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24, 2010

**Development of Three - Layer Composite Steel -
**

Concrete - Steel Beam Element with Applications

Dr. Jamal A. Farhan*& Dr. Hussain M. Hussain**

Received on: 12/7/2009

Accepted on: 6/5/2010

Abstract

In this study, a general linear one-dimensional finite element beam model is

developed for the analysis of the three layer composite steel- concrete- steel beams

which are a special case of the multi-layer

Connectors, concrete layer thickness, plate thickness, type of loading and

concrete compressive strength composite beams. The model is based on partial

interaction theory of composite beams where the flexibility of shear connectors is

allowed. A program is constructed using VISUAL BASIC language to analyze

this type of beams.

Numerical applications are presented to demonstrate the validity and

applicability of the present method. A parametric study is carried out to

demonstrate the effect of some parameters including the variation of shear

stiffness of shear on the behaviour of three-layer composite beams. The results of

the proposed programmed model shows a good agreement with those obtained by

finite elements method using ANSYS program (Release 11, 2007. The models

used in ANSYS program are shell element, brick element and combine element to

simulate the behaviour of steel plates, concrete part and shear connectors

respectively.

Keywords: Composite SCSS beams, Finite elements, Partial interaction,

parametric study, ANSYS

**ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻋﻨﺼﺭ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﻓﻭﻻﺫ – ﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ – ﻓﻭﻻﺫ ﻤﻊ
**

ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ

ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺼﺔ

ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺨﻁﻲ ﺫﻭ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل

ﺍﻟﻌﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﻓﻭﻻﺫ – ﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ – ﻓﻭﻻﺫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ

ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺒﻨﺎﺅﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺘﺒﺎﺕ . ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ

ﻟﻘـﺩ ﺘـﻡ ﺒﻨـﺎﺀ ﺒﺭﻨـﺎﻤﺞ ﺒﺎﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻟﻐـﺔ.ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺼﺭﻑ ﺭﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﺹ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﺭﻨﺔ

ﻭﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺔ.( ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻌﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉVISUAL BASIC)

ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺼﺭﻑ,ﺘﻡ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺜﻠﺔ

ﺴﻤﻙ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﺭﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﺹ, ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﺒﺎﺕ

ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ. ﻭﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﻟﻠﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ، ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل، ﺴﻤﻙ ﺼﻔﺎﺌﺢ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ، ﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ

ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﻘﺎ ﺠﻴﺩﺍ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺒﺭﻨـﺎﻤﺞ

(2007 ، )ﺍﻹﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺭ.ANSYS

**Introduction full use of its properties in order to
**

The aim of using or selecting any get best performance for the

material in construction is to make structure being constructed keeping

*** College of Engineering, University of Anbar/ Anbar
**

** Building and Construction Engineering Department, University of Technology/Baghdad

6970

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

**in mind the availability, strength, The system was originally
**

workability, durability of the devised for use in submerged tube

material and economy of tunnels by a team of local

construction [1] constructions in Cardiff, UK (Messrs

The most important and Tomlinson and partners in

frequently encountered combination conjunction with Sir Alexander Gibb

of construction materials is that of and partners ) [3]

steel and concrete applied for The important advantages of the

buildings as well as bridges. system are that the external steel

Although very different in nature , plates act as both primary

these two materials complement one reinforcement and permanent

another: formwork, and also as impermeable,

• Concrete is efficient in and blast and impact resistant

compression and steel membrane.

reinforcement in tension. The full or partial depth shear

• Steel components are connectors are used which transfer

relatively thin and prone to normal and shearing forces between

buckling, concrete can the concrete and the steel plates, and

restrain these against also act as transverse shear

buckling. reinforcement .[4]

• Concrete also gives In this study a three-layer

protection against corrosion composite element is developed. The

and provides thermal element is used to analyze the steel-

insulation at high concrete-steel sandwiched (SCSS)

temperature. beams with partial composite action.

• Steel brings ductility into the The Finite Element Method has been

structure used to derive the stiffness matrix of

Steel-concrete-steel sandwiched the one dimensional composite

(SCSS) construction or double skin element with 9 degrees of freedom

(DSC) construction is a special case per node.

of multi-layer composite A computer program is

constructions. It is a relatively new established using BASIC language

and innovative form of construction to analyze this type of beams. The

consisting of a layer of plain results of the program are compared

concrete, sandwiched between two with those obtained by ANSYS

layers of relatively thin steel plates, computer program and show a good

connected to the concrete by shear agreement.

connectors. SCSS construction was 2. Finite Element Formulation

originally considered as an 2.1 Basic Assumptions

alternative form of construction for In the analysis of three-layer

immersed tube tunnels as shown in composite beams by the finite

Figure (1). element method, the following

It has been used for a variety assumptions are introduced:

of offshore and onshore applications 1. The shear connection between the

including oil production and storage three components of a composite

vessels, caissons, core shear walls in beam is continuous along the

tall building and blast and impact length, i.e. discrete deformable

resistant structures [2]. connectors are assumed to be

replaced by a medium of

6971

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

**negligible thickness having normal minus the losses in potential due to
**

and tangential modulus, as shown applied loads.

in Figure (2) Π=U−V−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−(1)

2. For each layer, Euler-Bernoulli

assumption of plane sections Where: Π = total potential energy.,

normal to neutral plane (or axis of U = strain energy. , V =losses in

the beam) before bending remain potential energy due to applied

plane and normal to the deflected loads.

axis after bending. This implies To get the equilibrium equations:

that distribution of strain is linear

∂∏

over the depth of each layer. =0 −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−(2)

Hence, no transverse shear ∂ei

deformation in layers is assumed.

3. Only longitudinal normal strain, Where ei is any degree of freedom?

slip (connector shear strain) and

According to the degrees of

uplift (separation between layers)

freedom shown in Figure (2) and the

are taken into account.

deformation shown in Figure (3) the

4. The constitutive relations,

displacements and strains at interface

including the stress-strain relations

are as follows:

for layers and the load-slip relation

In component 1 (top layer element):-

for shear connectors are assumed

linear. dw(1) (1)

u (1) = u0(1) − .z ,

5. The deformation in the structure is dx

assumed small such that

du(1) d 2 w(1) (1) (1) d 2 w(1) (1)

nonlinearity due to geometry is ε (1) = 0 − . z =ε0 − .z

negligible. dx dx2 dx2

6. Friction and bond effect between

layers are neglected(slip is In component 2 (intermediate layer

allowed). element):-

7. No shear lag is present in the layer

section, i.e. no variation of the dw( 2 ) ( 2 )

layers strain or stress across the u ( 2 ) = u0( 2 ) − .z

width of the concrete section is

dx

allowed. du(2) d 2w(2) d 2w(2) (2)

ε (2) = 0 − 2 . z(2) =ε0(2) − . .z

8. The load is applied in short terms dx dx dx2

so that the effects of long term

loading (creep and shrinkage) are In component 3 (bottom layer

neglected. element):-

2.2 Derivation of the Stiffness

Matrix

dw( 3) ( 3)

The derivation of the stiffness matrix u (3) = u 0(3) − .z ,

can be achieved either by using the dx

minimum total potential energy du(3) d 2 w(3) (3) (3) d 2 w(3) (3)

principle or by using the principle of ε (3) = 0 − . z =ε 0 − . .z

virtual displacements. Here, for dx dx2 dx2

simplicity the principle of minimum

total potential energy is used. The Slip at interfaces

Slip between top layer element and

total potential energy is equal to the

intermediate layer element

strain energy stored in the body

6972

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

(1) (2) (1) (1) (2) (2)

s12 = u (bottomface) − u (top face) = u ( z = −dbot) − u ( z = dtop )

dw(1) (1) dw(2) (2)

s12 = (u0(1) + .dbot) −(u0(2) − .dtop ) − −(3) For 2-nodes

dx dx

(3) (3) (3)

Slip between intermediate layer and uo = N1u01 + N2 u02

bottom layer is:

( axialdeformatio 3)

n in component

( 2) (3)

s 23 = u (bottom face) − u (top face)

Theshapefunctions are :

dw(2) (2) dw(3) (3)

s23 = (u0(2) + .dbot )−(u0(3) − .dtop) −−(4) 1− x x

dx dx

N = and N =

1 2

The shear flow at interface: L L

ks .n

f(int erface) = .s

p w(1) = N3 w1(1) + N4θ1(1) + N5 w2(1) + N6θ 2(1)

( per unit length(smeared model))

Also :

Where ks = shear stiffness of one w( 2 ) = N3 w1( 2) + N4θ1( 2) + N5 w2( 2 ) + N6θ 2( 2 )

connector(force/unit slip)

n = no. of connectors in one row

p = spacing (or pitch) of connector And :

along the beam

w(3) = N3 w1( 3) + N 4θ1( 3) + N5 w2( 3) + N6θ 2(3)

Separation at interface

a- Between the top and bottom layers where:

3x2 2x3 2x2 x3

N3 = 1 − + N4 = x − +

L2 L3 L L2

3x2 2x3 x3 x2

b- Between the intermediate and N5 = 2 − 3 N6 = 2 −

L L L L

bottom layers

) =w −w −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−(6)

(3) (2)

w(separation The principle of minimum potential

The normal force at interface: energy is used to derive the stiffness

k .n matrix (18x18) and nodal forces

q (interface) = n . w( seperation)

p vector (18x1).

**kn = normal stiffness of one connector
**

(Force/unit separation)

Derivation

6973

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

**To get the stiffness matrix (and the
**

nodal force vector), the following is

used: For ANSYS computer program,

∂Π ∂Π ∂Π ∂Π ∂Π ∂Π

Steel is a much simpler material to

= 0, = 0, = 0, = 0, = 0, = 0 represent compared to concrete. Its

(1 ) ( 2) ( 3) (1) (1) ( 2)

∂u ∂u ∂u ∂w ∂θ ∂w

o1 o1 o1 1 1 1

strain-stress behavior can be

assumed to be identical in tension

and compression. A typical uniaxial

And so on. stress-strain curve for a steel

3. Material Modelling specimen loaded monotonically in

3.1 Concrete tension is shown in Figure (5). The

For the linear proposed model, only stress-strain diagram may be made

modulus of elasticity(Ec ) is needed for simplicity to consist of two

to define the concrete model. branches: A first branch starts from

According to ACI- code[5] : the origin with a slope equal to E s ,

up to yield stress f y . A second

Where fc′ is the cylinder branch is horizontal (perfectly

compressive strength of concrete in plastic) or, for practical use of

computers, is assumed to have a very

MPa and Ec is the modulus of

small slope(strain hardening) such as

elasticity of concrete in MPa.

10 −4 Es and this last case is limited

While for ANSYS computer

to the strain 0.01 according to EC4

program, the uniaxial stress-strain [7].

relationship for concrete in

compression is defined according to 3.3 Shear Connectors

(Desayi and Krishnan) [6] as For the proposed model, the

follows: properties needed are the tangential

stiffness of the connector layer

( Ks ), and the normal stiffness of the

connector

**where: f = stress at any strain ε , layer ( Kn ).
**

N/mm . , ε = strain at stress f .

2

The tangential stiffness ( Ks ) is

Ec = Initial modulus of elasticity for calculated from:

concrete (equation 7)

Figure (4) shows the simplified

compressive uniaxial stress-strain

relationship that was used in this

study( for ANSYS input data). where ks = shear stiffness of one

connectors (force/unit slip)= 100

3.2 Steel

kN/mm (AZIZ(8))

For the linear proposed model, only

n = no. of connectors in one row

modulus of elasticity (Es ) is needed

p = spacing (or pitch) of connector

to define the steel model. According

along the beam

to ACI- code[5] :

The normal stiffness ( Kn ) is

calculated from:

6974

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

**equation (7) the modulus of elasticity
**

equals to 23500MPa. According to

the tests carried out by AZIZ[8] the

kn = Normal stiffness of one value of the shear stiffness of head

connector (force/unit separation)= 1 stud connectors at 50% of ultimate

kN/mm (in tension)= 10 kN/mm strength ranges from 106 kN/mm for

(in compression) (13mm) diameter to 203 kN/mm for

While for ANSYS program, only the (19mm) diameter. If the value of

shear and normal stiffnesses ks and ks =100 kN/mm is adopted, two

kn are needed. rows of shear connectors at 200mm

In this study, the relation spacing are used

between force and displacement for then K s = ks .n / p = 1 kN/mm2,

the shear connectors is modelled as While the normal stiffness of the

connector layer Kn = kn .n / p .

linear for the proposed and ANSYS

model, the shear and normal

stiffnesses are defined using the Since this example is used for

experimental results carried out by comparing results then, Kn = Ks =

AZIZ[8]. 1 kN/mm2 in tension (separation)

4. Numerical Applications

To check the validity and accuracy

and Kn = 10 kN/mm2 in

of the finite element model, two compression (contact) is adopted.

examples are carried out, the first 4.2 ANSYS Model

presents the analysis of three layered The shell43 element is used to

composite simply supported beam model the top and bottom steel plates

under mid-span concentrated load while solid65 brick concrete element

while the second concerns the is used to model the concrete

analysis of the same beam under sandwiched between the steel plates.

uniform load. Due to symmetry one Combine39 is used to model shear

half of beam is considered in the connectors, two types of this element

analysis. The analyzed beam is of are used ,one exhibits displacement

6000 mm length(center to center) in x-direction only to simulate the

and 200 mm width, consists of resistance to horizontal shear while

(figure 6): the other exhibits displacement in y-

• Concrete part of 200mm depth direction only to simulate the

sandwiched between two resistance to normal force[9]. The

steel plates. two types of this element can be

• Two steel plates, each of 10mm extinguished using KEYOP3

depth, one at the top of the beam Command, then selecting (UX) for

and the other is at the bottom of the first type and (UY) for the

beam. second.

• Shear connectors between the 4.3 Load data

concrete and the two steel plates. The beam is analyzed under central

The shear connectors are of stud point and uniform load. Since the

type with 13 mm diameter. analysis using the proposed model is

4.1 Proposed Model Analysis linearly elastic, while the nonlinear

For the proposed model, the value of material properties are considered

fc′ = 25 MPa is adopted, thus from when the analysis is carried out by

ANSYS program, the load is taken

6975

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

**nearly half of the failure load. The N/mm2=50%, and KN=2000
**

failure load is found by ANSYS N/mm2=200%. From the results

program and it is equal to 120 kN it was found that the effect of

and 40 kN/m for concentrated and this parameter is very small and

uniform load respectively. Thus the can be neglected.

analysis is carried out using a

3.Concrete layer thickness: Figures

concentrated and uniform load equal

(11.a), (11.b) and (11.c) show the

to 60 kN and 20 kN/m respectively.

effect of this factor on the

Since one half of the beam is

behavior of the beam (deflection,

considered, then the concentrated

slip at lower and upper

load is taken 30 kN.

interfaces). The reference value of

thickness is taken (200mm),

4.4 Results

which is considered (100%). The

Figures (7) to (9) show the values of

other values are (300mm = 150%)

deflection, lower interface slip and

and (400 mm=200%).

upper interface slip along the beam

under concentrated and uniform 4. Steel plates thickness: Figures

loads. Tables (1) to (3) show the (12.a), (12.b) and (12.c) show the

difference of maximum deflection, effect of this factor on the

maximum lower interface slip and behavior of the beam (deflection,

maximum upper interface slip slip at lower and upper

between the present study and interfaces). The reference value of

ANSYS which are equal to 9.6%, thickness is taken (10mm), which

5.3% and 8% respectively. is considered (100%). The other

4.5 Parametric study values are (15mm = 150%) and

In addition to the results above, a (20 mm=200%).

parametric study is carried out to 5. Concrete compressive strength:

demonstrate the effects of the Figures (13.a), (13.b) and (13.c)

following factors on the behavior of

show the effect of this factor on

this type of beams: the behavior of the beam

1. Shear stiffness of connectors: (deflection, slip at lower and

Figures (10.a), (10.b) and (10.c) upper interfaces). Three types of

show the effect of this factor on

concrete strength are taken in to

the behavior of the beam consideration,

(deflection, slip at lower and

upper interfaces). The reference fc′ = 20 ,30, and 40 MPa.

value of the stiffness is taken 5. Conclusions

(1000 N/mm2) which is Based on the results obtained in this

considered (100%). The other investigation, the following can be

values are (500 N/mm2 = 50%) concluded:

and (2000 N/mm2=200%) 1. The proposed method of the

finite element analysis with

2. Normal stiffness of connectors: To

the developed composite

investigate the effect of the this

beam element appears to be

factor on the behavior of the

valid and powerful for the

beams (deflection, slip,

elastic analysis of the three

separation), three values of

layered composite beams.

tensile normal stiffness are

2. Comparison of the results of

considered, KN=1000

the present study with that of

N/mm2=100%, KN=500

6976

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

**ANSYS program, show that Structural Members",
**

the maximum difference in Butterworth Heinemann,

deflection is 9.6%. which are 1999, London, 259 pp.

considered reasonable [2] Wright, H.D., Oduyemi, T.O.S.

values. and Evans, H.R., "The

3. The significant factor which Experimental Behaviour of

affects the stiffness of the Double Skin Composite

three layered beam is the Elements", Journal of

shear stiffness of the Constructional Steel Research,

connectors. Vol. 19, 1991, pp. 97-110.

4. The normal stiffness of shear [3] Tomlinson, M., Chapman, M.,

connectors in tension has a Wright, H.D., Tomlinson, A. and

negligible effect on the Jefferson, A.D., "Shell

behavior of the three layered Composite Construction for

composite beams. Shallow Draft Immersed Tube

5. The lower interface slip is Tunnels", Proceedings of the

much greater than the upper ICE International Conference on

interface slip. This is due to Immersed Tube Tunnel

the restraint of the lower Techniques, Manchester, UK,

layer in the horizontal April 1989. Cited by Ref. [2].

direction and due to the [4] Roberts, T.M., Edwards, D.N.

tensile stress developed in and Narayanan, R., "Testing and

concrete at lower interface Analysis of Steel-Concrete-Steel

while the stress developed at Sandwich Beams", Journal of

top interface is of Constructional Steel Research,

compression type. Vol. 38, No. 3, 1996, pp. 257-

6. Increasing the concrete 279.

thickness decreases the [5] ACI Committee 318, "Building

deflection and slip. The Code Requirements for

effect of this parameter on Structural Concrete (ACI

the upper interface slip is 318M-2008) and Commentary

more than that on the lower (ACI 318RM-2008)",American

interface slip. Concrete Institute, Farmington

7. Increasing the steel plate Hills, USA, 2008.

thickness decreases the [6] Desayi, P. and Krishnan, S.,

deflection and lower "Equation for the Stress-Strain

interface slip, while it Curve of Concrete", Journal of

increases the upper interface the American Concrete Institute,

slip. Vol. 61, March 1964, pp. 345-

8. The increase in the 350.

compressive concrete [7] European Committee for

strength will decrease the Standardization (CEN), Eurocode

deflection and slip. 4, "Design of Composite Steel

Generally the rate of and Concrete Structures", Part

increase is small. 1.1: General Rules and Rules for

6. References Buildings, DD ENV 1994-1-1,

[1] Oehlers, D.J. and Bradford, M. EC4.

A., "Elementary Behavior of [8] Aziz, K.I., "Behaviour of Multi-

Composite Steel and Concrete Layer Composite Beams with

6977

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

**Partial Interaction", Ph.D. composite Beams with Full and
**

Thesis, University of Partial Shear Connection",

Technology, 2005, 170 p. Journal of Constructional Steel

Research, Vol. 63, 2007, pp. 505-

[9] Queiroz F.D, Vellasco P.C.G.S

521

and Nethercot D.A, "Finite

Element Modeling of

TABLES

Table (1): Maximum deflection for central point load

Type of Analysis Present Analysis ANSYS Difference

Maximum Deflection(mm) 16.16 17.87 9.6%

**Table (2): Maximum lower interface slip for central point load
**

Type of Analysis Present Analysis ANSYS Difference

Maximum Slip(mm) 0.4 0.38 5.3%

**Table (3): Maximum Upper interface slip for central point load
**

Type of Analysis Present Analysis ANSYS Difference

Maximum Slip(mm) 0.13 0.141 8%

FIGURES

Figure (1) DSC construction in a submerged tube structure [2]

6978

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

6979

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

6980

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

6981

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

0.8 0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

-2

0.6

-4

0.4

-6

50%KS

0.2 -8 100%KS

-10 200%KS

0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 -12

-0.2

-14

50% KS

-0.4 100%KS -16

200%KS -18

-0.6

-20

-0.8

Distance from left sup port(mm) D istance f ro m lef t sup p o rt( mm)

(c) (a)

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

-0.05

0 1000 2000 6

3000 4000 5000 6000

-0.1 50% KS

-0.15 100% KS

200% KS

-0.2

-0.25

Distance from left support(mm)

(b)

Figurer (10.a) Variation Figure (10.b) Variation of Figure (10.c) Variation of

of deflection lower inter-face slip for upper inter-face slip for

for different different values (KS) different values (KS)

6982

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0.5

-2

0.4

-4 0.3

-6 0.2

-8 0.1

0

-10

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

-0.1

-12

-0.2 100%h

-14 100%h

-0.3 150%h

150%h 200%h

-16 -0.4

200%h

-18 -0.5

D istance f ro m lef t sup p o rt (mm) Distance from left support(mm)

(a) (c)

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

-0.05

100%h

-0.1 150%h

200%h

-0.15

D istance from left support(mm)

(b)

Figure (11.a) Variation of Figure(11.b)Variation of Figure (11.c)Variation of

deflection for different values lower slip for different lower slipfor different values

of concrete thickness values of concrete thickness of concrete thickness

6983

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

0 0.5

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0.4

-2

100%h 0.3

-4

150%h

0.2

-6 200%h

0.1

-8

0

-10 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

-0.1

-12

-0.2 100%h

-14 150%h

-0.3

200%h

-16 -0.4

-18 -0.5

Di st a nc e f rom l ef t support ( mm) Distance fro m left suppo rt(mm)

(a) (c)

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

-0.05 100%h

150%h

-0.1 200%h

-0.15

Distance from left support(mm)

(b)

Figure (12.a) Variation of Figure (12.b) Variation of Figure (12.c) Variation

deflection for different values lower slip for different values of lower slipfor different

of plate thickness of plate thickness values of plate thickness

6984

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Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 28, No.24, 2010 Development of Three - Layer

Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel

Beam Element with Applications

0 0.5

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

-2 0.4

-4 0.3

Fc = 20 M Pa 0.2

-6

Fc = 30 M Pa

-8 Fc = 40 M Pa 0.1

0

-10

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

-0.1

-12

-0.2

-14 Fc = 20 MPa

-0.3 Fc = 30 MPa

-16 Fc = 40 MPa

-0.4

-18

-0.5

D istance from left supp ort(mm)

D ist ance f ro m lef t sup p o rt ( mm)

(a) (c)

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

-0.05

Fc = 20 M Pa

-0.1 Fc = 30 M Pa

Fc = 40 M Pa

-0.15

Distance from left support(mm)

(b)

Figure(13.b)Variation Figure(13.c)Variation of

Figure(13.a)Variation of deflection of lower slip for upper slip for different values

for different values of concrete different values of of concrete compressive

compressive thickness concrete compressive thickness

thickness

6985

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