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Passive Design

Prof. Liam O’Brien

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What is “passive”?
• Many definitions
• Here we’re defining passive as systems and strategies
that require in mechanical or electrical input
• Passive is: envelope, natural ventilation, daylighting,
thermal mass
• Passive is not: HVAC, lighting, renewable energy systems
– But some people count HRVs/ERVs and renewables as
passive.

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Contents
1. Passive House
2. Passive solar
3. Fixed shading system design
4. Natural Ventilation
5. Daylighting and lighting

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• Not rely heavily on occupants to make a building function properly. power outages) • Geometry. • Resilience (e. geometry.and materials. geometry….g. Objective • Use natural “free” forces to reduce energy use and improve occupant comfort.. 4 .

The optimal mix: passive and active Energy Efficiency • Energy efficiency Measures PV measures provide diminishing returns • At some point. Economically cycle cost Optimal optimization tool . it’s cheaper to move forward with mechanical and electrical systems (based on additional $/kWh) • BEOpt: a house life.

000 built to date • Emphasis on conservation and not on renewables • Canadian Passive House Institute (CanPHI) 6 . Passiv Haus (Passive House) Movement • A voluntary standard (not just for houses) • About 25.

Another Passiv Haus Probably the first PassivHaus 7 .

Ottawa Passive House Slab R-31 Floor area: 3536 SF Walls R-51 Heating: 14.5 kW Roof R-71 Cooling: 7.61.57 ach @ 50 Pa Electric water heater 8 3 kW PV .72 kWh/m2 Basement walls R-32 Peak heating: 12. USI-1.7 kWh/m2 HRV: 78% effectiveness Primary energy consumptions: 90 Windows: SHGC-0.08 kWh/m2 Ground-source heat pum Air tightness: 0.

Passiv Haus Performance 9 http://www.HTM .de/English/PassiveH.passiv.

Passiv Haus Required Performance • Maximum of 15 kWh/m2/year for heating and 15 kWh/m2/year for cooling. • Total primary energy use for HVAC and DHW of 120 kWh/m2/year. • Maximum of 10 W/m2 peak heating or cooling load (recommended). • (Apparently hard to achieve in N. America because of our lifestyles!) • <0.6 ach infiltration @50 Pa 10 .

Passiv Haus Strategies • Compact form and good insulation: USI-value < 0.8 • Energy efficient appliances and lighting • Solar domestic hot water systems (technically. active) 11 .03 mK/W) to achieve this? • Southern orientation for passive solar gains • Very high performance windows: whole window USI-value < 0.8 W/m2K • Use of HRV to distribute heating (no separate forced- air/hydronic heating system) • HRVs with effectiveness > 0.15 W/m2K – How thick would continuous insulation (of k = 0.

HDDs in Europe 12 .

Wall Insulation 5800 5700 Heating Energy (kWh) 5600 5500 5400 5300 5200 5100 5000 4900 4800 6 8 10 Wall (RSI) • Note that benefit in going from 6 to 8 RSI is twice that of going from 8 to 10 RSI • Diminishing returns . How much insulation? Space Heating vs.

HVAC and super-insulation 14 .

Passiv Haus wall sections 15 .

Passiv Haus wall sections 16 .

Passiv Haus wall sections 17 .

Secondary Energy Primary Energy http://www. electricity) delivered to customers (e.co.bbc.g.gif .. your home). Primary Energy vs.g. • Secondary energy is the energy (e.. Secondary Energy • Primary energy is the energy in the fuel (or potential energy) fed to power plants.uk/schools/gc sebitesize/science/images/ph_en 18 ergyfuel.

Why specify primary energy and not secondary? • It indicates utility of resources. • Primary energy use is usually more indicative of GHG emissions. 19 . • Electricity is a much higher form of energy than thermal energy or fuel energy.

Electricity Grid Emissions Factors Circa 2010 20 .

pdf 21 . Ontario’s grid emissions Source: https://morecoldair.com/2014/11/346_paper.wordpress.files.

22 . Case Study of Houses • Ground source heat pumps actually release MORE GHG emissions than natural gas in Calgary. • This is why primary energy factors are important.

based on it’s electricity supply mix.pdf .nrel. Primary to Secondary Energy Conversion • Each region has a unique primary to secondary energy conversion factor. 23 http://www. • Europeans are obsessed with it. we haven’t quite caught up over here.gov/docs/fy07osti/38617.

• Ontario’s grid uses gas for peaking and hydro and nuclear for base loads. emissions factors and primary to secondary factors fluctuate on daily and annual bases. • Now gas is often used to fill the values for renewables (wind and solar) • More information here: http://www.ca/ 24 .ieso. Grid mix • In reality.

In closing: Making $ in Passiv Haus Design • Just 3 Passiv Haus certified consultants in Ottawa.passivehouse.ca/ 25 . • PHPP is the main software to verify performance • http://www.

The EcoTerra House – A near Net-Zero Energy Building 2.84 kW (peak) Building- integrated photovoltaic- thermal system Passive solar design: Optimized triple glazed windows and mass Ground-source heat pump One of 15 winners of the CMHC Equilibrium Housing program .

Passive Solar Design: EcoTerra House .

Example Performance Temperature Swing Lag Source: Chen. et al (2010) . Y.

8 Heating .0 13.0 25.4 EGH rating 5200 85.0 23.GSHP 2200 84. Window Area 9200 86 8200 Solar gains 85.6 1200 84.0 15.0 19.2 Heating .8 Heating Energy (kWh) 7200 85. HOT 2000 Preliminary analysis Space Heating vs.0 11.Gas 4200 85 3200 84.6 EGH 6200 85.0 17.0 21.4 9.0 Window Area as % of Floor Area Solar Heat Gain Space Heating Load Heating Load w/ GSHP EGH Score EGH score is with gas furnace (condensing) .

EnergyPlus does not calculate solar gains for windows below z=0. grouping windows is appropriate.  For early stage design. . Model Details (EnergyPlus) Ground boundary conditions applied. however they were explicitly modeled since the house is designed.

3% 34.2% 1. existing EcoTerra house Canadian house . Discretionary loads Aux HP Controls Heater 2.0% Lighting. Misc Equip DHW 13.2% 11.2% Fan.4% HRV/Air Cleaner 7.5% EcoTerra basement BIPV/T Fan & Pump 1. Aux Garage Appliances.3% Avg.7% Heat Pump 21. Heater Plug Load 7.

Passive Solar 32 .

Passive solar houses 33 .

Passive solar houses 34 .

Sun Path Chart 35 .

Window Heat Balance • Instantaneous net heat gain is: 𝑞 = 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 ∙ [𝑆𝐻𝐺𝐶(𝜃) ∙ 𝐼𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 − 𝑈 𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 ] • Annual net thermal energy gain is: 𝐸 = 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 ∙ [𝑆𝐻𝐺𝐶(𝜃) ∙ 𝐼𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 − 𝑈 𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 ] (to estimate net thermal energy gain for a period of time. you’d have to sum each moment during the period) 36 .

Window Heat Balance by orientation 600000 Total incident solar radiation on Heating Season 500000 surface (Wh/season) 400000 300000 Cooling Season 200000 100000 0 North N30W N60W West S60W S30W South S30E S60E East N60E N30E Window orientation is key to successful passive solar. 37 . We want to maximize solar gains in the heating season and minimize them in the cooling season.

1 -1 00 -3 Glazing alone 00 -5 0 0.5 5 5.5 3 3.4-4wall 00 Whole window with wood frame 0. Window Heat Balance by Window Type 1 (south facing) 0 0 0 20 0 40 10 SGCL-- 0.8 wall -2 00 Heat loss through RSI-4.5 G G C C 00 G D LA LA 00 Q TG G R I -1 LE LE -3 0.6 0 20 0 C LE 10 00 L- TG -2 - SHGC AR D D LE 0.5 4 4.3 LE A 0 R Contour lines are net heat gain (kWh/m2/season) 0.5 6 U-value (W/mK) 38 .5 2 2.4 AR G AR T C Q LA G R 0.7 CL AR AR TG LE DG 0 SG AR 0.5 1 1.2 00 Heat loss through RSI-8.8 -1 CL R AI DG LA C DG 0.9 0 30 00 0.

jpg . Indirect http://greenarchitecturenotes.sunspacedesign. Direct Gain vs.jpg • Direct gain • Sunspace • Trombe wall Advantages/Disadvantages? 39 http://www.com/wordpress/wp- content/uploads/2011/12/Jacobs-II-passive-solar-Interior.jpg http://www.org/Trombe_wall.com/green-house/sunroom-1.eebt.

acca.png 40 . Effect of Thermal Mass http://www.it/euleb/data/glossary/images/image_6.

Floor Temperature 41 .

Thermal Mass is Practice 42 .

Higher values means less temperature increase for a given amount of energy. Thermal Mass in Buildings • Thermal mass’ heat capacity indicates how much energy a material can store. KJ/m³. MATERIAL THERMAL MASS (volumetric heat capacity.k) Water 4186 Concrete 2060 Sandstone 1800 Compressed earth blocks 1740 Rammed earth 1673 FC sheet (compressed) 1530 Brick 1360 Earth wall (adobe) 1300 AAC 550 43 .

More thermal mass examples 44 .

Thermal mass 45 .

Covered mass: it doesn’t work well 46 .

47 . • So if we want conditions to change rapidly. Why isn’t thermal mass always good? • It makes a building much less responsive. it takes a lot of energy to achieve that change.

Is passive solar appropriate for commercial buildings? 48 .

• You also have to be careful about glare from large windows. equipment and people are already providing ample heat gains. – That’s where simulation comes in. Envelope vs. Internal load-dominated buildings • Passive solar works well for envelope load-dominated buildings because a lot of heat is necessary to compensate for the heat losses through the envelope. 49 . • For internal load-dominated buildings. solar gains may merely increase cooling loads because the lights.

Passive Solar Fraction • Definition: the fraction of purchased heating that is covered by passive solar gains. 50 .

441 kWh 9. 52 Simulation Approaches: Design Days Glazing and thermal mass added 40 12 40 12 Solar Gain or Heating Load (kW) Solar Gain or Heating Load (kW) 35 South Zone Temp 35 Solar Gain 10 10 Cold Sunny Day 30 30 Heating Load Temperature (C) Temperature (C) 8 8 25 25 20 6 20 6 15 15 4 4 10 10 2 2 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 02 0 04 0 06 0 08 0 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0 20 0 22 0 0 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 h3 00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 00 tim e time Peak Indoor Temperature: Peak Indoor Temperature: 25.6°C Daily Purchased Heating: Daily Purchased Heating: 64.0 kWh Annual Purchased Heating: Annual Purchased Heating: 12.24 kWh 38.6°C 25.804 kWh .

Passive Solar Rules of Thumb
• Note: rules of thumb are a
good starting point, but might
fail for new climates,
strategies, technologies.
• Best information source is
“Tap the Sun”

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Passive Solar Rules of Thumb
• Orient long axis in East-West direction
• Use an aspect ratio (width to length ratio) of
about 1.2 – 1.4
• Ensure south-facing windows are fully solar
exposed from 9:00 to 15:00 in the heating
season.
Length
South
Width 54

Passive Solar Rules of Thumb
• Use about 4 – 6” (10 - 15cm) of thermal mass
on the floor or wall
• Have about 150 pounds of thermal mass for
every square foot of south-facing window
• Thermal mass should have 9 times as much
area as south-facing glazing
• Thermal mass should be a medium dark
colour

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• Use an overhang to. 56 . at least. Passive Solar Rules of Thumb • Avoid having a south facing window shaded by external shading in the winter. partially shade south-facing windows in the summer.

Simulation Rules of thumb:  Good starting point • “The thermal mass  Usually limited to relating should be 9 times the only 1-2 variables area of south-facing  Limited to pre-conceived glass.” configurations/technologies • “Do not exceed 6” in  Only predicts good design thickness for thermal characteristics. Rules of Thumb vs. not mass materials” performance 57 .

When Rules of Thumb Fail Trees (opaque)  Solar obstructions PV Array  Advanced technologies  Non-standard controls  Non-standard use of Trees (50% transmittance) space Trees (opaque) 58 .

Fixed Shading Design • Three types that we’ll look at: – Overhangs – Sidefins – Fixed louvers/slats • Where (orientation) should these be applied? • What are their limitations? 59 .

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Site/Shading Analysis Overhang Design • No window shading during winter solstice (required by CMHC). 64 . • Overheating can occur in shoulder seasons when outdoor temperature is warm but sun is low. but also offer privacy. o Retractable awnings are used on upper floor to minimize unwanted gains. but not in shoulder seasons. • Majority of south- facing windows shaded by fixed overhang on summer solstice. (only on upper windows because of lack of thermal mass here) o Interior shades are less effective because not all solar gains are rejected.

65 Site/Shading Analysis EnerPos building. Reunion Island .

) Mean Temperautre (C) 60 15 50 10 40 1-2 month lag 5 30 0 20 Solar Altitude 10 -5 Mean Temperature 0 -10 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 66 . Site/Shading Analysis 80 25 70 20 Solar Altitude at noon (deg.

Solar geometry refresher

α
β

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New solar geometry variable: solar
profile angle (Ω)
• Projection of the solar altitude onto a vertical
plane that is perpendicular to the surface of
interest (e.g., window)

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Solar Profile Angle (Ω)
tanΩ = [tan(α)/cos(γ)]
α = solar altitude
γ = surface-solar azimuth

Ω= α when γ = 0

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SH=PH TAN(Ω) PH: width of enclosing side of horizontal projection SH: height of shadow below horizontal projection 70 .

Overhang Design 1. Determine when (time of day or month of year) you want the window to be shaded. Determine when the sun will be incident on the window. 3. 71 . Use a sun path chart to determine how big (deep) the overhang has to be. 2.

Overhang Design Ω 72 .

Overhang Design: Sun Path Chart 73 .

Critical Angle Analysis Critical angles define solar aperture height (SAH) ΩW SAH Ω ΩS .

South • What are the critical angles? • How deep. Overhang Design Exercise • Design an overhang to shade a 2 m wide by 1. and high should it be? 75 .5 m high south- facing window so that the it completely shaded at noon on June 21 and completely unshaded on Dec. wide. 21.

76 . Sidefins • Sidefins can help control solar gains when the sun is lower in the sky and not directly in front of a window.

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Sidefin Design Exercise • Design a sidefin for a West-facing 1 m by 1 m window. • What is the critical angle? South 78 . such that the window never “sees” the sun before 3pm. The sidefin is immediately adjacent to the window.

then S=12/TAN(ΩS)=3. Sizing Horizontal Projections Use the summer solstice profile angle (ΩS) to determine spacing of vertical louvers S H ΩS Spacing (S)= H/TAN(ΩS) If H=12’’.55” say 3½” Note: method does not include louver thickness .

Sizing Horizontal Projections Use the summer solstice profile angle (ΩS) to determine spacing of reverse inclined louvers H ΩS S 2S Spacing (S)= H/TAN(ΩS) If H=12’’. then S=12/TAN(ΩS)=3.55” say 3½” Note: method does not include louver thickness .

Louver Design Exercise • Design (south-facing) louvers so that there is no direct solar penetration between April 20 and August 20 between 10am and 2pm. What is the maximum spacing? 20° S 20 cm 81 .

Lateral Penetration Mar 21 at 10 AM solar time .

Lateral Penetration Solutions Extend projection bilaterally .

Lateral Penetration Solutions Install vertical component bilaterally .

Shading Mask Technique 85 .

Tools for shading device design • Sustainable by Design • Climate Consultant • SketchUp 87 .

2 purposes • Cross ventilation • Stack ventilation • Increase supply/fresh air with no mechanical energy use • Improve cooling sensation with greater airflow 88 . Natural Ventilation: 2 techniques.

jpg .ca/faculty_projects/terri/carbon. Natural Ventilation 3/13/2016 http://www.architecture. 89 aia/case/global/images/650/section-perspective.uwaterloo.

Use air movement to make the air feel cooler 3/13/2016 90 . Improve IAQ without using fans (still need them installed!) 2. Why natural ventilation? Three energy benefits: 1. Introduce cooler outdoor air (offset cooling loads) 3.

Why not natural ventilation? • If outdoor air is more contaminated than indoor air • If outdoors is noisy. it’s hard to control sound transmission • If outdoor air is too humid (raining at the extreme) • If outdoor air is too cold or too hot 3/13/2016 91 .

Narrow direction should be less than 15m. especially when cooling is needed • Long/narrow floor plate is better than square. Cross Ventilation Design Guidelines • Orient to catch predominant wind direction. 3/13/2016 92 . short-circuiting can happen for natural ventilation too (like for mechanical ventilation) • To take advantage of stack effect. you can maximize difference in height of windows. • Have operable windows on opposite sides of the building.

Taking cues from climate data 93 .

gov.vic.pdf .resourcesmart. Natural Ventilation: Path of least resistance 3/13/2016 94 http://www.au/documents/Natural_Ventilation_Systems.

gov. Why? http://www.resourcesmart.au/docume 3/13/2016 95 nts/Natural_Ventilation_Systems. Cross ventilation: depth of floor plate Effective natural ventilation is limited to cases where the window- to-window distance is less than 20% of the floor-to-ceiling height.vic.pdf .

Natural Ventilation 3/13/2016 96 .

Stack Effect and Natural Ventilation 3/13/2016 97 .

• The opposite occurs in summer (if outdoor is warmer than indoor) 98 . warmer indoor air rises and exerts an outward pressure at the top of the building. Stack effect • In winter. a negative pressure acts at the bottom.

A very simple tool to assess the thermal comfort : the Givoni’s comfort zones 99 .

« ENERPOS » Building – La Reunion  Net floor area : 830 m² (7 classrooms + offices)  2 buildings / two floors  BIPV roofs : 49 kWp/370 m²  Completion : July 2008  Building Cost : US$ 2.265/m² (gross floor area)  Architect : T Faessel-Bohe  Energy consultants : IMAGEEN (La Reunion)  Sustainable design consultants : TRIBU (Paris) 100 .

Passive techniques 101 .

s-1 • Transition air fans/air-conditioning : Ta > 30°C and V=1 m. Sept Oct Nov Déc 102 .Change in operative temperature in an office during a typical year (results from Energy+/Design Builder) • Transition natural ventilation /air fans : Ta > 28°C and V=0.5 m.s-1 Change in resultant temperature in an office Air conditioning period 34 Ceiling fan period 32 Natural ventilation only 30 Tres office (°C) 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 Jan Feb March April May June July Aug.

NREL RSF 103 .

Manitoba Hydro HQ 104 .

“Magical airflow arrows” 3/13/2016 105 .

and exposed mass quantity. it may be beneficial to pre-cool a building at night • The pre-cooling capacity depends on air change rate. Nighttime ventilation strategy • If outdoor temperatures fluctuate between above and below indoor temperatures diurnally with an amplitude of at least 5°C. ΔT. 3/13/2016 106 .

because ΔT = Ti . Single-sided natural ventilation • Single-sided natural ventilation is not nearly as effective. 3/13/2016 107 .To it mainly relies on a vertical temperature gradient within the height of the window.

Natural Ventilation and Window Types 108 .

What time of year is this photo from? 109 .