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THE AROMATIC FRAGRANCES OF PARADISE IN THE

GREEK LIFE OF ADAM AND EVE AND THE CHRISTIAN
ORIGIN OF THE COMPOSITION

by

RIVKA NIR
Tel-Aviv

Abstract

According to the Greek life of Adam and Eve, before his expulsion from Paradise,
Adam received permission to take four kinds of aromatic fragrances to use as
earthly incense oVerings. These four spices do not correspond with the ingredi-
ents of the biblical incense oVering. The kinds of spices and the fact that they
were taken from Paradise attests to the Christian nature of this tradition. The
aromatic fragrances are the earthly remains of Paradise and a kind of substitute
for the tree of life whose oil, which symbolized Christ, bestows eternal life and
was promised to Adam only at the end of time—at the resurrection. The Christian
nature of the fragrances in GLAE is also expressed in its role as a means for
atonement and its theological meaning at Adam’s funeral and death.

1. The Earthly Incense OVering
Aromatic fragrances occupy a central place in the Greek Life of Adam
and Eve (GLAE),1 an apocryphal work that describes the sin of Adam
and Eve, their expulsion from Paradise, and their death and burial.
Eve tells her children that before they left Paradise, Adam asked the
angels for permission to take aromatic fragrances (eévdÛaw) from Paradise,
so that after his departure he would be able to bring an oVering
(yusÛan) to God, so that God would hear him. The angels asked God
to command that Adam be given fragrant incenses (yumi‹mata eévdÛaw)
from Paradise. God does indeed order Adam to come and take aromatic

1
Also entitled “Apocalypse of Moses”. The Life of Adam and Eve has also reached us in
Latin, Armenian, Georgian and Slavonic versions. See M. E. Stone, A History of the
Literature of Adam and Eve (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992) 3. The Greek version is the
earliest of all the forms of this book: M. de Jonge, “The Literary Development of the
Life of Adam and Eve”, in G. A. Anderson, M. E. Stone, J. Tromp (eds.), Literature on
Adam and Eve (Leiden: Brill, 2000) 239-49; idem, “The Christian Origin of the Greek
Life of Adam and Eve”, ibidem, 347-63.

© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2004 Novum Testamentum XLVI, 1
Also available online – www.brill.nl

the aromatic fragrances of paradise in GLAE 21

fragrances (eévdÛaw) and seeds from Paradise; he gathered four kinds:
crocus (krñkow), nard (n‹rdow), reed (k‹lamow), and cinnamon (kin‹mv-
mon), and then left Paradise (chapter 29).2
In their book, The Life of Adam and Eve and Related Literature, de Jonge
and Tromp argue that the fragrant oVerings that Adam sought to
bring to earth are not indicative of either the Jewish or the Christian
origin of this tradition. They maintain that the mention of aromatic
fragrances in this work cannot be explained on the basis of the preva-
lent use of incense in the Christian church, since aromatic incense
came into ritual use in Christianity only after the second half of the
fourth century. As they date this work to the second-fourth centuries,
it may be that the mention of aromatic fragrances in this work re ects
an early Jewish tradition. 3
This essay seeks to uncover the theological background and the world
of ideas and meanings in which the aromatic incense tradition described
in GLAE was formulated and crystalized. Does it truly re ect a Jewish
tradition, as de Jonge and Tromp think possible, or should it be under-
stood in light of the meanings attached to incense in early Christianity?

2. The Fragrant Incense OVering
According to the GLAE tradition, the fragrances that Adam takes
from Paradise are to be used for an earthly incense oVering, to assure
that God will hear Adam and answer him. The terminology employed
by the author to portray this oVering clearly indicates that the inten-
tion is to refer to an incense oVering, rather than to an animal burnt-
oVering ( ), sacriŽ ce ( ), or peace-oVering ( ). The author
uses diVerent terms which all emphasize the fragrance that is associ-
ated with the rite of incense in the Bible. These terms also appear
with the identical meaning in the Septuagint: sweet aroma (eévdÛa),4

2
M. Nagel, in A.-M. Denis (ed.), Concordance grecque des pseudépigraphes d’Ancien Testament
(Louvain-la-Neuve: Institut Orientaliste, 1987) 816. See also: J. P. Mahé, “Le Livre
d’Adam Georgien,” in R. van den Broek and M. J. Vermaseren (eds.), Studies in Gnosticism
and Hellenistic Religions (Leiden: Brill, 1981) 253; Latin text of Life of Adam and Eve 43:3;
see a parallel tradition in Jubilees 3:4.
3
M. de Jonge and J. Tromp, The Life of Adam and Eve and Related Literature (SheYeld:
Academic Press, 1997) 69-70. See also: D. A. Bertrand, La vie grecque d’Adam et Eve,
(Recherches Intertestamentaires 1; Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve, 1987) 36, who is of the
opinion that the reference is to the Jewish incense oVering.
4
eévdÛa. This term also appears in the expression ôsm¯ eévdÛaw, a translation of
the Hebrew , that is connected to the odor of the sacriŽ ce that is pleasing to
God: Gen. 8:21; Ex. 29:18; Lev. 2:12, etc.; cf. Lev. 1:9, 13, 17; Num. 1:28, etc. See

reed. 1986) 47.v. 2:17. cannot decisively show whether the reference is to the Jewish incense oVering or to the Christian incense rite. 4:18. . Milgrom. 1979) 90.” Enziklopedyah Mikra"it. SuVering and the Spirit (Tübingen: Mohr. s. See H. The term. 30:34-38). H. The Biblical incense oVering is composed of four ingredients: “stacte ( ). Lampe.v. 26:31): E. galbanum ( ). (usually: meal-oVering). W. 1961) s. and cinnamon. 1976.v. indicated by the types of spices of which it is composed and their connection to Paradise. 366. 2:5. Greek-English Lexicon. 599-600. however. Flender and C.8 Moreover. and pure frankincense ( )” (Ex. do not correspond to the components of incense in the Bible. III (Exeter and Devon: Paternoster Press. 7 The word eévdÛa appears three times in the NT: Phil. The verb yumi‹v means to burn incense or to make smoke. Oxford: Oxford University Press. O. nard. yumÛama : Lk. Ara- maic. thus in Ugaritic. in a certain sense. therefore. 5:8. three G. Arabic. Rev. 4. in direct relation and. 13:15. G. Concordance to the Septuagint. 2:15. 8:3. 39:14. 16). A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. also appear with similar connotations in the New Testament and in early Christian literature. 7 These terms alone. Arndt and F. 1978) s. 8 Although reed and cinnamon are components of the oil of anointing that included spices. A Patristic Greek Lexicon (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1 Pet. A Concordance to the Septuagint (Oxford: Clarendon Press.22 rivka nir oVering (yusÛa). Liddell and R. 1897) 664. “smell”. Hatch and H. The plural form refers to fragrant materials to be burnt: Hatch and Redpath. Greek-English Lexicon (9th ed. however. 14. 5:2 in the gen- itive. 660. Phil. Arndt and Gingrich. W. Eph. New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. See S. Gingrich. Scott. 4:18. eévdÛa. this phrase became a ter- minus technicus for the idea of the soothing. Brown. 6 yumÛama is the precise translation of the word (incense). 1940) 371: that which is burnt as incense. but also of (pleasing [odor]—Lev. 13:13. 30:23). For the term yusÛa with the Ž gurative meaning of spiritual sacriŽ ces. These four spices. parallel to ôsm® (vv. 1:9-11. 7 col. (burnt-oVering). The Types of Spices The tradition in the GLAE lists four spices that Adam collected in Paradise for his earthly oVering: crocus. onycha ( ). 1585.6 These terms. and these do not include a single component of the incense oVering in GLAE. Hebrew). in the genitive form. 112 ( Jerusalem: Instituti Bialik. however. In all these passages. “Ketoret. Nard.. Hafemann. 52:3. The Christian nature of the oVering depicted in this com- position is. appears in reference to a spiritual rite in the Testament of Levi 3:6. the reference is to spices in the context of the burial of Jesus. in the structure: ôsm¯ eévdÛaw and once in 2 Cor. W. J. The Semitic word ketoret means smoke. The agnate noun yumiat®rion is a censer. tranquilizing odor of sacriŽ ce acceptable to God.5 and an additional term that expressly mentions the aromatic incense: yumi‹mata eévdÛaw. See this term with a metaphoric meaning: Ben Sira 24:15. and the like: J. see Heb. and whose preparation was similar to that of the incense (Ex. Redpath. E. and (daily oVering). 1 Clement 35:12. 3. 5 The term yusÛa is the Greek translation of the terms (animal oVering).

See Y. and its use for other purposes was severely proscribed: “Whoever makes any like it. 4:11). in the morning and at twilight.” Dictionnaire d’archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 26 (1905) 330.13 saVron. “Incense. 17:11-12) and like the incense in GLAE.9 This incense. and other spices. “Encens. nard. Heraty. cited by Rashi on the word- ing: “the land of Moriah”: “Onkelos renders this as referring to the oVering of incense. “the terms and are syn- onymous.” See: Nahmanides on Ex. Biblical incense could be oVered only on the golden altar designated for this (Ex. Moore. 16:12-13). The incense oVering was an inte- gral part of other daily rites (such as the kindling of the lampstand and the setting of the bread of display). 22:2. however.” Targum Onkelos received its Ž nal for- mulation in the third century CE. 8:11) that was also an independent oVering (Num.” New Catholic Encyclopedia. 37). and only one type is fragrant (frankincense). meaning “med- icines. In addition. 12 and the task of bringing the oVering was imposed upon the High Priest. and also 1 Chr. A Commentary on the Book of Exodus. and thus the source of its name: the “regular ( ) incense oVering” (v. onycha. shall be cut oV from his kin” (v. and was based on earlier Targumim. E. 13 The reference in GLAE is plainly not to an additional type of incense. however. s. 10 That is generally translated in the Septuagint by yumÛama sænyeron and yumÛama ²dæsmata . According to a few commentators. “Conjectanea Talmudica. 1967) 399.” See Ben Sira 38:4. J. The Biblical text. This incense was sacred to the Lord. 30:7-8). I. 5 (Paris: Letouzey et Ane. it was not oVered on the altar. 7. many of the medicines and poisons in use in antiquity possessed a strong smell. 8. that the Bible calls (literally. there was also the incense borne in a Ž re pan (Lev. 16:16-18. 9 See U. 8). when the High Priest bore the incense in a Ž re pan to the Holy of Holies (Lev. Fehrenbach. 1922) 6. and was to be oVered twice daily. 30:34.11 In contrast with the incense oVering in GLAE. 49:1. 30:1-10. 10:1) or a censer (Ezek. See G. the aromatic fragrances of paradise in GLAE 23 of the four types in the Biblical incense oVering are not spices (stacte. that which . 9:30: “the compound of spices [ ]. McGarraghy. Cassuto. DC: J. M. J. Haran. 12 With the exception of Yom Kippur.v. to the “sacred” aromatic incense described here. trans.10 is not made from materials known for their pleasant fragrance. but rather from strong-smelling medicinal drugs used by the physician or the apothecary ( ). F.” VT 10 (1960) 125-7. that contained myrrh. makes no mention of the materials from which this incense was composed. and the process of their production is accord- ingly called . 1967) 417. “drug incense”). and cinnamon are mentioned in a beraita in BT Keritot 6a among the ingre- dients of incense. Num. s. Dvir. and galbanum).” 11 These substances are translated into Greek by the word f‹rmaka . The Bible in the Light of the Aramaic Translations ( Tel Aviv: Bar-Ilan University. at the times set for all the daily ( ) rites (Ex. See also Targum Onkelos on Gen. “The Uses of Incense in the Ancient Israelite Ritual.v. 1973) 29 (Hebrew). 7 (Washington. and were used as remedies. to smell of it. Abrahams ( Jerusalem: Magnes Press. Komlosh.

and especially the dissimilarity between its ingredients. and that it reveals the theological origins of this tradition. he listed the names of four spices known for their pleasant odor: crocus. 1 Sam. and the various spices that grew in it were con- nected with the incense oVering. 2:15). . Num. He was cognizant of the tradition that Adam oVered an aro- matic fragrance from Paradise.).24 rivka nir The explanation oVered by de Jonge and Tromp for the diVerence between the tradition in GLAE and that in Exodus is that the author of GLAE was not intimately acquainted with the Jewish incense tradition. that replace the Jewish copper bowls in which the meat of the sacriŽ ces was roasted. 29:13. He reads (cups of spices) instead of (beds of spices) interpreting this as the chalices of spices before the altar of the Lord.” 113-29. Life of Adam and Eve. and various spices with which to Ž ll the cups of the souls of the faithful. 14 De Jonge and Tromp. 18:17. Thus. cols. 29:18. and cinnamon. Lev. of henna and of nard—nard and crocus. to browse in the gardens and to pick lilies”) with the Garden of Eden and the aromatic incense. reed. 14:20 (PL 25. and to distribute. with all aromatic woods. 4:26. and apparently had no personal knowledge of the practice of oVering incense. but. 6:8. a sealed-up spring. 1615-16 ).16 etc. 2:15. baked goods to the Lord ( Jesus). and those who drink from them become the “aroma of the Messiah” (as in 2 Cor. my bride. on the assumption that Adam’s oVering had to have been pleasant. nard. The garden to which the “beloved” compares his “love” was interpreted in Christianity as the Garden of Eden. the description of the aromatic oVerings in the GLAE does not re ect an actual liturgical practice. a foun- tain locked. In this manner the cop- per bowls are transformed into the Lord’s chalices of spices.14 I maintain that the diVerence between the Biblical incense oVering and that depicted in GLAE. The garden is the Garden of Eden. 15 Jerome. violets. from them. 69-70. Jerome links the garden in the Song of Songs 6:2 (“My beloved has gone down to his garden. Lev.15 Various Christian traditions even list these four types of is added to other sacriŽ ces (Ex. “The Uses of Incense. roses. is not coincidental. to the beds of spices [ ]. Accordingly. to which the groom descends to pick lilies. For the diVerent applications of incense. commentary on Zech. see Haran. for example. myrrh and aloes—all the choice perfumes” (4:12-14). What is the source of the spices in GLAE? The types of spices men- tioned in this work are drawn from the description of the garden in the Song of Songs: “A garden locked is my own. Your limbs are an orchard of pome- granates and of all luscious fruits. because there is no mention of animal sacriŽ ces throughout the entire work. fragrant reed and cinnamon.

The Shepherd of Hermas 3. and cinnamon together comprise the sacred incense that he identiŽ es with those fer- vent in their prayer. PG 87. L. the fourth century. 1995) 155-200 (Hebrew). 7:41 (p. but the very fact that they were taken from Paradise that attests to the Christian nature of this tradi- tion. ibidem.” Teudah XVI-XVII (2001) 421-73 and my book The Destruction of Jerusalem and the Idea of Redemption in the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (Atlanta. myrrh.” In the passage in Psalms. Clark. The Biblical exegesis of Procopius is based on citations from earlier exegetes. For the connection in Christianity between incense and prayer. Briggs. 2003). however. E. 217). Gil. Oppenheimer (eds.). 1927) 69: Adam took from Paradise gold. Efron. as I also attempt to prove in this article. in J. reed. and is consistent with the Christian concep- tion in the New Testament that incense is “the prayers of the saints” which ascend with the smoke of the incense to God. Edinburgh: T. 17 See Rev. K. “ ‘This Is Not the City Which I Have Carved on the Palms of My Hands’: The Heavenly Jerusalem in II Baruch. 8:3. ibidem. 1983) 1130. 18 2 Enoch 8:1-3. cols. This view is based on Ps. 209-11). the aromatic fragrances of paradise in GLAE 25 spices as the actual components of Christian incense. idem. prayer is not equated with the incense and the sacriŽ ce. see also Apocalypse of Paul 9. 1997) 7:36 ( pp. G. & T. Procopius of Gaza attests that nard. The description of the Garden of Eden as a place renowned for its spices is prevalent in apocalyptic literature and in early Christian literature. 1979) 72. The Assumption of the Virgin 4. 10. The Book of Psalms (ICC 2. Elliott. Paris: Édition du Cerf. A. Livingstone. “The Christian Sacraments in the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch.16 Like Procopius. my upraised hands as an evening sacriŽ ce. crocus. 8-10.17 It is not only the types of spices. and Eden is described as a place in which the trees blossom and which is Ž lled with a fragrant bouquet.” Zion 65 (2000) 5-44 (Hebrew). 475-538). Budge. 1993) 622. Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 141:2: “Take my prayer as an oVering of incense. R. similar to prayer (29:3). Nir. see also Paralipomena Jeremiae 9:3. Lietzmann. The depictions of the Garden of Eden are given a prominent position in the Enoch literature. The tradition of the death and ascension of Mary developed in Christianity beginning ca. . 701-2. In my opinion. Studies on the Hasmonean Period (Leiden: Brill. for exam- ple. and placed them in a cave. GA: Society of Biblical Literature. The Testament of Abraham 4. 31. 2. The Book of the Cave of Treasures (London: The Religious Tract Society. See J. Thus. in Elliott. and frank- incense.18 In like fashion. 1987) 55-65. who wrote a commentary on the Song of Songs. so that it would serve as a prayer house. Commentaire sur le Cantique des Cantiques (SC 421. “On the Nature of the Book of Enoch. the tradition in GLAE also per- ceives incense as a means for the connection between man and God. 1 Enoch 30. For an interpretation similar to Procopius. Cross and E. the Christian author of the Apocalypse of Peter portrays 16 Procopius of Gaza (ca. see also Apponius. 691. the last chap- ters of which are not extant: F. M. Dor le-Dor. the Old Testament pseudepigrapha constitutes one literary section that in its theological orientations reveals great aYnity to the Christian sources. see H. 1665-8. 1969) 507. he may possibly have found this tradition in Origen. A. 32:3-6. See Elliott. See E.” in A. W. Kasher and A. The Apocryphal New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press. From the End of Biblical Times up to the Redaction of the Talmud: Studies in Honor of Joshua Efron ( Jerusalem: The Bialik Institute. 2 (Syriac Apocalypse of ) Baruch 29:7. Mass and Lord’s Supper (Leiden: Brill. 5:8.

eds. Cave of Treasures. and of the odour of perfumes” (Apocalypse of Peter 16 ).” Eranos Jahrbuch 22 (1953) 434. E. that satisŽ es the hunger of everyone. Perkei de-Rabbi Eliezer. Scr. that compares wisdom to these spices. Bonnet. R. “Les Hymnes sur le paradis de saint Ephrem et les traditions juives. to the beds of spices” in PT Berakhot 2:5(b). 2:747. Song of Songs Rabbah 6:6 on this verse. ed. beginning of chapter 14. “Terre et paradis chez les Pères de l’Eglise. New York. pp. Yalkut Shimoni 1:110. and the connection between these spices and the burning of incense. “Oh! how truly splendid is the Garden of Eden”. 610. Sed. . Daniélou. R. Syri. A large incense censer that sends forth its spices Ž lls the air with the perfume of its fragrances. 7. Apocryphal New Testament. James. 109-10. 1957) 48-49. the exegesis on Songs 6:2: “My beloved has gone down to his garden. Paris: Édition du Cerf..26 rivka nir the Garden of Eden as a “great garden. H. G. 9:3-9. The Apocalypse of Peter is an early Christian composition dated to the Ž rst half of the second century (Elliott. full of fair trees and blessed fruits. ed. trans. the spice plants and the treasure of aromas. M. The Acts of Thomas. also in the Syriac Cave of Treasures. Louvain: Secretariat du Corpus SCO. E. Bombay. The Apocryphal New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press. the Garden of Eden is distinguished by the sweet odors blowing in it. Exodus Rabbah 20:5. and Calcutta: Longmans Green.” Eretz-Israel 26 (1999) 185-9. A History of the Use of Incense in Divine Worship (London. GraYn (SC. 1909) 201. Éphrem de Nisibie. and is like an elixir of life for earthly death.” Le Muséon 81 (1968) 495. E. Hymnes sur le paradis. ibidem. and scatters a breath of cures all around. at any time (11:9-15). 75. cf. and he asks that he be permitted to meet the mercy of Eden. Stager. and has no basis in early Jewish sources. the author movingly exclaims. 1968) 148-9. that was sent to the cursed earth to cure it of the sickness that the serpent had brought upon it. see also: Odes of Solomon 11:13-16. 17. is a Chris- tian concept. Cuthbert. Beck (CSCO 174. Atchley and F. and also Genesis Rabbah 62:2. and the spices are its treasures. cap. He describes the healing power of the smell of the Garden of Eden. 22 See e. open. J. A fount of spices gushes forth from Eden and heals the earthly springs of the curse. Con- trary to L. N.23 19 Elliott. 1977) 495. 1966) 367. 21 Budge. “Jerusalem and the Garden of Eden. M.21 This per- ception of the Garden of Eden as a place noted for its spices. Lavenant and F. Des Heiligen Ephraem des Syrers Hymnen de Paradiso. 595). The fragrance that issues from the Garden cleanses the bitterness of the earth. 78. Song of Songs (AB. Greek text. 20 Ephraem Syrus.22 nor did it link the spices mentioned in Song of Songs 4:14 with the burning of incense or with the Garden of Eden. 991.g. ibidem. New York: Doubleday.20 Similar to the depiction by Ephraem the Syrian.19 Especially eVusive in his portrayals of Paradise is Ephraem the Syrian in his sermons on the Garden of Eden. Pope. The early Jewish tradition did not excessively engage in depictions of the Garden of Eden. 23 See Ben Sira 24:15. it did not describe the Garden as a place celebrated for its spices and fragrant aromas.

). These sources preserve within themselves memories from Temple times and ancient folk traditions that  ourished on the soil of the Land of Israel. Ha-Derashot be-Yisrael. Eve and Seth go into the regions of Paradise. D. . “Midrashim. see Y. A similar version: Yalkut Shimoni. Schechter (Cambridge. 25 In terms of the use of Talmudic tradition as a historical source. H. Its redaction is not earlier than the tenth century: M. The Legends of the Jews (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. 24 Midrash Zuta. 1915) 253. D. including Christian ones: J. The Bar-Kokhva Revolt ( Jerusalem: Yad Ben Zvi. “East of the Garden of Eden”. The Spices of Paradise and the Oil of Mercy from the Tree of Life According to the tradition in GLAE. the aromatic fragrances of paradise in GLAE 27 The earliest exegesis that links the spices. Adam cannot attain this oil on earth. Herr. and what is the theological signiŽ cance of this bond? 4. This is a midrashic collection from another. s. and the incense. “The Bar-Kokhba War in Light of the Talmudic Tradition”. On Midrash Zuta. in A. L. Eisenstein. L. as Adam lies on his deathbed. who gives explicit preference to Palestinian Talmudic sources over Babylonian sources. 1894). 24 Accordingly. 1946) vol. Pesikta Rabbati 37 (ed. ed. Rappaport (eds. Efron. Numbers Rabbah 13:1. Eisenstein. 16 ( Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica. 1987) 143-7. 1896) and ed. Zunz. Song of Songs (ed. idem. s. Buber (entitled Midrash Zuta. M. re ecting later internal ten- dencies and external in uences. ed. Ginzberg. 42-43. Latin Life of Adam 36). Oppenheimer and U. I follow in the footsteps of Joshua Efron.v. its spices. the Garden of Eden. Ish-Shalom [Friedmann]) 16. Keter. D. 1947) 129 (based on Die gottesdienstlichen Vortage der Juden [Frankfurt a. he sends Eve and his son Seth to Paradise to ask God to have mercy upon him and to give him “from the tree out of which the oil  ows” (¤k toè d¡ndrou ¤n Ú =¡ei tò ¦laion ¤j aétoè) so as to heal him of his sickness (9:3. and the Song of Songs and connects these spices with incense Ž rst appears in the post Babylonian midrashic tradition. They weep and entreat God to give them “the oil of mercy” (tò ¦laion toè ¤l¡ou) that is capable of curing Adam and removing from him the threat of death. after having been expelled from Paradise. 1984) 47-105 (Hebrew). 1972) col. Buber) 4 [16]. this exegesis does not yet appear in Song of Songs Rabbah on this verse. Zunz also calls this “Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim”: pub.25 How are we to understand the link between the spices of the incense oVering and the Garden of Eden in the Christian tradition. 5. it is only in the late Talmudic tradition that we see the development of an inter- pretive connection between the verses in the Song of Songs and the Garden of Eden. But God refuses. Ozar Midrashim: A Library of Two Hundred Minor Midrashim (New York: J. larger midrash also used by Tanhuma and Pesikta Rabbati. Song of Songs 2:988.v. the Babylonian Talmudic literature and the post-Babylonian midrashim are more distant in their time and place of composition. By contrast. 1892]).. Smaller. Albeck ( Jerusalem: The Bialik Institute. 1515. “Simeon ben Shatah and Alexander Jannaeus.” Studies on the Hasmonean Period (Leiden: Brill. Berlin. M. J.” Encyclopaedia Judaica.

lest he eat of it and live forever. at the resurrection (ch. God once again promises him that “at the time of the resurrection I will raise you again. . so that he will not attain everlasting life. and then there shall be given to you from the tree of life. The rising smoke of the incense that disseminates its 26 M. Nagel. The two portrayals are parallel:27 each speaks of a tree that is in Paradise.). as if the latter had said: “If you cannot give me the oil of the tree of life. 28 E. R. See M.” The spices are the tangible. at least give me of its spices. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. and they embody the promise of the resurrection.” in J. 7. and immortality that will come to pass at the end of time. 1988) 170. This conclusion is supported by the proximity in this text of the tra- dition depicting the incense oVering to that regarding the tree of life. 27 J. Gospel of Nicodemus 24 (in Elliot. After the author describes God’s refusal to allow man to eat from the tree of life. Concordance grecque. it will be given to man only at the end of time. 13). that I may use them for the incense oVering. Verses 3-5 are found in a minor- ity of Greek MSS.v. and therefore is connected to the spices of Paradise.). Goodenough. “Life of Adam and Eve. Before having been expelled from Paradise Adam asked to eat from the tree of life (¤k toè jælou t°w zv°w). in Denis (ed.28 rivka nir it rather will be given to him and his descendants only at the end of time (¤pƒ ¤sx‹tvn tÇn kairÇn). Similarly to Adam’s previously men- tioned request. Johnson. 127. 2 (New York: Doubleday. in Paradise. and in both instances. “Tree”. and that has the power to cancel death and give man life eternal. s. when the Garden of Eden is reestablished. 1985) 275. 29 1 Enoch 24-25.28 In traditions parallel to GLAE. Portraits of Adam in Early Judaism (SheYeld: JSOT Press. he cites Adam’s request for the spices.26 The identity of this tree is clariŽ ed in the continuation of the nar- rative. 815. Charlesworth (ed. at the time of the resurrection. the tree of life itself is noted for its spices and the fragrances that it emits. The tree from which the oil of mercy  ows (in the Ž rst passage) can be identiŽ ed with the tree of life that gives everlasting life in Paradise at the end of time (in the second passage). sensual. Apocryphal New Testament. Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period (New York: Pantheon Books. R. Apocalypse of Ezra 2:12. that he will be entitled to receive only at the end of time. eternity. and earthly remains of Paradise and the tree of life that were given to Adam in this world. 189). 2 Enoch 5:1-6.29 The spices that Adam receives from the tree of life in Paradise in order to make an earthly oVering of incense are something of a substitute for the oil of mercy that  ows from this tree. H. and you shall be immortal” (28). 1958) vol. vol. D. but God rejects his request. Levison.

468). the Son of God. sent him to the gate of Paradise. it is related in the Gospel of Nicodemus. R. vol. The angel who was to lead him to this tree.31 This tradition explicitly associates the tree of life with Jesus. the Ž fth century. but only after the conclusion of 5500 years after the Creation. In the Testament of Levi (18:10-11) the Messiah will open the gates of Paradise. “Life of Adam and Eve. See Ginzberg.30 The Christian nature of this tradition is revealed beyond all doubt by the identiŽ cation of the tree of life with Christ. and the assurance of attain- ing the resurrection and eternal life embodied in it in the future. 119-121. Elliott. 76 ) it is diYcult to date the Gospel of Nicodemus and its various stages of evolvement but they con- clude. the aromatic fragrances of paradise in GLAE 29 spices symbolizes the link between the believer in this world and Paradise.. 1966). P. through which they will be resurrected. Alex. Christ is the tree of life: Goodenough. for example. 31 Gospel of Nicodemus 19:23-24. Anointing with the oil of mercy. 7. C. According to de Jonge and Tromp (Life of Adam and Eve. the author contrasts the tree of knowledge. before his death. without any explanation. and was the cause of the death of Adam and his descendants. the fact that this tradition was adopted and transmitted by Christians can shed a light on its original essence and tendencies.” 274) which represent the lat- est stage in the development of this pericope (de Jonge and Tromp. his longing to once again enter it. 164-5. He will anoint Adam with the oil. that brings a tradition identical to that in GLAE. and will permit the saints to eat of the tree of life. D. Apocryphal New Testament. In the continuation of the narrative. Jewish Symbols. 189. W. 119-20. so that the angel would lead him to the tree of mercy. Legends. from which he would take oil to anoint his father. Paul and Rabbinic Judaism (London: S. . The Lord ( Jesus) is the oil from which mercy is received: Clem. and only then will Adam be cured of all his ills. n. This com- position is dated ca. who alone is able to oVer the oil of mercy. 1993) vol. Paedagogos 2 (PG 8. who would then arise from his sickbed. 39). that while being in Hades Seth tells his forefathers that his father. 1. See also the Georgian Book of Adam 42 (Mahé. Then the only Son born to God will be transformed into a mortal and descend upon the earth. however. Thus. Scroggs. Davies. in the parallel texts of GLAE that specify when this end of time will come. 277- 84. raise him up. The Last Adam: A Study in Pauline Anthropology (Philadelphia: Fortress Press. The Golden Legend (Princeton: Princeton University Press. K. or the tree from which such oil  ows. col. The Talmudic literature contains no mention of an oil that bestows life. 1955) 36-57. that 30 A similar idea is expressed in an additional version of the narrative in Jacobus de Voragine. and wash him and his descendants with water and the Holy Spirit. and the tree of the cross of Jesus. Even if it is true. Life of Adam and Eve. remove the sword that threatens Adam. ibidem. “Le Livre d’Adam Georgien”. that is in the domain of Satan. 113. although it re ects earlier traditions: Elliott. 5. informs him that at this time he would not be able to attain the oil that cures the sick. 186-7. that it is younger than the Life of Adam and Eve. 243) and a few MSS of the Latin Life of Adam and Eve 42 ( Johnson..

does the earthly incense oVering replace the tree of life in Paradise. trans. the embodiment of Adam. vol. his suVering and death. thereby suggesting that Paradise already begins to shine forth upon the birth of the Messiah. myrrh. but gold. see Goodenough. W.30 rivka nir will occur upon Jesus’ Ž rst earthly appearance. For the Christian nature of the extant composition. is a motif present in all the tradi- tions concerning the spices and the incense in GLAE. 27. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. 504-5). Lamy. 1. H. is the Christian incense oVering. Contra Celsum 6. as we will see. 33 Ephraem the Syrian: T. the real tree of life. E.34 in which the spices that Adam took from Paradise are buried in the treasure cave. Director (San Francisco: Harper & Row. 32 Anointing with the oil of the tree of life as a symbol for acceptance of Christianity: Origen. 1978) 46.). so. n. 1988) 252-3. which is the ver- itable Tree of Life. and frankincense. see S. The oil of the tree of life also appears in the Gnostic literature: The Gospel of Truth 36. J. who anoints with oil from the tree of life in Paradise. The sacriŽ ce that man seeks to oVer. M. in The Nag Hammadi Library. 34 Testament of Adam 3:6. composed of the spices of Paradise. Robinson. Budge. 2. because it is identiŽ ed with the tree of the CruciŽ xion.32 The tree of life is also related to the sacriŽ ce of Jesus. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. composed of spices from Paradise. vol. Clem. The Seal of the Spirit: A Study in the Doctrine of Baptism and ConŽrmation in the New Testament and the Fathers (London: Longmans Green. just as the spices are an earthly substitute for the oil of mercy in Paradise. in Charlesworth (ed. which is also an appel- lation for the tree of the cross (Acts 5:30. The Acts of Thomas 157 (Elliott. Sancti Ephraemi Syri hymni et sermones (Mechliniae: Malines. and Adam’s transformation into a god. in GLAE. For diVerent testimonies.33 The incense oVering. and this entire tradition can only be understood against the background of Christian conceptions and beliefs. that is. Pseud. 63: “That Tree of Life which was in the midst of Paradise preŽ gured the Redeeming Cross. M. 13:29). 991. Lampe. It is characterized by the link it forges between the incense oVering and the spices of Paradise.” The tree of life is therefore called jælon. Cave of Treasures. Alexandre. 7.). Apocryphal New Testament. 2:11). col. 10:39. Jewish Symbols. 1967) 125. 1882-1902) 4. H. 144. Le commencement du livre Genèse I-V (Paris: Beauchesne. 769:2. Recognitiones 1:45. and not d¡ndron (oak): GLAE 28:4. sym- bolizes the sacriŽ ce of Jesus. G. J. A slightly diVerent version is oVered by the Christian Testament of Adam. Chadwick (Cambridge: University Press. in Charlesworth (ed. the end of days. in The Nag Hammadi Library. together with the testament of Adam relating to the future birth of Christ. too. it is not the four spices mentioned in GLAE that are concealed in the cave. Robinson. . signiŽ es the acceptance of Christianity with baptism and the Holy Spirit. a connection that. 1965) 342. 1. 119-21. which the Magi will bring to Bethlehem upon the birth of Jesus (Mt. 994. According to this tradition. The Gospel of Philip.

O Father of all. Frishman and L. and the work of your (holy) hands’ ” (ch. redactional activity”. sees in this division between the soul and the body of Adam a re ection of two ancient independent traditions. the aromatic fragrances of paradise in GLAE 31 5. with angels going before the chariot. ‘Holy Jael. Van Rompay [eds. He agrees that the description of Adam’s death and burial is combined from two stories which are from diVerent provenance “but that does not automatically imply that the combi- nation is the result of secondary. crying out and saying. rather. and. 181. Adam is represented here as the archetypical sinner. D. Portraits of Adam. The image of Adam re ected in this portrayal is completely diVerent from that depicted in the Ž rst part of this apocryphal work.” The sun and the moon also fall down and pray for mercy for Adam (chs. J. Bertrand. 164-5. “I myself saw golden censers (yumiat®ria) and three bowls (fi‹law). however. and the fumes of the incense (² ŽtmÜw toè yumi‹matow) hid the sky. The two traditions were juxtaposed according to a traditional genre of literature. who cannot attain forgiveness on earth. After his soul leaves his body and ascends to heaven (32:3-4). The Book of Genesis in Jewish and Oriental Christian Interpretation [Louvain: Peeters. 1985) 111. 35-36 ). his sins are forgiven. Tromp (“Literary and Exegetical Issues in the Story of Adam’s Death and Burial [GLAE 31-42]”. Eve and Seth see seven heavens open. the body of Adam is lying on its face. in J. “Le destin “post mortem” des protoplastes selon la ‘Vie grecque d’Adam et Eve’”. After his death. 36 Levison. 35 Eve sees a chariot of light drawn by four radiant eagles. for he is your image.]. This scene revolves around the compassion shown to Adam after his death. “Forgive him. all the angels with frankincense and the censers came to the altar (yusiast®rion) and breathed on them. 36 and he is promised 35 A distinction is drawn here between the soul and the body: after Adam’s death. in La littérature intertes- tamentaire (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Ž nally. And the angels fell down and worshiped God. his soul is taken to the third heaven. After the resurrection. the soul and the body will reunite. to the place where Adam is lying. 1997] 28-9) rejects Bertrand’s “simple interpretation” because there is no clear distinction between Adam’s body and his spirit: “body” and “spirit” are promiscuously used in the two stories and there is also a major confusion about the geographical location of paradise. 183. forgive. and all the angels are praying for him and saying. while the body is buried in the ground. for he is your image. . After this. The Incense as an Atonement OVering The incense and the spices occupy a central position in the depiction of the death of Adam in GLAE. emphasis is placed on his being in the image of God. and behold. 172-4. it is original and was done by the authors intentionally. the angel proclaims God’s decision in Adam’s favor (37:1-2). his soul ascends to Heaven in honored fashion. he wins pardon. 33). the angels in Heaven intercede with God on his behalf. one about the assumption of the soul to God and the other about the funeral and the bur- ial of the body. A.

In the Apocalypse of Paul as well. the heavenly Jerusalem. Carmina Nisibena (CSCO 218. and once more underlines the Christian identity of this tradition. a 37 Apocalypse of Paul 29 (Elliott. Additional details concerning this heavenly incense altar may be drawn from the Apocalypse of Paul. Dix. . Elliott dates the book to the mid-third century (Elliott. ibidem. 72. 37 sq. This work also mentions the Lake of Acheron (22). this heavenly incense oVering is capable of atoning for Adam’s sin and eVecting forgiveness for him since it embodies the sacriŽ ce of Christ. The angels address God with their request that Adam be forgiven because he was made in the image of God and is his handiwork. The earliest testimony to this role appears in Carmina Nisibena XVII. G. see Lietzmann. the angels are intermediaries who either defend or prosecute man’s actions in heaven. that is the sacriŽ ce of Jesus. while Hennecke and Schneemelcher date it to the late fourth-early Ž fth centuries: E. the hymn proclaims: Thy fasts are a defence unto our land. Thy prayer a shield unto our city. Des heiligen Ephraem des Syrers. they defend man. the incense sacriŽ ce. The incense occupies a central place in this entreaty for forgiveness. Hennecke and W.32 rivka nir resurrection and eternal life at the end of time.38 This idea appears in many Syriac texts beginning in the Ž fth century. The incense sacriŽ ce as a means for atonement and forgiveness for sins expresses an additional facet of the role of the incense in GLAE. This work also tells us about the incense sacriŽ ce that is oVered on the heavenly altar: it is the antitype of the sacriŽ ce of the earthly Jesus. E. Dare Press. who has hallowed thine oVering. Schneemelcher (eds.). The Shape of the Liturgy [London. after which the angel pronounces that God has pardoned Adam. 1945] 428). 1991) 713. Scr. Thy burning of incense is our propitiation. situated in the city of Christ.37 The altar is of gigantic dimensions. Praised be God. New Testament Apocrypha (Cambridge: James Clarke. Syri. a composition that contains tradi- tions close to GLAE. In reference to Abraham. the Bishop of Nisibis. One of the primary uses of incense in the Church rite is the atonement of sins.. When the sacriŽ ce of the body and blood of the earthly Jesus is oVered. Carmina Nisibena 17. Thus. there as well. composed by Ephraem the Syrian in 363. Apocryphal New Testament. Adam and Charles Black. Lord’s Supper. 616). and also entered the Christian liturgy. and the incense is oVered on it in heaven. 632). 38 Ephraem Syrus. in which a special prayer. 92) 46 (trans. The desired forgiveness. is eVected only after they oVer the incense on the altar. however. must be oVered in heaven. Beck. ed. arguing that he is the image of God (7).

4: 24-26 ). in which this detail occupies a prominent position. 629-30).42 After this. Phaedo 113 A. 4:7. according to which it is part of the river that carries the souls of the dead to the netherworld: Plato.39 In Judaism. 29: 36. to the city of Christ. Adam is forgiven his sins. and as a secondary addition to them. until the end of time and the founding of the new world (ch. Shape of the Liturgy. or in the sin-oVering ( : Lev. 5:485. “New Testament and Hekhaloth Literature: The Journey into Heaven . the heavenly Jerusalem. was given its current form by a Christian author- redactor. he must be baptized in the Lake of Acheron. Lev. Connolly. that is. according to the Christian tradi- tion. Schäfer. The lake or river of Acheron is a patently Christian motif. Johnson. “until that great and fearful day which I am about to establish for the world. like those who have not sinned. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Grand Rapids. 7:1-7). or in the guilt-oVering ( : Lev. incense is used to atone for sin. to which one of the angels bears his body and immerses him three times. and commands him to bring it to Paradise in the third heaven (37:4-5) where. n.” that is to say. H. Before his entry. 25-26. the aromatic fragrances of paradise in GLAE 33 “prayer of incense. see also the Greek “Rainer fragment. and now his soul is ready to enter Paradise. 1929) 182. God promises to restore him to greatness. cor- responding to the model of Jesus (37:3-4). According to the Didascalia. “Life of Adam and Eve. Didascalia Apostolorum (Oxford: Oxford University Press. that appears in Christian parallels. 1977) 679. 41 Apocalypse of Paul 22 (Elliott. this lake is situated next to the city of Christ. Thayer. Ex. 609. whether on Yom Kippur (Ex. Lev. 42 The term Ëra can mean an hour but also a day: J. Paradise is located. Sibylline Oracles 2:330- 339. God entrusts Adam’s soul to Michael. Apocryphal New Testament. Baptism in it enables the penitent sinner to enter the city and attain salvation. Apocryphal New Testament. 16:12). of which there is no trace in Jewish sources.41 After its puriŽ cation in the lake of Acheron. 428-9. 2 Enoch 8. 39 Dix. 12:1-4. The name of the lake originates in the Greek tradition. The Book of the Resurrection of Christ by Bartholomew the Apostle 21:6 in James. however. 37). 43 Apocalypse of Paul 19 (Elliott.” was dedicated to the incense that atones for sins. but always in conjunction with animal sacriŽ ces. Apocryphal New Testament. 74) conclude that at least chs. Adam’s soul lies for three hours (Ëraw). The incense attained its goal. on the way leading to the throne of God. as well. 3 (Greek Apocalypse of ) Baruch 10:2. 40 Based on this detail. Apocryphal New Testament. Michigan: Baker Book House. Jesus slept three hours the night following the Sabbath: R.43 It is here that Adam’s soul is to remain until the resurrection. P. 5:15- 16. 1. 1 Enoch 17:6. 185.” 252. D. de Jonge and Tromp (Life of Adam and Eve. H. 2 Cor. 31-37 of GLAE.” that is parallel to Apocalypse of Peter 14 (in the Ethiopian version) in Elliott. 30:10.40 According to the Christian tradition. 627-8). Animal sacriŽ ces are totally absent from the GLAE.

as an exalted individual who is assured resurrection at the end of time. is contrary to that of Adam. The Incense at Adam’s Funeral Incense and spice also are central to the portrayal of the funeral and the burial of Adam. no. the character of Adam serves this dual orientation: on the one hand. Adam must be the sinner who bequeaths the sin to his descendants. J. so in Paul and in Merkavah Mysticism. drawn by the four winds. the “second” Adam. the eschatological Ž gure who is promised resurrection. and who precedes the “second” Adam in whom this promise is realized.34 rivka nir Man’s two roles. Das griechische .44 6. the image of Christ. Werblowsky and C. Knittel. “Le destin “post mortem” des protoplastes.” 113. Adam is connected with and close to Jesus. Simon.v. and was inca- pable of attaining earthly forgiveness. the “last” Adam. Z. 1950) 21-36. M. “all the plants of Paradise were stirred. For the Christian identity of this detail. vol. an analogous Ž gure preceding Jesus. Mich. the symbol of purity and the hope of salvation. Paradise Lost and the Genesis Tradition (Oxford: Clarendon. Ž nd expression in the description of the journey of Adam’s soul from the moment of its ascension to heaven until it arrives in Paradise. as they were fashioned in Christian theology. On the one hand. Jeremias. According to what is related in GLAE. and take it to heaven.: Eerdmans. who attains atonement. see Bertrand.” JJS 35 (1984) 22-23. Evans. s. will be able to atone for his sin. J. was not entitled to receive the oil of mercy. on the other hand. he represents the exalted man. Once again. . J. 1. They come to the place where Adam’s body lies. “Adam et la rédemption dans la perspective de l’église ancienne. Sharpe. 1968) 100. man appears as one whose soul. Adam symbolizes the Ž gure of the sinner that is the opposite of Christ. L. 1970) 62-71.” CBQ 30 (1973) 35-46. so that Christ. Nonetheless. all the angels assemble holding censers and trumpets. however.” TDNT. as inverse typology. con- tra T. Types of Redemption (Leiden: Brill. Both of these roles ensue from the Adam-Jesus typology in Pauline theology. Daniélou. J. ascends to heaven in honored fashion. 1 (Grand Rapids. like Jesus. On the other hand. “Adam. Sacramentum Futuri (Paris: Beauchesne. the Lord appears. 2002) 141. and possesses a glimmering of the splendor that enveloped him before his sin. Thus. M. “The Second Adam in the Apocalypse of Moses. with the cherubim directing the winds and the angels of heaven passing before Him. man has the image of a sinner who was expelled from Paradise.Leben Adams und Evas‘ (Tübingen: Mohr [Siebeck]. In this respect. 1964) 142. J. in this sense.). Upon their arrival in Paradise.” in R. In this composition. 44 J. Bleeker (eds. Adam is the prototype of Christ.

The depiction of the burial of Adam and Abel with spices is based on the description of the death and interment of Jesus. 48 See this same tradition in Budge. The Assumption of the Virgin 1 (Elliott. See Johnson. s. 67. which had not been buried after the day he was killed by his brother Cain. and the accompanying angels use incense at the funeral. pure. 75. Peter. Apocryphal New Testament. De S. 38).48 After this. in the grave that they (the angels) dug and built. Fehrenbach. and to bury both bodies in the earth together with many fragrances (eévdÛaw poll‹w). The Burial of Adam and Abel with Spice GLAE relates that God commands the archangels to bring three cloths of linen (and silk) from Paradise to the third heaven.” 8-9.v.” 656. 7. but infused them with new meaning which was drawn from the New Testament tradition that connects spices with the burial of Jesus. Petri Alexandrini Episcopi. On the power of the spices of Paradise to cause drowsiness. S. 46 See Atchley and Cuthbert. and it also employed incense bearers.47 The transferal of the body of a saint to a more honored place was conducted like the original funeral procession. in which spices 45 KayorÇn toè yeoè. The description of the burial corresponds to the portrayals of the inter- ment ceremonies of Christians or saints in the Ž rst centuries CE. and to pour oil over it from the oil of fragrance (¦laion ¤k toè ¤laÛou t°w eévdÛaw). at which incense was freely used. 40-41).” 291. and in a similar manner to embalm Abel’s corpse. because he was born according to the appointment of God” (ch. “qui avait été un observant de Dieu”. God eulogizes Adam and promises him the res- urrection: “I shall raise you on the last day in the resurrection with every man of your seed” (chs. . Bishop of Alexandria.46 We have examples of the funerals of Christian martyrs and saints in which incense played an important role. PG 50. 38. col. History of the Use of Incense. Incense would later accompany prayer in the pro- cession to the holy site of the martyr. Pelagia. 71 below. Cave of Treasures.45 Adam’s body is transferred from its temporary place of burial to Paradise. see n. to cover Adam’s body. Hom I. “Incense. “Life of Adam and Eve. col. 72-73. the aromatic fragrances of paradise in GLAE 35 that all those born of Adam became drowsy from the fragrance except Seth. Lampe. 701). 465). Some manuscripts read: kayarñw. Bertrand. Christianity adopted the use of incense in its funer- ary rites from the death rites prevalent in the pagan world. 583.” PG 18. La vie grecque. Patristic Greek Lexicon. 47 John Chrysostom. The Assumption of the Virgin 1 (Elliott. 701) re ects the practice of burning incense next to the grave of the Christian. The funeral procession of St. The description of Adam’s burial is based on the same tradition. Apocrypal New Testament. “Encens. in 311 (“Acta Sincera. 97-113.

PL 59. Matthew deŽ nes the oil as “very expensive ointment” (26:6 ) and John adds that the house was Ž lled with the fragrance of the spice (¤k t°w ôsm°w toè mærou) (12:3). 1971) 415. 23:56. as is the burial custom of the Jews” ( Jn. 50 Gregory of Nyssa. 51 Jesus is buried wrapped in shrouds with a combination of spices (myrrh and aloes). broke the mouth of the jar. 1940) 639.” The par- allel in Jn. like the four species in the incense oVering of Adam. and in the future will be spread. vol. Bultmann. wherever this gospel is preached in the whole world. The presents of the Magi upon Jesus’ birth (Mt. 905. 15. and bound it in linen clothes with the spices. as Hoskyns states: “The gift of one hundred pounds of spices suggests the sweet-smelling odour which went fourth into the world from the sacriŽ ce of the son of God. H.36 rivka nir are also prominently featuring. According to Mark (14:3-9). Sermon 3. 7:36-38. 52 E. 26:13). 19:38-40). and Ž ll the entire world: “Truly. symbolized by the spices of Paradise. he emits that same fragrance of Paradise. what she has done will be told in mem- ory of her” (Mt. Liber Cathemerinon 12. together with the tidings of the Gospel. see R. Jesus explains to those who were angry about the waste of the precious oil that “in pouring this ointment on my body she has done it to prepare me for burial. but already now. New York and London: G. see Prudentius. 24:1. The Gospel of John: A Commentary (Oxford: Blackwell. I say to you. E. Lk. are 49 In the parallel in Jn. 1971) 450-1. a woman came with a jar of very costly pure nard. From Glory to Glory: Texts from Gregory of Nyssa’s Mystical Writings. Murray. 16:1. 2:11) already allude to the linkage of spices with his burial. R. where those who believe in him will be gathered at the end of time. 1962) 165. ed. . Brown. when Jesus was at Bethany in the house of Simon the leper. The Fourth Gospel. “The Odor of Spikenard. which are related to the incense oVering that is embodied in the sacriŽ ce of Jesus. “Let her keep it for the day of my burial. Spices are Ž rst linked with the death of Jesus in the tradition of the anointment at Bethany. C.” Commentary on the Canticle. 824A-825C. 51 See also Mk. Musurillo (London: J. 2 (London: Faber. 1 (AB. PG 44. 12:1-7 incorporates motifs from the narrative of the anointment in Galilee in Lk. This fragrance Ž lls the entire room. vol. The Gospel according to John. Chapman. Hoskyns. They took the body of Jesus.”49 The act of anointment precedes the mystery of the sacriŽ ce of Jesus.”52 These two spices. 50 The description of the burial of Jesus gives clear expression to the connection between the incense oVering and the spices: Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus “came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes (smærnhw kaÜ Žlñhw). about a hundred pounds’ weight. and poured the nard over his head. 12:7. Paradise will be established upon his death.

Flender and C. 940-41. with all aromatic woods. Adam appears as the prototype of Christ: “a type of the one who was to come (tæpow toè m¡llontow)” (Rom. 16:1. 56 Mk. vol.55 and like Jesus.57 additionally. 23:53. Daniélou. 23:56. and therefore Jesus says to the thief who is cruciŽ ed with him: “Today you will be with me in Paradise” (Lk.v. Together with him. the spices that were brought to Adam were used to prepare his body for burial. 54 Beda Venerabilis. see also O. “Terre et paradis. Lk. 15:46. however. Portraits of Adam. The Quest of Seth for the Oil of Life (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. like Adam. As Jesus. Mt. “Smell. Adam’s burial with the spices constitutes the assurance of his entry into Paradise that will be fulŽ lled with the death of Jesus. he is buried with spices in a new grave. Levison. and constitutes its preŽ guration.58 that carries the promise of resurrection and eternal life in Paradise. the aromatic fragrances of paradise in GLAE 37 also linked in the Christian exegesis with Paradise. myrrh and aloes—all the choice perfumes” (4:14). The fragrance promised them. These are “all those born of Adam” who become drowsy from the fragrance of Paradise at Adam’s funeral (38:4). Brown. 3. The emphasis in this verse on the word “today” teaches that the eschatological era already exists in the present. 57 E. C. He now can receive the fragrant oil. Mt. fragrant reed and cinnamon. thus returning to Paradise the spices that he received as a substitute for the oil of mercy. and symbolize Paradise that is opened upon the death of Jesus. 1962) 32. “a clean linen shroud” (27:59) and parallels. fragrant oil is poured over him. he is placed in a tomb that is dug in the bedrock56 and sealed.” DNTT. 600.53 Similar to these four spices. 24:1). 19:41. and like him. 183. PL 91. Lk. Adam is buried in a shroud.54 The description of Adam’s burial with spices is based on that of the burial of Jesus. his entombment already alludes to the renewal of Paradise that will be realized in its entirety with the burial of Jesus. 55 Mk. he may be buried with the spices. Quinn. 5:14). 15:46. speciŽ es spices diVerent from those mentioned in the tradition of the incense sacriŽ ce in GLAE: rvma and mæron (Mk. 14:3. After Adam is forgiven for his sin. The NT. like him.” 456. In the traditions under discussion. s. Clement formulates this as follows: “Our knowledge . as a spice burnt as incense. the oil of mercy of the tree of life.. resurrection and eternity in Paradise. 58 The Georgian version expressly identiŽ es the oil with which Adam was anointed with the tree of oil. there is a promise of ressurection of all persons belonging to his seed (41:3). after the four spices listed by the tradition in GLAE: “Nard and saVron. Paradise is founded upon the death of Jesus.59 53 Brown. 23:43). Myrrh and aloes are mentioned in Song of Songs. aloes also had a function in the Christian rite. 59 Paradise is Jesus himself. Gospel according to John. Jn. Like in the burial of Jesus. 27:60.

does not necessarily prove the Christian origin of GLAE. Ant. Tertullian. indeed. 1 (ICC New Ed. 65. 1933) 144. The funeral of Herod: Josephus. La foi à la resurrection de Jesus dans le christianisme primitif (Paris: Leroux. Meiser. Brock. TDNT. Merk and M. 15:61. StumpV. because shrouds and perfumed spices were universally prevalent in antiquity. O.” Le Muséon 87 (1974) 475-6. They maintain that the tradition in GLAE is not to be understood against the background of the Christian tradition. and Ž nely accords with the idea of Adam-Christ in Pauline thought. II. & T.v. as is stated explic- itly in the Syriac work Life of Abel (25:4). Goguel. De Idol. PG 9. . 21:19. Edinburgh: T. Consequently. E. 61 M. 62 Although anointing the dead with spices was apparently not a common practice in Judaism.63 It may be assumed that this Jewish practice is also re ected in the description of the burial of Jesus. which was Ž lled with spices of all kinds. The transferal of the plant brought it good fruits” (Clem.. as in the Gospel of John (19:40). Abel also is a prototype of Jesus. far from the old life. 484.38 rivka nir Although the connection between Adam’s burial tradition and that of Jesus is evident. Thrall. For incense in the pagan world.g. According to them.. 1998) 768. A. The reference of “Ž re” is to the burning of incense. that states explicitly that Jesus was buried with shrouds and spices. 2 Enoch 71:35-36. 60 De Jonge and Tromp. The murder of Abel precedes and symbolizes the mur- der of Christ. after we have passed from the old life and have been planted from anew in the good earth. there are only a few characteristic elements in the burial of Adam that are indicative of the origin of the composition. thus. 1994) 197. 16:14). 23:35. 209). a widespread practice in the ancient pagan world. his resurrection. s. “A Syriac Life of Abel. P. as well. Gütersloh: Verlagshaus. 62 M. de Jonge and Tromp reject any certain link between the two traditions. Ant. col. 2. vol. who provides Greek and Latin testimonies. a very great Ž re was made in his honor” (2 Chr. similarly. 810. War 1:673 and of Aristobulus: Josephus. eévdÛa. See Mt. see also 2 Chr. Alex. The awareness that the burning of incense is associated with the pagan death rite appears in M Avodah Zarah 1:3. Das Leben Adams und Evas ( JSHRZ 2. and these in uences pene- trated and were absorbed by Christianity. The Second Epistle to the Corinthians. expertly blended. there are nevertheless a number of extant testimonies that spices were also used in the Jewish world. ( gnosis) and our spiritual Paradise is the savior.. Life of Adam and Eve. 19:39-40. See. 63 The burial of King Asa: “He was laid in his resting-place. The pleasant smell was perceived as one of the external signs of the penetration of the earthly world by the super- natural realm61 and of a divine presence. 70-71. see also: PT Avodah Zarah 1:39(c). the similarity between the description of the burial of Adam. and. Clark. in the royal burials of kings and other rulers. and that of the interment of Jesus in Jn. in which we are planted. e. in S. Like Adam. vol. 60 Burial in a shroud and spices was. n. see. in accordance with the burial custom of the Jews. 17:199. Stromata 6.

according to the Christian perception. and those who believe in him share his fragrance. Like Jesus. Since his death is symbolized in the spices of Paradise. Jesus is presented in this passage as an incense sacriŽ ce. 1949) 41 n. that are related. and are the pleas- ant smell of the sacriŽ ce. The Christian tradition infused this practice with singular theological signiŽ cance which stands at the center of the idea of the sacriŽ ce of Christ. 5:1-2). II Corinthians (AB. to the Biblical incense oVering in order to express the apostolic mission. Dupont. K. Jesus is the earthly incense sac- riŽ ce. Paul uses the terms eévdÛa together with ôsm®. 1984) 176. P. .66 The apostles spread the recognition of the Messiah. and through us spreads the fragrance of the knowledge of him64 (t¯n ôsm¯n t°w gnÅsevw aétoè) everywhere. that rises to God. “Smell. the burial of Jesus with spices is connected to the concept of the incense oVering. is not re ective solely of the prevalent funerary custom. StumpV. As we have seen. In this passage. He is “a fragrant oVering and sacriŽ ce to God” (Eph. V. the apostles and martyrs who disseminate the belief in him are also sacriŽ ces of sweet-smelling incense. Gnosis. 2:14-16 ). to one a fragrance from death to death. Furnish. Barrett. The promise by Jesus to the woman who anointed him is realized in the apostles: the spices that Ž lled the room of the house in Bethany were spread and diVused throughout the entire world by these disciples. 2. who renders verse 15: “for we are the sweet savour of sacriŽ ce that rises from Christ to God”. 41. 1973) 99. Nauwelaerts. and they. they become the sweet savor of the Messiah.” 599. Dupont. the aromatic fragrances of paradise in GLAE 39 The burial of Jesus with spices. and in the reward that they will receive at his resurrection. New York: Doubleday. Flender and Brown. A Commentary on the Second Epistle to the Corinthians (London and New York: Harper and Row. too. 2:15 speaks turns the reference in verse 14 with the personal pronoun aétoè into the savory aroma of Christ. Gnosis. 47. as we have seen. SuVering and the Spirit. who in Christ always leads us in triumph (yriambeæonti). La connaissance religieuse dans les epîtres de Saint Paul (Louvain and Paris: E. 200. give expres- sion to the aYliation between the sacriŽ ce and the spices: “But thanks be to God. however. “eévdÛa”. Thrall. 810. since. to the other a fragrance from life to life” (2 Cor. 66 See C. the smell of the Messiah of which 2 Cor. 64 J. that Ž nds expression in the belief in his sacriŽ ce. For we are the aroma of Christ to God (÷ti Xristoè eévdÛa ¤sm¢n tÒ yeÒ) among those who are being saved and among those who perish.65 The apostles spread the fragrance of the acknowledgement of Christ. Second Corinthians. 65 Hafemann. with the text using the same terms that appear in GLAE: yusÛa and ôsm¯ eévdÛaw.

100- 101). Ignatius. 37.v. 10 (Paris: Librairie Letouzey at Ane. Song of Songs. Not only the apostles. power. MA: Harvard University Press. The perse- cutions of the Christian communities of Vienna and Lugdunum. 108-9. The Ecclesiastical History 4:15. The Jewish tradition also links reli- gious persecutions with the savory aroma of the incense oVering. that relates to the Roman practice of victory processions that ended with the death of the vanquished.69 Like Jesus. 15:16. Pope. 2. Apocryphal New Testament. and their martyrium is associated with the spices of Paradise.” DACL. Arndt and Gingrich. 5:27 (pp.” 68 Rom. the faithful also are the sweet odor of the Messiah: Odes of Solomon 11:15. the death of the martyrs as an incense has to be with a sweet savor. Greek-English Lexicon. Their execution was an integral part of the proces- sion (yrÛambow). 424-5). 1931) 2360. is connected. also are a sweet savor in the Messiah. IV. or reveal. 370-1). 2:17. Commentaire sur le Cantique des Cantiques 7:36 (pp. 420-1. This imagery accords with the conception of the incense sacriŽ ce of Jesus. s. Cambridge. 69 See The Martyrdom of Polycarp. “And my breath was refreshed by the pleasant fragrance of the Lord. Paul and the apostles present. the martyrs who delivered their bodies to bear witness to their faith also embody the living holy sacriŽ ce that is agree- able to God. yusÛa. and splendor of his conqueror. 2 Tim. because these spices originate in Paradise. “as the servant of Christ.v. St. SuVering and the Spirit.70 The savory fragrance of the spices in all these traditions is a symbol of life. to the spices of the Song of Songs. 416-17. Eusebius.40 rivka nir The link between this passage and the incense sacriŽ ce of Jesus also follows from the exegesis of the verb yriambeæein. eternity. martyrs. 19-53. 4:6. the glory. Augustine.” is now led by God to his death. Paul presents himself as one of the defeated oppo- nents of God who. 71 This martyr-spice connection was noted by Adolf Harnack. 70 Apponius. in order to bring them life in Christ. 209-11). like the incense in GLAE. and it. 493. Phil. in the sight of all.68 and by their sacriŽ ce spread the belief in Jesus. Letter to the Romans 4:1. in which they are capable of inducing slumber in wild ani- mals and saving the martyrs.71 The apostles. eternity. The fragrance of the spices miraculously rescues them and prevents their death. the place of life. The Martyrdom of Polycarp 14:2. The City of God against the Pagans 20:25-26 (LCL. e. the recognition of which is spread by Paul and the apostles. so that he will be able to present. they are also capable of quieting a storm and healing the sick. See Atchley and Cuthbert. 37. Consequently they. 12:1. s. 366. 2 (Syriac Apocalypse . By their suVering.67 Akin to the apostles. The Ecclesiastical History 5:1. Leclerq. 35 and the story about Thecla (Elliott. but without refer- ence to the spice of the Garden of Eden: Genesis Rabbah 34:21. on the interpretation of 4:13. Similar to the role of spices in martyrdom narratives. H. and immortality. “Zu Eusebius H. Eusebius. like the apostles. and 67 Hafemann. “Martyre. and the triumph over death. 15. 1960. the acknowledgement of the death of Christ. too.” Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 2 (1878) 291-6. History of the Use of Incense.

Tertullian.” 461. like Paradise. 21. until his rib returned to him (42:1). The City of God 13. because of the spices. The Epistle to Diognetus 12:1. Marc. Hymnen de Paradiso 11:13-14. p. 16-20. 76 In Christianity. Salomon bp. Marcurio. while the other kindles the love of the future life. 62. Sacramentum Futuri. And the Christian Church. as Ignatius writes to the community in Ephesus. Budge (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hymnen de Paradiso 6:7-9. and beneŽ t from the restorative power of the spices from Paradise. 1886) 102. is replete with the pleasing odor and spices. The Book of the Bee: The Syrian Text with an English Translation by E. and. as Apponius attests (7:41. E.72 This conception lies in the background of the tradition that appears in early Christianity that the spices of Paradise were strewn on the believers. 76 The triangular seal is the main reason why de Jonge and Tromp (Life of Adam . 217). that was in it. Augustine. one removes the exist- ing fear of death. Letter to the Ephesians 17:1. of Basra. 2:4. Daniélou. on the Feast of Pentecost (based on Acts 2:1-4). Adam places the spices that he takes from Paradise into a cave that he blesses and sanctiŽ es so that it will be a place of prayer for him and his descendants. like the apostles and martyrs. A.”75 The description of the burial of Adam’s body in the Life of Adam and Eve concludes with the sealing of the grave with a triangular seal for six days.” ZNW (1903) 272. saVron cools the burnt organs. embodies eter- nity and life. based on Mt.” 74 Consequently. Nestle. Ephraem Syrus. Jn. “Terre et paradis. and with the instruc- tion by Michael that “Thus you shall prepare for burial each man who dies until the day of resurrection” and the command to “rest” on the seventh day and to be glad because the righteous soul migrates from the earth (43:2-3). W. and the pleasing aroma was perceived as testi- mony to the presence of the Holy Spirit. 26:7 (cf. “A Baptismal Motif in the Gospel Narratives of the Burial. 75 Ignatius. 12:3): “For this end did the Lord receive oint- ment on his head that he might breathe immortality on the Church. nard removes the hardness of the sick organs.” CBQ 21 (1959) 39-54. the of ) Baruch 29:7. for the connection between the spices of Paradise and the Holy Spirit. 73 Ephraem Syrus. “Der süsse Geruch als Erweis des Geistes. The triangular seal (sfr‹giw trÛgvnow) seems to establish the Christian nature of this tradition. 74 Budge. together with the Holy Spirit. see R. Cont. that is to say. and the Garden of Eden.73 In the Cave of Treasures the Church is identiŽ ed with Paradise: Eden is the holy Church. the Church. he calls this cave the “Cave of Treasures. spreads the knowledge of Jesus and is the new earthly embodiment of Paradise. 69. too. Cave of Treasures. the aromatic fragrances of paradise in GLAE 41 believers who follow in Jesus’ footsteps and disseminate the awareness of his sacriŽ ce also become incense sacriŽ ces. is the land of repose and the inher- itance of life prepared by God for all the children of God. since it. 72 Daniélou.

183. 81 See The Assumption of the Virgin 48.81 The pleasing odor that spread from these graves is that of the spices of Paradise. embod- ied in the incense sacriŽ ce of Jesus. 6:11. and symbolized in the birth of Eve: Daniélou. and the spices in their graves are the promise of their resurrection at the end of time.” Cathedra 80 (1996 ) 36. 11:28. . As we see. Limor. Portraits of Adam. 173. as expressed in the wearing of robes that were washed in the blood of the lamb: Rev. also are incense sacriŽ ces. 78 The rest (kat‹pausiw) on the seventh day. 72) are of the opinion that the details regarding the burial of Adam were put forth by Christian authors. have no signiŽ cance in other than a Christian context. 49 (Hebrew). ibidem. or whose tombs. 95:11). and the Holy Ghost. The Shepherd of Hermas 9:16. this is also the Church. the parallel term: Žn‹pausiw : Mt. vol. along with in uences exerted by similar practices in the pagan and Jewish worlds. like Jesus. Rev.80 and it may be assumed that the command to bury every person in this manner re ects practices prevalent in the Christian Church at the time this work was composed. “Encens. 79 Faith in Jesus is considered as rest (based upon Ps. 457). that occurs on the seventh day (43:2-3). 467): the Apostle imparts the triangular seal to a woman in the name of the Father. and the identiŽ cation by the believer with his death and resurrection. and cf. The Acts of Thomas 26 (Elliott.42 rivka nir seal symbolizes aYliation to Jesus. 78 Although Adam’s rib is Eve. exuded a wondrous savory smell. 44. Fehrenbach.” 459-60. 104-8. We have many portrayals of Christian saints and martyrs who were buried with spices and precious oils. the Son. contrary to the view held by de Jonge and Tromp. The connection it makes between and Eve. Apocryphal New Testament. in Elliott. this is the rest prior to the Resurrection. 77 The Acts of Thomas 49 (Elliott. “Christian Tradition—Jewish Authority. “Terre et paradis. 14:13-14. The emphasis placed on this being a triangular seal. O. and the fact that it seals the grave of Adam. 80 Levison.” 8-9. Apocryphal New Testament. according to the Christian conception is the intermediate state of death in which the dead people who believe in Jesus remain until they rise to life. History of the Use of Incense. 8) 515. See Heb. 77 The six-day period during which Adam’s grave must be sealed before his rib returned to him schematically represents the eschatological week (Sabbath) until the end of time and the resurrection. Le commencement. when opened. 3:11-4:12. Acts and Martyrdom of the Holy Apostle Andrew (The Anti-Nicene Fathers. 7:9-17. 219. Atchley and Cuthbert. 3.79 The details of Adam’s burial are to serve as a model for the inter- ment of Christians. Acts 7:49. born from the rib of Christ. The Christian practice of burying the dead with spices developed on the basis of the place of the spices in the burial of Jesus that were associated with Paradise. The Christian faithful. 707-8. Alexandre. 5-7. incense plays an important role in understanding the theological background of the GLAE.

K. Apologia 2:5. 17:37 sq. that incense was not in ritual use in Christianity until the fourth century. All of these meanings and roles draw upon the identity of Jesus as the incense sacriŽ ce who. Syri. See testimonies on the use of incense in Ephraem Syrus. Egeria’s Travels 24:10 (London: S. Scr. Dix. 88:4. Clem. 84 In the fourth century incense was incorporated in the liturgy of the Eucharist rite: Lietzmann. 425-7. Legatio pro Christianis 13 (PG 6. 1971) 125. 81-90. De Jonge and Tromp.84 The explanation oVered for this change is that the conversion 82 Athenagoras. is the earthly expression of Paradise. the aromatic fragrances of paradise in GLAE 43 the spices of Paradise and the incense oVering. in the role of the atonement sacriŽ ce. This argument is based on a series of statements by the Church Fathers who renounce the use of incense in the Christian rite. 83 The Epistle of Barnabas 2:3-6.. Syri. and prayer. they put forth the Christian sacriŽ ces of the spirit.. who dated the work to the second-fourth centuries. who is the incense sacriŽ ce. inherent in the spices that symbolize Paradise is the assurance of the resurrection at the end of time through Jesus. since he himself is the perfect odor. and as part of the funeral rite. Paedagogos 2. 92) 46. in a view commonly held by present-day scholars. . Pseudo-Dionysius. It emphasizes the idea that Jesus. God. Hom.. 82 Christians worship God not with blood or with oVerings and incense. and regard it as part of the Jewish and pagan sacriŽ cial rite. Lord’s Supper. faith. Justin Martyr. col. 68-72. J. John Chrysostom. combined in an escha- tological structure.C. Wilkenson (ed. The incense sacriŽ ce in this work is re ected in all the roles it fulŽ lls in Christianity: as a liturgical symbol for prayer and for the connection between man and God. 8. See the survey and discussion of the various testi- monies in Atchley and Cuthbert. As this was formulated by Athenagoras. but rather with the spiritual sacriŽ ces of prayer and thanksgiving.P. Des heiligen Ephraem des Syrers. Testimonies relating to the ritual and liturgical use of incense appear from the fourth cen- tury. Tertullian. Scr. does not need sacriŽ ces of blood or the smell of incense. Shape of the Liturgy. Lord’s Supper. 67. Apologeticus 30.. founds the new Paradise. (CSCO 212. Carmina Nisibena. rejected the connection between the spices that Adam took from Paradise in GLAE and the Christian incense sacriŽ ce. 916). arguing. 83 The scholars maintain that the historical background for this rejection lies in the persecutions of Christians when they were forced to deny their faith and to oVer incense as a test of their loyalty and acknowledgement of the rite of the Emperor and the pagan rite. upon his death. 71. 93) 55. 117. Homiliae in Mth. Lietzmann. counter to which. the Creator and Father of the world. the oil of mercy of the tree of life. Alex.). History of the Use of Incense. (CSCO 218. who needs nothing and who seeks nothing. is anchored in Christian theology and the mean- ing it ascribes to incense.

7 (ed. Expositio Evangelii. s. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. It should also be stressed that the Church Fathers generally reject incense within the context of the negation of the entire Jewish and Gentile sacriŽ cial rite. 1905] 105). and prayer oVered by the belief in Christ. 451. 425. Lk. and it adopted the use of incense. Apocryphal New Testament. See A. 1 and Athenagoras (n. Bartholomew. S. faith. PG. Ireneus. Shape of the Liturgy.” Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. therefore. in the earliest strata of Christianity. PG 12. even prior to the fourth century. 473. already oVers the Christian faithful the concept of incense. J. PL 3. Luc. 28.44 rivka nir to Christianity of the Roman Empire and the victory of Christianity over paganism led to a change in the attitude of the Church toward these idolatrous customs.v. Tertullian. 1967) 418. it should be noted that the basic theological signiŽ cance of incense is already re ected in the New Testament where the use of incense is depicted as an inte- gral part of the ideal Christian rite conducted in heaven (Rev. Judicuum 2.v. St. G. Incense was in greater use in the Eastern church. 1:2: Ambrose. despite the Church Fathers’ unequivocal denial of the use of incense in the Christian rite of the Ž rst centuries. 31. 82. First. with all its symbolism. based on Isa. Dix. 4:2. 1951) 205. In Lib. we may assume that these sources re ect practices that had developed earlier. The New Testament.87 Second. 86 Dix. although the earliest extant testimonies of the ritual use of incense appear in sources beginning in the fourth century. PL 15. 6. 427. 1:9). Fehrenbach.85 This view is so enrooted in scholarly research that. Basil.86 Although I do not totally reject this opinion. Lietzmann. . I. “Incense. col. Didascalia et Constitutiones 1 [Paderbornae: Schoeningh. 87 Origen. 88 Constitutiones Apostolorum 2:26 (F. 427-9. e. Ambrose on Lk. J. 8:3. A. Homilia in Gordium Martyrem 2.89 These pronouncements Ecclesiastical Hierarchy 3:2. according to Dix. 185. cols. MacCulloch. Mccance.g. Apologeticus 30. Clem. Christian Liturgy. Introduction to the Liturgy (Shanon: Irish University. X.” New Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: McGraw-Hill. 1625. St. Alex. 89 See. above). Gospel of St. Stromata 6. Hom. col. there is nothing so certain in relation to the rite of the Church prior to the Council of Nicaea as the fact that incense was not used in any man- ner in the second and third centuries. Adversus Haereses 5:23.. “Incense. sec. 32. who attacks the Jewish rite. in favor of sacriŽ ces of the spirit.88 The fact that the Church Fathers found it necessary to denounce incense rites may indicate that such rites were practiced within certain Christian communities. 973. which remained in his consciousness and ritual conception in the following centuries. Hastings. Shape of the Liturgy. Lord’s Supper.” 6-11. in James. 85 M. Funk. s. “Encens. the testimonies by Barnabas. 1968) 161. 3. This situation is re ected in the metaphorical references to incense. 5:8. Martimort.. 496. it should be limited in several aspects.

1987) II. La cav- erne des Trésors. 91 I wish to thank the Open University of Israel for its assistance in translating this article into English. 77) date the Greek version of the Life of Adam and Eve between 100-600. A. xxii-xxiii. in light of the importance of the rite of incense in GLAE and its clearly Christian characteristics. as understood by the New Testament as identical with the prayer of saints. Merk and Meiser (Das Leben Adams und Evas. 8. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the Paradise topos played a major role in the works of the fourth century Syrian Church Fathers. 2001] 20-30) dates it between 100 BCE-200 CE basing the ter- minus ad quem mainly on Su Min Ri’s proposal to date the sources of the Cave of Treasures to the third or even the second century CE: Su Min Ri. D. 769) date it to the Ž rst century CE. the Cave of Treasures dated from the fourth to sixth century: Su Min Ri. Cave of Treasures. in contrast with the prevalent view that assigns an early date to the composition: Bertrand (La vie grecque. such as Aphraat.-M. . Ephraem the Syrian. the fourth or Ž fth centuries90 within circles close to the Eastern Church. it is preferable to assume that this work was composed ca. La caverne des Trésors (CSCO. Köln: Brill. Boston. and prefer to situate it between the second and fourth centuries. Leiden: Brill. Budge. 1970] 6) dates it between 11 BCE-70 CE. But according to the common scholarly view. However. Louvain: Peeters.91 90 De Jonge and Tromp (Life of Adam and Eve. against the background of the vigorous opposition by Church Fathers to this practice in the Ž rst centuries CE. the aromatic fragrances of paradise in GLAE 45 do not necessarily contradict the use of incense in its early Christian meaning. M. apparently towards the end of the Ž rst century CE. 252) dates the original work between 100 BCE- 200 CE. and the author of the Cave of Treasures. Eldridge (Dying Adam with his Multiethnic Family [Leiden. xvii-xviii. 31-32) dates the work between 100 BCE-50 CE. Denis (“Introduction aux pseudépigraphes grecs d’Ancien Testament” [SVTP 1. Johnson (“Life of Adam and Eve”. It is also possible that this book was intended to Ž rmly base the use of incense in the Church rite.