
8. I will display the Massachusetts 8. Students will observe the
Major Rivers and Waterways map on Massachusetts Major Rivers and
the overhead. Waterways map on the overhead.

9. I will point out the labeled 9. Students will watch and help read
features: the labeled featured from the map
aloud.
 Atlantic Ocean
 Cape Cod Bay
 Cape Cod Canal
 Nantucket
 Martha’s Vineyard
 Taunton River
 Charles River
 Merrimack River

 Quabbin Reservoir
 Connecticut River
 Labeled States
 Capitol Symbol
10. I will point out the bordering 10. Students will raise their hands
states and the Connecticut River and and describe what they notice about
ask what students notice about the the Connecticut River.
river.

(It does not end at the state
boundary. It flows down into
Connecticut as well as serves as the
border between Vermont and New
Hampshire.)

11. I will ask students how many 11. Students will raise their hands
rivers are connected to the and state how many rivers are
Connecticut River. I will explain the connected to the Connecticut River
vocabulary word tributary. and learn the meaning of tributary.

12. I will remind the students of the 12. Students will be reminded of the
Ms. Achusetts story we read a few part of Ms. Achusetts story about the
classes ago. Connecticut River to make a
connection with the river.
(“Southwick said he was originally
going to “cut” the dress hem on the
Connecti“cut” River but he did not
because his tag would not have been
part of the dress. Notice that the
Connecticut River “cuts” all the way
through MA.”)

13. I will point out the Merrimack 13. Students will observe the
River again and explain that is flows Merrimack river again and that is
southeast from New Hampshire to flows southeast from New
the ocean. It closes the MA-NH Hampshire to the ocean, closing the
border. MA-NH border.

14. I will relate the Merrimack River 14. Students will be reminded of the
to the Ms. Achusetts story. part of Ms. Achusetts story about the
Merrimack River to make a
(“Southwick always decorated the connection with the river.
sleeves on his dresses so he made an
edge so beautiful on the right sleeve
that it made him feel “merry” which
will help us remember the
“Merri”mack River.”)

15. I will point out the Taunton River 15. Students will be reminded of the
again and connect it to the Ms. part of Ms. Achusetts story about the
Achusetts story. Taunton River to make a connection
(“Southwick needed to add with the river.
decoration on the other sleeve but he
had a “ton” of sewing to do that day.
This will help us remember the name
of the Taun“ton” River”.)
16. I will point out the Charles River 16. Students will be reminded of the
again and connect it to the Ms. part of Ms. Achusetts story about the
Achusetts story. Charles River to make a connection
(“Ms. Achusetts’ Uncle Charles gave with the river.
her a blue sapphire necklace that she
never took off but when she swam
into the Atlantic Ocean, it broke!
This is how we can remember the
name of the Charles River.”)
17. I will tell students they will get a 17. Students will listen to the
blank map of Major Rivers and directions about Major Rivers and
Water Ways to complete. The Water Ways they will complete.
directions are on the bottom left.
18. I will explain extra challenges the 18. Students will listen to challenge
students may want to try on their work for their map.
maps.
 Sketch bordering states
 Continue Connecticut River
(north and south)
 Label Boston
 Show the flow of the rivers
with an arrow
19. I will hand out the blank maps 19. Students will receive a blank map
and send students back to their desks. and walk back to their desks.

20. If time allows, I will review the 20. Students will review their maps
map with the students when they when they are finished.
have completed theirs.

5) Assessments:

Major Rivers and Water Ways worksheet (formative assessment)
Students will fill in their own blank version of the Major Rivers and Water Way worksheet after
we have reviewed all the features of a completed Major Rivers and Water Way worksheet. This
will allow me to see which students understood where each river, water body, and water way is
located on the map or Massachusetts. This worksheet will allow me to see how well students
were able to retain the information we discussed about the water bodies and water ways as a
class. It will allow me to judge which students were able to complete the map successfully and
which students will need more support on bodies of water, rivers, and water way locations on a
map of Massachusetts.
Lesson 5:

9) Learning outcomes

a) Students will be able to interpret an elevation key using a legend on a Rand McNally
map. (3.2(G) Interpret a map using information from its title, compass rose, scale, and
legend.)
b) Students will be able to color in two versions of a topographical map of Massachusetts to
show the change in elevation across the state. (3.2(G) Interpret a map using information
from its title, compass rose, scale, and legend.)

10) Teacher Content Knowledge:

A topographical is a map intermediate between a general map and a plan on a scale
large enough to show roads, plans of towns, and contour lines. Another ma p is an
elevation map. You are able to tell how high certain land is at or above sea level. Land
rises from sea level. The highest point above sea level on Earth is the peak of Mount Everest.
It is 29,028 feet above the sea level. Elevation maps use color to show the height of the land. The
key gives a color code for level of elevation. Usually, darker green areas are at or close to sea
level. Light yellow or tan areas are the farthest above sea level.
The highest point in Massachusetts is in the northwestern part of the state: Mount Greylock.
It rises to 3,486 feet above sea level in a part of the Appalachian Mountains. The lowest point in
the state is sea level at the Atlantic Ocean.

Source:
 http://petrimoulx.pbworks.com/f/Chapter13skillbuilder.pdf
 http://www.netstate.com/states/geography/mapcom/ma_mapscom.htm

Vocabulary:

Topography-graphic representation of the surface features of a place or region on a map,
indicating their positions and elevations
Elevation- the height of a land feature above ground
Sea Level- the level of the ocean’s surface used as a standard to determine land elevation or sea
depths
Low Land- an area of land that is low in relation to the surrounding country
Upland- an area of land that is high in relation to the surrounding country
Hill- a natural elevation smaller than a mountain
Mountain- a natural elevation of the earth’s surface having a great height and steep sides

11) Materials:
a) Teacher:
i) Rand McNally map of Massachusetts (10)
ii) Model of elevation (made from “Model Magic”)
iii) Side View of Massachusetts blank worksheet (20)
iv) Side View of Massachusetts teacher key (1)
v) Topography of Massachusetts blank worksheet (20)
vi) Topography of Massachusetts teacher key (1)
vii) Colored pencils

b) Student:
i) Side View of Massachusetts blank worksheet (1 per student)
ii) Topography of Massachusetts blank worksheet (1 per student)
iii) Colored pencils

4) Procedures/Activities:
Teacher Student

Part One:

1. I will pair students up on the rug. 1. Students will be paired on the rug.

2. I will give each pair a Rand 2. Students will receive a Rand
McNally map and tell them to turn to McNally map and turn to side 2.
side 2.

3. I will ask students to locate the 3. Students will locate the elevation
“Elevation Key” on their map with key on their map with their finger.
their finger.

4. I will introduce the vocabulary 4. Students will listen to the
word elevation. definition of the word elevation.

5. I will ask students to turn to their 3. Students will turn to their partner
partner and discuss what they think and discuss what the colors mean on
the colors mean on the Elevation the elevation key.
Key.

6. I will ask students to explain what 6. Students will raise their hands and
they think the colors mean to the explain what they think the colors
class. mean to the class.

7. I will explain that a topographical 7. Students will listen to an
map shows the type of land features explanation of topographical maps.
and the height of land in a given area.

8. I will ask 6 to 8 students to line up 8. Students will line up or observe
against the whiteboard in a random classmates lining up against the
order. white board.

9. I will draw a line along the 9. Students will observe as I draw a
whiteboard to reflect the top of their line across the top of the students
heads. heads.

10. I will ask students to sit back 10. Students will sit back down.
down.

11. I will ask students what they 11. Students will raise their hand and
think this line represents. explain what they believe this line
represents.
(Answer: it reflects the height of the
students from the floor! This is a type
of topography or elevation map.)

12. I will instruct students to look 12. Students will look back at their
back at their elevation key on the elevation key on the Rand McNally
Rand McNally map. map.

13. As a class, the students and I will 13. Students will use the key to
determine different elevations on the determine different elevations on the
map. map.

14. I will explain that the colors 14. Students will learn about the
indicate the height of the land above colors on the map and the vocabulary
sea level just like the line on the word sea level.
board represents the height of
students above the floor.
Vocabulary: Sea level
15. I will introduce these vocabulary 15. Students will learn about the
words along with their elevations: different elevation vocabulary.
 Lowland (0-800ft)
 Upland (800-1,000ft)
 Hills (1,000-1,300ft)
 Mountains (1,300-1,600+ft)
16. I will use the model of elevation 16. Students will observe the model
to help students understand the of elevation.
concept of changing elevations.
17. I will ask students to look back at 17. Students will look at their
their elevation key and find the sea elevation key and find sea level.
level color. I will explain that sea
level is also called lowland.

18. I will as students why lowland is 18. Students will raise their hands
a good name for this land. and explain students why lowland is
a good name for this land.

19. I will ask students to locate other 19. Students will locate the colors of
colors for hills, mountains, ad a given elevation on the key and on
uplands on the key as well as the the map.
map.
20. I will ask students, “If you could 20. Students will raise their hands
take Massachusetts, pick it up, and and answer what they would see.
view it from the side, what would
you see?”
 While they are brainstorming
I will remind them of the
view of the people lined up
against the board.
21. I will introduce the Side View 21. Students will view the Side View
map of Massachusetts on the map of Massachusetts on the board.
overhead.
22. I will tell students this is the side 22. Students will look at the side
view of Massachusetts from east to view of MA.
west.
23. I will hand out blank copies of 23. Students will receive blank
the Side View map of Massachusetts copies of the Side View map of
and tell students to go back to their Massachusetts and tell students to go
seats. back to their seats.

24. I will discuss and color each 24. Students will discuss and color
elevation in order from lowest to each elevation in order from lowest
highest while the students complete to highest on their worksheet.
their worksheets at their desks.
25. I will then introduce a blank 25. Students will see a blank outline
outline topographical map of topographical map of Massachusetts
Massachusetts on the overhead. on the overhead.

26. I will pass out copies to the 26. Students will receive a copy of
students and discuss the new the map and learn about its new
perspective of the map. perspective.
27. I will lead a discussion and color 27. Students will participate in a
in the elevations from lowest to discussion and color in the elevations
highest while the students color from lowest to highest.
theirs at their desks.
28. I will ask students which 28. Students will raise their hands
elevation is most common in and answer the question.
Massachusetts.
29. I will ask, “What does this mean 29. Students will raise their hands
about Massachusetts?” and answer the question.

30. I will ask students if they see 30. Students will raise their hands
elevations jumping from mountains and state if they see this or not.
to lowlands on their maps.
31. I will explain that elevations 31. Students will learn about gradual
increase and decrease gradually and increasing and decreasing of
do not jump around. elevations.

32. I will tell students that Mt. 32. Students will learn about the
Greylock may seem tall when relative height of Mt. Greylock.
looking at the map but it is not
relative to other mountain ranges and
structures in the world.
Examples:
 Mt. Everest 29,028 ft
 Empire State building 1,050ft
 Airplanes fly between 25,000
and 35,000 ft
33. I will show students the model 33. Students will observe the model
magi clay we will be using and magic and listen to directions about
explain expectations for using the how to use it appropriately.
material appropriately.
34. I will hand out the model magic 34. Students will receive model
in this order explaining the elevation magic clay and will put it in the
levels as the class moves through the correct area of their colored in
activity: Topography of Massachusetts map
 Light green according to elevation.
 Yellow
 Orange
35. I will tell students to color the top 35. Students will color the top of the
of the orange model magic black orange model magic black with a
with a sharpie to show Mt. Greylock. sharpie to show Mt. Greylock.

36. I will instruct students to put their 36. Students will put their finished
finished maps on the back table to maps on the back table to dry.
dry.

Assessments:

Side View of Massachusetts map (formative assessment)
Students will color this map in based on the key of elevation given at the bottom of the
worksheet. It will allow me to see if students can identify an elevation on a map, correctly
identify it as Lowland, Uplands, Hills, or Mountains, and follow the key to color the elevation
the given color. I will be able to determine which students can complete this work successfully
and which students will need more support and practice with elevation and keys.

Topography of Massachusetts map (formative assessment)
Students will color in a map of Massachusetts based on an elevation key. They will also locate
Mt. Greylock and Boston on the map. I will use this map to see if students can successfully fill
out and use an elevation key and identify the different elevation levels throughout Massachusetts.
It will also allow me to see which students need more support on using keys and finding
elevation levels in Massachusetts.
Lesson 6:

Learning outcomes

c) Students will be able to use the information they have learned to create their own
topographical map of Massachusetts on a previously colored worksheet using model
magic.

Teacher Content Knowledge:

Massachusetts is divided into four topographical regions. These regions include coastal
lowlands, interior lowlands, dissected uplands, and residuals of ancient mountains. The coastal
lowlands are located on the eastern edge of the state and they extend from the Atlantic Ocean
coast 30–50 mi (48–80 km) inland. The Connecticut River Valley is the main feature of west-
central Massachusetts. East of the Connecticut River Valley are the eastern uplands. They are an
extension of the White Mountains of New Hampshire. From elevations as high as 1,100 ft in
midstate, this ridge slopes down gradually toward the rocky northern coast. In western
Massachusetts, the Taconic Range and Berkshire Hills are characterized by numerous hills and
valleys. Mt. Greylock, a mountain close to the New York border, is the highest point in the state,
at 3,487 ft (1,064 m).
There are more than 4,230 mi of rivers in the state. The Connecticut River, the longest, runs
southward through west-central Massachusetts. Its tributaries include: the Deerfield, Westfield,
Chicopee, and Millers rivers. Other rivers of note include the Charles and the Mystic, which flow
into Boston harbor as well as the Taunton, which empties into Mount Hope Bay at Fall River.
The Merrimack River, flows from New Hampshire to the Atlantic Ocean in the state's northeast
corner. There are over 1,100 lakes in the state. The largest, the artificial Quabbin Reservoir in
central Massachusetts, covers 24,704 acres. The largest natural lake is Assawompset Pond in
southern Massachusetts, occupying 2,656 acres.

Source:

http://www.city-data.com/states/Massachusetts-Topography.html#ixzz4MgjZRIxB

12) Materials:
a) Teacher:
i) Student topographical map of Massachusetts
ii) Sharpie
iii) Glue
iv) Model magic (light green, orange, yellow)
v) Topography of Massachusetts finished maps

b) Student:
i) Student topographical map of Massachusetts
ii) Colored Pencil/markers
iii) Model magic
iv) sharpie

4) Procedures/Activities:
Teacher Student

1. I will instruct students to take out 1. Students will take ou their
their whiteboards and markers. whiteboards and markers.

2. I will tell students to draw the 2. Students will draw the outline of
outline of Massachusetts and include Massachusetts and include a compass
a compass and major waterways. and major waterways.
Bordering states and oceans are
worth bonus points.

3. I will tell students to share their 3. Students will share their work with
work with the person next to them. the student next to them.

4. I will draw Massachusetts on the 4. Students will check their answers
board with a compass and major with mine on the board
waterways.

5. I will tell students to put their 5. Students will put their whiteboards
whiteboards away. away.

6. I will ask students what a 6. Students will raise their hands and
topographical map is and what we state what a topographical map is and
can learn from it. what we can learn from it.

7. I will tell the students we will be 7.
making a topographical map of
Massachusetts from the aerial
perspective today.

8. I will display the Topographical 8. Students will observe and point
map outline of Massachusetts on the out where the specified regions are.
board and ask students:

 Where are the lowlands?
 Uplands?
 Hills?
 Mountain?
9. I will tell students to take out a 9. Students will take out a dark
dark green, light green, yellow, and green, light green, yellow, and
orange marker or colored pencil. orange marker or colored pencil.

10. I will pass out the map of 10. Students will receive the map of
Massachusetts and tell the students Massachusetts.
not to color on it yet.

11. I will model which colors should 11. Students will fill out their key on
go with which elevation on the key their worksheet.
on the board.

12. I will model how to work from 12. Students will color their maps
right to left, coloring the map from right to left according to their
according to the key on the board. key.

13. I will walk around and make sure 13. Students will continue working
students are coloring the elevations on their map coloring and marking
the correct color and completely Boston and waterways.
filling the map and marking Boston
and waterways.

(Charles River, Merrimack River,
Taunton River, Connecticut River.
Quabbin Reservoir)

14. I will explain how we will be
using model magic to show the
different elevations of MA on the
map.

15. I will tell the students the 15. Students will listen and
expectations of using model magic. contribute to a discussion about
expectations when working with
 Tool NOT toy model magic.
 We only have a certain
amount to use it carefully
 Place given color in specified
area
 Spread the clay completely
over the area

16. I will ask students why we will 16. Students will discuss why the
not be using dark green model magic. dark green layer will not get model
magic.
(Answer: Dark green is the low land)

17. I will ask students to point with 17. Students will point with their
their finger and show me where the finger and show where the light
light green model magic will go and green model magic will go and
ask why we are making this layer discuss why this layer is higher than
higher than the dark green. the dark green areas.

(Answer: The elevation is higher in
this part of the state.)

18. I will model how to spread the 18. Students will watch as I model
clay all the way to the edges of the how to spread the clay all the way to
section and how high to make the the edges of the section and how high
layer. to make the layer.

19. I will pass out the model magic 19. Students will receive model
for students to put on their map. magic and spread it on their map.

20. I will repeat this process with the 20. Students will repeat this process
orange and yellow model magic. with the orange and yellow model
(orange should be the highest) magic.

21. When the orange has dried, I will 21. Students will receive sharpies.
pass out sharpies to the students.
22. I will explain that we will use the 22.
sharpies to shade the top of one
orange layer to signify Mt. Greylock.
23. I will model how to use the 23. Students will observe and use
sharpie to shade the top of the orange the sharpie to shade the top of the
layer. orange layer.

5) Assessments:

Topography of Massachusetts map (with model magic) (formative assessment)
The students will have previous colored this map according to the elevation key. In this lesson,
students will be marking features on the map such as: Boston, a compass, major rivers and water,
and Mt. Greylock. Students will add a legend for this information. This map will also include
model magic to represent the different elevations on the map. From this map I will be able to see
which students understand where information such as rivers and mountains go on the map of
Massachusetts. I will also be able to see if students can create a legend with information from a
map. I will also be able to tell if students truly understand what elevation is based on their use of
model magic clay. I will be able to observe how students increase the height of the clay in each
elevation area based on how high it should be. I will be able to see if students are struggling with
the concept of elevation, legends, or labeling Massachusetts. I will be able to adjust my unit
review based on the needs of students shown from this map.