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AN I NQUIRY .

INTO

THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE
t '* ',

OF

ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY,

BY R. P. KNIGHT, ESQ.

[Privately Printed, 1818. 8vo.]

REPRINTED AND'PUBLISHED

BY E. H. BARKER, ESQ.

LONDON, 1836/
BLACK AND ARMSTRONG,
8, WELLINGTON STREET NORTH.

PUBLISHED BY THE SAME EDITOR,
AND MAY BE HAD OF MESS RS! BLACK AND ARMSTRONG.

1. DR. LEMPRIERE’S CLASSICAL DICTIONARY,
as revised by P r ofessor Ant iion and E. H. Ba r ker , Esq ., with very extensive Additions,
Alterations, and Corrections. Second Edition, 1832. 8vo. price 17s. 6d. boards.
2. SUPPLEMENTS to DR. LEMPRIERE’S CLAS
SICAL DICTIONARY, containing, 1. Chronological Tables, uniting Sacred and Pro
fane History; 2. Tables of Measures, Weights, and Moneys, Gr eek and La t in ; 3. Extracts
fromPh. Br iet ’s Parallela Geographies Veteris et' Novee ; 4. J. Gr eg or ie ’s Rise and Full of
the Assyr ian Monarchy; 5. His Treatise on Time, JEras, and Epochs, among all nations;
6. Lat in and Engl ish Names of Places where Cl a ssica l Pr esses have been established;
7. J. G. Schwar z’s Academic Dissertation on the Cycl ic Poets of Asia t ic 'Gr eece ;
8. A. C. Eschenbach’s Aca demic Dissertation on the Chr ist ia n Poets, Gr eek and La t in ;
9. Proper Names of Men and Women in the Apocr ypha and the New Test a ment , with
Notices of their Etymology; 10. ^Eg . Mena ge’s Historia Mulierum Philosopharum. Edited
by E. H. Ba r ker , Esq . 1836. 8vo. price 8s. 6d. boards.
3. JULIUS SILLIG’S DICTIONARY of the ARTISTS
of ANTIQUITY, Architects, Carvers, Engravers, Modellers, Painters, Sculptors, Statua-'_
ries, and Workers in Brass, Gold, Ivory, and Silver; with Three Chronological Tables. Trans
lated from the La t in Original, by the Rev . H. W. Wil l ia ms ; to which are added the 34th,
35th, and thefirst Part of the 36th Books of Pl in y ’s Natural History, comprising a History of
the Fine Arts, with a Preface and Four Indexes, by E. H. Ba r ker , Esq . 1836. 8vo.
price 10s. 6d.
4. DR. PHILIP BUTTMANN’S INTERMEDIATE
LARGER GREEK GRAMMAR, Translated from the Fourteenth Edition of the
or
Ger man Original by D. Boil ea u , Esq., and Edited with some Notes and a Preface by E. H.
Ba r ker , Esq. 8vo. price 13s. 6d. boards.
5. THE AMERICAN DICTIONARY of t he
LlSH LANGUAGE, by Dr . N. Webst er ; republished by-E. H. Ba r ker , Esq. with
ENG-*'
Manuscript Additions communicated by the Author,' 2 vols. 4to. price £4. 4s. cloth-
boards.

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THE EDITOR’S PREFACE.

This excellent and valuable work was, in 1818, privately printed by
its Aut hor , the late learned R. P. Knight , Esq., at the press of Mr.
Val py. It was afterwards, with thepermissionof Mr. Knight , inserted
inthe Classical Journal; portions havingappearedineachsuccessiveNum
ber till thewholewasinserted. TheEdit or hasbeeninformedbya friend
that it has beenrepublishedinGer many, but hedoubtstheaccuracyofthe
information. Thetitle-pagecontainedthefollowingnotice:—
“ Intended to beprefixed to the Second Vol ume of the 4Select Speci
mens of Ancient Sculpture,’ published by the Societ y of Dil et t ant i ;
but the necessarily slowprogress of that Work, in the exhaustedstate of the
funds to be applied toit, affording theAut hor littleprobabilityofseeingits
completion, he has beeninducedtoprint afew copiesof thisproposedPart of
it, that any information, whichhe may have beenableto collect, uponasubject
sointeresting to all loversof El egant Ar t , maynot belost tohis successors
in suchpursuits, but receive any additions andcorrections, whichmay render
it more worthy to appear in the splendidform, andwith the beautiful Illus*
trations of thepreceding Volume.”
TheEdit or has published it in thecheap forminwhichit appears, and
in double columns, as an appropriate andveryuseful accompaniment tohis
Edition of Dr. Lempr ier e’s ClassicalDictionary, andtotheTranslationof
Jul ius Sil l ig’s Dictionary of the Ar t ist s of Ant iquit y by the Rev.
H. W. Wil l iams, whichhehasrecentlyedited.
If his.small voice can be heard throughthe communityofSchol ar s, he
strongly recommends theWork to their perusal andconsideration. What
ever favoritetheories maybeoccupyingtheir leisure, engagingtheir imagina
tion, exercisingtheir ingenuity, anddisplayingtheir learning,fromthisWork,
asfromarich mine, theymaydrawcontinual supplies without thechanceof
'exhaustion. Thejudgment, discrimination, taste, acuteness, anderuditionof
the Aut hor are conspicuous in everypage, and are equalledonlybyhis
•candor and impartiality; and his own magnificent Collection of Coins,
Medals, and other Remains of ancient Art, whichwithpatriotic generosity
werebequeathedbyhimtotheBr it ish Museum, wastheprincipalsource,
•fromwhich hedrewbis information, sooriginal andprofound, andthesolid
basis, onwhich his reasonings, sojust andconclusive, arefounded. Disre
gardingthevainimaginations, andthewildspeculationsofWriters,whohave
discussedancient mythologywithmorezeal thanknowledge,—withmorepre
judicethanjudgment,—withmorereligionthanpiety,—Mr. Knight hassur
veyedher not throughacolored medium,but with the naked eye; andhe
hasthusthebetter discernedher truelineaments, her inwardfeatures, her full
proportions, her graceful mien, andher attractiveandseductive andmajestic

IV ed it o r ’s pr ef a c e .
form. If he has occasiontotouchon subjectswhich involveindelicacy, he
hasdiscussedthemwithbecoming moderation, andremarkablecaution, leav
ingno aliment for pruriencytofeedon, andnohandle for pruderytowork
with. If hewas defective inChr ist ian principles, he has inthis Work
exhibitednoother thanChr ist ian virtues, andChr ist ian conduct. Those
Chr ist ians, whowould asperse the memory of the deadwith bitter and
unjust censure, do not merit the respect of the living, are not followers of
Chr ist , andwill not inherit the kingdomof heaven. If the close of Mr.
Knight ’s lifebeascene, whichChr ist ians cannot contemplate withap
probation, let usendeavor toforget it inreflectingon his munificent spirit,—
hisnobleenthusiasm,—andhiscontinuedandgenerouspatronageof theFine
Ar t s ;— insurveyinghissplendidCollectionsintheBr it ish Museum ;—-
inemulatinghis great erudition, andhis elegant science in imitating the
readiness, urbanity, andkindness, withwhich he opened the treasuryof his
** m ind, and communicatedhis largeand amplestoresof information;—inex-
j hibiting the free and independent spirit, w hich pervadedhiswritings;—and
inexemplifyingthevirtuesandexcellenciesofhisprivatecharacter.
Real Chr ist ianit y has her seat inthemind, her thronein theheart,
her homeiutheheavens; her garment isinnocence, thejewelsof her diadem
arethe cardinal virtues, her breath istranquillity, her voicewhisperspeace;
hereyeislove; thelineamentsofher facearecharactersofkindness,her hand
ismunificence, her lifeis beneficence, her spirit is devotion; grace isinall
her steps, dignityinall her movements, veneration accompaniesher progress,
truthis her polar-star, charityforms, faith directs, hope animates, and holi
nesssanctifiesherviewsandactions; thewordssectarianismandheresy areno
termsinher vocabulary,—censure andpersecutionmakenopart of her busi
ness; exclusivenessisnosentiment of her mind, andbigotrynofeelingofher
heart; her Bibl e isnoProcrusteanbed, towhichall humanscience must be
forcedtoconform,—nosun, roundwhich all humansystemsmust necessarily
revolve,—nobarrier tolimit therangeofthehumanintellect,—nobreakwater
tothetideofhumanknowledge,—norecordofairyspeculationsintheology,—
norepositoryof conundrumsin divinity,—no standard, bywhich she mea-.
suresthefaithofmankind,andmarksthevictimsfor thetribunal ofanInqui
sition; shedistinguishes between thefundamental principles of theSacr ed
Vol ume, so fewandso simple, andsoentirely concerningmorality, and
themereinferences, involvingspeculative anddogmatic theology, which are
drawnfromits languagebymen, whoare under theprejudiceof education,
orinfluencedby particular notions andtheories; theSermon ontheMount is
thesumofher doctrine, andthealphaandomegaofher creed; her orthodoxy
is philanthropy,—her Sacrament is the remembrance of the deathof Christ,
—her Sabbathis the performanceof hiswill,—her fast is heavenly medi
tation,—andherfeast isthe ‘luxuryofdoinggood.’
E. H. BARKER.
London, Sept. 26th, 1836.

km eurrpa. 2. inundations personage the primitive Greeks appear to have and earthquakes. but in the early stages. and -this ineffable- such as lightning and tempests. that the initial was originally a double con- Phurnut.terislic attribute naturally' inspired. old bards has preserved the double time in the and in the refinement of the language. awe. mightybeings had passions and affections simi. appears to have been elementary. the moon. PAYNE KNIGHT. rather tothe spirits supposed to those gods had constructed the universe. soon debased his a certain portion of it is absolutelynecessary dignity. with all the admirable order neral predominance of order and regularity in of the universe. km yijv. and to direct their the principles upon which they continued to motions and regulate their modes of existence. andeach had some of the sun. taught them to believe in the the universe would naturally suggest the idea existence and agency of such superior powers. As the maintenance of order antLsubor- that the regular motions of the heavenly bo. by ventures of some such hero supply the first such means as they feel best adapted to win materials for history. and preside over those bodies. Deor. BY R. held to be most valuable. as a cosmogony or theo- their own. of the gods . c. to whose sovereign control the irregular and destructive efforts of nature. so 2 n apa riffi 8e km Aevs XtyeTM (3 Zeus). spring. had its local found a Hercules in'every country which they genius or peculiar deity . de Nat. though the metre of the than AS. and only differed in possess. Each had produced some that of all other nations not enlightened by renownedwarriors. the stated returns of summer and winter. km In the genuine parts of the Iliad and Odys- ffeAijvtjf'. &c. however. AN I NQUI RY INTO THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. whosemightyachievements Revelation. variation of dialects. sonant. and intelligence. which at first became The letter Zwas. as well as in their own..1or. AEINOS. or .12 Their poets. or 2A. no other AA.which the contemplation of his great charac- lar to their own. yMov. the stars. At the same time 4. had been assisted bythe favor. as appears fromthe very ancient me- irtpi tt ]u 'EAAaSa tovtovs /xovovs Oeovs fiyeurBai. or Deus. and as men naturally visited.the most interestingand important to make any narration sufficiently interesting subjects of ancient art are taken fromthe reli.dination among men required the authority of dies. Zeus. persuaded them that these called by a name expressive of the sentiment. and utterance. a whence the actions of gods are intermixed with general analysis of the principles and progress those of men in the earliest traditions or liis- v of that mythology will afford amore complete. The primitive religion of the Greeks. ing greater. than can be conveyed in counts of the transactions of war and policy. separate dissertations annexed to each. and made himthe subject of as many 1 Qclivovtcu fxoi ot irpuroi rant avBpayirwvrvv dropped. the continuation and ge- of day and night. dais of Zancle in Sicily. a supreme magistrate. govern it: whence the Greeks and Romans Every river.. In every stage of society men naturally roost probable etymology. odmrep vvv iroWoi roiv fiapfiapuv. 1. inscribed AANKAE. Atrsur. as well as in those of the revolutions of nature 2.obtain an audience : gious or poetical mythology of the times . short before AEOS. AEIAfl. or mountain. the earth. as is well known. tories of all nations. and popular tales concerning the means by which the waters. power.to attract attention. like and originof things. all the rest were subject. explanation of parti* pied the place of historical truth in their se cular monuments. according to the 3. and poetical fable occu- as well as more concise. km ovpavov. probably AS.gony exhibits the first system of philosophy. signifying. and afterwards A. ing to them certain portions of whatever they in every nation. or obstructed and to have consisted in an indistinct worship by the anger. the 2 was frequently A . and the ad- endeavor to obtain the favor of their gods.strength. the first worship consisted in offer. As all.sey. of a supreme God. Pla. expressed by one character. reverential fear or love the marvellous. there is no instance of a vowel continuing to in Cratyl.

and made acquainted with the minouspoetical cosmogoniesstill extant among first principles of religion. to elegance and those ponderous compilations in verse. q. in Aristoph. iEschylus narrowly escaped being torn to 10Mihi cum multa eximia divinaque vi. Cicero de Leg. and only revealed. whose loss contributed greatly under the most solemn vows of secresy. c. viii. 34. 45. trious citizens. we find traces of the same simple prin. became turning away fromthe mention of them with a more celebrated and more known than any sort of religious horror.4 Spain. we theless.5 Gaul. 6. whichrefinement.aTa (cat voitfpara. lius illis mysteriis. 14 Tliucyd. 8 Salmas. Eleusin.a general knowledge of all. have preserved the truths which were to be revealed to it in the knowledge of their sacredmythology more en. lib. Strab.7 From one to five years of tire. voifrov yvaois. kcli 1. G. de mant ea litteris mandare. because no per- among the Greeks. Such 9. Tuistonemdeumterra editum. lieved by any but the lowest of the vulgar. and which in the two latter 8. the supreme. from the the end of it. and were called and outlines of the popular faith.9 by which men had been reclaimed competent ideas of the style and subjects of from rudeness and barbarism. naff *Hpo- Meurs. Asia. ad humanitatem mitigati sumus: quod unum apud illos memoriae et annalium initiaque. ra fiiKpa-uai ra peyaAa. the sequent universality of the Greek language.Petit. 11 Plutarch in Demetr.of the temple. in the more considered as the extreme of wickedness and civilisedcountries of Greece. iv. there existed.2 It. ovSe \vmfpov ecrtv. the those of the Scandinavians.were divided into two stages or degrees. as <patn. the initiate. Spartan. so sacred and awful was this subject. emi yap pvoTiKurepa. Kauov. that the education riods of probation were dispensed with infavor of a Druid sometimes required twenty years. together with many other illus- long-established sanctity. ruv peyaXav. Tacit. whatever might have been their value dare to compel the priests to initiate him.fifj. vi. in ASI. pifTpi uai Kopy. They velation .1S on which account Alcibiades was by an hereditary priesthood. Plutarch de Is. rear l3 Andocid. oiSa Sri KaXvei ere 6 Magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere irurreveiv 6 irarpios Aoyos. 1. quibus ex agresti immanique 4 Celebrant (German!) carminibus antiquis. as poetical composi.- dicuntur: itaque nonnulli annos vicenos in fioAa t o>v irepi rov Aiovvtrov opyiaop-av. and at Athens was punished with a secret or mystic system. a avv- disciplina permanent. <nrfypa. and at ciples and fanciful superstructures. ita revera principia genus. 15 T’aXAo pev evoropta ueioOu. for though the superiority and sub. \eyovres &s ovtier ovSaprf t ep SiaXvOevn p. Zot ov. 139. account of the murder of his mother. endings or finishes.pieces on the stage for bringing out something . which fables became a part a particular investigation. uai Kvpwv.3 Germany. in Neron. lib.ted. But besides this vulgar religion. \ovs. nevertheless.' 1. 24.10 and Britain. vita exculti. the most proper for subject progeny. either into them or some others. though never seriously be. spe meliori moriendi. and are. et filium vitae cognovimus :. iii. the mystic doctrines: all the early writers powerful.12 To .probation wererequired between them. may.12 Sueton. and the fragments preserved of the God of nature. P. Plutarch. ii. impiety. de B. 33. rcai vo/xuvs eppe.and depression. c. that the volu. on being found shores of the Baltictothe banks of the Ganges: worthy. Plutarch Syuip. in temples of condemned. sed etiam cum de M. easily console ourselves for that even in the lowest stage of her servitude the loss of all of them. and Egypt. never- From the specimens above mentioned.son could be perfect that had not been initia tive nations not favored by the lights of Re. Schol. Consol. which may lead to of their religion. c. &c. When Greece lost her liberty. the pe- countries were soextensive. in tori ra fxitcpa oxnrepirpotcaOuptrissat irpoayveucris Leg. but to die with better priests of Persia. an8 the subversion persons who had previously proved themselves of its empire. neque fas esse existi.8 the knowledge of the Hindoos. preserved.6 of her acknowledged sovereigns:11 but. was admitted into the inmost recesses and there can be little doubt. teat ra pvariKa -avp. xxx. Thesemysteries wereunder the guardian- 5. Sam. to prepare the mind for the divine of the early Greek poets.second or greater. Attic. as any of his others.15 and those of later 3 Vicies centum millia versuuma Zoroastre dentur Athens tuae peperisse—turn nihil me- condita.iapev aAAifAois oi uoivuvovirres. oi ireiOovffi iro\- rpovs i|aKurxtXtwverav. to to the ruin of that republic. et Osir.divulge any thing thus learnt was everywhere pular mythology. first or lesser of which was a kind of holy and the more exalted genius and refined taste purification. 5Trjs iroAoias pvripris exovoi (ToupSouAoi) ra c. and learned city of Greece. Css. 116. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE wild and extravagant fables. Hence it is extremely difficult to obtain were the mysteries of Eleusis. any accurate information concerning any of which being so near to the most polished. therefore. Arj. 7. p. 9'ClvrtAos eorivffTov irpurov. 1. lib. in Attica. on in other respects. but amongall other primi. &c. may afford us very intellectual. not.Kai firfv a tcov aWoov anoveis. ut appellantur. p.14 to be worthy of the important trust. de Myst. lib. and been taught not only to live constituted the mystic lore of the ancient with more comfort. 3. or po. Orat. Hist. c. i. thefirst. x. vivendi rationem accepimus. generally death . not only re\trai. Hermippus apud Plin. 7 Mwrrnpia 8*8uoTeXeiTai rousviaurov. the Emperor Nero did not tions. G. neque solum cum lstitia Mannumoriginemgentis conditoresque. hopes. Such appear to be the general principles ship of Ceres and Proserpine.

the barbarism and bigotry of the middle ages. poptbr/v t<TXVfJLaria'tJl*t'ovi rort St err aAAoiov Plat. Procl. c. plicity of genuine wisdom or pure phi and oftentimes warped by prejudices in favor losophy. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. Eth. as ttxov tvvoias </>v<rii<as irtpi rcov et Osir. SiaAAarrovrts epatvovrar Kai rort ptv arvircorov 16 OpcpiKot Sia <rvtpfioAuv. similar signs of gories and symbols . The second. which is much more bolical forms. and wrapt in fable and enigma. too.1avrcov irpo/3tj3Aijrai epeos.. &c. from which we only simply represented : in the second. were above-cited passages. at first view.20* truths %but. with the ^Egyptian tales between those compositions which are mere concerning Osiris and Typho. Strom. tts rrjv noArr. Dissert. Kai HvBcovos avnra^tis irpos AiroAAcova. nevertheless. lib. than abstract idea. 1. dpoiov txti A oyov. iroAAa St crxVMaTa 1. explain themselves by that divine truth was better adapted to the mutually explaining each other. and philosophical ticular characteristic quality of the individual doctrines concerning the nature of the Deity. vaAatoov. as their than when exhibited in the undisguised sim assertions are generally founded in conjecture. appears to be. sometimes as light. and brought under onepoint of view. are may sometimes find it difficult to distinguish Tanked. being to be read with much caution . -19 Ev airacri yap rovrots or dtot iroKAas ptv Clem. as it. and we under many forms. and wandering of Ceres. and saved himself by pus ov paStov. their thoughts and discourses concerning na which. Nicom. appr/ra Biatno£trai Kai aBtarairpos Tour ejeraj’ei Bo(as kui pvBovs. “ the gods exhibit themselves or conceal the dogmas of religion. icrart pvrrriKots itpois irtpiKaAvirroptva Kai rt- 18 Ilor S’ <5 irtpi rcov Btcov Aoyos apxaias Atrais. pvBov airavra ptv ow ra aiviypara Avtiv aKpi- . In the first. p. &<rirtp tv 20To yap Tiyavruta Kai TiravtKa nap' *EA- tncortp Kai vukt i. Fromother passages. and it and remote countries. c. 4. Alex. The remote antiquity of this mode of so great. which have escaped the ^e battle of the Pytho against Apollo. TlvBayoptioi Sta ti. “ must be bythe exposition of old being much less various. we Sght of Bacchus. had given it a character of sanctity ments. ii. irovffi rcov OaipiaKCovKai TvcpcovtKcov. inTheol. was everywhere employed to convey says Proclus. clear and simple than any other.1 of their own particular systems and opinions 12. 380. I Atytrai irpos tKir\i]£iv icai (ppucqv. Aristot. who have pretended to explain them. and sometimes in that of some other crea-. signs of convention were contrived to 10. s. however. aAAcov rt. into dis initiation consisted in an explanation and ex tinct portions or syllables. 1. but of different unknown to any other mode of writing . under symbols. as a horse for swiftness. however. third. rtnrov irpotAriAvffos. Little more di has passed throughfour different stages in its rect information is. mains of ancient art. in the fourth. Kai KpovovrtvosaBtapoi irpartis. All that is left in ancient au Aiovvcrov Kai irAavai Aripvrpos. which are not therefore easily ex been denominated the hieroglyphical mode of plained. 474. opinions and fables. x. than that contained in the jects and events meant to be signified. in a great degree.”19 The wars of the Giants and Titans . has been diligently collected and arranged aiviraerivt^tcrriv areSrjvpvBoAoyovptvcovasovtiv by Meursius in his Eleusinia. indeed. ovStv airoAet- thors concerning the ceremonies of initiation.*16and that the completely convention were adopted to represent the dif initiated were called inspectors:17 whence we ferent modifications of tone in the voice . There is one weakness of human intellect. for conveying knowledge by symbols. In examining these symbols in the re ture. says Strabo. and more distinct. to be obtained from progress to perfection. the ob ancient writers. some par learn that more pure. koi irpnanBtvrcov att roir Aoyois rov 1 Maxim.13. the modifi “ All that can be said concerning the gods. de Eloc. defined to no ployed to express the same ideas in almost particular figure . The art of conveying ideas to the sight in religion and philosophy. as is now practised by the that these doctrines were conveyed under alle Chinese: and. that.” writing. irpayparcov. s. cpvyai rt 17 Eiro7rrai. this difficulty is not 11.” cations of tone by the organs of the mouth. opinion. Demetr. it being the custom of than the modifications of ideas by the ope the ancients to wrap up in enigma and fable rations of the mind. they. under which they were veiled. we learn represent ideas. iii. 3 times. Phaler. by articulation. tavrcov irportivovai popepas. aivirroptviov rcov vroAAovr.’' 18 “ In all initiations andmysteries. Plutarch de Is. AijcrtvacSoptva. was employed to express a general quality or and the future state of man. nAar. I proving that he had never been initiated. by Plutarch. when properly seems to have been a very generally received arranged. a dog those which were derived from the popular for vigilance. exalted. i. and its there is such an obvious analogy and connex long-established appropriation toreligioussub ion between the different emblematical monu jects. fromits use among the ^Egyptians. has ture". not only of the same. or a hare for fecundity: in the religion. when veiled class. araoug the more discreet Heathens. ------------Ato kcll ra pvarrjpia tv aAAijyoptais p. sometimes in a human form. were taught. and those which same meaning as the other modes of conceal were emblems of what were thought divine ment employed in the mystic religion. tbe most numerous and important of supposed to be mystic. and with a frequent change shall find that the same symbols were em of shape . and may reasonably infer that the last stage of its various divisions. This is what we position of those allegorical tales and sym call alphabetic writing. every country of the northern hemisphere. 100. x. 4. as having the efforts of taste and fancy. Tyr. rort St tis avBpcoirov kovwv ra Beta pijvvtiv ttpitpevoi.

of which mythology of the ancients : by which means we have any account. Aroyntas. rpv I<n5os rp rps Appprpps Hercules. and not. and compare the artifice which seems to have been practised in various religious symbols which have been the coins ofseveral of the Macedonian kings. noreventhe tyrantsof Sicily. obolus and drachma. wherever the word Bacchus or Iacchus is a title derived from Macedonians extended their conquests. 7 Tpv pev yap OtripiSos reXerpv rp Aiovvtrov respectively given to the different heads of rpv ampv aval. rwv ovoparwv povov evpX- respective princes. mode of reckoning by weight.5andexplain the general style high antiquity. Perdiccas. and posterior to many to explore the vast and confused labyrinths of tombs. &c5‘. Otripiv Aiovvtrov eivai Xeyovaiv (JXiywtrioi). seemmeant to express those of the bpoiorarpv inrapxav. and SeleucusI. 39. Isis and Osiris. s. ap Lucian has ludi the symbolical or mystical writing with more crously supposed. Rom. sally prevailed. By opening the tombs. Ceres and Bacchus.7 The and Macedonia. 42. ii. of the mystic. but. 4 R. and. and not by weight. Bacch. where money was con the flattery of their subjects had raised to cealed. p. wv to u7roTj) SpaKi vXpdos eSoKei naXatrOai reXeras Oeuv eiSois Spaxpi). c. uat SaSa exmv IcwX01* P*u“ Great. 1. We can thus bringunder one point was by mixing their features with those of the of view the whole progress of the art from deity. and. in Att. 1. the the exclamations uttered in the festivals of this * See those of Archelaus. Poll. Alexander the amp re Kai p srais. it was upon them. the only one which appears to reigns had enrolled them among the gods. and the lesser talent and its subdivisions. which the an upon money. It is principally. and to separate 16. probably. opyia KvfieAas Bepiarevuv. otrns evUaipwv &as. of pev on Herodot. employed m ages and countries remote from previous to the custom of putting their por each other. one on each and entire .. This is the class of coins. ever took rians. that by weight. Q. These symbols have the great traits upon them. lib. or. the theology from the culated by tale. scale of coinage.* advantage over those preserved in other 15. Alex 6 TlXptrtov vaos eart Appprpos• ayaXpara Se ander II. ii. with vases and other plain each other. were the deities in whose names. or according to must have been the meaning of nations. Eurip. 136. whom tions of ruined cities. 73. The artists had indeed before with more complete series of coins than found a way of gratifying the vanity of their could have been collected in any period of patrons without offending their piety. iraXai Bovrropois ofieXois exptcvt o irpos Tar apoi. which antiquity.i. ful. therefore.*34univer not the caprice ofindividuals. Venus and to be employed in expressing the respective Adonis. v. J. practice in private families amongthe Romans. or sacred. modern cabinets have been enriched divine honors. as it was otherwise called. owing to the branches of sculpture. in which coins have been found. 3 To pevroi roiv oj3e\cov ovopa. the first portraits. ava Ovptrov re rivatrauv. c. lib. the devices among the Asiatic colonies. see also Eustath.® In Greece most commonly instructedin this faith. whose image was to be impressed.Ta Se ovopuera. whatever meaning they contain. vi. this liberty. Philip Aridaeus. prior to their sub upon which were always held so strictly jection to the Athenians or Macedonians.. 77. s. and exploring the founda Syrian dynasties of Macedonianprinces. lib. 1. v. signifying spike andhand 18. and the Orphic faith. and also that they veryancient coins have been preserved fresh exhibit twocompositions together. which mutually serve to ex were put into tombs. consisted of spikes. ix. poetical and allegorical fable . (is rpv vvv xpeiav evtpavtv eu ra re Marpos peyaXas t jjj ypfias t 7js rraAaias. c. sat t oo vopuaparos fhorav ayurrevei" Kararr&rovros. after the invention of coining. Aiovvtrov Gepanevti. that we find 17. symbols of great sanctity. however. that such numbers of been mutilatedor restored.6 called. 4 See Bentky on the Epistles of Phalaris. for it was owing to this that they side of the coin. p. that they have never sanctity of the devices. an its infancy to its decline. or other may have been introduced by the Do Epirus. Which mode was in use 14. which must have been designed and exe numerary division seems to have regulated the cuted under the sanction of public authority. value of two pieces of money. c. i. have been known to the Homeric Greeks. Philip. we have not been monarchs never ventured to put their portraits able to discover. the one of and under whose protection. . continued. persons were which was worth sixof the other. in all san. in Sicily and Italy. aswe shall show. the Neither the kings of Persia. until the practice of deifyingsove*. Sic. in a great degree. 4. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE all. P. the and therefore. The first species of money that was cir as accurately as we can. beingthose of the ^Egyptian and cients held sacred. see Statii Sylv. that the most proud and powerful which is the most ancient. which were. in II. in Egypt. It is. in Syria.Pausan. Diod. Ed. 231—4. paicap. Styx: the whole fiction of Charo and his under their guidance that we shall endeavour boat beingof late date. Wessel. Probably. Ed. 104. which the different characters and features. Kitraepre trretpavaiBeis. For the frequency of this Xaypevcov. and thus enable us to read sacred symbols. Macedonia. or alone we can obtain a competent knowledge small obelisks of brass or iron. Six of thembeing as many as andlanguage of symbolical art in which it was the hand couldconveniently grasp. that the dead might have certainty than we are enabled to do in any the means of paying for their passage over the other monuments. the words conveyed.

and we which appear to' have been invocations or li- 8 They are in fact the same name in dif Boiurirfv tcaAeopevifv xupifv. 334. S 1. Cic. lib. Kai 2 Lib.Plutarch attributes their introduction to Eu rrapevos rov Atowtrov ro re ovvopa. 28. which will be title of the deity. from whence the cupying Thebes. are mentioned in the Iliad. Evang. p. lib.13 of the mystic deities . Proclus in 12 Alowcrov Sf TjSrj rruarrmrov XOIPO’PAAHN" Theul. asAusonius says vague and uncertain . tax«. we can 21. rtov aw aurtfi (K $oiviki\s arriKopevuv ts rrfv vvv 4 Plutarch de Exil. colony is extremely questionable. too. quamfuisse. 6. pera- of the augment FIFAXfl. AIOS. as his daughter is place fromwhich this deity came into Greece. nevertheless. de Exit. in La 17 E. Bryant on An Sovvat /jvoTTjpta. 3 II. who settled in Boeotia. denied that such a person had ever existed:1 19. however. xxx. Barpax. a Thracian. ii. Herodot. p. of any Priapus. c. 5 god. Optpea rov Qpatta Karaari]aatrOai rrjv Alex. a daughter of Cad rived.8 whose other Latin name Liber is also a shall showin the sequel that the name Cad title signifying the same attribute as the Greek mus was probably a corruption of a mystic epithet AT2I02 or AY2X1N. i. ferent dialects. Ouoiifv. &c. Euseb.9 An in lived at all. Pausan. 11 Ggygia me Bacchumvocat.3 to which tradition has also attributed Hellespont. According to Herodotus. p. OptpiKifS etrrt pvrrraywyias exyovos. about four generations beforetheTrojan war . Plat. The- 15 Odyss. The Cadmii. or a little earlier. AtSicyo. which adorn. Opcpevs pev yap reAeras O'ifpiv KareSet^e. that the tendence and direction of the characteristics of very ancient poet Thamyris was of that coun the female sex. he was venerated under a sym the other old sacerdotal bards. k m rtjv rropmjv rov tpaAAov. 807. General tradition has attributed the in not pretend to say. Mysta. 1032. de N. 18 E. ’Arearra yap r) reap' 'EAAtfoi OeoAoyia rrjs DionysumIndi existimant.11this derivation appears more and sagacious of the Greeks is said to have probable than most others of the kind.16 The known to the Greeks till after the composition whole history. or AI2.14 them. 595. c. ’EAAijtri pera- 9See Macrob. any further than all Thracian or Asiatic. said to have been bommortal. inanyof the nysus or Bacchus. a people oc hereafter explained. lib. et seqq. Kai rijv molpus. or even to conjecture with any rea Odyssey. c. on the try . c. if he ever cerning it are not worthy of notice. ’Etcarijs.18 but no notice is taken in either sonable probability. x. duced 175 years before the Trojan war. i. nor of any of the rites 20. 13 Ttparat 5e rrapaAaptf/aterivois 6 IIpianos. which will be hereafter explained. from the un that it implies his having the peculiar superin questionable testimony of the Iliad. iii. he was but. cient Mythology. 1. rov Atovvaov irapa KaSptov re rov Tvpiov. v. having become by the accession 19$arri rrpurov Opcpea.19 who. however. in Cor. the tinctly explained whether the poet understood ancient name of the supreme universal god. 49. 49. 22. D.101and.4 though with a title of a different signification. tpovuiv r’ arre\eadau Osirin . 304. i. or what it signifies./Egyptus putat. Marble. but 14 'EAAijcrt yap Sri t/leAaprrovs errri S e(r/yri. 2. Clem. B. was communicated to the Greeks by the works of art described in them. But. nor is it dis pears to be from AET2.20 The tra rives the whole name froma Sanscrit title of ditions concerning himare. Eumolpus. Ctrl TUP yv. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. The Orphic Hymns. both ancient and modern. 1 Orpheum poetam docet Aristoteles nun- c. reAerr/v Aeyovres. the Eleusinian mysteries were intro Dipnos. of this Phoenician of those poems. c. with the various obscene genuine parts either of the Iliad or Odyssey. and were not generally Phoenicians. lived probably about the same time genious writer in the Asiatic Researches de with Melampus. "ZlKVUVlOl TOVTOV irpOGKVVOVOlV. 471. As there is no mention. though the but whether the remainder is significant of the former is most probable. 226. c.v. we may fairly presume that both the and who is said to have received his know rites of initiation and the worship of Bacchus ledge of the subject from Cadmus and the are of a later period. . which we authority of Strabo that the Greek music was shall not venture to explain.17 more common Greek name AI0NY202 is de and Ino or Leucothoe. 33. Cohort.TeAen/v ayovcrtv (Aiyivijrai) ava rrav eros vatKeiuv ra£avres rov Alovvtrov popiuv.2 and. con to Orpheus. and the most learned it was Indian. nor of Melampus. 10 Vol. Phanaumnominant. and extravagant rites that distinguished his nor any trace of the symbolical style in any of worship. ii. i. 6. etymologists. conian BAXA. oriftrapevov ra reap' Atyvirrtois. avros uv rtp Aiovvtup r| emderov KaAovpevos 20According to the Parian or Arundelian ourws. 23. the name Dio with which theywere worshipped. lib. passage is not in the works of Aristotle now 16 TlvOeodai Se pun Sonset MeAapnovs ra rrept extant. we learn fromthe very high worshipped under another title. Musaeus and bolical form adapted to a similar office.1415who appears to have florished allegory or enigma in the fables. 18. extremely an Oriental demi-god.'in the Peloponnesus. Praep. O. is not so easy to mus. us Qpiapfios /cat AiQvpapfios. Athen. him to have been a man or a god. The first part of it ap poemof his being a Phoenician. the ancient verb FAXfl. . is mentioned as a sea-goddess in the determine. and the conjectures of troduction of the mystic religion into Greece.12 At Lampsacus too. or of some attribute belonging to him. i. rov 'Xaypov. lib. Aristoph. however.

19 Wings are attributed municative age. et Osir. it being still celebrated with nearly the long subsequent to the Homeric times. yby Tlpiyirov avcucra. . vi. q. Rudbeck Atlant.15 The Greeks beingin all of themabbreviations and modes of changed. ou rys opviBos. Tyr. us p.part. both tival both among the ancient Britons and Hin- by the language and the matter. xai xiveet Orph. p. et Ivii. Tertull. 18-----------------------------. 195.. In this universal character. Greeks usually represented the phallus alone. bn pixpip vpofiAi)- 11 Post tot suspiria epoptarum. known to those who understood the Or- has also been observed among the idols of the phic and sacred lauguage. 1437. t o atSotovrpiirAaoiov eanv.in the Dialogue. v. it comprehended a very great nATTENETflP. whose uni shipping or glorifying the deity by repeating versality was. the material of generation. or. 3.9 of organic matter in its inert state . xaBairep opyavtp. 1.1 the maypole was a symbol of the same mean. OpviB. 18 light being considered. p. Plu siod Theogon. 1 Es peerov eiAxe irpof&Aypa irepi rov uov /cat 10 AyaXfxa irponBevrat. 5. 7 Al ot i Scpei£ovre e^et t o aidoiov. p. c. in the Bacchic mysteries. the reason fur which Herodotus be called the splendid. 6 -------^retpavos airovSr) atr’ avrov (t oo Kiff. as usual. c. 38. the father of gods and men.principle of all things.8 and Plutarch that the and he is said to have sprung fromthe egg of . generative attribute. airyyopevae. Brunck. they ex. No. xxxvii. cori Aoyos irepi avrov lepos 19 Et Ta Bvyruv py xaraiffxweaff en Aeyopevos. because it he.--------------SBev ovk airo 15 Maurice’s Indian Antiquities. p. . itavry Sivyeis irrepvyuv pnrais Kara xoerpov. c. /cat t o "uov.12 It itself. eon yap pvoTixurepa. p. so the principle of *'Oorts ScySy reAeryv ILAevaivi eiSev. c. s. tarch Sympos. ed. i. Tyv airavruv bpov irpecrfivyeveiav avanByiri" /cat 14 01. Stat o 20 'TAij rys yeveffeus. irpeopvrepov. to be of a date doos . the self-illumined. in Attic.® 24. 6s ovk opviBos povov t o uov airoipatvei 13 Lafitau Moeurs des Sauvages. aepoertoverBat.17 He is images of Osiris. v. and the The women of the former country carried regulator and disposer of all things.secrated. 87—94. etiruv. mation. whosupposes that things in itself. yovipov teat rpoipipov. and water. bringing pure light: and thence to magnitude. acknowledged to the adulatory titles not being then in use. ii.—eve%eirBai Soypairiv vol. nevertheless. though latest periods of heathenism.*67891023456 afterwards common. Valentinianos.10 The lebration of the mysteries. batruv is axoroeiroav airypavpuoas bpixAyv. informs us that it signified the to himas the emblems of spontaneous motion . concerning the generation of the world senseit is still employed by the Hindoos. Aovvras. therefore. in their sacred processions. Orpli. koi irepupepovaiv. Aapirpov ayuv epaos ayvow a<f> 06 tre iavyra etpvpvovvras nai t bs eiruvvpias tod Beouavaxa. as the great nutritive cuius. yeveBAa. the meaning of which entering into a more particular disquisition seems to have been among the last discoveries concerning its nature./Egyptian statues of Osiris had the phallus to night. y ra xii. ev kavrep. in Gruter. oiSev 6 Aeyu.taining the seeds and germs of life and motion pressed by another kind of statue. 165. iii. the first principle of ani- pears to have been of immemorial antiquity. V. Ibid. and all over lebrated by the Greek poets under the title of Asia.- 17 See Aristopb. he is ce- 23. carried in possession at the ce- triple symbol of-the same attribute. i. Aoyov. ii.25. e£op8ia£ovripatSoup. in the passage above cited. In . lib.' It occasionally carried in procession./Egypt. as the image vians.es epvos. in longed to the mystic religion. trvyxaBuiriurai. KaAovpeva OptpiKa eireAe^aro. because the egg was the ancient symbol signify his procreative and prolific power. xixAyaxov.194. earth. us teat oreipavunaoBai eigov. 88. however. the egg being con* native Americans. the personified attribute into speech not then known. £vveroiffi rov Opepixov teat lepov 12 Sonnerat Voyage auxIndes. apud Stob.tanies used in the mysteries.* are proved. q. and the first of Maya great phallic fes.693. /cat avravyy kAixuirov. v. Hymn. Opcpixois y UvBayopixois. as Plu- the extension of which through the three tarch calls it. Tpoirov Tots irepi t op Atovvaov opyiaapois.14 nor dowe think the conjecture of an of that which generated and contained all ingenious writer improbable. said to pervade the universe with the motion of with a moveable phallus of disproportionate his wings. there same rites in both countries. Arrian. Parmenid. 9 Tlavraxov Sc /cat avBpuiropoprpov Oatpidos Sophocl. in which one. Pausan. Titul. lib. . peya teat $apv aaAevopev culumlinguae.7 Diodorus Si. and the form of wor. and 305. Plutarch. universal generator. that.11 It was the same. totum signa.this primitive philosophy. sitnulachrum membri virilis re. He apxnv yyovpevois yeverreus. v.20con- elements of air. aAAa /cat ffvAAafiuv airaaav avrtp 150. ant. declines as a distinct symbol. xai SvAAas 6 eraipos.t o irepi rov xoerpov rys yeveaeus. in locutor. for which reason. 1.a distinct deity called Priapus. velatur. de Is. t 'aAAa pev evoropa xeioBu (xaB’ ‘HpoSorov).though emblematical writing. 3. (Ed. s. birorepov yevoiro irporepov axtruv. <rou) iroieioBai. pipypa t oo t o iravra yevvwvros /cat irepiexovros 16 pRlEnO PANTHEO. povvovrov ouparos.nrapcpo. ii. observing. Hymn. as the Orphic epithet a small question. 192. 365.by the symbol of the egg. adv. 1. vol. i. however. Sympos. As organic substance was represented ing. which was without being actually possessed of either. the Platonic inter- revealed to the initiated. ayuApa Seixvvovaiv.ruling Priapus. who lived in a more com. 116.lib. vol. ii. the does not think proper to relate. ryv yovv iravra fiocrKovoav <pAoya 8 Lib.13 and ancient Scandina. having a was. ------------Aftera. the mystic and symbolical worship ap*" Love or Attraction. aiSeiod’ avaxros yAiov. xxix.

39. Diod. ii. iii. ' d’Auteroche. 253. worshipped as the symbol of the Deity.17 Over the por sented on their stuffs and porcelain. c.101and. and p. 7 life. are engraved upon the express the same attributes. Finnic. as well as ticoes of all the ancient ^Egyptian temples. We sometimes find it coiled still. 3 Ilapa iravn ruv vop. For this similitude of his attributes. the captives taken in war. was the Snake’s 6 Arrian in Praef. xi. p. oefiis crvfifioAov fieya Kai fivariipiov avaypaiperai. ii. 01. Hist. which are 5 MufloAoyowri "S.4 and not only the deified heroes of same manner torepresent Aesculapius . fig. Sri o/xoiov n Tovrip ira<rx°v<JWol xpupxvoi tt ? 10 Lafitau'Moeurs des Sauvages. by which it was calledinto action. in their celebrated but the virgin Mother of the Scythians. and phallus in the mystic processions of the whence we find this figure perpetually repre Greeks. 43. 305. are held sacred chaplets of serpents. too. p. The inhabitants winged disc of the sun is placed between two of Norway and Sweden continued to pay di hooded snakes. too. 1. and viii. Kai aicoSoeaBai t o yrjpas. t. 145. ra 18 Medailles de Dutens. Taxilus. Pausan. or consecrated the Scythians and Farthians. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY.extremely common.Fhurnut.11 presentedby that of the serpent. to tions. p. Sic. pi.15The Hindoo represented terminating in serpents.19 The entwined round his limbs and body to express Scandinavian goddess Isa or Disa was some the first attribute. upon the point of in solemn procession between two serpents. 1 Missionaries’first Voyage. Water-snakes. fig. is observable upon sculptured forms of them.9 The jugglers and divines also. The same combination of symbols. similar circle of stones in Bceotia had the same 7 Serpentes ut sacros colebant. Jul. 16 Sonnerat Voyage aux Indes. sacer est locus. of the apotheosis of Cleopatra. such as Cecrops and Erichthonius. 2 Arnob. The sort of serpent most commonly em- 2 Apatcovra avrtp (rep h(TK\i]vup) rrapioTuen. 27. about the fourth de- the property of casting its skin. Mus. to express the incubation of the and when Alexander entered India.AiBois xupiov rrepiexopLevov Aoyacnv O<peus Ka- nullis secretis solitudinum aedibusque perse. onthe western coast of Africa. ii.ravrrjv S' e%eiv ra fiev aval cabinets and books of ancient coins. 238. 15 Herodot. and death among the Tartars. Epit. i. of Japan.Kv6ai yipyeirq irap' avrois ye.entes. and perhaps is that purpose. the upon those of the Japanese. Knight. verant. renewing its youth. p.1 tame and familiarise . Varelii Hunagr. the god of life employed by the Druids of Britain and Gaul. ii.c. were preserving deityof theAcropolis. 171.tab. p. i. a vital spirit. was also a serpent. 510. whom the Greek writers.3to signify the god. xxxiii.6 Both women still carry the lingam. in the great temple and. b. 11 Acosta’s History of the Indies. Hist. The figure in brass is .12 round the egg.2 serpent of enormous size. p.. whichhaving In the kingdomof Juida. pueri. s.while the priest performed the horrid ntes. viii. viii.evwv trap' vpiv 6ecav 14 Liv. 9 Voyage en Sib6rie par l’Abb6 Chappe ad G. image of a serpent or dragon. p.1314 The Epidaurians kept one in the cration. in the mysteries of Jupiter Sebazius. 15. was naturally adopted for one of these reptiles was lately. 2. p. 25. to signify the guardian or the consecrated Founder of the Japanese. which held the egg Tartar princes of China still continue to do. as expressed on orth America.i^ofj. Magn. lib.6 as the and. de Nat. Alex. v. No.. in the collection of Mr. c. found upon tombs. 13 Max. 4 Pinge duos angues. and temple of Minerva. in the sacred casket. p. likewise the Athenians. iv. the of Mexico. the original name Kmmpfer. 1. A. Rudbeck Atlant. 253. Macha Alla. make themselves girdles and her coins. he observes. t. signifying that luminary placed vine honors to serpents down to the sixteenth between its two great attributes of motion and century. 17 See the cistae mystic* on the nummi cis- Pers. and to be found in all vecrQai rrapQevov. 19 See Stukeley’s Abury. Hunter. 1. des Voyages. Septent. v. call Dionysus or reason it served as a general sign of conse Bacchus. showed hima attendant upon the guardian deities of health. 01. G6n. Sat. iii. 6. p. sicuti in septentrionalibus regnis Nor. Se Karurspa €Xl^vVs' ravrp Se Ata fuyevra yev. Justin Martyr Apol. c. xviii. and revered as the image of symbol to almost every other god. Cohort. 70. has serpents as it still is by the idolaters of China. and human skulls and scalps times represented betweentwo serpents j20and on his head and at his girdle. and it is not only the constant powerful prince of the country. and pt. 12 Hist. vrprat iraiSa SKvdrjv ovo/ia. xix. i.7 and almost all the Runic inscrip life. was re. 8 01. 343.u as did the Greeks.Aovaiv oi &t)Paioi KetpaArjv. tophori of the Greek cities of Asia. jtiepjj t oo aufiaros piexpi Trjs £<wojs yvvaiKeia. Kara ro oiovei avavea^eiv ere r<av voaaiv. de Gent. had each a wooden collar in put down their bosoms. Head : and it is remarkable the remains of a Conscrib.2 the shape of a serpent put round his neck 26. 14. of which temple. Rudbeck Atlant. c. 1. and sa initiated were consecrated by having a snake crificed to the sun. c. Lucian de Hist. vatores atque penates existimantes. lib.—reliquiae Kara Se rrjv es TKitravra evOeiav eK Qi}Paiv tamen hujus superstitione culturae—in non. 382. to express the a similar mode of canonisation is employed in cond. from the the general attribute of immortality. Hist. iii. Door. pt. t. 20 01. p. which he nourished but occasionally employed as an accessory with great care. Boeut. Dissert. and apparently gree of latitude.8 the emblems of the coins of the Phoenicians and Cartha that immortality to which the deceased were ginians . epitom. p. 18 and appears to have been anciently thus consecrated. Clem. carried the symbol of the generative attributeof the Deity. p.—tediumser. lib. vegise ac Vermelandiae.name in the time of Pausanias. 80.16 a spear. p. which they have the art to among the inhabitants of the FriendlyIslands. 41. larpiKT). for their military standard. Tyr.

upon an immense number of their accessory symbols. in some mode or other. 13 Bronzi d’Ercolano. acknowledged among the Greeks. and supposed to be a sort ofincarnation of erected. 8cc. Pausan. P. Scut epos ex« npas pera t ov Amp. of vol. not only upon the coins. which will be hereafter coins. or ge- of health and immortality. and other sym. 9 'O ScAiris Kara n jp 'EWtivup yAuooap ton 15'O Sc cv *HAioiro\ei rpupopiepos /Sous. when it had been once duly bol. Phoenicians. vol. may haverecom. Cybele. generally youth. with a human face. Not only the property of casting the figure of the strongest animal would naturally skin. Apis. of the vanquished in war. de Is. people into something more than a mere syro- to take it down. The mystic Bacchus. in symbolical writing.8 R.kept in the City of the Sun. Naxus. tribute strength. and also upon other religious nio- Hindoos.16 it is probable with branches of the oleaster or wild olive. i. it was contrary to the exalted byHhe superstition of that superstitious laws of war. 12. or (what was victory consecrated to the immortal glory of the same) through the suu by night.6 the pre. till Alexander’s expedition into it. the 27. 14 Coins of Lampsacus. 153. Plutarch ckoAcit cka A e o a . son of 4 Virgil Georgic. Isiac. tav. and xiv. p. and other deities . Rom./Egyptians and Phoenicians probably borrowed parts of Asia. but the statue of Ju. worshipped under the titles and Hindoos. tab. is generally represented with five numents of almost all nations. 3 See La Cbausse Mus.them at his birth by certain external marks. lib. 11 Pausan. c.13 The age. and the humanised head being some- it is also observable on the heads of Apollo. ix. weros). eAdup itpos avras. 943. but also that of pertinaciously retaining considered.others of the kind. kcu «x]?Terror/ vorepov. the five senses: but bull most commonly employed is the urus or still it is the hooded snake. both by the Egyptians. are of Alexander II. Herodot. 688. The mystical serpent of the Phoenicians. kcu Eiratpov. et Osir. 4 and bull. and was personification of the divine nature. in various actions and sometimes with the crest or comb of a cock./Egyptians was held serving power. the strongest animal known in those to be a native of India. iroSi fioucp t op Oeov ir\iv9tvov Ko>rrrj riduoa us irijAov.® attitudes.ii. i. is the hooded snake: but the of Mnevis and Apis. The Greeks called himEpaphus. v. from whence the in Europe. times bearded. and and we find his image. the form. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE ployed. KupePV Kai (pyacrpifva iroWanis eav iKpaSa TavpopiopipopAiovvaoviroiovoipayaAparairoA- Xafifiainj. xi. The radiated serpent is common coins with an elephant’s skin on the . Pyrrhus. while the other is tors in the Olympic Games were also crowned distinguished by the crescent. and. 209. lib. . Apyuots Sc Bovyepris Aio- Hist. as well as upon some of those of the further noticed. et Osir. and plate ii. and xxxix. and sometimes not. pyptians. 586. lib. EKjSXaorai'tt Se paAiora ra eAaiva kcu apya 12 Taupcp.29. . xi. v. the bull.India. at therefore was probably adopted to express the others. perhaps. bv Et cupos. Eurip. held the highest rank. 5 and young. u Aios yeveOAov. The vie. ii. Plutarch. Theophrast. Among plants. in Eliac. the conquerors: 8 for as it was a religious as however. Ev 5e Kv^iKtp kc u ravpo/iopipos iSpvrai (S Aio- vos thaias kKwvcl s. hung round with the arms power acting through the sun . Lycopbr. by some to be the mystic father of Apis. king of Epirus. 10 a creature not known symbol in that country . sometimes with a radiated head. lib. upon whose bracelets. xvi. too. Aradus. explains itself. at others. Macedonia.14 Hercules. c. was represented under this deadly in themselves. though noxious and nerative power. e. ii. and 181. G.) [ifAas eon. &c. cpioi Sc kcu Iot/s iror’ ucyovov t ov Amos warepa popufyvcri. but in the tem- olive seems to have been thought to possess pies of the Greeks: 12 sometimes simply as a the same propertyin a similar degree. Phoenis. (OnptSos Sc ifpop. vvoos siriKXijr/ cot i. or attribute of immortality. de Is. is one of the most dis- Greeks frequently use a composite or ideal tinguished. too. Plut. The Mnevis of the . pc/u. This proves that the xiii. is varied. though. and transmitted it to the Greeks and Ro. revealed to 28. the bull being consecrated to Minerva. it was modified and applied mended animals of the serpent kind as symbols in various ways.9 figure. 1. “ the Select Specimens. Among the sacred animals of the -E. and consequently to climates which are too cold for the propa- have been originally employed as a religious gation of the elephant. like ail life evenin amputated parts..” 7 Kot ipov orupapip. Plant.in some instances quite old. The species of heads. 15 and being. 1 . Mpsvip KaAovtriP. 1 . commonto every as the one has the disc upon his head. i. 5 SPBfsvns Sc erroteirar ol tjj KupaAr. Dipnos. 476. vi. S>airepijSrj ns Aoi t up 'EAArjPW at S’ HAeioiz/ yvpaiKes kcu orpotpevs rris 8upas e)3Aaorrioe. we frequently findit. the Deity in a particular animal.in the Homeric times. Alow (rip. and in others quite piter at Olympia was crowned with it . which we believe wild bull. tosignify. and platea 8 Ibid. c. 19 Cssar de B. Aristoph. 1.11 To express the at- bolical ornaments. c. and the other. entirely human except the horns or same attribute. was the trophy of of it acting through the moon. 7 that the one was the emblem of the divine the trunk of which. nor even in the northern or western . Caraerina. he being well as military symbol.head on gems. and acquiring a periodical renovation of be adopted: wherefore this emblem. Coins of 6 See coins of Rhegium. 30. 16 See Tab. s. l. though ivory was familiarly known even mans. t. of the 1 st volume of Tyre. At Athens it was particularly ears. Athen. kcu f) kv Aioo irapcucaKovoiv evxopevcu.

in Phoenician cha Mendes.-------opofia^ouai fietop pev Aiopv. presented in an attitude of attack. we do not find any traces of these racters. des Voyages. Rudbeck. Maronea. there is a hole upon the top of the head antiquity. 338 and 9. 1. and mixed beings in the remains of their art. urus. s. he was received by the the shell of an egg with his horns. Herodot. 4. i. we Romans. 3. 9 which announced his having been miraculously tion of matter. and treated in a manner which probably explains the meaning of this worthy of the exalted character bestowed on attribute in the Greek and Egyptian monu him. one of which has the disc remaining.14 and the 17 'O 8e Airis otiros 6Eira^os ywerat poox0* 6 01. ii. et Osir. or organisa been possible for them to exist. the Palace of the horned Bull . pt. Strab. by Osiris of the Egyptians. forms. 14 TwaiKi Tpayos epiayero avatpavfiop. as the imagh of their god. of the Select Spe 10 See Coins of Acanthus. Attabyrium.17 under the image or symbol of a bull breaking Hence. No. is represented by the Deity conceived by means of a ray from Heaven. 27. B .1 a name which evidently alludes to the a link of connection remaining between them.. 28. 12 See Diodor.9 joy and gratulation. p. in the disposition of the hair. Knight. xvii. Of these the goat is one that most fre symbol is worshipped in Japan. c. ii. once treated with equal honor. 3 Recherches sur les Arts de la Grece. where the disc or-crescent. as if striking though the Mendesian rites were admirably at something with his horns. were hierarchy at Upsal. menium.5 In the great himself had appeared. or active and passive powers of for as the mystical or symbolical was engrafted creation . 1. vol. 132.13 The fauns and satyrs. lib.2^ 32. Sic.’ ev yovvaoi Keipevij. navians. the former of whomthey called Uro. it probably was. though their religion was more simple which many are extant of a small size in and pure than that of any Heathen nation of bronze. 1 . Thor. Magnesia. . opra t ijs eKetPov (too Omptfios) tpuxys. 5 In the Phoenician it signified a cow. ryns oviceri ofij re yiperai es yaorepa fig. 4 Plutarch in Mario. iii. 20 See plate ii. and a goat god. Plutarch in Sylla. 1. the creatioa of the world.—too AirtSor. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. cxxxii.3 In the extremity of the West it been. eon fie fj Pops opk trop OvporaKr.101 traced. Tauro- 18 Ibid. in Sweden. 28. In most of the Greek and Roman 30. or goat-songs . Scythians. 321. with the same head on his chair. metropolitan temple of the ancient northern the attendants aud ministers of Bacchus. c. &c. &c. 8 See Coins of Thurium.distinguished for its lubricity. Kiyvimoi fie Keyovai 7 Medailies de Dutens. Knight. Biblioth. which the therefore represented in a great variety of Greeks worshipped under those titles. t. and under a great variety of symbols. etc Poos. Eretria. where the horns of thebull are signified &c. and as this animal has always Hindostan. Herodot. 88. Svracuse. The Coin. eiSuAop non /Egypte. is in the Cabinet of Mr. G6n. when they choral odes sung in honor of Bacchus were overran Spain and Gaul . 46. p. and p. and Etruscaus: for though the goat find a figure exactly resembling the Jupiter of was amongthe sacred animals of the Egyptians. Payne earip &avros nai Ooipis. iii. had it Japan. iii. the practice of putting part of a com or representative of Osiris. celestial Venus .4 and the name of the called TPAmiAIAI. Plu 9 Memorable Embassy to the Emperor of tarch do Is. c. 1.*123456 and on an ancient Phoenician coin. The Chinese have still a temple called signifying his subordinate attributes. as it being one of the forms under which the god it does likewise in the Chaldee. lib. c. aud represented with the head of a bull upon his appear to have been peculiar to the Greeks. ii. Herodot. a\Aop PaWeadai yovov. this god was the same symbol more or less humanised .2 and the same 33. comprehended the which he means no more than that they were whole creative or generative power. Atlantic. 452. cimens. and all over quently occurs. rodot. 31. Herodotus calls him Bacchus. as well as the does the female deity. Their neighbours the Arabs appear to statues of the bull. the represents the attribute directed to the pro Cimbrians having carried a brazen bull with pagation of organised being in general. 2 Hist. and ani whole nation with every possible testimony of mating the contents of it with his breath . He 0ftP yap ol $oiPiKes TripPopp KaXovaiP. and is personifications of the attributes. They acknowledged only the male probably of some other material.upon the oldelementaryworship. on the exergue. and perhaps the between the horns. pi. c. whether have worshipped their god under the same in the character of Mnevis or Apisj of both 'image. opOiji aAA. the bull is re those of any other ancient nations of the East. c.thereisalways talt.the Jupiter of the ancient Scandi was the symbolical prize given on the occasion. )8 which was that of the terrestrial image ments . vi. was fixed :11 and female. when found. 8. 1 Atopvffop fie Oeup fiovpop tcai t ijp Ovpavirjv Mera£u fie t up k epeoiv i t op f/Aiop kvk Kos fiyeoPTMetPM..7 In many Greek. still oeAas siri rr)v Popp etctoo ovpavov Kancrxeiv teat better preserved. breast .pepip-qpevos errean xpvcreos. signifying in their language a bull. 13 Apollodor. p. 17. and De- 19 Ev fie Mejuipet rpetpeodai top Airnt.12 The them. 5. Japan. 8 and at Meaco in adapted to produce them in nature. the Greeks. 283. is 11 Five are in the Cabinet of Mr. C. as he The Bacchus of the Greeks. also. except the Persians. piv etc rovrov riKTeiv top Airiv. nor in in some Egyptian monuments. that we have seen. i. p. 300. 19 in whose statues position for the whole being commonin syin* the remains of the animal symbol may be bolical writing. and honored with singular rites of worship at and the words Baal Thurz.

rov S’r\yov 0eoo. as before harmony. Orphic verses. being everywhere reverenced power. c. our word. aiuvos areppovos eis erepov aiava. precisely the same. and densed Stagirite. Eurip. Earth. which the Attics and Ionians the being that fills eternityand infinity. Tlaaiv eveasreipevSeapovtrepiPpiOt] epcoros OvidFast. ro yap waAaiov ovopafceaOat yr\v pi/repa. de iWundo. merely posed to pervade it j 1 which. progression. yevedAos Haec praebet causamfrugibus. 3 Tij /lev eariv fi 'Hpo. In the poetical employed as a mere guttural aspirate. k m 77)o irepi| exovr' vypats ev ayKaXais . 324. the one called the Father. fecundis imbribus eptora. 1. it is in things. ed. 19 —Taunjv irapairArioius Ariprirpa KaAetv. like the English being fleeting and fugitive. the Roman C being ori- of the divine nature. by a strange inconsistency. abstruse. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE god Pan was there represented under such a supposed to be inherent in matter. Either Fragm. 7. lib. encumbering their words with a understanding by a continued and boundless number of useless letters. the female ZET2 or AI2 . Praep.19 and. No. s. was held to be the cause of the orga- still multiplying and dividing without end. arises fromthe multiplication or division of of the brute matter which composed the earth. Analect.name IUNO is derived from the Greek name created mind of the eternal Father.fetus.s0 which was often as the supreme and almighty. p. 17 Epya voijoas yap trarpiKOS voos avro.the same goddess under the name of Bertha . it naturally observed.magno commixtuscorpora.” 17*1234which heavy bond of love is no other alphabet. Kpovov SeKai Xpovov\eyerai (6 Zeus) Sitikcov Diodor. he enumerates. 796. lib. apud Ilup Kai vSoipKai yaia. was called the ther Earth .18 Those of form. too. The ancient Germans worshipped than the EPA2 IIPfiTOrONOSor mystic Bac. declaimer. Kpovos or Zetis. i. “ The self.16 The wrote EPA. Karanep 'EAAt]ves. vol. See also Lucret. as modes if exerting his almighty power. 4 Tacit. rovrov vopi^e Zr\v. times.” says the AIQNH. or 'HPH. would naturally be ancient theologists appear to have known that written TEPE2 by the old iEolics. ri)s Aegeus’ apud Heraclid. Etymol. Sic. and mutual co-operation. Gesn. and the is principally derived. Gale. 3. space. lib. attributed them to the deep. Conjugis in gremium lasts descendit. Pseudo. expressed by the word infinity. EPE. it their pronunciation . or time. that they might endure for its orthography. -/Ether or most general. Mo- gotten Love. nisation and animation of its substance. these lilies are applied to distinct in the old iEolic dialect. ed. The only notion that we have of 36. et A fragment of -Empedocles preserved by omnes Athenagoras mayserveas acommentuponthese Magnusalit. Her fecundation by the de- 35. The hissing termination. yr) his age in the common language of a common ptjrrip. wasnot a personification it. Agrigentum. beneficial. 673* O<ppa ra travra pevei xpovov eis airepavrov 2 Turn pater omnipotens. who has given the common opinions of A7)jU?)T7)p traparo yi\ Kai ro pt\ r Tip.pyrpos (&s ijyriai TlAaruv) Kai t i Ot ivt is’ vAti irpoaunrov icat rpayooKeXea. whether of power.MrjTr)ppeyiart) Saipovuv OAvpsriuv . that is. xxxviii. Speaking of the elements Georg. Kai tpiAtt) pera roiaiv. however. Germanor. and energetic of which Jupiter. “ spread the heavy bond of Love can. v. is most distinctly 15 Vpaipovai re St] kcu yAvQovai o't fraiypacpoi 18 'H yap v\i) Aoyov ex« irpos ra yivopeva t oo Ifovos TojyaXjua. con 20 See Senatus-consultum Marcianum. Magn. Ceres.ginally the same letter. Ft] peAaiva. xxiv. This treatise is the apicrra. lib. Aristot. the Etrus- Orphic poet. joined to the froma power.2 and therefore the same with Juno* being that universal principle of desire. 441. IBpaxv perareOeunjs. the personified attributes. ii. or who is usually honored with that title . especially mythology. ilia locum. But the mysteries were also dedicated to scent of the active spirit. and the Creator of all Latin name be not quite so obvious. lib. ii. de Mor. 1 Officiumcommune Ceres et Terra tuentur . though the meaning of her Father ofgods and men. from Hence they adored the Infinite Being through whence arose her other Greek name AHfl. . signifying the various Inventress. aiyo. 34. P. and Rhegium. both in figure and known Father. 1. which we feel in ourselves. the coins of Gela. Sia rov xpovov. fromwhich the Latin personages. and mutual attraction.15 Eleusis were under the protection of Ceres. Pontic. qu. but in the mystic theology.10 R. which suggest the vague abstract but of the passive productive principle sup- notion. through which the Latin received much of through all things. he was not the primary personification reality the same. and eluding the and French. Ibid. Plutarch. Evang. or mystic Bacchus.called by the Greeks AHMHTHP. work of some professed rhetorician of later Solon in Brunck. in the S belonged to the same: where- they seem to have signified only one being— fore the word. i. having no D or O in its ever. as described in the the female or passive powers of production passage of Virgil before cited. and not. and. as the Greek r . the un. Euseb. c. other the Son. v. Se trav e| ou avaraaiv exei yevvupevov. Kai t]fpos rpriovvipos. She is mentioned by Virgil. Orphic. towhomthe celebrationof the mysteries the formand meaning of which still remain in was therefore dedicated. the the Wife of the omnipotent Father. But notwithstanding that this first-be. which compose the world. which leads to universal whose Greek name 'HPH signifies.4 chus . of/active. 12. finite things. iii. V.3 The Latin held the first rank among them. the Greeks we can form no distinct or positive idea of always accommodating their orthography to infinity. Plu 16 'O pas rov 6rj/ooToys’aireipov aiBepa tarch Symposiac.

4. Qu. universal mind and pro sive productive powers of the universe re ductive body. every quality and modification that parents. ii. which the Latins retained in their losophy conveyed in figurative and mysterious word CCELUM. t o re aWairavra. TIvpi Kai vBan iravra j-vviorarai. 10. exhausted the generative become PEA. or extension. Such refinement was begotten upon her by Time. so that no new beings were others. in the modes of his own action. Kai raSe Kai calorque. such as form. ovBeirore arpepi^ov (t o irvp). ovyKpTpoiv exovoa. Latin. aKpuv. nify the pervading Spirit. eicetva. for without spirit. s. irvpos Kat vBaros 7 See Phumut. consistence. the generative bad a more general signification.9 since nothing appeared to Samothracian mysteries. and either vegetable or animal. appropriation. exerted its destroying in 37. These 38. PE2 or RES . s. KivTjtrai. i. kcu 6 avBpuiros. perhaps. being turned into eternal attri meaning. the means of their existing. lib.10 Their 5 De Lingua Latina. according to our limited notions expressed by the same word united to the of existence. lb. the primary attribute of the pri Hill. sprang fromabstruse phi or vault. she naturally be 30. 8 Hesiod. Ovid. PE or PEE: which. irorepov rovruv. s. i. Kai font Kai bus. Theog. s. Heaven . as a they called AKMflN. 160. 430. Diaet. Kpiverai. The ancient word.—t o pev ovv irvp kcu t o vBivp avrapKea eon iraot Bia sub init. in the personification of it: Rhea. &s ev aroi- kcu vBaros.7 ductive power of the Earth. airo Svoiv Siaipopoiv pev rijv 10 Ala n rijv yapovpevriv airreoBai irvpos Kai Svvapiv. Taautes and Astarte of the Phoenicians. or vital principle of order and reno the aspirate. that fills and ani 41. Concipiunt: et ab his oriuntur cuncta duo. signifying universal matter. lb. ipvra. a word retained in the created. with its original modes of action. anapwv. 31. The Gregk title seems originally to have fluence upon brute matter. and which the Latins also can only exist.8 an allegory. 4. in the'refinement of their language. the stone: that is. t o Ss 6Stvp iravra Bia iravros Bpetycu. lb. Rom. with the Earth. ro 5e 6ij\v To pev yap irvp Bvvarai iravra Bia iravros Kai ro pev apxas Kivijoews evii/oi. by of Ovpavos. Time is said to be the son plicity of the early ages. iv. by an abbreviation very common in the genitals of his father. the indefatigable. In the same may. be turned into the parents of the the poets. having no sensible qua that principal mass of matter which forms the lity. which progenitor consisted in the bride’s touching them. the goddesses. and the same as the be produced without them. but we shall find. Hippocrat. The elements Fire and Water were sup mates it. Hence they were the Saturn and Ops of the Latians. 1. being beyond its reach. &c. in ope with the broad termination of some dialects. Eoepirei S’ es avBpwirov<pvxy. 1 . sometimes employed to sig expressions.5 The employed as the primary symbols of these licentious imaginations of the poets gave a pro powers on numberless occasions. that many of the termination anti— boundary. that is. lie is said to have cut off the and. potpav ouparos avBpoiirov. The allegory of Kpovos or Saturn de came the patroness of agriculture . and with the hissing one of powers of Heaven. Aiair. of the supreme tracing them to their source. ro Be wroKti- pevov Kai vKijs Svvapiv. (which was anciently added and vation. signifying properly matter. rating upon Matter. upon the same principle of personi being thence said. seems to have such comprehensive meaning. . Hippocrat. who Being to which they belong. in the figurative language of fication. ro pev appev eon. X^iots kcu apxais. seeminconsistent with the sim figurative language. The Greek has no word of bellish their wild tlieogonies. though employed by the poets to em can belong to it.pronounced which evidently signifies that Time. physical theology : a Being purely mental and rendered more specific. 11. the first of Time and Matter. terraqueous globe. or Heaven . to he the mother of Jupiter. and personified into distinct personages. and appropriated to absolutely immaterial. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. In conjunction omitted almost arbitrarily) it becomes EPE. as a mere abstract principle of motion. 8. or Greek article t t j epa—TERRA. and figu 40. were the great gods of the spectively existed . As the personified principle of the pro mary Being. Hence Varro says that Ccelutn and posed to be those in which the active and pas Terra. was however retained by the Greeks butes. de Nat. which exercised the credulity of have been originally called koiAov. 9 Quippe ubi temperiemsumpsere humorque Tovroiravra Biairavros Kv&epva. ovprpopoiv Se rr)v xpv<rlv‘ irvpos \eyco vBaros KeAevovai. and cultivation of the stitution . which first arose out of the di before the world had acquired a permanent con vision. 6 fiKaparos. that is. Plutarch. the hollow the vulgar Heathens. Among the genitor even to the personification of the su Romans. and might.6 formof consecration to the duties of that state a title by which they seemto have meaflt per of life upon which she was entering. i.. II represented in an ancient bronze at Strawberry’ petual motion. Met. a part of the ceremony of marriage preme boundary ovpavos. The notion ofthe supreme Being having ratively. after which Time only swallowed soil. Greek tongue. Deor. Kai viro rovreiov avfcerai. Kai es ravra Bia- 'Svviararai pev ovvra fwa. seems to allude to invenlress and tutelar deity of legislation and the rapid succession of creation and destruction social order. and wherever they Serapis and Isis of the later Egyptians. c. which appears to gross fictions. the were joined there was production of some sort. iravros er t o pi\Kiorov koi t o e\aKiorovuoavrus. and thus the vouring his own children. the old general arisen from the excessive refinement of meta- termbeing.

the Hindoos holding fire to She was afterwards represented under the form bethe essence ofall active power in nature. ibid. Ovid Fast. and very generally festival called the Burning of Lamps. . is motionless and dead. invariably signifies death or extinction. Theb. or very little anterior. as by known emblems of the Deity.2 among the native Irish. No.13145 A similar prejudice still prevails represented under a globular or square form. 291. and sometimes swore of composition and workmanship. Gramm. there being scarcely a of a circular form. 216. Vinct. apyov. xi. Epigr.which its productive powers were supposed to served in most of the principal temples both be owing. ** ** ** * * * * * * Asclepiad. Polynices infers 4 -------------------fleets his own approaching death from seeing in a Kat Taia. and the ruins of ano 14 Collect. Prsep. 18 Pausan. u>j \j/vxvy‘ Plutarch in Numa. v. to be either by them. to the Ma- The torch held erect. Fragm. too.14 Perpetual lamps are kept under different symbols. but all that we have seen ovx krtpa T7js 77)5 eivai. according to the diflfe- burning in the inmost recesses of all the great rent dispositions and ideas of different nations. called the Concha 11 'As opxvv airavruv------------t o 5’ a\\a tt )5 Deon c. inBrunck. legislation was derived fromCeres.Jupiter and Juno. ple. Great. The. Demonstr. as it frequently is upon bolical writing.desses. apya »cei. pagodas in India. Nec tu aliud Vestam quam vivam intellige 12 Huet. fiammam. by the style them burning in tombs. oAtjv fiopia. de Nat. convmted into a church. 5. 42. 142. Antiq. p.16 who also kept this kind. while sive generative power was expressed in sym- its being reversed. vi. 64. xxv. flepjuot ijt os eiriA€nrou<n)s. because at Delphi. t o 5e iiJScup avev depp. as it was by the statue of cedonian conquest.11 Fires of rather of the genial heat. which was not proved. Though water was thought to be the diction fromfire and water. called the Sibyl’s Tem 15 AvxvoKaXij. Ibid. c. means life.6 Bacchus at Eleusis. xi. and was therefore the same as Themis. Prom. P. &c.* or without it. common fires were reputed holy by them.2 As the principle of universal order.aya£o[ievoi irparrav fleam. the sister of prytania of the Greek cities. in 1.1112 The the poets. oflev Kai mipyorpopov auTTjv ypa<f>ovaiv. aye Upvraveia \e\oynas. and the first of the god- preme councils were usually held. 28.active power . were so called fromthe sa. iv. 153. having the sacred fire in the country in the world. characteristic attribute of the pas- figures of him still extant. Pindar Nem. Lafitau Moeurs des Sauvages. Plutarch.Vesta eadem est quse Terra. t. 12 R. to which all organised and animated ductive when separate. in which the su. 267. Effigiem. Analect. Conjugis Argeiae lacera cum lampade nice.18 and as it is by other43. which implied an principle of the passive.5 'H AtJ/U7)T7)P TroXfUlS 6<7Tl KOTapKTlKT). Lex. \eyerai 5e Kai KoffeAT) airo t oo k v /3ikov axv~ 20 To irvp x*Pts oypOTTjros arpoipov «rri K ai fiaros k o t o yea>p. &c. Herodot. at Tivoli.OTTjTos ayovov teai in Herm. for the same reasons. iroWoov ovojxarwv p-opipr) fua.15 and adopted as the local tutelar deity of particular lamps were frequently employed as symbols cities: but we have never seen any figure of upon coins by the Greeks . who annually extin-1 was the same more general personification ” guish their fires. lie treasures kept. 13 Plutarch in Aristid. i. Even seats. JEschyl. Qu. vision. rekindled them. *9 SeePortland Vase. Ztjvos vipiorov KaaiyvTjTa Kai o/ioflpovoo 17 Au^i'e. v. . 62. 16 See coins of Amphipolis. Siat. 209. both public and of impiety. to the same kind were. was an inter. with consecrated fire fromthe altar Syrians. and the soul of matter. yet. Evang.she presided over the prytania or magisterial cred fires always preserved in them. by different enigmatical repre- sepulchral urns and other monuments of the sentations of the most distinctive characteristic kind. ther more elegant-one. vol. Rom. as fire was of the exclusion from any participation in those ele. c. according to the direction of The universal mother of the Phrygians and the Oracle. ii.17 posterior. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE sentence of banishment. sub init. lib.2 She was celebrated by adoration paid to it are not to be found. they private. and exhibited sacred bonfire. iroflei tijv irvpos Hvvafitv ignis utrique. pre. Numa is said to considered as united in each. with her head Sais in Egypt. and rekindle them from a worshipped with different rites. as the daughter of Rhea.4 whence all extinguishedall thatremained in the countries.". lib. p. where some traces of the centre. 2 Ovid. Hence Vestar have consecrated the perpetual fire. fyipov. OlOVtt stam 7) 77). Alexander the ? Ilat 'Peas. as the first whose symbol was fire. -------------. Phurnut. i. 6 It is most frequent on the Coins of the 1 'Eicarepa S’ (ij Atj/ojt t jp icai f/ 'Eoriaj koiKev Asiatic Colonies. such as the shell. and the pub.and neral personification includingthe same powers. was held to be equally of all things. <76yap irapeovtra rpis oip-oirtv *HpaicAeia-----------. The temple is still extant.erpiav r\ yij. with it are of late date. but no statue.1920 of the sex. At of a large handsome woman. and the direct personification of that attribute. After the battle of Plataea. which. and therefore carefully preserved fromall contagion the guardian of all assemblies. ** ‘Hpas. which pervades it. v.80both were occasionally beings owed their existence. with Ceres a personification of the Earth . Hiberu. wherefore her temple at Rome was Greek and Barbarian . *Eana. p. called bythe Greeks Cybele. both being esteemed unpro- meuts. subest vigil /xevakm vcKpots coikot o. both of men and gods . there was an annual religious crowned' with turrets. a more ge- which bad been occupied by the Persians.

rexvv QeiSiov. 13. 506. Kai rov The second may be fromKvonopis. 13 Pausan. emrracrt 5e AvKAeirov Se epyov erreorn Se of aretpayos xa~ 6(paAAos. to be an of their respective subordinate attributes might emblem of what it anciently meant: whence naturally be changed. and may have been received Karacpopous Aeyei rrposTaeisAcppoSmjvyivecrOat. 1. 2t pov- the foamof the sea. 74. Dei. The reoeroAAiSes or TevaiSai were theaphrodisiac . s. The same attribute was on other oc other genealogy appears to have been known casions signified by the dove or pigeon. 17. we find Aphrodite. de Civ. Plutarch. 4. of the male and Scopas. Sri AoycpKai 7) rtepurrepa oiKetovrai t jj t oo pvdoo The third is commonly derived from atppos AippoSiTp. Sat.iffxaSav appixov ijKoAovBei Kopifrcw. 'Hpas. frequently distinguished by one of more elegant modes of distinguishing them. r.9 or the sentingthe celestial. the female AI2 or ZET2. Tpayov napiripi rots BeAovaiv eiKa^eiv. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY.12 No 45. popiov ywameiov. Schol. Tew ompanv yevos-----------SeAijvp crvpwairx«• 17 Tr/vpev ev rip vaip KaAovmvOvpaviav eAe- Clem. v ipavTos Se e<rri Kai xpvcrov. that is. s. Strabo lib. aAAos peyeBei peya. though the theogonists derive it 19 CH Se arpovBos avaKeirat pev-rp AippoSirp fromthe island of Cyprus. ABrjvas. than the fable. is usually repre cupiscence. evtprjpeos Kai pv. i. explained. Pausan. after mon symbol. oracular temple of Greece at Dodona. iii. Eustath.batum corpore. and other appearances ofvirility. 25. from which she is fabledto Oovs-----------ri noAAr]peveiSr/ats oxevTiKOVs oiSe. represented in one image.3 and still continuing. 23. rrepi $<Aot A. Clem. sented under the voluptuous formof a beautiful however. The refinement of Grecian art.18by in the Homeric times . E. xpocoo PiV Kat eAeipavros. in Cor. et Osir. s. was spirit of the universe. 13 Veneris.13 who was. ii. as before aptly chosen as a symbol of the double power. Kat 'Upas eneipyaapevas. Sijpiov ovopafcovav t o Se em x e^-avVre Kai es T0 11 The first may be fromthe verb BEINEIN. c. t t ) pev napnov tpepei poias. p. ii. to reraprov aToixeiov' aripaivei Se XaAKip.14 but as both with the phallus in the ancient processions in these goddesses were occasionallyunited and honor of Bacchus . c. c. have sprung : but the name appears to be older TepipiKAris Se ns Kai tovs epipayovTas avraiv. t tj Se <rterj. viii. 2 . s. ot ikios eineiv. nrpov.101 all which occur veryfrequently. p. A. sed veste muliebri. and called Venus. 19. apipopevs oivov To Be aya\fta rtfs 'Upas «ri Opovov KaOrprai Kat KArjpaTis.20 though it is likewise of the an original and appropriate ministers and com drogynous class. The figwas a still more com panions of Venus. lib. personified as and the other only of animal desire or con the goddess of love or desire. iropurKovira. p. s.11 She is said to be the daughter of tortoise. 1 Horat. in Od. or and. The same attribute. 9. Ven. enepneTO SriporiKois Kai lAapcos.17 The female personifications of the all-pervading tortoise. H. this sense. being an androgynous animal. Sia to voAvyovov. Kveiv tfvvarris AprepiSos. contrived woman. cum sceptro ptKovs. et Osir. 15 3oavov Se apxaiov K aAoucriv AippoSiTijs Cohort. though a different one the sparrow. e. evra Tpayov t is eiAKev. Alexand. and the name VENUS 18 ‘EAArjves------vopt^ovmv lepov AtppoStrys only differs fromit in a well-knownvariation of farov eivat r-pvnepitrrepav. these symbols. piras ex<»v. is employed to account for the name of Aphro which often appears upon coins with the head dite in the Theogony attributed to Hesiod. whenadvanced tomaturity. and there and the goat was equallyappropriate towhat fore associated with him in the most ancient was meant tobe expressed in the other. and in a no less celebrated one of Jupiter and Dione. 20 Athenreus Dipnos. et statura viri. 365. Kreis yvvaiKttos' 6 eoTiv. 226.3 Hence.7 the Fig-leaf. in apersonification of a general procreativepower. the statues of Priapus being wards attended by the Graces. in Lacon.c. in Homer. to signify their bolical statue of Venus at Paphos had a beard. lib. 6 . p. however. name of a goddess. in Homer. and which was accounted an 44. fromsome other language. Cohort. the proper and made of the tree. of the goddess.) aipeiaBwpoi.19 and perhaps by the polypus. i. AippoSirriv Se Tlav- Be koi to yvvoLiKeiov aiSoiov. p. orthodox devotion to the fair sex. 1411. lib. in a celebrated work of Phidias. ayaApa AippoSirr/s x a^K0VV win rpayip KaBirrat 10 Ae\ra. lib. 8 Plutarch de Is. popular goddess of that name . iii. 6 .8 Barley Corn. ripSe Shell-fish in general were also thought to krepcp rroSi em xe^-a>vVs PefiriKe----------xai— sympathise with the Moon. in II. 2 'H narpios toov Aiovvo’ tuv eopTt] to rraAaiov 14 II. 134. the latter sitting upon a goat. viii. v. r\. Suidas. Other attributes were we often see portraits of persons of that coun on other occasions added whence the sym try painted with it in one hand. Alex.16whichseems also. 10. 1. Pausan. Kai rov SpaKovrattjs dialect.15 the personifications among the common people of Italy. Sat. c. p.edition of the Secchia Rapita. 2«07ra Toi/To epyov. en SeKai Oeppov es pil-ur cp 458.1. aidoios yvvatKetos Kara rovs K co. 267.1 and the fruit being carried original attendants of Juno. to have been the most ancient mode of repre which was done by putting the thumb between 7 August. To pev ovv es rijv poiav. 12 'Suvvaos Tip A irpoffeBeix&i] Kal V Auvvrj. 16 Signum et hujus Veneris est Cypri bar- 9 KpiBr/. and other ancient monuments. yap eonv SA0 70 s. as distinguishedfromthe letter Delta . (avopr)TOTepos . Id. vi. the one being upon coins. Hesiod Theogon. arose the Italian expression far la fica. Pausan. p. Kat rov KopaKarov AnoAAeovos. Suidas explaining BEIN02 or B1N02 to be the Eliac. Cypris. &c. c. Eustath. Macrob. i. IIo. Kai tcov 3 See portrait of Tassoni prefixed to the 4to Xeipew. names of rather uncertain ety the former represented with her foot upon a mology. Plutarch de Is. Dione being.

7 and it occurs onmany Barley was also thrown upon the altar with Runic monuments found in Sweden and Den. bothin the northern that is. rt)v 9 Pellerin. and the Roman Catholics. now tell thigh ofJupiter. 1400. whence we often find cir. upon coins. vii. 1401). beads. andp. and Eustath.which appears to have been occasionally em- presented the planet Venus. xv. calls the latter ovyap a<pi eicri ev t jj XWPV afiiceKoi. Herodot. 5 Procli Paraphr. iff. and nificant of some particular attributes. 11 See Coins of Syracuse.5 The cross in this formis sometimes guess. it might verynaturally be employed 13 See Coins of Gela. attached except the royal staff or sceptre. p. nominated ov\oxvrcu. Lapponic. p. myrtle. which are of an age long anterior to the beginning of every sacrifice. the symbol of the preserving power. it is not easy to goddess. et Osir. rice. time. giving theJico. olive. s. Atlant. in either of the Homeric poems . Selinus. Villes.8 tim. Chryses. arose the fable of such as the Lamas of Thibet and China. re. appears to have been an emblemof simi. who 12 Oiv<p8’ ek KpiOeuvvefeovnpevtp Siaxpeunrar probably understood Italian. Ang. and particular personifications of the deity. 28. Kai irv£ov. Eustath. on account of the generative at- we find it attached to a chaplet of beads placed tribute . 46. in other monuments. Part ii. symbols of the generative power. Leontium. xi. lib. 47. A. see yevvriTiKcp popup rt\v <pv<ttv eoutevai. ii. Strabo lib. and bywhich the Syrians. 106. worshipped by ployed in the same sense as the fig and fig- tliemas the natural emblem or image of that leaf. It is to these obscene gestures that the ex Schol. in the language of that country. of which sovereignty. Lysistr. and biting the thumb. tab. and drawingit down. worn round the head as a mark of of the mouth. 132 and 3. and thence de approach of Christianity to those countries . Instead of. 662* 134. vol. Another old writer. and in also Mich. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE the middle and fore fingers. s. with the in the Iliad. x.13 blood of the victims. Grains of barleymay have been adopted observable on coins. meaning. to a circle. and several of themwere fromthe stimulating and intoxicating quality of found in a temple of Serapis.salt. ii. MeSej^wjvevet cu t o 8piov noTiajxos Kai Kivr\ms. of Cornwall. HeiKvvmas reupupia. p. sc. seat :15 whence. nicians. 4 Bronzi. probably.fications of the productive powers of thewaters.9 49. brings the diademor sacred fillet Priapic hand.on their heads. to its appearance in the world. ix. so as to forma complete rosary. cxxii. in Aristoph. demolished at the the liquor extracted from them. 2. eivai rov Aiovucrov. as a silent reproach ofeffeminacy. xxxvi. 711. sc. ivy. while they pray. 8 01. too. and. appears to have been other ensign of temporal power and command. Lydia. kcu Sa/pvrjv. 3. 112. sometimes encircling the mination. Kai aWa rwv aeiQaAaiv.u The thighs of the vic- and. to signify presentations of them upon some coins. p.Aigypt. The simple diadenv putting the finger or the thumb into the corner or fillet. p. implies.14 R. p. which is still worn.48. the priest of Apollo. more general destruction of those edifices by the probably. The myrtle was a symbol both of Venus gyptian deities both male and female carry in and Neptune.posing and inviolable emblem of sanctity : but lar meaning. 8ia 6 Suidas in v. p. from a fancied resemblance to the emperor Theodosius.1S or. e£- . Mau Kai pvppivriv. Archaeol. 111 . cos n vifiiov. as we find it upon the most the Antiquities of Herculaneum. at the mark. T. as an amulet.) itavruv. 11 . p.4 ancient coins. in II. which Shakspeare probably took from trans (lege yevvTjcns vel kot jt is. 6. t o avvre\eiv rots £a>oi? eis fiaburiv re Kai eis 7 Sheffer. v. or by buried with the deceased.appear upon coins. act v. yevetrivvrj itpoeaei too airepparos. too. i. over. 01. xciv. ls Tows ftijpovs. as the most im- Italy. which many of the figures of JE. c. vol. or oak. 16 .6 In solemn sacrifices all the they are employed as accessory symbols in the Lapland idols were marked with it from the same manner as fig-leaves are upon others. Varellii Scandagr. c. nor of any Of the same kind. aypiav apireXov. kcu 8oke( lations of Italian novels. wreaths of foliage. the cross in the form of the letter t . Nichoff. and were said.tprjviv (5 MeyacrOevijs) vpviyras Runic. P. act i. lib. 62. Indian Antiquities. 646. c. and a circle. See 14 Eustath. and other inhabitants of Asia. and Jablonski Panth. The key. lib. fol. 305. were sacrificed in preference to every On some of the early coins of the Phoenicians. p. other part. Marseilles. 97. by the women of of the god upon his sceptre. 4. No. Beads were anciently used to reckon generally of laurel. of which they were supposed to be the in a circle . which __________________________________________ 10 See Coins of Syracuse. had a similar meaning. p. Plutarch 1 Henry IV. the Bacchus being nourished and matured in the Hindoos. 1. Rudbeck. pi.10 Perforated beads are also general. Juliet. which is much heightened in the re- Christian antiquaries of that time. probably. by the object. xiv. &c. as it appears in are fragments of the chaplets of consecration many Priapic ornaments now extant. the male and female personi- the left hand. c. b\oKawow. . and. sig- aod southern parts of Europe and Asia. pi. and sig-r enclosing the sacred symbols. and sometimes as chaplets petual continuity . being a line without ter. and Romeo and de Is. All these were sacred to some cles of beads upon the heads of deities. s. seem to allude. Borlase Hist. p. as the equivocal use of the name no mention is made of its being worn by kings of it. De la Chausse. pressions of Jigging. all evergreens were dionysiac plants :16 frequently found intombs. according to its ancient de ALgypt. fig.11 but upon what account.symbolical figures..-----------kcu kit rov. 77. 28. Ptolem. oipouvrEs aito ruv aWwv rov faou pepoiv. Phoe. where the future life. and was there is a representation in a small Priapic originally confined to the statues of deities and figure of exquisite sculpture engraved among deified personages. s. ii. t aupos. was the natural emblem of its per. 111 .

though standing the contradictory stories of their hav it might also have signified another: for.t . In probably. as attributes. Kai ffiamijs. aquatic snail or buccinum. when any fables concerning a nation of female warriors. which is still current among the while. 7 iElian. which we often find on the mystic mo cerning them. male on the other. c. therefore. and which.6 to signify fire and water. xlii. Plutarch. active and passive powers combined. The Scandinavian goddess Freya had. 6 See Sonnerat's. composition. or sing fictions. and been suppliants at her altar. lib. with which the victors in the Roman the union of the two sexes inthis emblematical triumphs and Grecian games were honored.2 we suspect every limb and muscle retaining its sensibility that they were among her symbolical attend long after its separation from the body. the growth of the figurative language of the poets and theologists. ovk evrefieias. probably an ancient copy for the person Teciting to hold a branch of of one of those above mentioned. c. 186. nevertheless. a mode of expression. of which probably gave rise to the absurd fable of those on the right side. in 50. In the great sculptured caverns of well as the double sex : and we accordingly the island of Elephanta near Bombay. and Venus. pateras. to qua entertainment of this kind. till she had slain three enemies. X^Ataviiv irarovcrav. a peculiarity which is said pods. Lansdowne House. however. viii. it is extremely tenacious of life. indeed. an androgynous which have been circulated in later times con insect. T.20 and of the tales. Hippocrates. as well as of their great artists. not horseback . right breast having been artificially prevented. c. 3 Pausan. .19 and it seems probable that the Theseus. and to be traced even small buckler. T. and body. the serpent. though the androgynous amusement. the countenance. The two passages in the Iliad.9 The cannot he ascertained.as the cir giving the full prominent form of the female cles of beads and. and other symbolical utensils to have distinguished the Amazons. contradicted by the other instances of the use 5 See silver Coins of Pauormus and Segesta. xxx. s. as they usually did. of an Amazon in dramatic kind. of those on the left. outovpias avpfioXov rais 3°r. appear have been sometimes signified by the large to us to be interpolations . de Animal. combined the tortoise 17 Tov arepavov ijfiovqs trouov. poems sacred to the deity. the artist meant to express &c. and the flat form of the of existence. the characteristics of figures of Amazons. k . a figure. Hence. by Chinese have. and also serving as a foundation or support to tri none on the right. i. have meant immortality. such as those of a The fine figure. 19 Mallet Hist. furnished the Greeks with their first the same sense. vii. in the them their Greek name. like the Faphian Venus. are frequent. diadems signified perpetuity breast on one side. in war.5 and of which the shell Homeric poems. xxviii. seems to in which they are slightly mentioned. transitory marks of occasional distinction. 18 Aristoph. who consecration to immortality. they were worn in all sacrifices notion of an Amazon. Conj. there is find it placed under the feet of many deities. vi. vii. xxxiv. The tortoise is. the five figures of Amazons in the temple of Diana principles from which this double power in at Ephesus. tab. upon which the Greek poets en upon coins. and none was qualified to be a only introduced an innovation. ii. lib. and lib. lib. or Achilles. character is strongly marked throughout. olive.4 This wearing of them a matter of. c. whence we states that the right breast of the Sarmatian find it observed by one of the guests at an women was destroyed in their infancy. that the host. The reason assigned is to serve the purpose 3 Niebuhr Voyages. and brass of Agrigentumin Sicily. 188 and 9. and feasts in honor of the gods. Introd. which seems to have repre may properly be considered as emblems of sented some great deity of the people. and given employed in religious rites. et Schol. the world being supported on the back of a and the other rests upon the head of a bull . something which among the savages of North America. or personifications of her subordinate might.18 to signify that he was the deformity of the one breast was avoided by performing an act of devotion. Sympos. c. in which they served on giving crowns of flowers instead of laurel. 138. There were Hindoo idols. with a large such as Apollo. de Danemarc. p. were recited at private tables. and the other. like ing placed the ancient statue of the goddess. tortoise . luxury instead of might have been the foundation of some of the devotion. i. 15 nifyingperpetuityof youthand vigor. the rival works of five of th&most nature sprang. evidently symbolical. of the author’s own moral argument. t grafted. there is no trace in either of the numents of the Greeks. probl.A. 1 Plin. lib. and not as mere wrought these Stupendous caverns .7 It ants. a eminent Greek sculptors. a variety of amu 51. and Z. shows that laurel in his hand. one holds up a serpent. 8 Trjv HAeiuv 6 <f>ei5ias AppoStrrjv firoirjtre p. Hence the crownsof laurel. one holds up a Chinese and Hindoos. 116. Mercury. limbs. On gems.fableofthe Amazons arosefromsomesymbolical have never observed any such compositions composition .8 and prominent female breast on the left side. though so intimately con is represented radiated in the hands of several nected with the subjects of both. 99. and is 4 IIepi aep. Priap. 1 and notwith more frequent symbol of this attribute . xx. overcome by Hercules. of the symbol. viii. but we . This character of the double sex. Neph. by lify them for war. both sexes .3 It is probable that. 1364. This figure has four arms ^and. iv. but made the wife. ywai£t. v. Hindoo Idols. however. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. it might have been properly called the sup that they might have the free use of that arm port of the Deity. 9 Lafitau Mceurs des Sauvages.1? It was also customary. and other collections of Plutarch.

vi. iv.16 though we donot find that any public bable etymology for the name Isis. c. a sacred cow of the north held to be the source of all orga was the symbol of Venus. as far as the Sanscrit . iii. thus made a composite symbol expressive of said to have been the primary result of warmth many attributes. inro Se rap iroAAuv Kai rpeeperai 8r)heia/Boosiepa. and gymbol of the productive power of the earth. 40 Euripid. the first-begotten Love. xvii. c. lib. Hindoos. c. Rudbeck. before the lib.17 among whomthe Greek co appear to be Indian . ii. epoveri. preserving still the was probably no other than the symbolical characteristic features. .14 Hence we may perceive the one of the temples of Philaj. &c. 392. Etrnp Io'tSoy repepip u p rrjp pep XleXaeryiap. 552. lib. in Cor. Magn. ev Kavaficp KaXoopepov ro erepov. Theban in the Syrian language sig same personification. and. 158. Plutarch lib. till fixed in the place chosen for their specimens nowextant are the heads of Venus residence. was easily joined to the beautiful features of a woman in confounded with it by the poets and mytho. but. p.from the north. 11. P. As men improved in the practice of the for building the Cadmion or citadel of Thebes. iv. p. 0 operating upon ice.4° Boeotiaby a cow. came from the Greeks through the 10 Kircher. fabled by the whence the Cadminns are said to have been Greeks to have been the son of Jupiter and conducted to the place of their settlement in Io. an island in the origin of the fable of Bacchus being born at Nile between Egypt and Ethiopia: and in Thebes: for that city. vel natura rerum Soli subjacens. Schol. p. Greek myOtologists. Phoenicians employed the same emblem:101*314 the Apis of the Egyptians. p. f flovKepwp eari. lib. as well as the use winter by sucking the white cowAdumbla. ed. \ V • .the prime of life. c. There were two goddesses of Kai Or/Xeap re fiouv ovri yevopevoi. 14 07)/3a yap i) fiovs Kara hvpovs. in Ari. 27. Macrob. irarSexys oir° too TlXaravos. (for they were in many respects the Thebes. 11. cp 'HAiou Se iroAei 6 M oeuiy. among whom there is scarcely a ancient Gothic and Scandinavian. which was borne before bolical meaning. which the ancient nations 62. the«sou of a Cadmian sonage by the licentious imaginations of the damsel. in the. Pelasgian and the other Egyptian. Atlant.19 who is the mystic god Epaphus. by which means the generator Bac Greek sculptors of the finest ages of the art chus. Pantheic Isis of the latter ages. Sia t o iracras intot oo Aoyov 6 Ams.1G It. to which it gave the name of or Isis. 4 01. 13 Pausan. Ston irep the name of Isis worshipped in Greece.8 and many of the /Egyptian symbols Tritonian Lake . as to equally titles of the goddess. The cowis still revered as a sacred symin the sequel. de Abstinen. and. xviii. lib.1256. there being no obvious ety coast of Africa . 1. the of money. & xx. p. the cowis Mnevis and Apis were of the male personi most commonly represented suckling a calf or fications at Heliopolis and Memphis. At Momemphis in Egypt. Porson. that represented be reputed the mother of the God of Love. Myth. In the Scandinavian mythology. 310. ix. Kai Sckt ikop airarray ycperreas. ri\v Se Aiyvirrlav avrup eiropopafavar Kai Svo 19 See those of Dyrrachium and Parium. 235. Kai is ov rpeepopres. 854. Her name seems to have come bol of thedeity. 688.3 who was the same goddess emanation of the all-pervading Spirit. 253. Herodot. 18 01. icaOo ridrjvn Kai 11 O! Se Mupep<f>irai rijp AjppoSni\p ripuam. 187. Pausan. c. xi. and de Is. Karairep 'EAAijvty riju loop ypa- See also Etymol. as Isi and Isa signified ice. and primary represented Io . stoph.)1 upon the capitals of nifying a cow. See also eund. 208—214. p. iv. p. 17 Mexpi rijs TptrupiSos Aiunjs air' Aiyuirrov Edda Snorron. which marked its sym image of their deity. terra. Corcyra. ii. p. 1 'H yap Io'is eerri pep ro ri}S epvaeas dijXu. as we shall further show 53. v. as we suspect. on the contrary. 2. T. which pointed out the spot 54.11 as the sacred bull nised being. . but. yopaSes fieri Kpcotpayoi Kai yaXaKTOirorai Atffvcs" 5 Sacontala. Scliol. the attribute expressed byit so far corresponds or water in its primordial state . than any worship was ever paid it by that people : but it that has hitherto been given. s.Elian de Anim. c. they gradually changed the ani by lying down to rest upon W* This cow mal for the human form.18 On the Greek coins. being called by the these we find the horns and ears of the cow same name as the symbol of nature. v. 186. The young bull . et Osir. in 3 To yap Tijy lirios aya\pa. therefore. Herodot. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE with a sort of flying serpent or dragon. 1. may afford a more pro coins .4 In the same manner the logists. col. p. c. Sat.s Hist. it lonies of Barce and Cyrene were settled at an seemsequallyprobable that much of the Hindoo early period. imitative arts. and where signified the earth . KaOairepep Mepepei pvpiapvpos KSKAijrai. p. the one ouSe Aiyvimoi. Rudbeck. Strabo rpeiropepi) poptpas SexeerBai Kai ideas. 4 Norden’s Egypt. p. Phocniss. p. by the inhabitants of the Gold. Io and Gio temple without the image of one. mythology. v. Atlant. cop yvvaiKrpov Lycophr. 773. 556. and c. quae est vel 14 Porphvr. became confounded with an historical or poetical per a deified mortal. & 451. Ovid Metamorpb. p. the most ancient them. China illustrata. 372. p. Of this.4 The god or appears to have been held sacred by all the goddess of Nature is however called Isa in the African tribes adjoining Egypt. 1206. Isis juncta religione celebratur. 7. SepamSos. 16 See those of Dyrrachium. 455. and both were with that of the Grecian goddess Venus.15 and more particularly by the mology for it in the Greek tongue . xx. It the productive and nutritive power of the is also frequently found upon ancient Greek earth. Barpax. all their know the sun wasfabled to recruit bis strength during ledge of alphabetic writing. G6n. des Voyages.

rov Kvpiov km rpyenova rt]s pevtrrijs ovtnas 18 Ou8’ aWots errapaadat vopu^erai rovs tepeis avaor/s. in the fury of their resentment for the to preserve the mightystructure which it had insult offered to the mysteries. would of itself mese. “ The Sia which was derived from it. us ovra rovrov teat irapovr' aet trepov. Beov irpopov aXtov. The same liberal and humane spirit still exist. KeXevffe Se iraatv yeyovevat.-t t iv yovv vavra fiotncovtrav <p\oya Ttveartv S Beos. created all men with the same sentiments and 57. the sovereigns sands of the immortal progeny of Jupiter. -----. incerta. No. “ that it was strange that the king of the ^Egyptians added a third. xii. Sophocl. the quarrels of men. tury.19 If ancient Greekwritersspeakof thegreat luminary a shipwrecked mariner were cast upon an itself as the generator and nourisher unknown shore. xxv. 14lb. 16 Journal du Voyage de Siam. 8.. in Lacon. irXeiov yap ouSev a\\o ii fareiv e\fis' KaXovvrat rov ev t ms w/«a\aiy KpxnrToptevov t ov eir' etrriv. . whenever braces of the Sun. however. animal love. and con being honored by a variety of forms and cere sequently multiplied without end. vopuapa Se ovk eirirrraadai. commanded the formed. deified the Sun sions of gratitude and submission must be considered merely as a mass of luminous or pleasing to the Deity. but one.Toi Zrjvos.” of both which appear to have employed the says Hesiod. crtptcri. or invoking the divine wrath to avenge ducer of order. Menandr. than is generallyimagined. 19 &eov vopttfe k at vefiov. No.” says a traveller of the seventeenth cen become exhausted. the distinctions ari to our discretion. 5. master’s name. All the three whomit did concern. Philemon. s. he immediately offeredup his of all things. rov Si)pu>v Orphic. OeAjjcracra KarapatrairOai rep AAKifitaSr]. 1424. either of the number or attributes 55. The Athenians. invoked that god. Pausan. This continued emanation the Greeks all religions are good. the sador of Louis XIV. implanted in matter. curefleis rov ov BeXovra ptavBaveiv BeAav. affair which concerned only God. Rom. tpvAanes Ovt jt uv avOpwirav. Sophocl. which have a nearer resemblance been as easy to his Omnipotence to have to each other. 246. etr ovk emtv ptij fiovAov ptaBeiv. Plutarch. as the being. CEd. et Osir. still continued to emanate through the system. he re and the other. Plutarch. but as the centre or body. but modestly contented themselves who dwelt concealed in the em with revering and invoking them. and as for other ex fervid matter.6 knowledge.va. seemed to leave it wholly were.' Plutarch. Tyr. Qu. xiv. Orpb. avaffffeiv. tepeia 10 Ka»<pu\aK' aurov erev(e. or desire : to which plied. Fragm. continued to 58. rov iravruv Beuv 13 Odyss. from pressions.9 This primitive pervading Spirit is priestess to curse Alcibiades . prayers to the gods of the country. by personifying France should interest himself so much in an separately the great fountain of attraction. Rom. or attraction. See also Max. the original pro cursing. E. (ruvVupuuuv•) em\ve6ii yovv Adr)vr\oi fj tepeia pvt) 9 See Plutarch. ed. and the they were . whoever the first of the deities. ov. in their hymns to of these.1* duction. KeXevovros’ «pV yap. which the pervading Spirit. Rom. CEd. fertility. as Grecian letters and language in all their public guardians to mortal men. founded in the same principles. Fragm.138. 8 'H\ios vayyeverup. ravra xpvcrov re a<f>0ovov kou xa^K0V vapovros v. through which the powers of repro curses. and not of cause.. for without a continued emanation from prevails among those nations whose religion is the active principle of generation. rip. v. the Greeks never presumed to think Osiris. asked their king. p. Fragm. whilst He. and believe that almost 66.14 concluding that all expres more than the ^Egyptians. “ Thou monies. any propitiate them. indeed. he was not acquainted with them. This productive etherial spirit being exdispositions . 3. that she was the all things . being unknown to the amidst the inert confusion of space and matter. Diss. as in being praised and glorified by a 6 Of Se es rrjv IvSiKifv etnrXtovres (poprtwv 11 Tpis yap ptvptot ettrtv em \ 6 ovi wovXvPoreipp tpcunv 'EWifvtKwv rovs Ivdovs ayaryifia aWa A0a.7 and several of the they felt or wanted their assistance. in some measure. 252. . and to have inspired them with panded through the whole universe. everts. &Fragm. Tyr. public worship of the ancients. Tyr. “ shun disputes.13 and joined the inhabitants in supreme Lord of all mutable or whatever modes of worship they employed to perishable being. the ruler of the world. and the licentious allegories the same form of worship. 7 Ev 8e t ois Upots vpivots vov OcrtptSos ava. {ijTei Se ptrj. 10*it being thought the instrumental priestess of prayers. every part the same notions of the true Religion. as to was in some degree impregnated with it. 660. v. the inclinations? Ought they not rather to believe seat of the Deity . OP ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. r. but she had the said to have made the Sun to guard and govern spirit to refuse : saying. The ^Egyptians.” 16 Wheu the ambnsjl personified into two distinct personages. fromwhich both were derived. incert. Had it been agreeable to sing merely out of the metaphysical subtility the Creator that all nations should have had of the tlieologists. and endow them with such different tempers and therefore every part was. Qu. . ov BeXrjs trv ptavBaveiv aiSeurO’ avaucros f/Aiov. the passive. whence local gods and god that the true God has as much pleasure in desses were everywhere worshipped. Orpbic. c. Gesn.8 Not that they. “ inhabit the fertile earth. and organisation. s. in his nne representing celestial love. Qusest. ov tcaOapas.” 11 An adequate acts. 445. No. avraWaxrcretrBat. would it not have of the poets . de Is. km Epya k .. IT Bactrian and Parthian empires. to embrace Christianity. attainable .

that all things were of one sub ably doubted. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE number of different creatures ? Or why should 61. rear eis 6 rpBeiperai reAev.” says a very learned punity. which are k . are equally his country. or rather farcical. li- the latter comic. xxiv. for the salvation of his crea civil government of the state . rites of they say. T9js pev ovcrias uiropevovoris.5 is said to have been punishedwith death at 62.4 and though the re of the Greeks and Romans. p. to whom these spirits. but still as for neglecting or violating any part of the actions. rived. vi. camposque.20 Atheism Mosaic Ritual. Kai ev T7j <pv<rei. These two were the only martyrs to re that beauty and variety. • “ Even they not been initiated. in Rom. consisted in a denial ofthe existence operation of one plastic spirit universally dif of the gods: for Diagoras... ren. yet we adore. Titaniaque 4 Tertullian. Kaff eavniv avrapKijs. Kai miscet. Memorab. 49. ligious fanaticism of the Jews was too san it admits of no dogmatical theology. portant. Lucentemque globum Lunae. vitseque raiov. pontus. Now St r is etiriav eivai.*12 and. vol. c. et Cicer. and even to en subordinate. ov yiyverai irpurov. Tatian. 724. Me. Aristot. 76. lib. wherever they bad any pre-existing laws in surcharged this primitive elementary worship their favor. The Deity. remains undefined. be less admirable. Divinit. owe yt. like that ing a cat or a monkey . c. if they be sincere in substance. quentes. indeed. the same God to whomour several his religion according to the' laws of worships. p.Obscene fromrestraint. Liv. i.t ow 8eiraOerri volantura. except such natural order of things. totamque infusa per 6 Taw 5ij icpuntovtpiAotrotpijoavraiv. who was obliged to fused and expanded. .19 The sectaries of Foe have. t . 1 . c. s. nevertheless. the only part of their supernatural ?” 17 worship which seems to have possessed any 59. Pseud. et magno se corpore iravnov' ovyap eonv airavrat o ovra. The principle of the system of ema Athens-. and Principio caelum ac terras. though different in form. a\Aa tovtov c£op. t t js Ta£eo>s iraaris.. Inde hominum pecudumque genus. &s ek Oeov ra iravra Kai Sia 1 Atayopas AO -rjvaios ijv. A. there is reason to believe that his to the same end. against stance . lib. than as they constituted a part of the and of all worlds. it may be reason nations was. A. as to the popular deities. irarriv avdpcimois. ws rr/s See also Plutarch.IS R.1 and. the emperor himself sacrifices to the sovereign but allowed the inhabitants to be as absurd and Lord of Heaven. by the such fury. performed them in a acceptable. de M undo c. p. rovro oroixeiov Kat raimjv rt]v Et quae marmoreo fert monstra sub aequore aPXnv aval reevovnov* kcu Sta t out o. they were held to be no otherwise im innumerable times in many parts of this world. fromwhich tbey were fashioned. has appeared votion. AEneid. though in different modes offence was of the same kind. - 20 See the proceedings against the Bac Apxaios pev ovv ns Aoyos Kai irarpios earl chanalians at Home. . 32.3 Hence 60. 274. Oeov fipiv (TvvecrTTjKev' ovSepia de <pv<ris airnj Xiprapevov Ta trap’ Adi/vaiois pvorijpia. astra. Spiritus intus alit. that all rites teries. by those who dared not utter a word writer. Plutus and Frogs of Aristophanes. Ibid. His. Sn ravra eon iravra Oecov irAea. and they in others. whether the atheism. An ^Egyptian magistrate would with some of the allegorical fables of their put one of his fellow-subjects to death for kill neighbours. c. lib. the mountains. and not as opinions.” 18 manner pleasing to the Deity. and the rivers . “ They would readily admit the were publicly ridiculed and censured with im truth of the Gospel. who worship other gods. in the sulting the mysteries. peraftaAAovoris. though he had and through different channels. long resident among them. yveodai ovdev oiovrai. 8 See Acta Apost. Xxxix. iii. but. 3 Xenoph. from the opinions ascribed to of worship and forms of devotion were directed Socrates. i. was accused of revealing and polytheist of ancient Greece and Rome calumniating the doctrines taught in the mys thought. Virgil. and which the citizens of that republic expressed into which they were again dissolved. oanipiasl 8to xat rtov naAaiuv eiireiv rives 2 See the Prometheus of Aeschylus. of guinary and violent to ’be left entirely free course. vi. the Pythian tures : and though we adore him in one ap priestess having pronounced from the tripod. they say. the former serious. KaOavep ev rots £<oots 18 Asiatic Researches.” says the incarnate 17 Voyage de Siam.6 The liberal and candid flyfur this crime. taphys. and the TrpoT]x8i)crav. indeed. like the modern Hindoo. “ but they against the very populace that worshipped contend that it is perfectlyconsistent with their them. The Chinese sacrifice to the spirits of the Romans made no alterations in the religious the air. vol. been wisely order anyone of his congregation to be whipped proscribed on many occasions. that whoever performed the. rov avrtov icai rov Korrpov kcu 19 Du Halde.are extravagant as they pleased. they opinion. 9. epripwOeura njs eKt ovt ov /ua>pT)Kare. Aristot. but still as their creed. ad Grsc. ii. and. de roiavnjs ipvoeus an <Jta^opevi)S. P. iii. as to forms and ceremonies of de Sastras. so admirable in the ligion among the ancient Greeks. perf. ol irAeurroi artus ras ev vAr/s eidei povov rpifinoav apxas eivai Mens agitat molem. Apol. The Hindoos profess exactly the same energy: for. while institutions of any-of the conquered countries. cure airoAAvaBai. or as were punished for actively violating or in less worthy of the wisdom of God. and from whom they are de force their absurdities and extravagancies. a chief of the synagogue could and sanguinaryrites have. of nopersecution for opinion. pearance. i. v. full of blasphemies.

12 the different explanations which they perties. were the ancient be impregnated with some particles of the Di Hebrews subject to the kings of /Egypt./Egyptians themselves would volutions and calamities. 1. The . wherefore He by Augustus. since Palestine must from its situation to. says that they were mere sacri. that elapsed long as they had any thing to reveal. xvii. when we consider the many re covered. and consubstantial with his essence. or who was contemporary with Diodorus. with newprinciples of science and new ing them. whose sculptures . It is probable that in /Egypt. perished with their Hierarchy me. and. 9 Proclus in Theol. both in an system should have been lost. that all which tive Spirit.i.. might be worshipped with blind ado gave to different travellers. as their and veneration. which enabled the labor of fewto find These appeared to be so many different ema food for many. That the ancient ing which much has been written. Hence not only men. were supposed to gration to their captivity. every production of earth. Karaffaniv t « \oycf esra 6eia srpr/yuara. they told of the extensive conquests and im and air. ed. induce us tosuspect ration by the vulgar. but from a river. by introducing a new lan priests pretended to have some secret concern guage. contrived to impose. p. This they cipating in his attributes. and though the mild and steady go general plan of his work has obliged him to vernment of the first Ptolemies afforded them say. instead of the deity. and the tyranny of their successors. who was initiated. concern inconsistent with each other. and other Greek and Oriental sophists. the learned characters. hood. lib./Egypt. and some. c.other countries. " worship sacred animals. it tended perhaps to obli more science than they really possessed.9 In the time of Diodorus Siculus the some relief. although they knowit not. received divine honors . upon the symbols were treated with greater respect Plutarch. not only as symbolical representations. was entirely continually emanating from. in tempted to adapt their ancient allegories. s. in terate the ancient learning of /Egypt. as the real images of the that it was all imposture . 56 et 7. 12 See the curious inscription in honor of ra eyw (petryaj ptaXtara amjyteaBar ra 8e aai. 11 Strabo lib. were even substituted as ob Hermapio and Horapollo. and parti partly invented among themselves. Two mighty monarchs of Persia rodotus. 10 Oi pev ow tfpets avroov (rwv kiyxmru>>v) . lib. 96. but all writings. By this universal expansion of the crea may indeed safely conclude. and consequently employed the power of that vast empire to understood themj ’declines entering into the destroy their temples and extinguish their re subject. according to the disposal of the state or of its master. but very little dis wondered at. p. though their explanations are wholly in 64. and yet it is evident fromthe sacred fromthe ocean. continued to respected as symbols of Divine Providence be esteemed more holy and venerable than the acting in particular directions. 15. yet. climate. much superior to him in learning. countries.10 but they probably pretended to modes of worship. and propagation.tiquaries of London. i. 19 Deity in an ancient Indian poem. avayicair) KaraXapt. plain. 66. and that the know gods. 13 See Herodot. unless from the conquest of it by Cambyses to that -under the usual ties of secrecy . 1803. that at no time.13 nature of the substances with which they were 65':' As early as the second century of combined : whence the characteristic proper Christianity. ii. and to this Iamblichus at signs and characters of convention . and dorus. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. ii. than if they had been merely ancient creed . called Hieroglyphics. where various kinds of animals. and Macrobius. its source in various modes and degrees of have been among the first of those acqui progression and regression. 65. We .11 The symbolical those animals and plants. which the country never reveal any thing concerning them. Keyoifj. and reverting back fiction . as well as their powers of foreign conquests. airopprprov n Soy/ia irtpi rovruv exovaiV>l*b. 63. and even vegetables.8 For this reason. Apuleius. 9 Tcoj' 5c elveteev aveiTcu ra Spa (Oijpia) a. judgment. we find that an entirely newsys ties of particular animals and plants were re temhad been adopted by the ^Egyptian priest garded. and even to write emanations. as suffered during the long period. &c. i." partly drawn fromthe writings of Plato but as actual emanationsof theSupreme Being. and con and Ochus must necessarily have swept off a sequently of the symbolical meaning of the large proportion of the former class: whence 7 Bagvatgeeta. because they conventional signs for sounds: but. vine nature. which was mense empire of Sesostris. though appeared to be impregnated with particular they pretended to read. and apologises for the little which the ligion . soil. as well as in other instances : for Strabo. p. published by the Society of An- fiptjKa avTcov tiriif/avcras. as much this. were thought to be derived. their symbolical jects of adoration. from their emi animals. Such seems to have' been the case in consistent with those given to Herodotus.” 7 under the Persian and Macedoniankings. as either the bigotry of their predecessors. all which they very readily ex attributes they were meant to signify. Wess. is not to be cient and modem times. participated in its essence. fiavopxvos eiirov. in many instances. zeal and knowledge subsisted ficers without any knowledge of their ancient in inverse proportions to each other: hence philosophy and religion. fromwhich their various qualities whose vast resources were not derived from and dispositions. Ptolemy V. like water to and sitions . or endowed with particular pro them. as in and sagacity. and Germanicus. 806. Dio . The cruel persecutions of Cambvses ledge of the ancient Hieroglyphics. Herodot. which. and which consequently left nations of the Divine power operating in dif an immense surplus of productive labor at the ferent modes and degrees. water. which are also equally even plants.

in Hesiod.t6 i]v ovSafiov rrptrrov tXtyt (o <poK\ris‘ nXarwv). The her statues crowned with it. p. being observed to skip about and performva however. been preferred on account of the na with the deity.20 R.avriici)v voKXrjV ex«. c. The vase is often employed in its serving the instinctive motions of animals. or augury.is wholly unaccountable.15 Tire art of interpreting their various_ common sense. whence animals for their tutelar deities. though narcotic enables themto perceive variations in the state when taken to excess. in the same treaties of alliance and other public covenants manner as those of modern Europe put them were anciently called libations. which naturally acquired pre-eminence which they often believed themselves success by affording a permanent establishment.19 intoxicatingliquors being the opinion. c. t o /xtra t o Butty fore the proper symbol for the god of poetry airrtp xpijaBat. ii.5 they having. at least supposed to be produced. foresight. poured out upon all solemn occasions. and therefore held to be aphro that future events might be predicted by ob disiac. to the interpreters and a distempered mind for the ecstatic effusions of deliverers of predictions. See coins of Se- . preceding a change of 70.®: priestesses and inspired votaries of Bacchus. Seleuc.16 It is said to have been founded by some Hy Heuce proceeded the affected madness and perboreans. through which it. in ples . to whom it was accordingly tural weakness of the sex. long before they are perceptible to of wild imagination. in Cor. Kt<paXri iroXov. P. Tp St trtpa fjLrjXoV' Pausan. Hip. where the design of setting but to be blunted and obscured by the opaque up an oracle was first suggested by the goats incumbrance of the body.14 nerally employed to signify the generative or G7. cellin. vTrXafijBeu'oV Tas S’ in Btuv XaPlv r)vXi%omo The laurel was also supposed to have a sti Kat avvqtaav' t ovt o yap tan Sana BaXttaw t o mulative and intoxicating quality. by certain as an emanation of the Divine Mind. as the different cities and districts adopting different pledge of union and bond of faith. lib. lib. apud Atlien.leucus IV. assumed extravagance of those votaries. and the their nests. to express the same idea. Haliartus. Deipnos. Ammian. probably. being accompanied by the same accessary symbols. are upon the medals of wi’ofxa^ov' ras fitv in 8ta Otovs otvovoBat Set? TaTentumand Locri in Italy. p. which many was represented holding the cone of it in one of them display in placing and constructing hand. and stead. were supposedto proceed that the poppy was consecrated to Ceres. 2 To pttv Sri ayaX/ta (AippoSmjs) KaOrifxtvou 16 Plutarch. 4. Kavaxos StKuomos tvoir\atv.20 often inexplicable from any known principles 69. iii. which cating to a certain degree. while the other held an apple. II. 20 See coins of Thebes. supernatural perception. Aa<pvr)<payov <poifia£tv t k Xat/uou ova. ponium. «K xpwou Te /cat tXttpavros <pepovaa trr t rn Kai t o paviuSts. owing juice of the poppy is stimulative and intoxi to the extreme sensibility of their organs.---------irsiroojrat 8* To7 ap jSatcxti/o’ijUoi'. 49. From the system of emanations came preservingattribute. which seems to have been ge and advocates with the supreme God. and is usually more especially those of birds . i. which. ii. 481. . The same ancient system.18 and the vine was a favorite sym ordinate spirits. Laert. the case at Delphi. 2o- Ilu'eiv 8’ tis fj. pierced in fits of ecstasy and en rious extravagant gesticulations. ruv x€‘Pc0V Se fX6t TIT/«*' At/J- 'Ot oj>7 ap 6 Btos tis t o aufi tXBri iroXvs. Theogon. 19 See coins of Maronea. such as were felt by the Pythian they approached a certain fissure in the rock. supposed to act as mediators bol of the deity. Diog. irXijv tv rats loprats. and principally by the bard Olen. c. so prevalent among the ancients. lib. and given way. v. xxi. as often as thusiasm. &c. Koiva. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE this blind adoration probably became general. as was thought by many to be in its nature prophetic. lib. p. which evidently acted by means flights and actions seeius to have been in re of corporeal organs. that produced phetic enthusiasm was sometimes produced. x. to the oracular tem thus to penetrate the darkness of futurity. 1 . /cat AuKotppajv 39. and there St fitBottv. and contrivance. by degrees. 8. which rendered 14 Du Halde. &c. produced oracles: for the human soul. Atyttv t o ptXXov rovs peprivoras iroiei. vol. and others rroXos or modius decorated her head . &c.123for the seemto possess a reallyprophetic spirit. This sort of pro 68. It was for the same reason. Schol. de Orac. but to have celestial faculties of the soul entire liberty. Naxus. Defect.17 Even drink selves under the protection of different saints. men hoped to give the pute during the Homeric limes. Defect. 415. s. By yielding themselves to the guidance weather. and wholly renouncing us. c. which. Mar. s. Virg. 'H 8acpvr] trepytt rrpos rovs tvBovoiaanovs.s Virgil. and fromthe immediate impulse of the Deity. andprophecy. ing it to intoxication was in some cases an act or those of China under that of particular sub of devotion . had officiated there as far back as any certain being the means of their inspiration. <pri<riv ApioroTtXijs. and a priest and prophet of Apollo:4 but women also the sanctity attributed to wine. 17 2II0NAAI. 4 Pausan. 5 Ibid. de Orac. by mistaking the disorderly wanderings of more lucrative trade. of the atmosphere. and a ful. t ou Kat rov Aa<pvriv tyaytov oSovt i rrpie t o orofia. Figures holding the poppy in one hand and 18 ---------Ato icat Botvas /cat BaXtas Kat fxeBas the patera in the other. Soli. 30. p. of mental operation. 3. 5. was sup traditions could be traced . was intoxicating exhalations fromthe earth . otvov SiSovt os Btov. stimulative. 434. x. 3 Plutarch. pro posed to be the medium of their communion bably. Georgic. 1 Cereale papaver.* and that Venus skill.

The inspiring exhalation was at first at groves by the barbarians of the North. in general use. c. ewai. 636. or carried on certain occasions. et aetherio trahitur connexa Tonanti. according to the usual practice of the ever paid any adoration or performed any in Syncretic sects: . s. p. v. 11 See ibid. 8. Clement. The 2EAAOI. but their original meaning was promote. Sot yaiovcr’ 6iro<pijTai. ovtoi aTovaxats.9 which. how serves. then to the Earth to have beenimperfectly transmitted fromthem in conjunction with Neptune or the Sea. Aere libratumvacuoquse sustinet orbem. in different modes of worship. Longobard. as tending to exhilarate men’s which distinguished the statues of Jupiter and minds. emanated fromits substance . it is. viii. rt)\oOe 16 Apollon. aviirroirofies.7 be before the time of Herodotus. 8 See Pindar. 11 . at different times. 93. which was to express in by certain priests.. trunk of a tree. Lucan has and Tacit. panied devotion. entirely destitute of trees . oraque 14 Lib. and. Co AujScvirus p. head of Dtone. ii. to promote which. as matrons and proudest princesses suddenly laid it were. 7 Xlavop. par fications. lib. Olymp. “ honors Pan by consecrating to him animals to pieces with their teeth. temples were merely personifications of his concerning their having come from that coun particular modes of action. 2*A\a>vecre\6oov a\aros ettreyparj/afiriv 'E|ets evpepiav. Alex.8 The Pelasgian. also Plin. 17 Jul. generally of the gay and festive kind . Upos t his ttcit ptoa.1012whose primary emanation. wvai.18 Music and wine always accom still preserved in the crowns of oak and fir. 1. Oxon. p. 233. 6 Pausan. call any sacred place a grove. 'Aruv apeuov kcu xapcuKoiTiov eya AA. Even as late as the- expressed this ancient mystic dogma in the eiglith century of Christianity. were em lived.fan plant. The enthusiasm of the Greeks was. lib. emotions. i. Pharsal.19 ticularly tended. whence aside their decency and their dignity. as the husband themwarmand palpitating. with their hair 72. c. and eat the high fir and deep cavern. though ever.15 In this great preservers of ancient customs. only different modifications of one cause. n. for among the vulgar. who pretended that they spiration rather than convey meaning. Finnic. 58. immediately belonged to him. Marcellin. xxi.6 These were.' try.” 11 Art and refinement gra however. particularly in operative spirit. 1.17 man does Bacchus by sticking up the rude 75. viii. dually humanised these primitive emblems. v. for the poets. and modified it to their by Luitprand. in the same manner as those of other rium. lib. de Leg. lib. v. who had the title of All-prophetic. seemstohave beensignified by celebrating the orgies of Bacchus.18 Ao/ceir rots troicrt fiattpvois. 14. the all-pervading spirit of the uni appeared. 9 Zev aw. the and sometimes with living serpents. This cause was of Dodona. and by different means. king of the Lombards. 599. astonishing to what an excess of ployed by the Celtic nations as symbols of the extravagance their religious enthusiasm was supreme God . the goddess of Dodona. 15 Plutarch. p. who relates cause the other deities presiding over oracular some absurd tales. the priests ways. cantation to a tree. ed. lib. 10 Maxim. HeXatrytKe. seems tributed to the Earth only . in Alexandr. 193. all the rites prac symbolical plants did those of other personi tised before the responses were given. Rhod. Humanam feriens animam sonat. and Schol. lib. 1. numen.16but even to tear living Tyrius. vauev. Dissert. it was enacted4 language of the Stoics. and assimilate them with the Deity. c. Oeovs<re$i£ovo'. received them from the oaks of the sacred 74. The sanctity. Germ. Such symbols seem once to have been dishevelled and interwoven with ivy or vine. “ The shepherd.efieaiv Svtrxffiepov’ aurpi fie SeWoi hort. Iliad. as Strabo ob lastly to Apollo or the Sun. Diacon. The gravest the rnisletoe which grewfrom its bark. had dis Jupiter. Considering the general state of reserve grove .. Mij Tifiovtra Qeovs. de M.”' says Maximus ‘to feed upon rawflesh. AcuSau'cue. Tyr. . 73.Vevxcus.s teat iro\vy\uff<rov fipvoSt Eurip. &c. See also Ammian. tastically dressedor half-naked. 54. ver. 13 Ot 5e rrotTjTot Kotr/ioviriv.13 so that they must always held to be unalterably the same. mentioned in the Iliad. His story of the pigeons vatis probably arose from the mystic dove on the Solvit. as not only Heathenism. which he heard in iEgypt.<paios. ii. 79. though have alluded to these obsolete symbols and supposed to act. Kpcmjireiv JEschylus has only commented upon Homer : ExOptov . that who system. ix. and consequently better adapted to the responses having been originally delivered the prophetic office. being the largest and strongest and restraint in which the Grecian women vegetable productions of the North. they con manner they frequently worked themselves up tinued to be so down to the latest periods of to such a pitch of savage ferocity. and been replaced by women long verse. Electra. 4 12 See heads of Jupiter of Dodona on the Totius pars magna Jovis Cirrhaea per antra coins of Pyrrhus. 21 tliem more susceptible of enthusiastic deli Pan. Arnob. aXtrt] KaXovvi-es Hoc ubi virgineo conceptum est pectore t o lepa irama nav rf Strab.14 The more prompt sensibility of the fe or rather Druidical oracle of Dodona. should be punished byfine- Forsan terris inserta regendis Paul. xa/j. the most male sex was more susceptible of enthusiastic ancient known.ai. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. Exit. and ran probably came the sanctity attributed to that screamingamong thewoods and mountains. as which almost all their religious rites tended to- well as others. x. so generally attributed to 71. and to the Greeks.

and the motions and ap* versal machine.3 but which with a mind infinite in its powers of action and also produced Greek poetry.them mentioned with contempt. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE to imitate whom was to feast and rejoice. which that . 39.*12 Wine. which are therefore equally dependent adequate vehicle of the unparalleled effusions upon the first cause. 353. which it received when con- years. See Plat. Philip. vi. to have merited this cha. that could only arise from newideas of devotion. arising out of some* was of old observed. Of course the actions and beendiscovered that. and exploring future events arose at the same time. s. Genio Socrat. 1620. as of the fixed stars. cans. 5 and. P. 4 Diodor. have some mutual relation to the most celebrated of themacquired immense each other. which each re in the time of Philip.22 R.— 2 Expiatory sacrifices were occasionally per. 6To pavnicou yap irav tptKapryvpov yevos. however. methodisers of that language.ceding one. those fortunes of individual men were thought to de- were most favored. lib.structed. The great active principle of the uni* tions. those events that is sublime and elegant in the works of which happened yesterday. hence we usually find . from it. Hence it of practical superstition. among the Greeks. This which was to be supported by inspiring terror was judicial astrology .4 Too great from the first impulse. but order to discover all that would happen to him though supported by a college of augurs. arose to changes of the seasons. as every being observed to be as much under the in.human nature. to such a mind.Repub. are equally present. both equally incompatible phrensy and oracular -prophecy. of each ployed in bribingthe principal states of Greece subordinate part were supposed to be derived to support or permit their sacrilege. pend upon the first impulse. lib. triumphed over the common sense of mankind.6 first. xvi. and as ven. The regularity ofthe risings and settings men in the republic. 595. but seem not to have lib. like the Egyptian and Druidical.gave all the consequences and effects of exist- ness. it was only necessary to though immediately derived from the Etrus. ed. who paid best. and its will is neces- racter: but the sacerdotal bards of the first sarily that which is.476. temples were filled with laments. which followed. was supposed by the mystic cations on the head of the victim. Oracles had great influence over the and indissoluble chain of gradation: so that. and those of the Greeks with verse.subsequent event was produced by some pre- fluence of Macedonian gold. v. a most abjqct species rather than by conciliating affection.*^ chosen fromthe most eminent and experienced 80. As the general movement of this great them to support an army of twenty thousand wholewas supposed tobe derived fromthe first mercenaries upon double pay during nine divine impulse. 1 Herodot. ii. as it was. the very exertion of which ap- held in abomination by the Egyptians. x. 37. bowremote soever of taste and genius. That of Delphi was so rich. and those of the smallest reptiles'that they were rarely consulted without a present. thereby to give and receive happiness. de Is. that it enabled 79. which was so much em* tuating impulses of any thing analogous to the ployed in the sacred rites of the Greeks. that the Egyptian thing extremely like theoretical atheism. p. p. afforded an ence. when put into motion by some cause of their fallinginto discredit.particular eagerness to amass wealth was. the parent of all perception : for. &c. founded upon extreme refine* were most of the religions of antiquity. was a corruption of the Greek. and those which man. ii. to show its fallacy. Another mode* however. so the particular movements. The act that gave existence. which ment of false philosophy. of cultivate the elegant and useful arts .20 the sacrifices of the former being dressed out with all the variable attributes of chiefly expiatory.* and those theologists to act by the permanent laws of of the latter almost always propitiatory or gra. it fell into disregard. The moment therefore of every man’s 77. Fic. formed by individuals. and flexibility. 1069. et Osir. public counsels of the different states of the movements of the great luminaries of hea- Greece and Asia during a long time. when great wholes"! plundered by the Phocians..time. goribus. The poetry of Delphi and Dodona does are to happen during the immeasurable flux of not seem. revived the ancient mode of divination by supposed to be the primary wheels of the uni- the flights of birds. cumstance of Iris life. Apul. afterwards. formed any part of the established worship 6 See Demosth. because all that is arose ages appear to have been the polishers and from its will.de 3 Plutarch. elude the sight. darkened by the gloom of a jealous hierarchy. on many occasions.pre-established rule. was human will. it having more principal one. an'd the orderly va- 19 Strabo. as any of his pen. and not by the fluc- tulatory. it for a long time were not. harmony. all were really produced by the sioned orators. E. and. p. and dances. though personified by the poets. lib. the part received. which produced Bacchanalian or new sentiments. though it announced the the steady light of human science. Antigon. besides supplying the great sums em. whose religion. See also Herodot.find out in what mode the celestial bodies. et seq. the Pythian priestess ceived upon entering the world: for. lib.19 Such and. de 20 Egyptiaca numinum fana plena plan. as appears from the impre. Grreca plerumque choreis. as being alike integral parts of one wealth. who peared to them to imply a sort of mutability of gave way to none of those ecstatic raptures intention.Sophocl. Sic. even during the most enlightened ages.78. whose copious. indeed. . The Romans. as well as birth being supposed to determine every cir- language. operated at that moment. in pearances of animals offered in sacrifice. still connected with it by a regular 76.

&c. who lived only a century later. c. which signified lord or master. as we primitive sanctity. 19 Strabo.—non Chaldaea tantum et 8 Herodot. c. Analect. &c. also sibili habitare. and the particular character and aspect male.16 which it is founded. '• rantibus fallax: see Tacit. whether little or much. did the same. 14 Summura universi regem in luce inacces- lib. as the Greeks write been originally Chaldaean. Their different 83. indeed. ii. were enabled the Greeks : for there were a thousand sacred to approach the otherwise inaccessible light prostitutes kept in each of the celebrated tem of the supreme and ineffable First Cause. cujus essentiam p. iv. xvi. in Brunck. or. lib. differ brought from Babylon by the Greeks together ently pronounced. Hist. 10». Diodor. neither is it ever mentioned among the super and the stranger had the liberty of choosing stitions of the ancient ^Egyptians. to take most other nations of the northern hemisphere . 2. 52. IIoX'H' fiev yap. Uriel. I 23 riations of nature. should be the only which the Jews having adopted during the place exempted frombeing the scene of them. 85. c. but. could not be adapted to the but it was not adopted with the others by the capricious mutability of human actions. Philos. lib. captivity. lib. c.. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. whose subordinate birds and animals. as they stood in rows in creed certainly admitted the principle upon the temple . no refusal being allowed. universi fere Orientis 10 Pindar. 11 Herodot. c.iv. ii.. as in other countries. Chaldseans . &c. Beel. Gabriel. which they served. acting under the guidance of emanations diffused themselves through the instinct. lib. were extremely expert subordinate emanations.. vol. ii. when selves. or the fears of jealous been honored with rites equally characteristic tyrants. whence daring impostors presumed but.13 and presented themselves in different ven. itai ASgyptus. 1 . she having of aspiring individuals. though their whichever he liked. when the same 7 See Baillie. contrived to make themselves of mis and appropriate. c. lib. the practice of all man ligion seems to have been the same as that of kind. Praep. Raphael. at Eryx and Corinth . and offices. or by the immediate impulse of Hea world. c. the returns to certain points of the zodiac. except the Greeks and A£gytians. sonified attributes and emanations much more but also the rise and fall of empires. BtjAoj. they honored these cordingto all accounts. 18 Lib. Brucker. ii. spe. as the Baal of the Phoe with the little astronomy that they knew:78 nicians. as the latter people subdivided their per to foretel. at least as far as relates to men. they have still retained their exception in favor of the Romans. At Babylon. ii. 22. sed universus fere gentilismus vetu- yvaifiova. 19 JlpoaTroiovvrai Se rives (rwv Xa\Saucv) 17 Ibid. c. and adventures: wherefore the astro scended to become their national and peculiar logers had recourse to the planets. yeveO\ia\oyeivt ovs ov KaraSexovrai oi erepoi.17 believed by only a certain sect among the and probably in many other countries. Like the Greeks.9 every rank and condition held it to be an in the principles of their pretended science being dispensable duty of religion to prostitute them sufficiently specious to obtain credit. nec adiri posse nisi mediantibus Plin. 109. xxx. much attention to it. The generative or creative suspect. equally without reason : for Juvenal. Sic. more extended combinations. nor. Philodemi Epigr. Mosaic system. and the than any other. and gave themnames and assiduous in attending to the duties of expressing their different offices and attributes. spiritibus mediatoribus. Discours sur l’Astrologie. any stranger who came and offered money. ibid. whose more God. Strabo lib. lib.18 The exceptions he might places. by their mediation. Evang. xii. 16 Ibid. it being. 1. who. 5. called Beel and Mylitta by the Assy of each. 199. which. the titles of their deities cannot fate of the world itself. to every other of the kind had been exploded. per universum mundum tanquam animam dif- .1? be supposed to express the precise meaning of 81. were supposed to influence the affairs rians. and Hist. their profession . they naturally abhorred all pretenders to complicated revolutions offered morevaried and his high office. and the other fe other . i. once in their lives. and by exciting the hopes same as the Venus of the Greeks . Olymp. and to have been it. who. to the adoration of safely have omitted. viii. 82. lib. their attribute was divided into two distinct per relative positions. Brucker. must be pleasing to the Deity. Numbers of of prediction after the decline oftheir oracles:101 these devout ladies were always. in her temple. was certainly the same title. temple. in waiting. j dogma fuit. fusam esse. xai ra SveoSeua pepea t ij s f/pcpijs wapa stissimus credidit. ranks. Ann. the one male. 64. j&a&vAwvuav tpadou 'EAAyves. xii. 13 Fons omnium spirituum. The Greeks do not seem ever to have paid which. attribute seems to have held the highest rank . A similar custom prevailed in Cyprus. The Babylonian women of chievous importance in the Roman empire .12 the general system of whose re as Herodotus observes. and conjunctions with each sonifications. 13 Herodot. lib. for Jews: for as the true Creator had conde tunes. 9 Genus hominum potentibus infidum. 32. they and to have taught the existence of an uni concluded.19 andit is not likely that the such as Michael. to any mode and applied to sacred purposes. was accepted. See also Euseb. ac 82.11 It is said to have been 84. i. such liberties with their temples. This mode of prediction seems to have those of Assyria. and Zeiis and A<ppo5irri by the Greeks:13 of men. as versal pervading Spirit. and but the Clialdseans continued to be the great Mylitta seems to have been in all respects the practitioners of it. Crit. i. not only the destinies of individuals. lib. and afterwards engrafted upon the Dionysius of Halicarnassus claims the same .14 ples of Venus.

Coptic. or abuses in- vailed. Ind. Sic. P. Such secrated to the service of the Deity in the cere. 2. minal a systemof superstition. which were merely tickets of admission to promiscuous embraces were. good.1 • have been wholly unknown to the simplicity of 86. were delivered fromthe errors of infidelity. 23. O. the Odyssey. 1 Maurice Antiq. who in the ninth 5 MaKapuo voi vvkt ss eaaiv. iii. (natn quo non prostat femina 3 Nv| yevtais wavruv T)V xai Kvirpiv /caAe- templo ?) trupitv. a contra. or Latona. Epy. 7. &c. and 7 Liv. and his nation were free fromthe errors of a Evang. the the nights belong to the blessed gods. and as to the foul and un. if females.they were either mere calumnies.able in all the later ages of Greece. apud Euseb. They were never allowed to never are.been the first wife of Jupiter. 1. et advectsesecreta palatia matris. everywhere attended the progress of his fol 11 BAYBfV t i07)J'7}Arinr)rpos.p. L xxxix. 156. religious. Y. 8 II. called Athorh still in the Sat. most of themhad the first storms of persecution. Electra. p.or quietude. or similar compositions exercised at once for the pleasure and profit of would have been foundupon coins. have 9 Nu£5efj Aijto). and which 10 Odyss. Plutarch. Had the Christian societies sunk under sessed their establishments.1® 90 Nuper enim. lib. s. While the temples of the Hindoos pos. &c. • . and never coun- as a kind of licensed brothel.preposterous appetites. they never being once noticed these mysteries. for as to the lines in the for- itself. and. Hesych.with the ancient naturalists. &c. and to perform any unseemly act or ness.8 was personified. seems to consider everytemple in Rome troduced by private persons. 13 Omnium . A. lowers. their Apollo and pride of families. solemnly 730. Hymn. Orph. which they the priesthood. 9. A devout Mohammedan. who held that nalian societies suppressed by the Romans. earth. or the genuine have some genial and nutritive influence in poemof Hesiod.autem physicorum assertione whether considered as moral. uuless when injurious to the peace or of Horus and Bubastis. pt. thanks the Almighty that he and his nation 6 Hesiod.Apollo and Diana. darkness. that title of AHTfl. or benevolent. indeed. that preceded the Creation.80 tenanced by public authority in any part of the 85. edu. Aigypt.24 R. except upon the Spintris of Tibe- desert the temple . as the source of all mer poem alluding to the'rape of Ganymede. e. or the Sun and Moon.10 the mother of fence.by the ancient through the infinite variety of unknown dark- poets . 8 Diodor. spreading slavery. appear trifling indeed! | Pacis. by the religion of Mohammed. andtheother sleep.11 The membered that a free communicationbetween Egyptians differed a little fromthe Greeks. and the offspring of their rius. i. i. that could render them attractive. then that dreams descend fromHeaven to fore.8 universe.9 both of which were meant to warn and instruct men. perhaps. I. unstained by the horrible enormities of so cri &c. lib. 341. A tis omra rwv eis Inrvov offered up more acceptable thanks. E. if males. over the finest regions of the Eurip. Night being the appropriate season for the early times. litical evils. or first ema- gesture in the face of night. 4 Advp or ABaip. 22. Pra. heat was nourished by the humidity of night. century travelled through India.the nurse of the Earth and the stars. posterity might bands of consecrated prostitutes. which they of private caprice. veiled by hypocrisy.. Hist. c.Diana.7 We do. 265. Hesych. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE religion.. The Greeks personified night under the name that signifiedNight. of Women of the Idol. The devout Bramin might. as numerous. It is the same word as taveii>. pillage. vii'. that he Tpeieopievav. asitis one signifying oblivion. and nearly the same manners pre.18 in which they agreed more exactly natural debaucheries imputed to the Baccha. and tures: but they were undoubtedly the works insure success in the profession . Et Cererem. which. i. and the sexes was never reckoned criminal by the supposed her to be the nurse and grandmother ancients. fauum Isidis et which make all the licentious abuses of luxury.® This may seem. 727. c. vu£ fieAaiva xpvirewv aorptov rpotpe. though but too observ- monies of his worship . /SuvjSav*KaOevbeiv. things. misery. appear to cated in the profession of their mothers. Epy. lib. Hesiod.4 Hesiod says. ix.® Hence night is called express the unmoved tranquillity prevailing evtppovr].world. the passive productive principle of the they are manifestly spurious. Notior Aufidio mceckus celebrare solebas. indeed. Sat. more horrible enormities of massacre. and desolation. of which the then happy Indians soon 19 Herodot. i. sometimes find and trained up with every elegant accomplish. Jablonski Panth. and BAYBfl. are of a magnitude and atrocity. Hence she was said to have face of the sun. and being also supposed to either in the Iliad. c. selected in their infancy which they were equally accused by witnesses by theBramins for the beauty of their persons.®which the ^Egyptians called by a 87. Ganymeden. and unstained by the BavjBot*rcoijU(£et. 1 . was accounted a heinous of. ii. Mosheim. in a different and persecution. c. sanguinary fanaticism. after felt the dire effects: —effects. which had been consecrated dialect. ii. vol. 1 . and diction to their practice: but it must be re. called the have believed them guilty of similar crimes . Macrob. 579.the scenes of his private amusement.indications of unnatural lusts in ancient sculp- ment. ut repeto. or po constat caloremhumore nutriri. con. as well as in the nation of light. 230.

Aristot. said to be taken from Typhon. 14 but she is festly intended to signify a personified mode of usually represented. p. &c. 7 Evavrius oi irepi ryv IraAiov. the symbol of Latona. or marked with asterisks. holding the circle and tribute.4 whence the itine black-cloaked. Mosch. Hist.19 « 89. Siciliotae. falsely attributed to Plu Aurelius in the Townley collection. votera re Kai those of Lampsacus. &c. Orphic Fragment: To aireipeoutv Kara kuk Aov ovre cpdopus atraWarropevos rravrairatriv. p. signifying to de the centre of the universe. 670. the it. et Osir. P. and upon the back Knight. or Mus Araneus. joinedto the head of a Ram. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. been soignorant as to attribute that cause to 21 AicoAvu. Plutarch.15 tongue. both by Horus character. under the form of a large and Liber. it being mani anciently supposed to be blind. p. No. the (or whatever was the Egyptian name of this cause of all union and harmony in the whole. by the poets. de Is. de Is. xxviii. fromthe Yto the 1.16 The veil is often stel rant priests and priestesses of the Egyptian lated. or presiding Mind. iv. Plutarch. 4 Kai Aeyowiv Sri rou 'Qpouvvvpev eirarafce. D . in such cases. &c. ed. by its attractive force. with the planets liver from. 16 MeAayxAaivoi re IIpitj7roj. 371. any other fire. de Is. et followed by AdamSmith and others : but Ari Osir. to signify the nutritive power of Night. de Is. thesymbolofMars vvv V e^eAuv Karemev St Tvtbuv rov otpdaApov. irapexovra Kai aidepa ev rip arreipu aepi. According to Manethos. q. e| ItriSos xat OtrtpiSos yevopevrj move. belongs to R. cury. it being the same as that which was usually destroying power. 27. than from ancient night. Fab. We only quote Plutarch’s facts. et Osir. in painting. by Galen: 'HpauAeiSris Se Kai oi HvOayopetot Plutarch. signified a personified mode of action This veil. Juv. the destroyer. but upon et Osir. X(lPl Tvipuvos aiSota Karexei. 14 Plutarch. Abronzehead of an upon which reposes a Dog. other : for the name Apollo is evidently a title and other mystic traditions. Epi et Osir. 13. Plutarch. The ^Egyptian Horus is said to havecalled the loadstone. bust of Marcus of the Philosophers.18 ing of the fable cannot nowbe ascertained. owe Arpwus eipopetro. 373. p. being placed iu derived froma Greek verb. Gesner . round 20 'H pev yap. silver of Corinth—of Bacchus on kvk Aep (pepopevyjv srepi ro peoov. or represented in a sacredor sacerdotal on the right side of the head. 5 Luscasacerdos. which is by no means womb of their mother Rhea . deity) had a similar meaning. («a- or Night. Knight. &c. Livia. and yevetreus. 19 See medals of Julius Caesar. Tjpepavtroieiv. under the Roman emperors. eri ruv 8euv ev ycurrpi rijs which the Earth and planets were supposed to 'Peas ovruv. The animal symbol rarely occurs . Symposiac. King 3 Ev Koitrtp t o ayaApa rou ’Clpov ev erepa Pyrrhus. and fromthe F Anton. the symbol of Mer Agyrtes. by a well-known variation yowi. has only mis enaorov ruv aarepuv Koopov eivai vopifrovoi. TlvBayopetoi. which. Aovari)—us Urropei Mavedos. 1 in the same manner as ancient art. xxxiii. Aeyovmv em yap rov peoov irup 18 See heads of Venus on the gold coins of eivai (pan. 6 Ert ri)v ffiSripinv AiBov oareov 'Cipov. ri)v Se yrjv ev ruv aorpuv ovtrav Tarentum. yr\v taken the effect for the cause. 470. not to be the Sun.2 His statue at Cop-' in gems. lib. and to have by which it should seem that he represented been born while both his parents were in the the attractive principle . in which he has been yeveirts AsroAAuvos. according to the ancient ration or delivery of the elements from each system learnt by Pythagoras from the Orphic. stotle clearlyunderstands it to be the Sun. worn crated. with a veil upon her head. 21 and it is probable that Horus moving round. neither could the Pythagoreans have ASgypt. whence Priapus is called. lib. the corresponding title in the Latin comely woman. the Plutarch. the ^Egyptians 88.20 a fable which incompatible with his character of separator means no more than that the active and pas and deliverer of the elements. v. xiii. in this explanation. is the headofaBoar. Plutarch.7 was. Liberal. signifies. swallowed one of his eyes . with this deformity. of dialect. Phil. cross. ii. P. Typhon is said to have struck out and Spirit. This systemis alluded to in an 1 Eort S’ ouros (’hpos) S wepiyeios K ocrpos. to the B. p. it invariably and his priests. upon the monuments of action of Osiris . ravrp 2 The Latin adjective liber comes from the Se ra Soypara ev eviois Opepinais tpepeirdai A** Greek verb ATFXl . c. de Is. which seems to have been the symbol fosteringthe productive power of the pervading meant. or he. a beautifully-engraved gem. and of the generator Bacchus. 376. the bone of Osiris: 6 been the son of Osiris and Isis. de Cal. of the dog is the Mygale. c. understands the central fire. anciently written AIIOATFA. Bion. for this sepa sive powers of productionjoined in the general ration was supposed to be produced by at concretion of substance. belonging to R. any and likewise to portraits of persons conse more than that of the single lock of hair. KaAovpevot Se 17 See medals of Syracuse. symbol of Bacchus or Ammon the generator . always sionally given to all the personifications of the appeared with this deformity :5 but the mean generative attribute. tarch. whether male or female . the artists generally avail themselves tos had the symbol of the generative attribute of a dark-colored vein in the stone to express in his hand. The Sun. taph. 25 Her symbol was the Mygale. his explanations and etymologies beingoftener could not suppose it to be the cause ofday and from the School of Plato. the The author of the triflingbook on the Tenets Queens of Syria and JEgypt.3 and there are small statues thrown over the symbol of the generative at of him now extant. 15 See medals of the Bretii. was always black. and caused the sepa traction.17 and is occa religion.

though his accuser structures in the service of the Deity. a generation be- 1Glaus. de Fac. Dficouvertes attributes aux Mo. published this part fore the Trojan war. nothing. devotion was.*1314*the Celtic temples of the North. as times were of this kind.10 Nub. however. lib. and circular dis- of all motion and activity in its parts.. 826. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE and. This tribution. 361. in the centre of which they kindled Aristopltanes represents them attributing the the sacred fire. built by Adrastus. earth and water.solemn act of meaning as was expressed by this word. than supposing it to he a the ruins of Persepolis. and the cessions was a wheel. p. They afterwards learned have led some more acute and discerning of the Syrians to worship their Astarte. diffused through the cause of motion in the universe. That of Aristarchus could not have or puritans of Heathenism. vii. de Bello Mithrad.Sun andMoon. common sense and observation. e|. thought it impious been of the latter class. &c. Vetulonia.20 but still not sufficiently soto become an article 93. or to be circumscribed in any determinate Among the symbols carried in the mystic pro. xxii. 131. p. de 1’Astronomic An- The words of Plutarch are here decisive of the cienne. the cause 91. unless they tended toreveal the mys. . appear to. and this we con. 11 Epiphan. pense and magnificence. who had expelled Jupiter. which might air. in orbe Lunre. whence of stones. 1092. The Persians. iv. lib. Deity. for though temples being guilty of impiety:9 but speculative and even statues are mentioned in Troy. with unrelenting bi- the imputed criminality. who probably furnished reive to be a more easy and natural way of themwith the symbolical figures ohservable in accounting for it. vrpo(caXe«r0ai t ous 'EWijvas.19 tlunking it unworthy of the majesty introduces Strepsiades mistaking this Dinos of the Deity to be represented by any definite for a new god. 17 could not specify it without participating in whence they destroyed. folly proved to be true. cXit t co-flat Sc Kara Xo|ou kvk \ ov t t jv yijv. i. Apt.18 lb. 9 Plutarch. rather believed than known. Of this central cause. The great system to which it alluded top of a high mountain. and the devices of their wreck or fragment of more universal science coins. 1001. 747. Phi. . xv. p.of which. as Miihridates did. and of a cir. fire. in the centre of Pythagoras. one caused the ruin of him and his society. We must not.) and to his might have produced the idea of a central subordinate emanations. and the terrestrial elements. sense of those of Aristotle above cited. the only symbol of their god order and variety of the universe to circular fortheyabhorredstatues. who were the primitists. &c. that 8 Dutens. as Hyde and that had once existed among some lost and Anquetil have done. (which Herodotus creed of Polytheism. 131.14 Pausan. and lib. or ce- miiids to imagine a solar system. or of notion. the primitive temples. cular distribution of its parts . p. with great ex- and not discovered by study and observation. whowas rather the founder of a which seems to have been the symbol of the religious order for the purposes of ambition. as be. « eretparo. so remote from all. without their lestial Venus. After a premature discovery had the most ancient recorded of the Greeks . even in the lax and comprehensive vading spirit of the universe. by the emanation of its beams. lib. nor of his Persian ancestors. remained at Sicyon in the of his doctrines. Greeks. c. and all kinds of having been derived from ancient tradition. and therefore must or foolish to employ any more complicated have been of the former. or disprove the existence of a 92. &s Kivouvra t ou 16 Tepevos Kat jSwpos.26 R. Cyrene. that is taught by almost everywhere find vestiges. r(hese offerings were madeto the all-per- of faith. 13 See Bailly Hist..13 the first with those of the second dynasty. whence their most . and science. Kotr/iov njv eirriav. insome degree connected withreligion. and then humorously altars.superstitions from the Phoenicians and other lar progress of discovery. confound the Persians of unknown people. oil. P. and Aristarchus of Samos time of Pausanias. the theories were never thought impious by the places of worshipof the Greeks consisted gene-. trrapxov fofroSewKXcavflrjsrov Sa/uov aaeffetas 13 Ibid. the magnificent temples of ASgypt and tes and Diagoras appear to have been. perfumes . honey. 922-3. The crimes of Socra. i. teat rrcpi rov avrijs a£ova StvoupcVTjv. kindling an immense fire on the 90. I. of the same kind .all-pervading element of fire his only repre sented on coins. called AIN02.10 form. Sri tpaivop-tva tra^eiv avup 17 llerodot. Luceria.12 probably to signify the same sentative.gotry. p. one of his disciples.rally of an area and altar only-16 tic doctrines. and authorities there cited. Common observation calls bythe Greek name of Jupiter. 8 the places of worship known in the Homeric for which he was censured by Cleanthes.neighbouring nations . the event from the mystic veneration paid to a vague of which was to make him lord of all*. however.space!. apa 19 Strabo.1® It seems that most of openly attempted to prove the truth of it. The universe was his temple. 1 Herodot. when about to engage bad it any other credit than what it derived in his second war with the Romans.18 Their places of worship were circles fore observed. of which we system. was taught secretly by sist of circles of rude stones . as well as temples and motion. according to the rites It was therefore supported by no proof. peveu1 rov ovpavov mroTiflcpevos. and offering up in it was.11 which is also repre.1 and by degrees adopted other having been led to it by any accurate or regu. dernes .v12 See medals of Fhliasus.it quantities of wine. Deity. 20 Appian.Greece. Such were the pyrarthea of the Per- tlian of a philosophical sect for the extension of sians. but now so have been emblems: for they universally con-.

vol. . too. Martyr. ad Gent. 6. p. the -centre. ix. to whom Minos may have have seen of this kind. Dei. as a primitive symbol of several deities. and the Mundane House of Horus. the Mi- under the coin to make it receive the stroke of notaur beingonlythe ancient symbol ofthebull1.t o Se p. forbade of the Sun . ’iSpvtrapeada. i. The Greeks seemoriginally to have per Deity is to be found : whence. coins almost every different symbol of the 94. In these square areas. et Osir. des Inscr. and therefore called ductive power.9 titles. р. 4 0J/-JJt oi Se iroAAoi Kapdiq nAavwpevoi7 in Att. in Suid.4 Numa. is found in mummies. more es prison to confine a monster begotten upon his pecially of the celestial Venus. is evidently an ancient or indented square. in Aristol. and not struck with it. iv. emypappa ai)patveirt)v Ovpavtav AeppoStr-qvroov 8 Pausan. 412. which wereYever struck. 27 succeeded the Parthians. p. in Achaic. the circular area cated and inverted. Alex. or. Hunterian. apudJustin. by were also long without statues . Se repirpwrip rav ovoparuv pijrepa. lib. 1415and r compartments. xxviii. c. we find an inverse fying all-splendid. in Numa. vol.rov. and Casian Jupiter. Gruter. lib. I OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. even in the age of Tacitus. the edges of it being always beaten in hut which is in reality nothing more than the or out. p. simple linesjTwhich.rwv eix»v apyoi 13 Ibid. Clem. viii. Auscult. and lib. becoming more compli 95. Cohort. cherches sur les Arts. signi very early Greek coins. i. rep Se Seu- 'EcrTriKatn Se eyyvrara rou ayaAparos re. 2 See Maxim. represented by this form. 10. 10 *H 3’ Ins. xxii. ibid. by the learned amongthem. viii. Antiquaries have supposed this incuse Phrygian Bacchus : 13 whence the meaning of -to be merely the impression of something put the whole allegory distinctly appears . p. 526. ed. or astonishing . it should have imposed upon Mr. de Civ. and latterly with merely the the title which distinguished the offspring is. acquired Spirit upon high mountains. 2. applied to Attis. ii. Idaaan. both among the ancient Greeks the Minotaur. Hence the production of an Alexandrine Jew. Simplic. Tyr. Tyr. Plutarch. xxii. Dissert. other. Phys. produce at length the cele above mentioned is inclosed in a square one . by a bull. 374. more proba hundreds. square: 11 for the asterisk being composed of as mere symbols. Gibbon. which show a any of the refinements of their neighbours on progressive variation of this form from a few this subject.' and Orus the completion. sometimes. the globe or centre was humanised. 150. No.s and they ad ter.7 Upon most of the the daughter of the Sun . was the natural representation who was deeply skilled in mystic lore. and sometimes into a greater number of have been sent by Neptune. and the incuse*im liance upon the pretended Zendavesta. and probably much later. Upon hered to his instructions during the first hun the ancient medals of Corinth and Cnossus. eerrtv 6re Kat M ovO. lib. Kat rr)v I<riv oi Aiyvwnoi.3 which were an asterisk placed in the centre of an incuse always considered. Kat iraAiv 7 Maxim. iii. Similar impressions also occur on ritual of the modem Guebers or Parsees. s Plutarch. s. Emend. which pression been made either before or after the the latter produced as the work of Zoroaster . . c. c. upon different tury of Christianity. ' rpayavoi AiOoi rptaKovra paAtara aptdpov. amounting-to some sacrificed his tributary slaves. the coin has been driven into the bly. t. but it is a scholion on KaAouffiv. p. 14 Apollodor.2 They is signified very clearly upon Greek coins. common centre. Plutarch says that Osiris was the beginning. 12 particularly renounced their primitive prejudices. c. These titles are both Egyptian : but the latter Dodonman. That some of the little Egyptian amulets of paste. i. The whole may possibly be lib. Dissert. 6 Varro apud Augustin. in the an ancient inscription. vi. and consequently new personifications. the die more steadily : 8 but in all that we partly humanised.Apo. or passive pro wife Pasiphae. Isis the receptacle. employedthemin the serviceofthe Deity. as it is manifestly a compilation marked with any impression on the reverse. ‘EAA7j<Ti npas 0ewv avri aya.11 See small brass coins of Syracuse. and precisely the same as the ra the Romans to represent the gods under any diated head of Apollo. the formed their acts of devotion to the astherial goddess. Kat Meffvep irpotrayopevovcrf '2/ppaivnvn ' Protrept. or the invention of human obelisks. - Taurus (this AtppoStrrjs) yap rrxripa pev re. rniparav irapatfivxvf'i 8 Abbd Barthelemi M6moires de l’Academie 0ewv ayaApar eic AiOav re /cat £vAwv. naAovptvwv Motpwv eivai irpecr^vrarriv. xxxviii. A1601. or adopted upon those of the latter city. at iroAAanr the preceding one. . xix. probably.reptp oikov 'Clpov Korrpiov. of no earlier date than the eighth or ninth cen 96. from which new the singular titles of the Place of the Gods. Pausan. and her name. or the Sea . angles drawn out and inverted . “De Is. in symbol of the Deity forming the device. iv. s. The bull is said to four. 3. brated Labyrinth13 which Daedalus is said by and we are told that a square stone was the the mythologists to have built for Minos. emAeyovres• ra Se ert naAcuorepa kcu rots iraaiv 12 See Mus. dred and seventy years of the republic:*6 nor the square is a little varied. in the lat forms either of men or beasts . Aid. except that. 30. nor place any re die. D’Ancarville Re- Sophocl.divided into epithet of that luminary. xxiv.15 ATT1DI M1NOTAURO. iv. Pausan. c. AOvpi. such as those of Olympian. which ' rous trefiovcnv ol 4>apets eKatrrtp 6 eov rtvos ovopa are very common. by having the had the Germans. or rays diverging from a globe or error to console human weakness.101 were derived . Pasiphae is said to have been and ancient Arabians. In some instances. 9 Aio kcu t t )v Svptav Arapyari)v roirov 6 ewv There is another line. lib. See Toup. 6 ewv iStorriras rreptexovras. irpaywvov Kara ravra kui rots 'Eppais'.

P. bull.3 Syrian Adonis. Knight. de Nat. tab. Some. Ariadne became so like- cited. Sy. i. 11 See gold medals of Lampsacus. 4 On gold coins of Aig* and Clazomen®. by a transverse Athens. No. 3 See brass coins of Syracuse. tab. line. ix.” Eira TloaeiSwv 8e eaviv f) anepyaariKT] ev rtj yy nai Sts ewaSoumv “ A(te Taupe. No. 320.17 On some of Bacchus. wlio on were all represented under the same form. tab. to reconcile historical ployed upon coins to signify particular rivers tradition with religious mythology. Selinus. In many instances. tab. 3. which being all derived fromthe 100. 30 lb. In the centre of one of the more simple . and. Pburnut. Neither she. &c. of the productive in those of Syracuse.or ivy.symbolical monuments of art. 324. and pi. It appears.” Plutarch. Deor. venerable figure.9 or labyrinth.19 On the coins. Tarentum.s which are all different ments of ancient art.passage of the Odyssey. however. constantlyappears in the with symbolical devices. Hence the curious hymn or Select Specimens. where nify the waters in general. Mss. Symposiac. like that of and sometimes upon a dolphin or other fish. so as in some instances to leave only the and still more bungling interpolation. Bacchus differs male personificationis always upon the reverse from Neptune in being a general emanation. and to have scroll. 99. or heat acting upon humidity. is disguised by poetical andallegorical and in other instances the goat or theramoccu. v.7 or streams . and times the bull is placed between two dolphins. that the asterisk.concerning almost any other. wept rr\v yijv uypov Suvapus. c. the same meaning in symbolical or mystical in different instances. died suddenly before he enjoyed her. Naples. in the centre of the square and character of a beautiful young woman. lib. iii. both Greek and Punic.18 which other coins show to have been been carried away fromCrete by Theseus to meant to represent the waters. aAAa . baris. i.is. ix. too. &c. of the coin. appear to have been those of Camarina in Sicily. iv. of the Select Specimens. 9 See coins of Camarina. is spurious : but in the Odyssey. as such. v. the head of the known to the author of the Iliad . a small coin. Plutarch. 3 See coins of Catania. in the horns of the animal symbol. therefore. the two personifica- Baccbus Hyes. nor plicated labyrinth is round. similar to the primitive form of and symbolical personage. as we find similar Bacchus found and married her. Hunter. Knight. v. 1 See a specimen of themon tbe reverse of and xxxix. grees. No. whose history. and humanised in various de. of Vol. of the R.deserted by himin the island of Naxus. yet concerning them all three being manifestly still with the horns and features of the bull. and was therefore fabled to have been the river Meander: but they moreprobablysig. Some natural form. are androgynous personi- modes of expressing different modifications of fications of the same attribute. which are frequently adorned sented . and Bacchus. more humanised than the Minotaur. xxxix. The female personifications frequently symbols. is and primitive labyrinths on the Grecian coins a personage concerning whom there has been above cited. in 13 'Ot i S’ ou piovov t ov oivou Aiavuffov. and pi.10 and sometimes without any other tion of the productive attribute placed in the distinction than the crown or garland of vine female. ’X. 7 E<rx«for ticra (which is preserved in some 18 Mus. both in its pessary and characteristic emblems. is the head of a bull. the figure of Apollo appears to have been tbe plain sense of the is represented as leaning upon the tripod.of the bull. and Scholia). 67. Hunter. Hunter. is perpetually em.4 Bacchus.apireiraiv es vaov rep fioeup voSt ducov. Mus. derived froma more refined and philosophical 16 In the cabinet of R. and power. the male personifies. according to its true and original standing upon some crossed and inverted reading: but Theseus having become a deified square lines.28 R.fable. made a bungling alteration. xvi. tions are unitedin one . qu.10 See gold coins of Lampsacus in Mus. 35. with all the ac- lets or charms. nor Theseus. the fabled wife of Bacchus. seum. truv apxvs avai. the same collection. and by adding the following 19 lb. of Mag. by different accessary writing. brass ditto 4 On a gold coin of Eretria in tbe cabinet of of Rhodes. equally mean the same as the sometimes distinguished by the sproutinghorns Indian lingam—that is. invocation of the women of Elis to Bacchus :— 12 Apuporepoi yap oi Oeot (TlocreiSoov k m Alo- Ex« 8*ourois 5 ufivos (t uiv HAeitov yvvanttav) vucros) Trjs uypas /cat yuvifiov Kvpioi SoKouatv " EAfleivripoo. a most manifest interpolation. Ariadne.® other occasions is represented as a bearded 98. but who. and passage. and silver of Maronea. a\iov es vaov ayvov. No. the more com. of Vol. Qusest. Also in the British Mu 6 A.6 Such nesia upon the Meander. too. in couse- crossed andinverted lines upon coins struck in quence of which she became the female per- Sicily. where she was killed by Diana—that section of waves. as usually represented inmonu- py the same situation.20 These have been supposed to signify wise. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE . meant to serve asamu. 16 and in more confusion of history and allegory than others of a more recent style. of which numerous instances occur instead of a local division. Atovvae. 8 See silver coins of Naxus. she is said to represented in the centre of an indented have been the daughter of Minos. Grac. Considered as the pervading and occupy the same place: in which case the fertilizing spirit of the waters. 1 and also upon sonification of tbe attribute which he repre rings and fibulae.11 Such were tbe Phrygian Attis. as the Nile was from Osiris. in a manner here- the labyrinth on the coins of Corinth above after to be explained. 56. Gela. P. features. The bull.97.pious heathen. 17 In the same.13 accompanied. 14. 13 and also in being a personification other cities. or Minotaur. P.8 appears with limbs. the lines god.

foundin Zealand. ro cpws yeveaews ean ay/ietov. the primary and essential ema Thracians did upon the banks of the nations of the Deity. It is observed by Dionysius the geo* 102.ea.ywv. Plutarch. Q. . bviaraai Hart. lib. Philip IV. &c. and VI. Apollo. r. in which Apollo LUXis a contraction. consistingofa portraits both of the Macedonian kings and circle of rude stones within a square: and it is Roman emperors. Vesp. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. Pausan. Sat. 417. and more especially to of Hecatasus. c. 1 II. is worshipped in a circular temple 103. V. Augustus. were represented by stones tion concerning the British islands to satisfy of the above-mentioned form. xiii. 1169. s.yxi vijaiaSwv erepos nopos. Didym. Eustath. 3. Phceniss. iii. which cular temple. The large obelisks of stone found in grapher. feat vaov a£io\oyov avaOij.20 See Plin. %op. in voce Ayvias. ii.*4 where the women. was a mode of consecration or deifi the ground-plan of an ancient Celtic or Scandi cation. preserved by Diodorus Siculus. Sat. such as those at peculiar zeal and devotion by the ancient Rudstone and near Boroughbridge in York inhabitants of some of the smaller British shire. ivy. which flattery often employed in the navian temple.wv Macedonia.101. who is likewise called ATKHrENE- it seems to have been not wholly unknown to TH2. What islands are meant is uncertain. the one signifying luminous. 44. in Horn. or surrounding it with a diademof small of the Ganges. itcunaans vypas (pvaewv ’EWrjves fiyovvrai Kvpiov 19 Lib. fiaai noAAois KeKoanvP&vov a</>aipoeiSij rip axV' 4 Ayvievs Se ean k iwv eis o£uAi. p. de Is. Schol. 6.evos Hvpa. 101. Euxine Sea near the coast of the Amazons. 634. A. eK Ayvievs. in Att. lib.4 and same formwas situated upon Mount Zilmissus both Apollo and Diana by simple columns in Thrace. whence radiating the Apsinthus. et Schol. 9. 1. The titles LUCETIUS and DIESPI- considerable for its size and riches. s. islands. 29 system of religion. Pant.iSos axflpia ov (te- bnapx*iv 5e Kara rijv vri(rov re/ievos re AiroA. R. ii. crowned with as Pliny observes. HretJ/a/jevai kut ooio (ie\ap. being derived from ATKH Hyperboreans. Herodot. or. s. of Syria. A. k . i. fi Se kiovi eanv eiaa- avnitepav rris KeArwcrjy ronois Kara rov ClK. i. 166. b Hpo rwv avAiwv 8vpwv KwvoeiSris rwv b Kaaairepos fuxiv <t>oira. Kiwv.yaAyjs' rovrov AnoAAava ovo/iafouat Kaptvav.*9 They were therefore the em ern Ocean. “ inhabit an otherwise ATK02.2 In symbolical writing the same mean That the account should be imperfect and ob ing was signified by the appropriate emblems scure is not surprising . 17 and another is be humanised. and from a passage tion of the Deity. but 3 Ean 5eZeus’ MeiXixios Kai Apre/us avojxa- probably the Hebrides or Orcades. that Bacchus was worshipped with many parts of the North. et Ven. which is oc Stonehenge is the most important monument casionally applied to almost every personifica of this kind now extant. Gale. since even the most in various countries . k. AnoAAwvos’ oi Se Atovvaov ol Seajiipoiv. The whole Hpo rwv Bvpcvv iSiovs Se <pa<riv avrovs eivai passage is extremely curious.*6 A temple of the the Apollo Agyieus in various places. Kai apxiiyov. Vide et Schol. islands from the Phoenician and Carthaginian whereas it signifies the Author or Gene merchants.*8 . “ The rator of Light. Suidas 115. Kai avros dens. being sacred to the Sun. 15. Sic. of AvSpwv avrinaprjdev ayavwv ap. which could have appeared con the Cretans called by the name of the Supreme siderable to a Greek or Phoenician of that age. Panegyr.viTa. in same attribute. 16 Ovre vrjaovs oiSa KaaairepiSas eoveras. whence the ZEY2 MEI- inquisitive and credulous travellers among the AIXI02 at Sicyon.pexojJ. God. apKH TtiSapos paprvs eivai. in Eurip. 14.” TER applied to Jupiter are expressive of the This island can be no other than Britain.” said he. and the coins of vaiKes Antiochus IV.Id. celebrated his clamorous noctur whose rays they signified both by their form nal rites upon the shores of the North and name. belonged to the same religion : obelisks. who traded there for tin. c. c. engrafted upon the old mentioned by Apollonius Rbodius. 570. xxxvi.*s In Stukeley’s Itinerary is obelisks. et 18 Argonaut. eivai vi)aov ovk eXarrw rris 2uceAios------— — AiOos na. p. iepos AhoWwvos. in the same manner as the blems of light.<pvWoto Kopv/xfiois. epithet AYKEI02 or AYKAI02. 2 Macrob. He- Evwxiat’ Trurayris Se \tyv0poos opvvrai nX’d' raclid. Opvvjievai reXeovai Kara vo/xov tepa Baxx<p. which was elementary worship. as the symbol began to title of Bacchus Sebazius. 17 Macrob. to which Neptune be* dedicated to Mars upon an island in the longed. Plutarch. r.jJ. evda yv. which we knowof no traces of any other cir and the other the Father of Day. lib. Diodor. or the Indians upon those head.20 The mystagogues and probable that many others of these circles poets expressed the same meaning by the were originally enclosed in square areas.evi) Uarpqia aw rexvtj HeHovrjfieva ovSe/uiy 15 ’EKaraios kcu rives erepot <patnv.1 which that ancient historian. several of the Ptolemies. in Aristoph. and dedicated to the Sun under the pointed at the top. 18. c. in Cor. ed. of which the Latin word island beyond Gaul. with the addition of a head. who might have col mythologists have explained by an absurd lected some vague accounts of the British fable of his having been bora in Lycia. A. ev rots TTvpapuSi S' 6 MetXixtos. 3 as was also them of their existence. Aa»'os fieyaXoirpeires. c. and the Apollo Carinas at Greeks could scarcely obtain sufficient informa Megara in Attica. or as contracted ATKHrENHS.vov ojxevrj. Iii. 14A. et Osir.

The beautiful allegory of the two casks obelisk and pyramid were most frequently em. 12 Hyde de Relig. with which the brother of Osiris.9 other Greek writers. 19 Ep7. according to Plutarch’. Atair. 6 pxv avBpuiruv Kat Ottvvycvercap. p. p. not only in traditions ties. aptvov’ ex« 8e «ri tjj KtcpaAy Kpavos. p. 1. he was which they are surmounted. t w v t o . essentially different tive was extended on his back. Xoyxyv 8e ii S’ vypofioAovs arayovas vonovs tv Tats xePcrl Kat to(ov. c.6 and the pyramid has likewise been and reports. c. de-Is. had the Seasons andFates overhishead. ouk tv A0701s /jovov. pitiw- 13 See coins of Himera.of immemorial antiquity. 16 Ato Kat ira/xiraAatos aunj Kararnv ek 6 eo- 10 ‘HAiou 8e itpov tpatriv tivai rov opviSa. held that there were two opposite both goodandevil . as well as his heart taken out by the priest. on which the unhappy cap. ytvtoBat. irapaSe|a/aevr. axrr’ txttv KaAas. it does devices.16 Fire was held to be the effi- idol. and. although he. 13. p. t . urxvpav Kat 8uape|aAetirTov.17 In ancient symbols. •<ptpop. and feet. 14 lb. that mtherial fire sup- pyramidal stone .7 The most sacred Barbarian. partly by the new system of the Egyptian were originally emblems of the Sun: for the Platonics . ii. t ijv 8eirtoTtv lib. aAAa tv t e TeAeTats. instead of relative modifica- some symbol of the passive productive power tions dependent upon circumstances. or re. 252. 146. Pausan. 20 Pausan. by considering them as self-existing in- one. 527.* On a Lapland drum the ciprocal operation. partly by his own prejudices. s. vet. 417. xi. t . Rudbeck. <pvAa re Ojipotv 6 01. Eurip. avpi/jiiyrjvai. with herent properties. • . i. 2. in order to have from the a?therial.18whichHesiodalso deduces powers in the world perpetually acting against fromthe same gods. Hippocrat. <pvvr' eis yatav t o 8’ air’ aidtpiou 7 Lafitau Moeurs des Sauvages. p.12 it appears on many ancient coins. and asserts that were sacrihced to the deity of the Sun. •cat xflP€y. upon which human victims tarch controverts this opinion. Persarum. jBAatrrovra yov-ps ets ovpavtov and 8. p. lib. was a pointed pyramid.-40. Kai Aoyuv Kat vopoOeruv ets rnnyras Kat tpiAoirotpovs ayytAov avttvat ptWomos rov riAtou. the sition to it. airoAtoBat. Atlant. begun by Phidias and destroying.30 R. 444. on the reverse . makes Jupiter the distributor of ployed. or Time and Matter. 355. but also in mysteries observed among the religious symbols of the and sacred rites both Greek and savages of North America. The . diaKpiBrjvat. p.14 religious system of any people or established 105. 18 a. comefromthese KP0N02 and PEA. Ejusd.having been interrupted by the Peloponnesian tention of these two.in the Iliad. t ijv apx7\v aSetnrorov exovaa. with this however. goddess Isaor Disa is represented by a pyra. 1. to evil. which we are apt to form. causes. 17 Ibid. too. t o wt o . in Attic. according to which there was an cock is the natural herald of the day. 277. 6.tvr]v. iroAovijA0e iraAtv. &c. p. 382. v. that mixture of good and war. and employed to show the direction of the wind. 261. The spires and pinnacles. though patronised by very united with Priapic and other emblems and learned and distinguished individuals. and original evil principle in nature. 11 106. 369. v.not appear ever to have formed a part of the bined. and the latter obedient to world. 1. admits him to have been 104. ils (les Chinois) ouSe tv <pi)juats. as Pausanias says’. A. the one generating and the other Jupiter at Megara. in the province of Orissa. the former of whom they called Theocosmus. Du Halde. was. 9 Acosta’s History of the Indies. 11 . aAA’ tori ns avyicpcuris. and Selinus. in Grotii Excerpt. T° Amirov xa^KV Ktovt tcrriv ttKa. was a Typhon. said * Ot i fjLtj •Kpoironrovaurep Kat iroSts tifftv arepot Tata /teytenj Kat Atos atOijp.'et Osir. • 8 Hamilton's Travels in India.terrestrial or material fire. A. of good and rather than be guilty of the crime of killing evil. Sic. 16 Ouk av ytvotro xwPts *<r0Aa Kat trafea. 6 and the altar in the tem. Tttcrei 8e iBupav. de Is. et Osir. 60. derived mid surmounted with the emblemsofrequently from the earliest theologists and observed in the hands of the Egyptian dew legislators. co-eternal therefore sacred to the fountain of light. in Lacon. tv rt So mettent un Coq dans un Cercle. 8oJa. k . p. signifying different attributes com. p.posed to be concentrated in the Sun : but Plu- ple of Mexico. Sun is still represented by a cockin a circle. By the con. but never finished. 16 and his will..10 In with the good. Pausan. Samothrace. Diodor. among whom the sect. that the former were thought to constitute the harmony of the regulatedby him. of procreation and dissolution. apud Plutarch. 11 Pour peindre le Soleil.served an ancient statue of him in wood. which was show. riKrei dvarovs. c. •• . the evil or destroying power. the work Osiris. X“pct 8’ oiriffu ra fitv tKyatas and c. notion. This opinion owes its origin to a false and a modern Parsee would suffer death. Suessa. as in other instances. was supposed to be produced. equally sprung from ourold churches aredecorated. of the Hindoos in the great temple of cient principle of both. cials Kat Bapf3apois Kat ‘EAAijct iroAAaxou irept- vol.Egyptians. and acting in perpetual oppo- the symbolical writing of the Chinese. P. is a of the later Egyptians. k .20 In the citadel of Argos was pre- the notion of such a necessary mixture. though now only seduced.19 The statue of Olympian each other. and the weathercocks. 19. and the latter Typhon. according to some Juggernaut. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE hands.s and in other instances it is and events r but. 8r]vai.

(Egyptians represented Typhon by both of Europe and Asia. rj vecpvKev. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. 371. See.10 but we do not every angle having bells pendent from the recollect to have seen it on any monuments of lower jaw. p. however. 10 Aristoph. or the deer. 12 and. of life . p. Houel Voyage en Osir. v. Gesner. according to the Scholiast. des Voyages. 514. acpei paxo. 6 KvKXamas ras eyicvkKiovs Svvapets. and the head of a Earth.6 the principles of the general coins of the Macedonian kings. Suo pev. tune or the Sea. and destruction. Hence it is found upon the some learned moderns. 2 Zeus £oavov. though there is no contiguouscoun their art. g6n. The Cy-jt be copied fromthe statue by Phidias at Olym clops of the Odyssey is a totally different per pia. and brothers of Saturn or Time. de Is. though other birds of prey. containing 14 01. The . 31 to have belonged to king Priam. . s. Se UpaKi 8vvap. p.fj. iToWaias.14 to signify the same union of at many inconsistent fables. but like signify the direction ofhis power . et Embassy to Tibet.1) to show the triple extent of tility. 7 See Houel Voyage en Sicile. the licentious extended form lets being 15 $av»iOt. c. found in Sicily. as the rov Ala Hpia. 458. an Hesiod. ed. 300. which had hare . 19 and we his other eye by accident. 139. p. 262. pi.9 Among the religious structure without a lion’s head at Greeks it was sacred toApollo . and Romans. a many-headed be a giant of a one-eyed race. the chorus sprang fromsome emblematical figure. Agrigentum. OpviO. V. as oip0a. is the most common of all varptpov. supposed to motion of the universe abovenoticed. 12 See coins of Chalcis in Euboea. concerning whom there are so his breast. frequently occur. and it seems that the creation. the composition of which appears to be of sonage : but as he is said to be the son of Nep earlier date. p. 5. Sometimes the lion is represented kill The eagle is sometimes represented fighting ing some other symbolical animal./Egyptian hawk: whence it was the usual and the destroyer. 618. Ibid. but sometimes find the lion among the accessary the former is most probable. p. ii. or to have lost serpent. v. devices.cp cpacnv eivat rep AaoSapavros symbol of Jupiter. 248. Imag. over Heaven. the circular of Jupiter. 77. being the most prolific of all three eyes (as the Scandinavian deity Thor quadrupeds. itttcov iroraptov ecf> ’ ov j3ej3r)Kelepat. &c. Epig. they were the sons of Heaven and eagle perches on the sceptre. In the Bacchse of Euripides.1015. vol. 24. ravpos. was probahly the emblem of fer sometimes had. cxxxvii.16 Not only the tombs. was also deemed aphrodisiac and androgynous. opaoOat Aeuv. It . Atlant.11 110. preservation. he is addressed as the giver of life. 139. Rhegium. to its wild state. even in the coldest the Hippopotamos. the most fierce and savage regions. or a flaming lion . in vers. rptrov Se evi rov percaTrov rovrov the symbol of Hercules: the former. ' Procl. 7}iroAvicpavos y' iSetv incompatible with the language of the old SpaKuv. and these compo- 1 01. 288. 9 rpatpovtrtKai iepwci rov 6eov rovrov (Ocripiv) 17 Embassyto Tibet. rious. apud Eschenb. The third eye of this ancient statue Greeks united the three great attributes of was in the forehead.8as the serpent was the Greeks. 13 See coins of Messena. vet. c.17 the eagle and cormorant. lxxii. p. as have also ing attribute. Sicile. whence it was employed as the symbol are adorned with it. such as the with a serpent. Croto.ovs. Cor.3 symbol of the supreme God. the etymology of the name. 5 sig bull projects fromthe chair of a sitting figure nifying. The Hindoos have a symbolical figure of the same ancient Scandinavians placed it upon the head kind : 4 whence we may venture to infer that of their god Thor. ^ Whether the poet meant him to the form of a bull. or he would have symbols of Bacchus. t. at a vast distance from the countries animal known to them. and sometimes destroying a bull. i) wpupAeyuv poets. Earth. i. p. dinate personifications among the Greeks.iv nai apxvv’ Plutarch. Schol. 4 Asiatic Researches.—In an ancient monly the emblemof Hercules or Apollo. similar in all respects to that on the or central powers. Pausan. of Elis. &c. for the hawk wise the other sacred edifices and utensils of was the emblemof power. as they did the bull upon the Cyclops. # Kpias. _ 3 Hymn. exov 11 The latter on the coins of Agrigentum. in the Orphic hymnsor mystic when alone. XaPairov TeAeovros 8 Eu 'EppowoAei SeTucpcavos ayaApa 8einvvovai (jceipaAas fert S epav-ps OpcpiKos). though it is most com told what the accident was. The two lines 144-5 in the text. owed their fictitious tributes . which we sometimes find in subor being to some such enigmatical compositions. 5 V. as well as of Typhon. Chinese and Tartars. ii. v. and Hell . being the natural representative of the destroy the artist has supposed the latter. p. 12 which. and upon his back in which the animal is capable of existing in they put a hawk fighting with a serpent. have represented the destroyingattribute : but. c. Rudbeck. it probably meant the same as the invocations.7 sepulchral monuments of almost all nations 108. See Philostrat. . p. pevos' rip pev Imrtp rov Tvcpwva SeiKvvvres. f«l. v. in whom the 107. is uncertain. and in Tibet there is no of Osiris. rip 16 Hist. Lex. et Daram. or alle invoke their inspiring god to appear under gorical tale.Ap. appear to be spu and 321. it is probable that he equally 109. Rudbeck. it piece of sculpture. ravpeos. On According to the ancient theogony attributed to the ancient Phoenician coins above cited. the horse. Atlantic. such as try that can supply the living model.13 In these compositions the eagle must his power and providence..

xxxii. 3 and also the use made of him the same date and country. n. which we donot find that modem na. Specimens. coins. de Dutens Nonnus. Baeotia.his Indian expedition. lion. ' vi.12 concerningthe adverse efforts of the two great The disguised indications. 6 Cyrene. pi. but only and ears. i. n. presented on the Thracian or Macedonian coins 8 Lycophr. than to the personification of Time.ASgypt.9That these equineSatyrs taur occurs amongthe hieroglyphical sculptures should have been introduced among the at- 18 See the coins of Acanthus and Velia. 92. 15 Lib.32 It. Knight. 1 Talis et ipse juhamcervice effundit equina 5 See Mus. Houel Voyage en Sicile. The coin is better preservedin the Earth. the in others has only wings. 11 lb. the Centaur is as an emblematical device ou the medals of represented in the same action. 10 Denon. namely. Alexandr. 2. so as to form the same Priapic personage appears. P. probably the personage represented by that A symbolical figure similar to that of the Cen.i.13 bol of the waters.) .. cxxix. 9 These are probably the personages re 7 As on those of Lampsacus. apparently of over his back. he having the tail have been ridden by Bellerophon. on account of a supposed 112. 122. cxxxi. or the winged disc and hooded snakes. D’Ancarville having been misled by his sys 3 Virgil Georg. where there 13 See pi. \ Acanthus in the same cabinet. that many Greek cities. et altum being extremely common. vol. The The history of Bellerophon is fully related in figure represented mounted upon a winged the Iliad (Z. t/s XaPlv wi* nicia. waters. xxxv. Payne Knight. of the Select Specimens. with abowin his hand. xiii. f. These. of the horse with the asterisk of the except the feet. but of his riding a horse terminating in a fish. appear to be any other of which they express different modifications than an ^Egyptian symbol. On the very ancient coins found near affinity. whence mixture of the goat and man.the banks of the Strymon in Thrace. 10 and also one of the Pegasus or the nicians. 17. so frequent on the Carthaginian equine symbol appears entirely humanised. i. of the Select bably the original Satyrs derived from Saturn. n. the coins Conjugis adventupernix Saturnus. the composition. 15 and they were pro- graved in plate lxxv. the bull has the face of a sur les Arts de la Grece. Knight. of volume i. and turalists have observed. 155.6 In some instances the of embracing a large and comely woman. fabled by the later Greek poets to little in Jiis composition. fiaXwv aitopov ovXik iyanjs. 1 Ruins of Persepolis by Le Bruyn. he says. and xiv. In body of the animal terminates in plumes . 1. Theugon. the and the Tartar tribes of Upper Asia . of wings and attributes of procreation and destruction. is probably the 9 According to another fable preserved by same personage.”1 and who. Erythroe in Virg. 285. cxxxii. which are terminated in the Sun.. commonly called KP0N02 or Saturn. and riding upon the flying horse. was not roomfor the lion on the back of the 14 Inaccurately published in the Recerches bull.' Hesiod. &c. vol. and Kevravpovs purtvca. and iii. teminto a supposition that the animal parts are 132. they were begotten by Jupiter on the pi. 14 andin the Dionysiacs of Nonnus we Jupiter. which all other writers speak of as a the same symbol partly humanised. . 8 an allegory of which the meaning is find such figures described under the title of obvious. the fable of these fictitious beings having been were of the race of the Centaurs. The figure is nowin the cabi 4 QiXoAovrpov fa>ov. 18 but upon those of the Persians. in Horn. xiii. but the Saturn of both seems to Zrjvos S’ tv Soipairi vaiti have answered rather to the Neptune of the Bpovryv T€2repomjv t t tyepuiv An fiijrioevTi. 59. too. Iliad $. hoofs of a horse : but on others.4 Hence came the falsely attributed to the island of Lesbos. Gesner. On a small silver coin of 19 Denon.whois fabled to have appeared under the form ing the Cornucopia between Hercules and of a horse in his addresses to Philyra the Aesculapius. 3. pi. See M6d. &c. k m net of Mr. pi.* winged horse: 11 nor does the winged bull. i. pi. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE sitions occur not onlyupon the coins and other of the manificent temple of Isis at Tentyris in sacred monuments of the Greeks and Phce. differing a Pegasus. with whom begotten on a cloud appears to be an allegory they made a part of the retinue of Bacchus in of the same kind. ii.9 In the ancient bronze en. 1 . k m <f>i\u8pov. Xaipei \tipctai k m l\ari. the powers of destruction and daughter of the Ocean. The Centaur appears to have been Satyrs. of which a proto- of the ancient mystic dogma above mentioned type is preserved in the ruins of Hermomis. The horse was sacred to Neptune and cap of Osiris are evident traces of the animal the Rivers. 9 in all cherub of the Hebrews. 2i. the old poet knewnothing. Greeks. 3 and employed as a general sym. horns on each side of the conic or pyramidal 111. 12.it 9 On old brass coins in the cabinet of Mr. apudEustath. chastity of Venus: andalsothose of some unknown city of Phoe Ou nacpiijs Toaov tj\6ov ej ipitpov. Aristot. Syracuse. a figure of one is represented bear. 658. Pelion hinnitu fugiens implevit acuto. having preservation. in an unsuccessful attempt upon the cabinet of Mr. as well as the feet of a horse. is sents the generative' or productive'attribute. M. as in the larger. lib. Pb6n. Hunter. Georg. 6 It t t t os.animal on their coins.symbol of the winged bull. v. p. above cited.7 and a small bronze of very ancient sculpture.been the chief deity of the Carthaginians. &c. those of a bull. iii.. &c. Dionysiac. Maronea. joined known to the ancient theogonists as the bearer to a human bodyj' together with a goat’s of Aurora and of the thunder and lightning to beard . pi. sothat it here manifestly repre.

and Havicricoi. deer was meant to signify. c. xlii. turgid and bombastic compiler of fables and were evident to every learned and intelligent allegories is not great..s and. xv. and to have derived his Latin name occasionally even to living sovereigns. Hippocrat. irerpq. and the Rivers have more or less of the original or supreme active principle incumbent upon bull. who carries a deer in bis of allegorical composition only by havingmore hand . and producing fertility. ii. rp St AOpvas 'lir Argives. of whomit as this distinction appears to have been ob was a symbol. 6. xlii. The Saturn of the Ro man. they are invariably animals upon it. In an ancient piece of marble sculpture nearly the same meaning. ever property or modification of properties the and where only the ears and tail. and holding upon one hand a without horns . accords with the character of Pan. ined. of Sweden and Norway was bythe shoulder of sometimes priapic. ceiStovos) ot toiyaXtis epaertv ovk tmrov. and has innu- 3 Bassirilievi di Roma. Arcad. in a cave of Phigale in Arcadia. s.) mas ficofxos. rrerroiriffdai 19 Winkelman Monument.T. having serpents and other In the sculptures. 1. who was honored midity. 4. and. Tntrod. whom from Sator. 'Iwiria. St out a) fftpicri t o ayaXfxa’ KOBt^taOat fxtv em No. Hence shecomprehendedalmost every religion. 33 tendants of Bacchus. ii. the Moon. Kat euptoviriv al rpixes. P. and sometimes with the the horse . Where the legs and horns of the goat the waters. s. in Arcad. the sower or planter.Kai Kust ov t ov avrov 6eov.A. AOr/vav ovofxa^ovtn. not Jupiter going to hunt. xlviii. areXeirTovs ypacpwv. or to suppose. rreptartpa pa.13 but the all-pervading Spirit. 3. a l’Hist. however. and Fragm. $\eypa is not to be c. they are usually called Satyrs. Kat ts avro ayaXfxa avadeivai £vAov. in v. s. lib. oiroi Sp rpXey. Pausanias observes. 149.11 Satyrs. was in the original planetary served by the best Latin writers. and to have re in relief. sation.3 The baldness always. seemto have had 114. ovofxa eSeitra ts rovs ov yiverai Kivrfcns i<rxvPV> K. c.8ay SeXcpis St em rrjs xflP0S W aim?. Hence. we find the figure usually adjuration in use amongthe ancient inhabitants called Silenus with the tail and ears of a horse. 11 Pausan. themon the handle of the very ancient Dio. irporrmirrov irpos t ij v emSepptSa Haiti rwv St f) opvis em Tp irepa. ray pigay. Fauns. though he does not choose to relate it. by which singular composition is sig or less of the animal symbol mixed with the nified. Jupiter is represented reposing upon spectively differed in different stages and styles the back of a Centaur. mentioned byClemens (Cohort. with mystic religion. as antiquaries human forms. Kai Adrfvas Boifios tart 'Tyittas’ rr]v8’ 'Imriav s Hymn.------Pau. vol. and probably of the Phoenicians. Payne Knight. c. Kt(pa\r)v St Kat KOfxpv etxtv lirirou. Fauns. Of St tv. xxxi. 8 and Greeks. the daughter nysiac patera terminating in his symbol of the of Ceres by Neptune was represented with the Minotaur in the cabinet of Mr. xliii. xix. we see no and elementary worsliip. which flattery had decked out with divine attributes. 6t i rrrpeoov 7 Tps St Aemroivris t o . YlotreiSaivos 'liririow Kai tfHpas tiffiv 'Imriat The bald Jupiter. s. Aeairoivav ovofxa^o/xevifv inro ApKaSav. No. s. p. and always with the head of Bacchus is said to have made themswear upon the tes on the reverse. and the soul of the world. •Pausan. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. san. not. iii. xviii. on the coins of with it. Diana. of the Povfxoi------Tp Apeios 'lirmov. Kai SpaKOVrav 4 'Oicoffot (paXwpot yivovrai. ii. or hu of Ptolemy Philadelpbus. Antic.9 One of the most solemn forms of Naxus in Sicily. understood here. that Lucretius and personificationof theall-pervadingSpirit. s. of those of dess 'Iwira celebrated as the nurse of the gene a caprine form. or what are retained.evov t o <pXey. yvvaiKt St toiKtvai ra aXXa rrXrfvKt<paXr\v' 14. imputed to other female personification. Eliac. - seems to have signified the same. E .4 sonifications of the generative or productive 113. Tore o’mjAaiov vofittrai t ovt o itpov Arf/xrirpos.7 they to have been the personification of an attribute being both probably mystic. as they were per tation in the margin.re Kai aXXoiv Bripiuv eiKoves rrpoaerrtQvKerrav rp fiarwSets eurt’ Kai tv ttj KtrpaXp avrtuv a/xa ttj Kt<pa\rp xiTav Se evSeSuro Kai aKpovs rovs rro- Xayvtip KXovtofitvov rear 6tpfxa. s. as translated. the material of organi in Attic. Arcad. Pausan. whereas Nonnus calls them kc. 8 Near the Academia in Attica was fiupios phlegm or morbid rheum. 101*and when Tyndarus engaged the priapic term of the Pelasgian Mercury as an suitors of Helen to defend and avenge her. Ztvs QaXaKpos. 4. dolphin. either in poetry or sculp* Silenus is perhaps best explained by the quo-: ture. with which that of Neptune. 2. Pausan.s. but animal nootiSojvos 'lirmov Kai ABpvas 'lirmas. de Danemarc.9 Hesych. as the taurine figures of Bacchus have supposed. pituita. and upon the other a dove. but in the reason to depart from it. is perfectly natural. head of a horse. or as appears in the instance of Arsinoe the wife Silvanus. Pausan. viscus or gluten. In the Orphic Hymns we find a god-’ attribute equally with the TlavurKoi. The title '11111102 totally different fromthat of the Kpovos of the or 'inniA was applied to several deities. de N. 3. Pausan. xx. xxxvii. seems any more than the name of this goddess. she appears to have been a some modem antiquaries. 10 Mallet. Silenus. xxx. he adjunct. is combined. 6 the potvrts and evKtpaeisi but the authority of this meaningof which symbols. Kai Aiovvaov •MtXirofxevov. in Attic. c.ivofj. aXXa rrfv c. c. 6 TtxOrivcu St into rtfs A?yxr/Tpos (tK rov IIo. Hence the equine and caprine ticles of the same animal. acting Horace did not apply properly the terms of through the Moon upon the Earth and the their own language to the symbols of their own waters. wherefore we find three of rator Bacchus. mans. vovxoi Sia t o vt o ov yivovrai rpaXaKpoi.

de Is. See Geogr.which was sometimes dotted with asterisks . P. was expelled. iraffav apxvv Kai reAos avXAafiuv. Tlepcrecpoveia• (pfpeis yap aei. carried a deer in the right the same allegory inverted: for Proserpine or hand. which the body of Alexander the Great was 17 'He appoferai Zijvos eueiSrjs AwoAKuv.—2k01m 8e rov Apt) KaBawep ev iri. Plutarch. bythe later .116.20 Themystic they return them in another.goat’s beard. Hence Actseon. vouu xa^KV Tip' oLVTiKeiptytjv vt Siaperpoo rq Cic. 2 See silver coins of Syracuse. stroyer in general.. as in that. arose she is called Kopy. of which there is an en. the daughter. iv. xvii. 1 --------------------Kai t a Kehaiva ------Apeart rov paAepov ofAwpev appr/TOv Sepvta ^epae<povi]s. both of Fertility. which having Scythin. conveyedfromBabylontoAlexandria. sheis frequently distinguished by heat of the Sun exhaling the waters.as the goddess putrefying the productions of the earth . pi. the most general whence we suspect that the metamorphose of personifications of the creative powers.3 Isis was also the same. clothe the cause and effect of fertility and destruction. Anal. &c. represented vouring the deer.15 The poets expressed the same with the goat.2 uniform harmony in the succession of causes 118.whilst the hair. is vvv axa\Kos airwiSav Meleagv. Plutarch. (Diodor. and the Libitina. cxix. 3 Plutarch in Numa. a\\’ avewAripaos Suva- 14 In the cabinet of Mr. iii. xxviii. been melted down and carried away during the 18 Kai rov 'Ep/xrj1'pvBoAoyovatv. which it enveloped. The Nephthe or Nephthus of the and effects. Death of the Romans. 16 See Ionian Antiquities published by the 19 See coins of Agathocles. who is sometimes distinguished. 1. rjv Kat TeAeurrjv Kat A<f>po8iT7}V} tvtot that godmust have been considered as the De 5c Kat Nucijv ovopafyuatv. though immediately destructive. by the lyre supported many are extant. ix.meaning in their allegorical tales of the loves of titious animal called a Tragelephus.19 Preserver.of Generation. i. t£t\ovra rov troubles by which Ptolemy XI. was of Ephesus. causing fermen. whether of creation. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE merable titles and symbols expressive of almost the ancient coins above cited. Sophocl. ovp- place in the time of Strabo. which is the principle of general Egyptians. though less was the same as Venus and Libera. was made gression . <pavov c| aovptpavuv ptpav eiroujcre. 190. with both these peoples. or general secondary 115.age : and yet. })Alov (paos.the title 2ATEIPA.13 The goddess Harmony. tion. • This unarmed Mars is the plague : wherefore NetpBriv. as appears fromthe Pan. which make one gene. It is probable therefore that the lion principle . and lion. et Osir. Epigr. c. kui wavra <po- vtvai pvQoXoyovvrai. she sition more celebrated in poetry. Orac. pi. in reality. The fable of Ceres and Proserpine is Specimens. and mature all its fruits. in a shrine or coffinof solid gold.16 representedby the lyre . Plutarch. are cation of the heat or fire supposed to pervade preparatory to reproduction: for the same fer. ducing another in regular and unceasing pro. is fabled to have sentedwith the horns of the same animal. particular. the personifi- of which. 1 ration of plants and animals the means of pro. 373. et Osir. 11 very ancient colossal statue of the androgynous which. for though properly the goddess of devouring the horse. v. probably Tlepcetpoveia. of which Mars and Venus . each of which rests one of its fore-feet which is sometimes blended into one figure upon it. Among the principal of by two symbolical figures composed of the these symbols is the deer. She was. Payne Knight. Orph. in Brunck. c. p. 757. of Hercules destroying a Cen. 1. CEd. xii.TAberam. a Tvrpuvos ra vevpa. not as the god of War in Plutarch. A. onam eandem Proserpinam vocant. which also appears mixed forms and features of the goat and the amongthe accessary symbols of Bacchus./Egyptians. as her name indicates. This universal harmony is represented. so tation j fromwhichboth proceed. fuv.) where it was deposited €X*i 8e Aapwpov wAriKTpov. preserva. Amator. which scorch and wither. 20. the universal daughter.by Mercury with the sinews of Typhon. represents the diurnal Destruction. of which dumasus near Miletus. the same heat withering and with ears of corn upon her head. QAeyei pt irtpiPoriros avriajeov. Kat rrfv 1. as being fromsome such symbolical composition. the personification 13 TpaytAaipav irporopai tKrvwtis were among 'Span xo>Pay exovra. and de. being at once the cause and effect of fermen- As they dry up the waters in one season.the same person- The same meaning was signified by a compo. et Osir. veueis. xxix. and thus constitute that varied yet to imitate flames. or destruction.concealment of her operation was expressed by tation and putrefaction. . Hymn. 370. or goddess of order and economy in the operations of nature. Sic.the goddess of Destruction. apud Plutarch. x°p8ais XPrl<Taa^al' 818a- glass one was substituted and exhibited in its aKovres as ro wav i Aoyos Siappcurapevos. a male beardless head is repre.the earth.18 graving from an ancient copy in the Select 117. theic figuresofher. like many other similar fables. Tyr. and on a very early gold coin. according to the Egyptians. de Is. de Pyth. by the pointed every attribute. so as to form a composite fic.the black veil or bandage upon her head. the ornaments of the magnificent hearse. was strung Apollo near Miletus. in p. from which sprang the there are several examples nowextant. xlvii. 20 Zai] Kai davaros povvri Qvrirtns woAvpoxOois 16Ek 5’ A<J>po5/Trjs Kai Apecos*Appoviav 7670.94 R. the goddess frequent in art. were. fl>0apTiKi)VoweawaAeirtv. Societyof Dilettanti. except taur. as earth with verdure. in Verr. 14*16 sprungfromJupiter and Ceres. de Is. vol. which was held to be at once the vent rays. ii. &c. p. who. suchasshe was worshipped on the frieze of the temple of Apollo Di in the celebrated temple of Ephesus. s.

OF a n c ie n t a r t a n d my t h o l o g y . cujus numen uni. Plutarch. multiformi specie. The original held in similar estimation with those of Ceres ^Egyptian figure of Isis is merely the animal and Bacchus at Eleusis. k m UloLpuv re eivai paav ryv Tvxyv. 5.urptev. the rudder of a the sovereign of the elements. 6. “ I and the chaplet or crown of immortality in the am. " En adsum.again restored to itself gradually over the world. 257. tuises ryv Aypuyrpa. iii. km taxvv erapexet facies uniformis: quaj coeli lunfinosa culmina. ceremoniis me aAAa re es ryv Tvxyv.---------BovtraAos Se—’Spvpvatois ayaA- maris salubria flamina. «£pyvas eitotyffev ev ayKaAats A<ppoStrys.--------pat Se Kat Sarrepov IhvSapgs doctrina pollentes ^Egyptii. s. by a general explanation of these titles. Se AStvvtv ovx irepov. 7 See medals. tom. ypeis S’ etrptev eiriyeypa/tpievoi. and she answers him the antenna or sail-yard of a ship in one hand. chaic. appellant verono aveKaAtfftv avryv. 14 Lucian.&irirep Kat ev rats ayKaAais rys TlepaeQovys. the most exalted of the deities. lib. 119. summa numinum. or some other acces with Proserpine. Idyll. k m rp cum. with the addi . iii. xx. p. are common in all 11 Offtptv oma Kat ASamv Sptov Kara ptvartKyv collections of small bronzes. to have been subsequent to have killed him.” s. “ Nature.(Egypt. other. s. precibus. Suidas in voce Stayvaiftuv. in Messen. rots avBpuirtvots irpayptatrt. misfortunes of Isis and Osiris are an exact and many names. 13 Lucian. andspread loss of Adonis until he was . tav.15 whence sary emblem: but the Greek and Roman some learned persons have conjectured that the figures of her are infinitely varied. 6 'Airavra S’ 6aa voovptev. Queen generative and destructive attributes. in Supp. ryv Beov. xxvi. trKtioryv. xxviii. was the emblemof Winter. $5 was still more generalised. &c. flaKxevovrts avrtp . rerumnatura parens. Nvpcpyv flKeavtrtSa. cow humanised. of vol. and the mournful silence of the bols. the uniform coun have first given her in a statue made for the tenance .17* The Vistnooor Jagger- 4 Metam. and therefore occasionally universal nature. ii. 1 . . rare pev Karev- 'Opypos Tvxys ptvypyv eirotyoaro Se tv 'Tpvip r<p vaaptovs. Celestial Power. xxvi. mine ReginamIsidem. and Proserpine. the primary ship in one hand. ^Egyptian 10 Bronzi d’Ercolano. voAov re exovtrav tirt rp KttpaAp. c.ovSev en. (Vide v. however. in gold. regina ma. the parent of things. who dispose with my nod the lu Smymaeans about the sixtieth Olympiad . Eya>(lev ovv TUvSapov ra re aAAa iretOoptai rp *®Aeyovm Se wept rov ASaivtSos. k m Tvxyv ClKeavov k m ravryv iraiSa overav elementorumomniumdomina. and the boar. . disc. de 1’Astronomie Ancienne. to signify by allegory was invented near the pole. the salubrious breezes both have occasionally Isiac and other sym of the sea. c.® In this character she is con may signify merely the decrease and increase of founded with the personifications of Fortune the productive powers of nature as the sun re and Victory. yyovv irparropiev. other . Adonis Isis. xxx. lib. 9 but minous heights of heaven. eitoiyaaro ev rots eiriffiv evSetv. v. Venus was said to lament the philosophytook place at Alexandria. which are in reality no other than tires and advances. inferorum deplorata si. rear trpovotav. and six withVenus . 19 Hesych. direp ras aSeAtpas n tcrxvetv. xx.” 4* or Adonai was an Oriental title of the Sun. Schoi. ®See plate Ixx. Pausan. Kat Oavoiv. Luci. &rt Kat airo- (fSrj. and the cornucopias in the progeny of time. 8 Bronzi d’Ercolano. Aet. 3. in Fragm.signify the alternate exertion of the nies. The ^Egyptians skilled in counterpart of those of Venus and Adonis. This universal character of the goddess signifying Lord. where the various symbols the various attributes of uni sun disappears during so long a time : 16 but it versal Nature. xi. Pausan. The. whose single deity the whole world 120.101* dead . The statues of life: whence both the Syrian aud Argive this Isis are of a composition and form quite women annually mourned his death. and all that we have seen are of Venus and Adonis at Byblus in Syria were -Greek or Roman sculpture.Egyptian brated his renovation. so astocomprehend those of Providence. deorum dearumque. in v. ritu vario. Great.6The figures of Victory have frequently Venus. et seq. 1. &v oiSa. v under the Roman empire. aAAa Atovvtrov eivai vo- Tvxv Kvfiepva navra’ ravryv Kat tppevas pu^ouertv. Fragm. with various rites. 3. and Isis and Osiris in symbol of the. Menandr. Et py rts aAAccs ovoptatrtv XalPel Ktvots. c. Kat Sy Kat iepeiroAtv prorsus propriis percolentes. 17 $pvyes Se rov Beov oiofievot xetptoivos KaO- 9 npcoros Se. 417.)------irepa Se eSyAonrev genies initialis. 8 the first of the heavenly gods and goddesses. Baillie Hist. Sympos. p. 7 and those of Fortune. &v lentia nutibus meis dispenso. and cele different fromthose of the ancient '. in Theocrit. ii. c. prima coelitum. and call me by my true name. Macrob. ib. Corinth. tom.------------Prisca 'EAAyvcev. Budbeck. i. supposed to appears. 34. Bepovs S' eypyyopevat. sasculorum pro (i. de Dea Syria.” says she. with the modius or polos on her head . qu. figures with the horns of the cow. wrought Medals of Leucadia. 11 ancient lore worship me with proper ceremo which . rov Tvxv ’trrtv. of Alexander the 16 01. Pindar. ii. et 4.14 Adonis was said to pass six months tion of the serpent. KaAetv ptovyv. whence Apuleius invokes decked with all the attributes of universal her by the names of Eleusinian Ceres. rore S’ aveyepaets.)--------- coramota. The allegorical tales of the loves and venerates in many forms.pta epyafyfifvos Tvxyv it pcoros eirotytrev. Sat. nomine irepa xe‘Pl 70 KaAovptevov AptaAOetas Ktpas Otto multijugo totus veneratur orbis. when a new modi during which the productive powers of nature fication of the ancient systems of religion and being suspended. tav. e. ais y Oeos etrrtv airy peyiary Otuv tv nium. Oeoicpaatav.13 and the mysteries of goddess . No. in A. iy. Atlantic. which ornaments Bupalus of Chios is said to the queen of the shades. 19 the Macedonian conquest. c. Pausan. s.

according to and with the food of the cattle and hinds em another tradition. dead boar appears carried in solemn proces 122. p. 3 and in other monuments a tant. The Phrygian kept till the following spring. 20 Theophil. andthe Juul in Sweden. aud it is probable that a symbolical expiatory solemnities meant to honor and con composition representing him in the act of ciliate the productive power of the Sun by the fructifying nature.Egyptians likewise. u</>'oi rr\s tantur in solemnibus Adonidis sacris. i. 9 01. and Bacchus . Nonni brass. Orat. Sat. et 7 Strabo lib. Am.9 Boars of paste were also served on seems to have been intended to express a their tables during the feast. i. On some of the very ancient. p. 229. which enemy at the return of spring. Greek their subordinate emanations. understood. of poets and mythographers. ZijAojuov7jslUieWev AScoviSiirorpov vtpatveiv. v. 4 On a marble fragment in relief in the 12 Tu<p\os 7 ap. Payne Knight. quod Kiwjtrews ruv iroSaiv rov NciAov TrA. during which the people la deity who regulated or caused the overflowings mented 19 his loss. Phsenom. From an ancient fragment preserved prince’s adjudging the prize of beauty between by Plutarch. the local genii. the cup-bearer of Ju animal symbol is humanised. p. Rudbeck. were then beaten Attis. as the Phrygiantale concerningCybele and Attis. Hence he is only ano been an allegory of the same kind. part jtix. was represented by aboar among appears to have been wholly unknown to the the Greeks . part i. spurious. one of extreme beauty is in the cabinet of Mr. ii. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE naut of tlie Hindoos is equally said to lie in a luding to it. v. 18 Holwell. and afterwards misrepresented in 123. Plutarch. Attis. c. ov S ’ ipuv Apij* Townley-Collection.Tjjujtvpeiv. P.3(i R. Rudbeck. 153. or. p. rtiyuvtrBai xupuovos.(Egyp perhaps of all the poets. 5 Aristoph. gave rise to the story of the Trojan power. as was also ther modification of the same personification. thosewhocouldnot afford annually celebrated in the samemanner.5 which solstice. Etpijv. but a mighty genius or days in each year. to 121.ITivdapov iKarovropyviov avtipiavra. hi. with the cornucopias.11 which seem. as Hercules wears the lion’s of the war supposed to have arisen from it. skin . From this symbolical use of the boar poetical fiction: for the lines in the Iliad al to represent the destroying or rather the antj- rt\o'J'<n. like the Syrian Adonis. who appears alsoto have been in Syria.80 being. v. who are all occa though variously distinguished by the fictions sionallyrepresented holding the cup or patera. ii. 3 Pelerin. common in all t ApijsKapx&poSwi' 6ayuT7i<popov tov taWcov collections. ligiones mystics docent'. p. simulacrumaliquod esse frugumadultarumre. <paaKovai. as before observed. as the Syrians did that of of the Nile by the motion of his feet. as almost all the piter. In the poetical tales of the ancient sion. Amator. 6 ------------«r« irvos. and the Scandinavians that of Frey .12 and on coins we find himwear ancient poets. Of the same kind are the small votive boars in 3 01. to have been canonised. are. have been killed by a boar. dormant state during the four rainy months of and according to Pindar. seems to have arisen fromsome symboli animal symbolsgraduallywere bythe refinement cal composition of the same kind. it seems that Mars. 323. 47. Xla<p\ayoves 5e KaraSturOai. x. which. 4 by both which was probably meant the Scandinavians. was fabled to to pieces and mixed with the seeds to be sown. 17. c. xx. Julian. the most orthodox that climate: 18 and the Osiris of the .1 The story of the consequently a distinct personification of that Phoenix. ad Autolyc. was triumph of Adonis in the destruction of his fabled to have been killed by a boar. or. Ganymede was not tians was supposedto be dead or absent forty the son of Laomedon. 10 Ibid. considered as the three contendinggoddesses. though at Upsal. Marcellin. caused his statues to beconfounded with Osiris.8 His Adonis. 8 Tov Tawp^riv yap avrov eipaaav of vept 19 Ut lacrymare cultrices Veneris saepe spec. the deity of the Sun. the sun never continues any one day of the waters between heaven and earth.*12 which is also given. coins of Acanthus in Macedonia we find a lion of which many small figures in brass are ex killing a boar. 125. attended by Power and symbolical destruction of the adverse or inert Wisdom. celebratedduringthe winter- tiation into the Eleusinian mysteries. c.7 The to sacrifice real pigs. av<zAu€(T0a(. Adonis. being similar compliment to the Sun. lib. and the style of his paste served up at the feasts of Bacchus or dress.10 Among the animal. Macrob. ii. as that fabulous bird was called attribute of Jupiter. and s. vol. by Mars in the shape of that ployed in tilling the ground. 757. 13 in both of which instances the old The fable of Ganymede. xxx. c. p.. of the Faninai appears to have by the epithet Pluvius. 282. 11 Herodot. a>yuvaiKes. of which several have beenfuuud: and Dionys. de Is.Schol. a story. like the feasts of Adonis those of Paris. i. p. which the destroyer. and fig. who have celebrated the events ing the boar’s.eiKovi pop<pr)s 13 See brass coins of Rome. et v. viii. 374. A young pig was therefore annually offered to him at the was also the victim offered preparatory to ini great feast of Juul. ~Xvos irpoowirip vavta TvpjBafst icarca. and entirely below the horizon. 1. . . the cup-bearer of Jupiter. ripos Se Kiveicrdai k m Nonni Dionys. 1 01. p. c. Rudbeck. Atlantic. Part ii. Osir* 316. therefore. Kai ica. 75. the great metropolis of their means no more than that he was the distributor worship. 396. 6 and his death and resurrection were . pi. ii. v. at first mis of Grecian art. No. v. c. Frey. which is otherwise signified in the north. in Arat. i. had images of them in beauty of his person. p. lib. iii.

16 /Elian. Id. xxviii.1? and office of Prince of the Devils. and so strict were the Egyptian an ass >15 but among the ancient inhabitants of priests upon this point. and Phrygia. 1 . et Osir. (re t ovt up delend. 1 Lupus devorabit s. ill understood : for the vulture might have been and in others drinking the liquor pressed from naturally employed as an emblemof the de them. iffifpns. the rence of swine’s flesh. Ouz. the forepart of binations of the same ideas. yviypevos Ibid. which prevailed uni. and the dismemberment istence. lib. this. de Dane. 7 In the cabinet of Mr. Syria. c. ToXp. 8 Macrob.6 which in some instances partly. wherefore his being bound in the extremities of which ignorant antiquaries have taken for wild the earth. * 3 The wolf is also the device on those of 16 Juvenal. a principal agent in dissolving and dis of Osiris by Typlion. c. consecrated it to the personification of Pontus . ined. iraffri rov SiapeAiirpou. 9. Dion. first tiger seen by the Greeks or Romans was 10 Demosth. xi. are not un. de Anim. probably allegorical: for Prometheus was only a title of by the Phoenicians themselves. particularly in votion. the Scandinavian mythology.presented by the ambassadors of India to Au p. but cir animal appears to have been a symbol of an cumcised themselves. but the i 18 rjpt re eirepxopepip Bpopuaxapis. lib. c. tab. 14. or berment of whom by the Titans was an alle vermin supposed to be bred from putrefaction. Ly.rifj. In the British this animal appears surrounded with diverging Museum is a group in marble of three figures. and wolf devouring grapes. Jul. . . p. and into the creed of the Jews. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. See also Mallet. year of Rome 734. s. liii. which being the fruit contributing. The sym-' 124. or into the city. and thus the Sun expressing providence. p. who in leopard is represented. which turned every versally among the .) nai Kepavpwaois. perhaps. Plutarch. in its first stage of ex and Attis by the boar. de Is. Olymp.Egypt takes its name from the goat coupled together:8 which are all different sacred wolf kept there. x. 37. the A<f>ANI. ed. marc. or death and revival. the one with lamentation. from symbolical compositions are employed in devouring clusters of grapes. gustus. though they are in reality incapable of stroying power. Jupiter Fly of the Phoenicians. ant. was adopted as were in the spring. where the temple of Venus at Comana the destroying power: whence.3 the middle one a human formgrowing out of 125. the last day was expected to devour the sun : 1 destroying the bull: 7 wherefore we have no and among. while settling the affairs of Asia. instead of re restriction of the power of the sun during the gular productions of systematic art.16 and is therefore perpetually bodies even totheir eye-brows. /cat ra Tnavaiv err’ avrop rear vwoZripaTa fivfSKiva. as well an emblemof the Deity to represent the de as in /Egypt. Sat. Colum. Introd. x. Knight. lest they should found in the retinue of Bacchus .fig. Finnic. iva /LtrjTe (pBeip. Sat. received the rank the other with rejoicing.® winter months. As putrefaction was the most general a vine. and shaved their whole opposite kind. as the centre of an asterisk. liv. it means ruined mystic temple at Puzzuoli. that they wore no gar Italy. in the mys was kept so strictly pure from the pollution of teries and other sacred rites belonging to the such enemies. Cass. panied by leopards . lib. the symbolical ornaments of a doubt that in the Bacchic processions. 143. 575. was the wolf.same spirit of superstition.4* gory of the same kind as the death of Adonis The common fly. ipvxvv atSiov eipai rear atpBaprop. 37 generative attribute. a l’Hist. Ibid. ii. instead of the lion.end. rays. probably arose the abhor means of natural destruction or dissolution. and other operation of nature into an object of de partially in other countries.® and upon the coins means of signifying different modes and com of Cartha in the island of Ceos.®0or foresight: formed into oneof those fantastic compositions. . Orat. 18*and at Athens. vi. power. 8 See medal of Maronea. lib.two leopards. signified originally no more than the efforts of disordered imagination.14 The . the dismem unknowingly harbour any filth. xliii. 13. that a pig was never admitted generative attributes. Edda Sremondi. when admitted were celebrated. with leaves and clusters of grapes grow- 14 Strabo. was carefully to have signified the inert power of Typlion by avoided. every thing putrid./Egyptians and Jews. pr/re aXXo pvaapov Owe airo rpoirov pvBoXoyovm TtfP Offipitios eyyiyvtfTai <r<pi Bepairevovai t ovs deovs.. and in others by a leopard and a copolis in . Bacchus frequently appears accom embellished and corrupted by the poets. Liv. . iroXXaKis Staairav icai atpavifeiv t op Tuipaiva. t o Se craipa 3 See Winkelman Mon. Z. Herodot. by different means. we find a the destroyer accompanying the generator . muck distinguished in the.stroying attribute : whence the Baal-Zebub. No. Hist. and probably among the Greeks. Another emblem of this feeding upon that or any other kind of fruit. being. yevaapevaiv re rov tpovov /eoXarreis Ta re aiSota rrepirappoprai KaBapiortpros elpfKtp. too. 26. and Hist. xvii. Argos. t Seculorumpatrem. p. xii. The stories of Prometheus were equally bol was humanised at an early period. 17 whence his festivals sipating all putrescent bodies. though it has been variously 126.Egyptians are said also that had a tendency to putridity. excrement. eari pvOos ets t up iraXiyycvecriap. ancient On a very ancient coin of Acanthus. iii.aTa. to the same peculiarly consecrated to Bacchus. 344. 81.ii.17 Ta yap Stj wept rov Aiopvitop pepvBevpeva 4 EoBijra Se <popeoucri ot /epees Aiverjvpovvtjv. des Arts. Gesner. In some instances his chariot is drawn by frequently employed to signify that god. 568. 6 These are frequently called tigers. irepi 2re<f>. 96. in the 80 Pindar. i. de 0/ Se/epees(vpevprat reap t o aaipa Sra rpiTijr • Carn. or 2M02 /car ETPE212. c.ments made of any animal substance.

On one side is an andro When destroying the serpent. and broke romantic adventures have been confounded the Sfff/iov veptfipidri eptmos. signi vouringthe horse. 127. 512. ban hero and personified attribute the subjects 15Ktu AtroAAwvx «Ajcoi« yvpvos eoBriros’------. ii. which is on most of 19 Strabo. ant. lib. supposing it tomean. meaning. the de he having been worshipped in the island of stroyer as well as the deliverer: for.Trepnro\eiv. the Her and to destroy. culiarly applicable to the Sun. following lines. vi. rays .12 or the putrefier. ac stroying it. p. c. The offensive weapons of this deity. pre-eminently distinguished indeed for time. those nowextant. xvii. as usual. as a certain writer. lib. and Hercules killing the cen fies the glorifier of the earth. he only signifies gynous figure representing the Mises or Bac a different application of the same power to the chus Aupuys. 688. pi. ix. 17 Herodot. upon the authority of com which does not appear to have reached Greece mon Latin Versions and school Lexicons. in Asia. lib. he appears to have been fromwhich it is derived. The Chimera. color of rays. Hence heiscalled A4>HTflP. In destroyer. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE ing out of its body. the essential principle of all the three. alluding tohisdeification. of which the arrowor dart. have <JuI. and preserver united and animated by tion. signifying the emission of bis an emblematical compositionof the same class. however. and I. of which so many whim which are the symbols of the means by which sical interpretations have been given by the he exerted his characteristic attribute. hero.9 Pliny mentions a statue of cules of the Iliad and Odyssey being a mere Apollo by Praxiteles. Hist. as the name indicates. from the verb nT0O. means both to free utterly unknown to the Greeks. strength and valor. and the other devouring it when ancient art. with which he appears on the most an and moisture of the earth. serpent and the lizard . P. id est aijiretr. A. Anim. which spring from the The title 2MIN0ET2 too. but exempt from none of of which several copiesare nowextant. that is. as beforeobserved. the appropriate ceal its meaning fromthe vulgar. This composition repre application of the same attribute: for the sents the vine between the creating and de mouse was a priapic animal. Hence the verb ATfl or ATMI. ‘EKAT02 posed of the forms of the goat. 18 Iliad 2. it musthave beena well-known sacred 130. but any thing that is held up . the j8eAoyor veiled. xxxiv.was. Osir. the symbols of the generator. 129. which given. ing to the etymology already given. Athen. with the mouse. is an emblemof similar and Ampelus . Odyss. The three 14 It was the device uponthe coinsof Argos. c. being supposed to exist upon the dews arms. The Romans 9 See Iliad A. which. Poll. by the Phoenician colony settled there. which have a similar significa stroyer. seems equally to have origi Phoenician Hercules being merely the lion hu nated from the symbolical language of imita manised. XPT2AGP and the serpent. Pausan. The fable of Apollo destroying the prehending both symbols. called 2ATPOKTON02. kou. are the commentators on the Iliad. poets. Ma. and whose matter from the bonds of attraction. 17 who was distinguished by the same the power which delivered the panicles of title that he obtained in Greece. as creation was merely formation. viii. c. was in fact the with the allegorical fables related of him. is in the cabinet of Mr. I. was expressive of another ter fromthe Bacchus.vGoXoyovcnv 11 See Winkelman Mon. beingthe substantive of the verb aeipto. Sat. however. accord have come into Europe by the way of Thrace . 25. 10 Lib. and and 'EKATHBOA02 . ancients supposed destruction to be merely five generations before the birth of the Theban dissolution. c. xii. the Homeric times. the first syllable expressing the golden fire. has or her colonies in his time. ined. signifies the same as the lion de cording to the most probable etymology. signi symbol. 600. the title Apollo signifying. xl. s. who. . 19 and his Greek name.18 His original symbolical lizard. and the ancient serpent Python. xv. xx. whomade the mixed fables of the The P. Plutarch. It was com emblem.3S R. Hercules destroying the Hydra. as the Thasus. 2. Achaic. eviSpvpevov <Tvp. 13 and is fre stroying attributes ofthe Deity. received whatever supposed. mouse-killer.*11 The the laws of mortality. 16 Tip /itv 'HMcp vov 'HpaKXea p. was employed as cient medals of Thasus. 10. 44. 86. 13 yElian. crob. were the same as those the symbol of humidity. so that the god de of Apollo . body of the personified vinej the hands of according to the generally received interpreta Tvhichare employed in receiving another clus tion. The knowledge of him appears to tive art. lib. The club was given himby the Epic gold. the lion. of their poems. and the others their erect posi The old poet had probably seen such a figure tion : for aop does not signify merely a sword. under historical fable to con o/3eAos. the adoption of the wolf. the one giving quently employed as such in monuments of it fruit.10the*lizard-killer. it was told him concerning it. de XPT2AOP02 . but knowing nothing of mystic lore. 20. whence he is called IIT- a garland of ivy round its neck. Onom. and also. Thepoetsconveyed the same meaning Pausanias mentions of Apollo with his foot in the allegorical tales of the Loves of Bacchus upon the head of abull. or it would not have been employed fies exactly the same as Apollo destroying the as a device upon coins. likewise. seems to have been bowand arrows. devouring the grapes. de Is. In later times. with extinction of life. much celebrated in bis man. in p.14 The statue. leaping up and 0102. 16 the water-snake com 128. c.) probably before long been discovered tobe interpolated. the sun exhaling the waters. ertptp ttoSi an Kpaviov &ePrjKe Poos. xii.15 was only the vine personified. Knight. and on the other a leopard. is pe taur . et 12 nvGios otto too irvOeiv. 117. A small one.

AiroA- lion or leopard is on those of Acanthus.11 The double as he continued to beafterwards upon the Bac. andhpldingthe bow he was the personage meant to be represented . lib. of the coins called Darics. 73. 5. xcii. 39 held him to be the same as Mars. probably. xliii. cummultis argu conquest. veyed : but the more common representation 132.7 The oracle morial of the cowardice and effeminacy of the at Delphi was also supposed to belongtoboth inhabitants. Apud eund. which is that of the sometimes leaning upon a tripod.9 struction. was engraved calling the one Apollo. c. still a corresponding deity. bythefounders of the of him destroying the lion is not so easily ex mystic system. apud Euseb. 388. On the more ancient medals of ments. apud Delph. lord of the Inferi. asserit. 6 both of whom were anciently hand and a bowin his left. qui theologu-c and Heraclea in Italy. when they personified the at time of Herodotus in different parts ofAsia. and Soli in mine mixto Cyprus.*12 the deer. lib. the veiled cone or egg. 1 Ram. whom they call and considered as the same deity as Apollo. a little differently modified. 9. been blended with the dried up the waters and produced disease and allegorical fables of the personified attribute: putrefaction . and he had temples de* 1 Ek na> Arjrovs 6 AiroAAaw etc 5e*Hpa? 6 dicated tohimunder correspondent titles. Macrob. 17. ii. they areaddressed as one. as lord arms. Selinus. and passive power of generation. It was observed.. Macrob. pi. 10*sometimes skin upon its head. 514. iii.4 equally. Barege. upon some of them. upon those of others. lib. 8 or. Sat. 1. sostris./Egyptians toSe. or both. 2. the symbols v/t t ov vi rip AvroWuvi fierefft iv .' Liber pater habeatur. corresponding deity among the . to which was observed to be the same god. et Osir. in this instance nerative by night: for it was by daythat it as well as some others. Antiochus I. Apollo vocitetur. andit is probable that the traditional the Sun was exerted most by day. 133. cumin supero. and other kingsof Syria. He with this device./Egyptians was 2 Mus. Act. p. and Aov evAvpe. by the -/Egyptians to have been meant as a me the names beingused asepithets. IIcuav. id est in 10 ('EAAijves) Kai t ov Aiovvcrov. are of Syracuse. appears with the same sometimes sittingon the prowof a ship. c. but always Phoenician Hercules upon the coins of Thasus in an androgynous form. in the Hunter-Collection. Upon the pillars which existed in the sphere. or arrow.attribute. Evang.3 heat that had been transfused into the atmo 131. Latin poet. 102 and 106. and the modern Persians a fabulous and in some instances we find him destroying hero called Rustam. ovj^ erepov ovra t ov in infero. Tarentum. c.) Plutarch. 9 Mons Phoebo Bromioque sacer. and kneeling upon one knee . ftis. Paus. who was worshipped in another cele tical monuments of ancient art. that the destructive power of plained . and in the same attitude. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. and the ge historyof the deified herohas.--------. by all which the same and to whomthey attribute all the stupendous meaning. This mixed deityappears tohave been whose co-operation and conjunction are signi representedin the person of theApollo Didy- fied in so many various ways in the emblema maeus. c. c. on different coins of the Macedonian kings. Apxvyereveiv 5e r<ov Kara 3 The earliest coins which we have seen Arywrrioi Aeyovirt Aij/iiiTpa Kai Aiovvtrov. Aristoteles. Plutarch. andindifferent compositions Asiatic cities.nal and the other as the nocturnal sun. ii. the many respects similar to those of Hercules. though not the double sex. (naAovin. s. centaur. t. emK\t)tnv. in a added.. 11 See medals of Antigonus. andby others to Memnon.5 This attitude is that of on the cortina. 123. Florent. Hencetoothe Prsep. of volume i. signifying the active power of de both. 18. p. accordingto the expressionof a The whole compositionwas however. de Is. rTt}v. Delphica Thebanae referunt trietericaBac 6 In sacris enim hasc religiosi arcani obser. is also 20 Varro apud Macrob. The figure brated oracular temple near Miletus. as the 7 Aemrora tpi\o8acpve. is con remains of ancient art found in their country. rodot. tp t idv AeXtpccv ovSev same as a liondestroying a horse . or the bull. et being merely humanised. 27. cum piov Tiis 6ypas cpvcreas. whomtheir monarch had subdued. i. in gemm.' Hence. and little anterior to the Macedonian unumeundemque deum esse. as kv - diurno hemisphaerio est. tresses. said verseof Euripides. vantia tenetur. in the Persian dress • but which. and also of Magnesia ad Mteandrum.withthe limbs. above cited : wherefore we have no doubt that and features of a woman . and the other Dionysus the figure of a man holding a spear in his right or Bacchus. Lucan. whence. 'lepov------Alovutrov Aafiirrripos eariv fuas Oeov irpoariyopiai. Apollinem et Liberum patrem the art. 20 whowas trian and Parthian coins. and tributes. and ad . theyworshipped the one as the diur which were attributed by the . or Bacchus Hyes . and by night that it returned the for we havenever seen any composition of this exhalations in dews tempered with the genial hind upon any monument of remoteantiquity. Sat. i. and holding the spear and the bowis evidently the whose symbolical image seems to be exhibited same as appears upon the ancient Persian in plates xii. 1 . xx. Euri Aprjs yeyove' pua 8e earriv apcporepav fj 8wa fiev Aiovvcrov vaos NvicreAiov. 4 Herodot. ywaucos atSoia. his destroying a centaur signifies exactly the 8 ------Tov Aiovvcrov. to the united and mixed deityof symbolical. Pausan in Att. and III. c. apud Eustath. id est nocturno. whose exploits are in the vine instead of the serpent. 1 . Hercules is destroying the bull. in his hands. Tlvpirvtovrotv x°PVyov aerrepav.ovkovv fi T6 'Hpa teat 7] Ajjt » 8vo eiiri 40. and iv. with the lion’s of the waters. cui nu« 5 See coins of Mallus in Cilicia. Phars. and upon those of some Select Specimens. ut Sol. v. qui et *OiriptSos. Sat. all of the finest time of mena scripsit. Hence Sophocles calls Bacchus Seleucus II. The Hindoos have sometimes represented under the same form. Plutarch. s. chic. Dionysus.

The emblema- character occupy its place. 2.heads. and lib. because the Nile overflowed when the sun was The two-faced figure of Janus seems to have in the*sign of the Lion :16 but the same fashion been a composite symbol of the same kind. Greece. and. which certain animals were em- 135. v. and not.those particular personified attributes. might were the sameasBacchus andApollo : 'whence easily be invented or discovered by the natural they were pre-eminently distinguished by the operation of the mind: but the collections of title of the great gods in some places. and the productive. which ised or deified mortals. and other sym. is still extant in a church at: either by the cup or cornucopia held in his Rome. confounded with the canon. stars. and one of these mystic distributed over the earth by exhalation. Pembrok.lib. and Antiochus VI. which other tales of the later ^Egyptian priests. The mythological personages Castor ployed to signify. In the refinement of art. which gory. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE frequently signified in figures of Hercules.the signs of the zodiac were taken from the not be later than the sixth century before the mystic symbols . an aquatic tree. therefore. is probably the reason why Apuleius be even imagined to resemble both. In sun finishes its progress. some of which can.impossible that one and the same thing should teries. which is sup. of Syria. mon. explains the reason why the spouts of the symbol of universal harmony. who lived and died alternately. iv. 670. king Hercules in the extremities of the West. To toov t or. . and in which some symbolical plant. though neither ancient mystic title of Bacchus. which Plutarch supposes to have been. and statue of Apollo . By the mythologists Bac- titious animal to represent the same meaning. ckus is said to have terminated his expe- instances of which occur upon the medals of dition in the extremities of the East. whilst the two aste. We may mentions the seeing the sun at midnight therefore rank Plutarch’s explanation with among the circumstances of initiation. 6t i NetAos eirayei veov vSwp irair more commonly AI02KOTPOI or Sonsof Jupi Aiywrriuv apovpais. is a remnant of the ancient mystic alle. i. the destroying attribute is far. we have the testimony are occasionally represented. as well as to Apollo. merely models or portable representations of 134. lib. iii.14 which Achilles. 12 Nutnm.40 R. The beautiful figure engraved on yap avroi trap' ’EAAiivuv tnaAowro. whilst emblemof the generative or preserving attri- the club or lion’s skin indicates the adverse bute was generally kept. as some learned Christian ®ra. was only some particular and Pollux. This meaning.15*145 conclude that the real intention of these sym* 136.only begun to be so named. when it passes the same boundary of the mouthofthe monster. by which they supposed resemblance. 487. As the appearance of the one necessa. and in later coins of the former authors have supposed. Schol. and lie has obscurely and snigmatically related. p. 242. or otherwise upper and lower hemispheres. worn upon his head . by the ear of corn under its feet. in others. in the formof a large chest of porphyry.*123 are therefore merely signs of convention Their fabulous birth fromthe egg. which are very com androgynous Apollo. the result of both is shown by the lyre. the mystic symbols city. ODe going up. and Lampsacus andTenedos.same signification. and iv. which they rilyimplied the cessation of the other. bolical figures. tical meaning. was the gift of the diurnal sun. and e^iaat Kpovvovs. p. 16 Kpr/vat Se Kai itaraxacr/aara rw \eovruv They were also called ANAKE2 or kings. P. cimens is the most exquisite example of this 14 See medalsof Istrus. and the ther signified by the point of a spear held in diurnal. i. 15 Metamorph.fountains were always made to imitate lions' ported between them. which were carried hand. Panticapaum.of the white poplar. fig. and to have had exactly the the lion and goat w’ere blended into one fic.in the time of risks.1* In the 137. The earliest the Grand Lama nor any of bis subjects know specimens of it extant are on the coins of any thing of the Nile or its overflowings . the two hemispheres in the West. an in jEgypt. sionally given to Hercules. and prevails as universally in Tibet as ever it did to have derived the name from Iao or law. be- of Bacchus was shown at Delos near to the cause separated from the salt of the sea. 13Pausan. heads of Bacchus of the usual formand fromthe signs of the zodiac. the brothers of Helen. 77. That they had tales have been engrafted.the surrounding ocean in the East. the forms of these tombs. have no re- tbough. or Italy. Timon. 12. Per- tombs. leopards. which were probably consecrated to them. of vol. the Waggon. in which the polar constellation is was the alternate appearance of the sun in the said to be called the Bear. upon which the more recent poetical they respectively represented. yAiov rov Aeovr« TrapoSfvov- ter. xi. lion. or bythe chaplet of poplar or some other in procession occasionally. property generalised. named after certain animals. too.17 objects so different that it is being a part of what was revealed in the mys. The mystic cist®. in plates xliii. The latter’s being represented by the latter. and the two humanheads. of the Select Spe Lucian.semblance whatever to those animals . and Capua. lib. when it mounts above the former. Symposiac. more distinctly of a passage in the description of the shield of point out their symbolical meaning. appear to have been power. ' Aiotricovpw Upov Avamiov eKa\etro' Avatcet 1711. and which is occa. p. may have Sipylum.Homer. tab. as well as in the frieze of the temple which means no more than that the nocturnal of Apollo Didym®us before mentioned.. baps Hercules being crowned with the foliage adorned with goats. as being pre-eminently such.bols was to signify that the water. the formof adopted to distinguish ceitain portions of the which is retained in the caps usually worn by heavens. and that not on account of any real or wards andthe other downwards. the tomb conveyed.

Vinct. pi. 363. lib. 1. vii. Jones in the Asiatic Researches. which is at least more 139. Kai cpvcriv exeiv aptrevoOriAvv tarch. apud Aul. et Osir. was called by the Egyptians the bothactive andpassive over the earth: whence. ipsamenim et corporum omnium ratio esse di- Athen. which the gross flattery of detaching fromits own body any limb that has the degenerate Greeks sometimes employed to been hurt or mutilated. et mu- Kai ‘Hpa/cAps. Kai oivo. c. given to the sacred river mined. was held to be the boundary that separated the or were personifications of both powers. ribus fibras. ainav yeverrews icai 10 Calor solis arefacit. iv. penes epaAAot per’opxncretas t t )s tpS-ps awqvTuv avrcp. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. in 1.*12 The God of Destruction is also latter. as that of the Sun was under the form of the bull.--------Nam ut calore solis animantur Xoovvt os. 276. *HoioSoS 2 Sir W. xxxi.8 the mediatress between both .animal that has the property of spontaneously phallic ceremonies. Saturn. in loc. as to celestial from the terrestrial world. Lucil. Tiitpcvva Se wav t o Macrob.16 ioOpos yap eernv adavacrias Kai yevetretas d F . 15.iv. in A e A to v S e A r jv a ia . 84. i. 1. Carm. by means of Macrobius.20 Of Se ffotpmrepot raiv tepeeav. as well as the mal. Sec. ovSe TvtpcavaTijv OaAatr. et Osir. c. 14 See coins of the Brettii in Italy. which was the seminal particles of terrestrial matter.3 The same meaning is rate so powerfully upon the constitutions of more distinctly represented in an ancient women. Vet.t ikos apx<*s. 4 On a handle of a vase in the cabinet of Mr. vol.Is. 3 Maurice’s Indian Antiquities. lib. Maronea. <5Aa>s Kai Tr)v pev yap treA-pvrjv yovipov t o (peas Kai vypo- woAeptov rtf vypoTTjTi.iv ev rp 5eApvpnOev. lunaris humectat. 138. Etpccui addit. Plutarch. . Plutarch. while a double phallus generation: whence she is said to have re appears behind them. Sat. od.19 who was with them like the Bacchus Supuris and Apollo SiSvpaios.13and as her orbit most of the deities who had double attributes. Rom. &c. ita lunas humore nutriuntur. 8 Err Se 'HAios ewosvvpiav exMVSwrpp Se eivai Luna alit ostrea. evpevri Kai yovais facov. Calli- p. were represented posed to be moistening. in the same sense as she was both male and female. s. Phoen. p. Diana was. in Arcad. for the warmth of the moonwassup rivers. Pausan. and particularly air. of the Hindoos this Sister. de trav aAAa Ocriptv pev air\us awaaav rrjv vypo. and by seeming to ope co-operation of both. Humidity in general. retained. in Horat. avxp-mpov Kat wvpcaSes Kai fppavTiKov. c.6 had the same in its place. humore vero lun® per povov Bvpicavres. x. c. 8. 4. mach. 12 Cl Atwapofavov Ovyarep 1 ilorat. et implet echinas. rai (legertBepevoi) rrjv Itriv avrcp yevecriv ovcrav • 19 Op povov rov NetAov. Kai apxrjyov. ' 13rEschyl. woiov exovaav. Daugh together with the light by which she was illu ter of the Son. pt. c. 1. p. defiuxion of Osiris. de Is. is still powers withwhich she impregnatedthe former. &c. the God of the Waters. 7 Ibid. 16. 41 had a similar meaning. by a lion trampling troness and regulatress of nutrition and passive upon the head of a bull. Rivers appear thus personified on the Eurip. p. as appears from the title. the sacred symbol of the ocean. wAijpovpevijv Swo tjAiov. Schol. Oureas AitrxvAos Kai ol epveriKcarepot. As the heat of the Sun animated meaning as this title of Saviour.1 In the religion. et Schol.noctem. calore 6 Of AOrjvaioi eSexovro (rov Ariprjrpiov) ov quidemsolis per diem. citur et potestas. Gell.16she was Hercules. 29. loc. Schol. Se tpr/triv aSeAeprjv rjAtov eivai rijv ceAiji/pv. or subordinate personifica The title 2X1THP K02MOY upon the compo tions. c.5 and it is probable that the ithy. were supposed to be derived fromthe Yamuna. to show the union and sovereignof humidity .789 It was also occasionally applied to nourish and mature them. Bacchus. or assumed by was the humidity of the Moon supposed to' them. Vet. 3 Mns. 13 Duobus hisreguntur omnia terrena. 11 and the Daughter. tnteppuiTOS ovoiav vopi^ovres. 9Ovtoo rrjv OtripiSos 5vvap. Ibid. Himera Knight. oiovrat. By attracting or heaving the waters of mounted on a white bull. vii.12 because the productive article of ancient faith. i. and scatter the principles of generation the Nile.9 both heat and Bacchus was among the Greeks. Kai Karatrweipovtrav. a\\a wav vypov awAois trvveivai Aeyovtri. xiv. Diana. coins of many Greek cities of Sicily and Italy. et Osir. Kai KvurKopevijv. Kai <pv- Op povuv Set op oivov Aiuvvcov. See also coins of Thasus. &c. of the Sun.8 which the Sun was supposed to impregnate the 138. vol. viii. Sio Kai pryrepa rifv <re\jp>i\vrov OtripiSos awopporiv KaAovoiv(ol Aiyvwrioi. vol. 25.20 whence all humidity. 261. as before observed. ii. in Dian. from the ocean. 368. iii. Kai ffretpavovvres. 364. ori probable than that assigned by Servius and ginally and properly the Moon. in Sicily. she naturally appeared to be the the opposite attribute. woiov apxyv Kai 5vvap. vi. de Is. or at least with drying.13 and is often repre site Priapic figure/published by La Chausse is sented by the symbol of the sea-crab. xx. s. Catullus in Gell. Ibid. p.)' Plu Kotrpov KaXovtri. the primarysub- 18 In ASn. and shows the result. 12. waarfi vypas tpvireas 'EAAijves rfyoovrai Kvpiov 11 Plutarch. Prometh. aAAa Kai wporroSia Kai X°P01Kal L®u~ semina. Agathocles. so frequently conferred upon. like most others. 13. 178. lib. c. when personified.101 She was called the Mother of the some of the characteristic features of that ani World.wpoiepevpv yevvt)- NeiAov Offipiv Ka\ovmv. andreproducing another honor the Macedonian princes.14*an well known . she equally appeared to be the pa Greek fragment of bronze. aAAa Kai t uv eivai PAaarriffeffi.4 ceived her nymphs. Hymn. ov povov rov ttVTijv Se waAiv eis rov aepa.

north of Europe represented their goddess Isa and also. and under the earth. 3 'H 7 ap vypa rpvais. apxy Kai yeveais ovau 17‘HAios SeKapSias exoiv Svvapiv.Corinth. ii. Gale. abovementioned. even to inanimate bodies. and Juno Lucina. who them. 376. tab. ovk ovaav erepav y ryv aekyvyv.7 under the symbol of a cat. G. 1 and 2.9 which there are sometimes four. relaxing. or general female personifi inventor of cure: for disease is the father of cation of the Divine nature. Demetr. Lucan. in heaven. she adopt the rabbit as the symbol of the same having the many breasts tosignify'the nutritive deified planet. and with an infinite variety of for use. Ibid. vol. xxxiv. Oper. yyv.8In sacrificing. Rom. as show the universal generative attribute both it still continues to be in the southern parts of active and passive. as nearly in the same manner as their rude and which seems to have induced the Hindoos to feeble efforts in art could accomplish. iii. p. Fhilon. The Greeks attributed to her the virginity. were the was worshippedat Ephesus. uvo. &c. xviii. and p. de Is. See fabulous reasons assigned for the retaptav. which preceded the symbolical. 212. fig. Pausan. supposed to preside symbols. but more fre probably for the same purpose as the phallic quentlyonly threein the instances nowextant: radii. 212 and paaBat. which a sistrum. 10.17 clothed. avaypacpoviTLVo! (ppovriarai roiv pe. and the fying the Goddess. irpos pas. represented the lunar orbit. 7 See De la Chausse Mus. 292. of DIVUS. as she Italy .8 01. Kai ras evrevOev ava. et iavrov Bepporyra Kai <pa>s. of their humidity: whence wood cut at the full she was represented under an infinite variety ofthemoonwasrejectedby builders asimproper of forms. while the rattles too. and called horns instead of the animals themselves. Lanzi sopra le lingue Kvarei faiov aeXyvy. Sympos. perhaps. XPV™ Kara <f>vaiv 6 Koapos. 516. i. on account of its fecundity . to which her common Greek name powers of destruction as well as nutrition. vol. Plutarch. 2 Plutarch. 159. so as to make them 142.6 See Duane’s coins of the Seleucida?. p. fig. vrepi ryv aeXyvyv Spopos.42 R. aXXo airkayxvov. and hence the crescent was witli phallic radii enveloping a female form. aiv ot reicroves. borne by Isis. Brimo. The rays of the Moon were thought tary worship. 291. Siairepirei Kai SiaaKeSavvvaiv e£ aepa. probablyon account and it seems that the ancient inhabitants of the of that animal’s power of seeing in the night. the reindeer to her. and she had the attribute of perpetual 140. s. 20 Tu Lucina dolentibus 9 Ibid. vol. Rudbeck. ii. Olympiad. ed. s. i. and Diana. the Tauric and Scythic Diana. by means As her titles and attributes were innumerable. ii.(Egyptians represented the Moon as to formacomposition purely emblematical. Sis airaXa Kai pvSovia raxeus xiv. de Somn. p. i. 19'OBev oipai Kai ryv Aprepiv. axpi yys eaxarys <5ayp iravir) raBeis Egyptian symbol. as Apollo was fabled to be of A£scu.90 bol. and sovereign of the other. so 141.513. or AlFOS}4 and therefore signi whowas both the sender of disease. eyaeipevy. contributing to putre appears to be a contraction of DIVIANA. 194- aiairep KapSias Kai KoiXias yirap. s. and sometimes and obstruction. Arroyap rys aeXyviaKys acpaipas. the faction: whence suddendeath was supposed to feminine. Xtgv ra repvopeva rais iravaeXyvais airofiaXXov. to universally worn as an amulet by women. Atlant. vol.were employed toserve. 31. t o it pana rpia aoipara.5 to signify the this property. occupied the centre of it. Si iyporyra. sometimes with three bodies. in eiriSyXos y rys aeXyvys Svvapis' rav re yap (v. p. xxx. yXiov pera£v Kai yys. Dicta lumine Luna. Juno dicta puerperis. iv. seemto have con same goddess. p. 928. were only personifications of holding appropriate emblems. proceed fromDiana as well as from Apollo . 6aa KoiXia Kai 4 Varr. yv eaxaryv Catull. morte d’ltalia. s.was probably held to be in the ancient plane lapius. irepi eavryv avaSiSaaiv.2 of hangthe testicles round the neck of the figure.yp Se Kai BaXaaai/ Osir. Plutarch. the cat accompanythe Ephesianstatues. Kai itvp eiroiyae. irpunyv Se t u v 1 Maurice’s Indian Antiquities. which the moon medicine. according to the old Etruscan idiom. 30 and 31. de Facie in AAaapevys Se(e/uot 8oKeiv) irparos ayakpara Orbe Lunae.1 As the arch or bend of the attribute. equally personifications of the sisted of an assemblage of almost every sym Moon. P. qu. . Ocell. Plutarch. de Is. These figures are said to have a\eav evraoBa Siairepirei.18 The Ilithyiae. and p. de Tu potens Trivia.3 grossness of earthly matter. c. xx. Kai irvevpa. ii. y n paXQaicov 5 See La Chausse Mus.been first made by Alcamenes. and being surrounded by deers’ mystical instrument. it was their customto belowrepresented the terrestrial elements .6 The figures of her. each over child-birth. lib. p. et Osir. vol. -on livery by slackening the powers of resistance earth. 2. p. for the ancient ^Egyptians. 641. about the Bvpiaaeis iretyei nvi Kai KaBapaei Xeirrvvovaa Ixxxiv. Aoxeiav Kai tab. vol. lib. fig. APTEMI2 seemsto allude : but the Latin name humidity aswell as heat. or at least some of 143. appear to have known that water and air tempered the subtility of sethereal spirit to the are but one substance. yv 18 riveToi Se Kai irepi aa aij/u^a t uv aaparoov AByvaioi KaXovaiv eiriirvpyiBiav. pp.19which seemed to facilitate de triple extension of her power. The . 'EKarys rpia eiroiyae irpoaexopeva aXXyXois. i. fig. attached to the old humanised column. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE ject of the one. c. The statues of Diana are always harmonise and unite. Rom. 13. ryv a' avroBev tab. 10. et notho es Universo. Phaler. eipBaaev. &airep alpa iravrwv e| apxys. pev ra>v tear’ ovpavov kvk Xu v .. 277. EikeiBviav.

OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. 43
was the destroyer;101whence shewas appeased occasionally represented armed like the for-*
with human victims and other bloody rites ;11 mer;19 and also distinguished by epithets,
as was also Bacchus the devourer;12who which can be properly applied only to the
seems to have been a male personification of planet, and which are certainly derived from
the same attribute, called by a general title the primitive planetary worship.20 Upon the
which confounds himwith another personifica celebrated ark or box of Cypselus, Diana was
tion of a directly opposite kind. It was at the represented winged, and holding a lion in one
altar of Brimo, called at Sparta Aprepts opdia hand and a leopard in the other;1 to signify
or opdcoiria, that the Lacedaemonian boys volun the destroying attribute, instead of the usual
tarily stood to be whipped until their lives symbols of the bow and arrow; and in an
were sometimes endangered ;13 and it was dur ancient temple near the mouth of the Al-
ing the festival of Bacchus at Alea, that the pheus she was represented riding upon a
Arcadian women annually underwent a similar gryphon;2 an emblematical monster composed
penance, first imposed by the Delphic oracle ; of the united forms of the lion and eagle, the
but probably less rigidly enforced.1415 Both ap symbols of destruction and dominion.3 As
pear to have been substitutions for human sa 'acting under the earth, she was the same as
crifices,1* which the stern hierarchies of the Proserpine, except that the latter has nore
North frequentlyperformed ; and to which the ference to the Moon ; but was a personification
Greeks and Romans resorted upon great and of the same attributes operating in the terres
awful occasions, when real danger had excited trial elements only.rI
imaginary fear.16 It is probable, therefore, - 145. In the simplicity of the primitive re
that drawing blood, though in ever so small a ligion, Pluto and Proserpine were considered
quantity, was necessary to complete the rite : merely as the deities of death presiding over
for blood being thought to contain the prin the infernal regions ; and, beingthought wholly
ciples of life, the smallest effusion of it at the inflexible and inexorable, were neither honored
altar might seema complete sacrifice, by being with any rites ofworship, nor addressed in any
a libation of the soul; the only part of the vic forms of supplication : 4 but in the mystic sys
tim which the purest believers of antiquity tem they acquired a more general character;
supposed the Deity to require.17 In other re and became personifications of the active and
spects, the form and nature of these rites prove passive modifications of the pervading Spirit
them to have been expiatory; which scarcely concentrated in the earth. Pluto was repre
any of the religious ceremonies of the Greeks sented with the rroAos or modius on his head,
or Romans were. like Venus and Isis ; and, in the character of
. 144. It is in the character of the destroying Serapis, with the patera of libation, as distri
attribute, that Dianais calledTATPOnOAA, and butor of the waters, in one hand, and the cor
BOflNEAATEIA, in allusion to her beingborne nucopias, signifying its result, in the other.®
or drawn by bulls, like the Destroyer among His name Pluto or Plutus signifies the same as
the Hindoos before mentioned ; and it is pro this latter symbol, and appears to have arisen
bable that some such symbolical composition from the mystic worship ; his ancient title hav
gave rise to the fable of Jupiter and Europa ; ing been AIAH2 or AFIAH2, signifying the
for it appears that in Phoenicia, Europa and Invisible, which the Attics corrupted to Hades.
Astarte were only different titles for the same Whether the title Serapis, which appears to be
personage, who was the deity of the Moon ;18 ASgyptian, meant a more general personifica
comprehending both the Diana and celestial tion, or precisely the same, is difficult to ascer
Venus of the Greeks : whence the latter was tain ; ancient authority rather favoring the

10 Bptpu rpipopcpos. Lycophr. Cassandra, v. s. 4.
1176. 19AveABovm 8e es rov AtepoKopivdov, vaos
Bpipcorj avrri f)‘EKarrp-----------/cat p Tlepa-ecpovr) etrriv A<ppo8tTT]s‘ ayaApara 8e, avrri re anrAi-
Bptpu Aeyerat' 8o/cet 8e p avrri etvat '’Ekotti kcl i ffpevri, Kai 'HAioy, /cat Epiose\o)v ro£ov. Pausan.
nepcre<povr). Tzetz. Schol. in eund. in Corinth, c. 4. s. 7.
11 See Johan. Meurs. Graec. Feriata, 8m- Also at Cytliera, in the most ancient temple
patrrtyums. of Urania in all Greece, was 1-oavovairAiorpevov
12 Atovvatp <opa8i<aet cv/Mjarp. See Porphyr. of the goddess. Id. in Lacon. c. 23. s. 1.
rrept airoxys, 1. ii. p. 224. Plutarch, in The- 20 Noctivigila, noctiluca, &c. Plaut. Curcul.
inistocl. act. i. sc. iii. v. 4. Horat. lib. iv. od. 6.
13 Plutarch, in Lycurg. et Lacon. Institut. 1Aprepts 8e, ovk otSaetp' dripAoytp, irrepvyas
14 Kai ev Aiovvitov rr) koprri, Kara pavrevpa exovtra eartv em ruv wpwv, Kai rp pev 5e|ia
e/c AeA(pu>v, patrrtyovvrai yvvatKes, KaOa Kai oi Karex*t irapSaAtv, rp 8e erepa rcov xetpcov Aeov-
~2.-KapTia.TwvecpTjfSoi irapa Tp Opdia. Pausan. in ra. Pausan. in Eliac. i. c. 19. s. 1.
Arcad. c. 23."r? 2 Strabo, lib. viii. p. 343. Aprepts avatpepo-
15 -------0 vopevov 8e, bvrtva 8KAripos arreAap- pevr\ em ypvrros, a very celebrated picture of
fiave, AvKovpyos pere(3aAeves ras emrots f<pw- Arego of Corinth.
fiois pcurnyas. Pausan. in Lacon. 3 See coins of Te’ios, &c. in the Hunter-col
16 Plutarch, in Themistocl. Liv. Hist. lection.
17 Strabo, lib. xv. p. 732. 4 Iliad I. 158. They are invoked indeedII.
18 Ew 8e icai aXAo ipov (v <J>oipikij peya, t o I. 565. and Od. K. 535.; but only as the
StSonoi exovcri, &s pep avrot Aeyovtrt, Atrraprris deities of Death.
etrrt' Aorapr-qv 8e eya>8OKea>SeAqvaiqv eppevaf * In a small silver figure belonging to Mr. P.
&s 8e pot t is reap Ipeaiv arrqyeero, Evpitiirps eon Knight.
Ttjs KaSpou adeAipeqs. Lucian, de Syra Dea,

44 R. P. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE
latter supposition;6 at the same time that there as it rose above the horizon', and sinking under
appears to be some difference in the figures of them as it retired below.10 Accordingly we
them nowextant; those of Pluto having the find it employed in every part of the Northern
hair hanging downinlargemassesover the neck hemisphere, where symbolical worship either
and forehead, and differing only in the front does or ever did prevail. The sacred images
curls from that of the celestial Jupiter; while of the Tartars, Japanese, and Indians, are al
Serapis has, in some instances, long hair for most all placed upon it;11 and it is still sacred
mally turned back and disposed in ringlets both in Tibet and China.112 The upper part of
hanging down upon his breast and shoulders the base of the lingam also consists of the
like that of women. His whole person too is flower of it blended with the more distinctive
always enveloped in drapery reaching to his characteristic of the female sex ; in which that
feet; wherefore he is probably meant to com of the male is placed, in order to complete this
prehend the attributes of both sexes ; and to mystic symbol of the ancient religion of the
be a general personification, not unlike that of Bramins;13 who, in their sacred writings,
the Paphian Venuswith the beard, before men speak of Brama sitting upon his lotus
tioned, from which it was perhaps partly throne.14
taken;7 there being no mention made of any 147. On the Isiac Table, the figures of Isis
such deity in Aigypt prior to the Macedonian are represented holding the stemof this plant,
Gonquest; and his worship having been com surmounted by the seed-vessel, in one hand,
municated to the Greeks by the Ptolemies; and the circle and cross before explained, in the
whose magnificence-in constructing and adorn other ; and in a temple, delineated upon the
ing his temple at Alexandria was only sur same mystic Table, are columns exactly re
passed by that of the Roman emperors in the sembling the plant, which Jsis holds in her
temple of Jupiter Capitulinus.8 hand, except that the stem is made proportion
146. The mystic symbol called a modius orately large, to give that stability which is re
iroAor, which is upon the heads of Pluto, Se quisite tosupport a roof and entablature. Co
rapis, Venus, and Fortune or Isis, appears to lumns and capitals of the same kind are still
be no other than the bell or seed-vessel of the existing in great numbers among the ruins of
lotus or water-lily, the nymphaea nelumbo of Thebes in ALgypt, and more particularly
Linnteus. This plant, which appears to be a among those on the island of Phil® on the
native of the eastern parts of Asia, and is not borders of ^Ethiopia; which was anciently
nowfound in ASgypt,9growsin the water ; and held so sacred that none but priests were per
amidst its broad leaves, which float upon mitted to go upon it.15 These are probably
the surface, puts forth a large white flower; the most ancient monuments of art now extant;
the base and centre of which is shaped like a at least, if we except some of the neighboring
bell or inverted cone, and punctuated on the temples of Thebes; both having been certainly
top with little cells or cavities, in which the erected when that city was the scat of wealth
seeds grow. The orifices of these cells being and empire; as it seems to have been, even
too small to let themdrop out when ripe, they proverbially, in the time of the Trojan war.16
shoot forth into newplants in the places where How long it had then been so, we can formno
they were formed; the bulb of the vessel serv conjecture ; but that it soon after declined,
ing as a matrice to nourish them until they there can be little doubt; for, whenthe Greeks,
acquire a degree of magnitude sufficient to in the reign of Psammetichus (generally com
burst it open and release themselves; when puted to have been about 530 years after, but
they sink to the bottom, or take root wherever probably more) became personally acquainted
the current happens to deposit them. Being, with JEgypt,17 Memphis had been for many
therefore, of a nature thus reproductive in ages its capital, and Thebes was in a manner
itself, and, as it were, of a viviparous species deserted.
among plants, the nelumho was naturally 148. We may therefore reasonablyinfer that
adopted as the symbol of the productive power the greatest part of the superb edifices nowre
of the waters, which spread life and vegetation maining were executedor at least begun before
over the earth. It also appeared to have a pe the Homeric or even Trojan times, many of
culiar sympathy withthe Sun, the great fountain them being such as could not have been
of life and motion, byrising above the waters finished but in a long course of years, even

6 Ouyap aAAov eivai 2epamv ij t op TlAovraiva 11 See ICsempfer, D’Auteroche, Sonnerat,
tbatri. Plutarch, de Is. et Osir. and the Asiatic Researches.
7 n\oTTou(n Seavrriv (A<ppoSiri)v) Kai yeveiov 12 Embassy to Tibet, p. 143. Sir G. Staun
fXOVffav Sion Kai appeva kcu 6r)\ea *Xfl opyava. ton’s Embassyto China, p. 391. vol. ii.
ravrpv yap Xeyovaiv eipopov iraatis yeveaeus, 13 Sonnerat Voyage aux Indes, &c.
Kai airo Tjfs otrtpvos Kai aval Keyouriv avrpv 14 Banvat Geeta, p. 91. See also the figure
of him by Sir William Jones, in the Asiatic
appeva• ra 5eKara>,QriKetav. lrKaTTOvat Se ccuttjv
koi etptirirov. Suidas in AcbpoS. Researches, vol.i. p. 243.
SepamSos etrriv Upov, 6 v Adr/vaioi irapa IVro- 15 Diodor. Sic. lib. i. p. 25. ed. Wess.
Aefiaiov Seov eryyayovro' Aiyvimois Se iepa 16 See II. I. v. 381.
SepairiSos, eirKpaveorarov piev ernv AAel-avSpev- 17 UpcoTOS (6 'Vap.p.-t)Tlinos') t o ip /car’ Aiyvmov
aip, apxaioraTOP Se ev Ms/iiJxi. Pausan. in Att. fiaaiKeav aveqifce rats aAAois edveat ra Kara t t jp
c. 18. s. 4. aWi/v vtvpav epiiropia. This prince was the
8 Ammian. Marceliin. lib. xxii. fifth before Amasis who died in the 2nd year of
9 Embassy to China, vol. ii. p. 391. the Ixiiid Olympiad, in which Cambyses in
10Theophrast. Hist. Plant, lib. iv. c. 10. vaded AEgypt. Diodor. Sic. lib. i. p. 78 and 9.

OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. 45
supposing the wealth and resources of the deserts of Lybia affording neither food nor
ancient kings of /Egypt to have equalled that shelter for either. Before this couldhave been
of the greatest of the Roman emperors. The done, not only the arts and implements neces
completion of Trajan's Column in three years sary to do it must have been invented, but the
has been justly deemed a very extraordinary rights of property in some degree defined and
effort; as there could not have been less than ascertained; which they could only be in a
three hundred sculptors employed ; and yet regular government, the slow result of the
at Thebes, the ruins of which, according to jarring interests and passions of men ; who,
Strabo, extended ten miles on both sides of the having long struggled with each other, ac
Nile,18 we find whole temples and obelisks of quiesce at length in the sacrifice of some part
enormous magnitude covered with figures of their natural liberty in order to enjoy the
carved out of the hard and brittle granite of rest with security. Such a government, formed
the Libyan mountains, instead of the soft and upon a very complicated and artificial plan,
yielding marbles of Paros and Carara. To does ./Egypt appear to have possessed even in
judge, too, of the mode and degree of their the days of Abraham, not five hundred years
finish by those on the obelisk of Rameses, after the period generallyallowed for the uni
once a part of them, but now lying in frag versal deluge. Yet ./Egypt was a new country,
ments at Rome, they are far more elaborately gained gradually from the sea by the accumu
wrought than those of Trajan’s Pillar.19 lation of the mud and sand annually brought
149. The age of Rameses is as uncertain as down in the waters of the Nile ; and slowly
all other very ancient dates: but he has been transformed, by the regularly progressive ope
generally supposed by modem chronologers to ration of time and labor, froman uninhabitable
be the same person as Sesostris, and to have salt-marsh to the most salubrious and fertile
reigned at Thebes about fifteen hundred years spot in the universe.1
before the Christian aera, or about three hun 151. This great transformation took place,
dred before the siege of Troy. They are, how in all the lower regions, after the genealogical
ever, too apt to confound personages for the records of the hereditary priests of Ammon at
purpose of contracting dates; which being Thebes had commenced; and, of course, after
merely conjectural in events of this remote the civil and religious constitution of the go
antiquity,, every new system-builder endea vernment had been formed. It was the custom
vours to adapt them to his own prejudices; for every one of tiiese priests to erect a colossal
and, as it has been the fashion, in modem statue of himself, in wood—of which there
times, to reduce as much as possible the limits were three hundred and forty-five shown to
of ancient history, whole reigns and even Hecataeus and Herodotus;2 sothat, according
dynasties have been annihilated with the dash to the /Egyptian computation of three genera
of a pen, notwithstanding the obstinate evi tions to a century,3 which, considering the
dence of those stupendous monuments of art health and longevity of that people,4 is by no
and labor which still stand up in their de means unreasonable, this institution must have
fence.20 lasted between eleven and twelve thousand
150. Fromthe state in which the inhabitants years, fromthe times of the first king, Menes,
have been found in most newly-discovered under whomall the countrybelowLake Mceris
countries, we knowhowslowand difficult the was a bog,5 to that of the Persian invasion,
invention of even the commonest implements when it wasthe garden of the world. This is a
of art is ; and howreluctantly men are dragged period sufficient, but not more than sufficient,
into those habits of industry, which even the for the accomplishment of such vast revolu
first stages of culture require. ./Egypt, too, tions, both natural and artificial; and, as it is
being periodically overflowed, much more art supported by such credible testimony, there
and industry were required even to render it does not appear to be any solid room for sus
constantly habitable and capable of cultivation, pecting it to have been less: for, as to the
than would be employed in cultivating a coun modern systems of chronology, deduced from
try not liable to inundations. Repositories doubtful passages of Scripture, andgenealogies,,
must have been formed, and places of safety of which a great part wereprobably lost during
built, both for men and cattle; the adjoining the captivity of the Jews, they bear nothing of

18 Kcu vw SeucvvTcu S’ tXvV von peyedovs Ttjv apxvv• ^atPerai S’ ovv Kai ra crropara
avrys em oySoyKOPra oraSiovs t o pr/Kos. lib. iravTa irXyv eras t ov Kapufitnov, xetpoironyra
xvii. p. 816. kcu ov t ov irorapov ovt u . Aristot. Meteor, lib.
19 Figures in relief, finished in the same i. c. xiv.
style, are upon the granite sarcophagus in the 2 Lib. ii. s. 143.
British Museum: it is equal to that of the 3 repeat yap Tpets apSpup exarop erea tan.
finest gems, and must have been done with Ibid. s. 142.
similar instruments. 4 Etat pep yap Kat aXXus AtyvtrTtot pera At-
20 Warburton has humorously introduced 0vas vyiypetnarot iraPTUP avdpunup, t u p aipewP
one of these chronologers proving that William (epot SoKeetp) e’tpeKa, brt ov peTaXXatrtrovtrt at
the Conqueror and WilliamIII. were one and &pat. Ibid. s. 77.
the same person. Div. Leg. 5 Eirt t ovt ov . irAypt ov ®y&aiKov vopov iratrav
1 Kat yap ovt os aet Zyporepos S t okos <pai- AiyviTTOv etpat eXos' Kat avrys etpat ovSep inrepe-
perat ytypopepos, Kat icaaa y X<»pat oo irorapov Xop t u p pvp epepde Xtppys rys Motptos sopt uv '
irpoaxaxris ouira t ov NetXov Sia Se t o Kara pt- es Typ apairXovs airo QaXaaays ejrra ypepeup
Kpov tyjpatvopepwv t u p kXaiv, t ovs itXytriov e on apa t op irorapop. Ib. s. 4,
etaotKi^eaOat, t o t ov XPOVOV pvkos atyaipyrat

46 R. P. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE
the authority of the sacred sources fromwhich it deserves no credit, being fully contradicted
they have been drawn. Neither let it be ima by the buildings still remaining in Upper
gined that either Herodotus, or the priest who -Egypt.11
informedhim, couldhaveconfounded symbolical 154. The Doric column, which appears to
figureswithportraits : for all the ancient artists, have been the only one known to the very
even those of /Egypt, were so accurate in dis ancient Greeks, was equally derived from
criminating between ideal and real characters, the nelumbo ; its capital being the same seed-
that the difference is at once discernible byany vessel pressed flat, as it appears when withered
experienced observer, even in the wrecks and and dry; the only state, probably, in which it
fragments of their works that are nowextant. had been seen in Europe. The flutes in the
152. But, remote as the antiquity of these shaft were made to hold spears and staves;
^Egyptian remains seems to be, the symbols whence a spear-holder is spoken of, in the
which adorn them, appear not to have been in Odyssey, as part of a column:12 the triglyphs
vented by that, but to have been copied from and blocks of the cornice were also derived
those of some other people, who dwelt on the fromutility; they having been intended to re
other side of the Erythraean Ocean. Both present the projecting ends of the beams and
the nelumbo and the hooded snake, which are rafters which formed the roof.
among those most frequently repeated, and 155. The Ionic capital has no bell, hut vo
most accurately represented upon all their lutes formed in imitation of sea-shells, which
sacred monuments, are, as before observed, have the same symbolical meaning. To them
nativesof the East; and upon the very ancient is frequently added the ornament which archi
^Egyptian temple, near Girge, figures have tects call a honey-suckle; but which seems to
been observed exactly resembling those of the be meant for the young petals of the same
Indian deities, Jaggernaut, Gonnes, and Vish- flower viewed horizontally, before they are
noo. The/Egyptianarchitectureappears, how opened or expanded. Another ornament is
ever, to have been original and indigenous; also introduced in this capita), which they call
and in this art only the Greeks seemto have eggs and anchors; but which is, in fact, com
borrowedfromthem; the different orders being posed of eggs and spear-heads, the symbols of
only different modifications of the symbolical passive generative, and active destructive
columns which the ./Egyptians formed in imi power; or, in the language of mythology, of
tation of the nelumbo plant. Venus and Mars.
153. The earliest capital seems to have been 156. These are, in reality, all the Greek
the bell, or seed-vessel, simply copied, without orders, which are respectively distinguished by
any alteration except a little expansion at bot the symbolical ornaments being placed up
tom, to give it stability.6 The leaves of some wards, downwards, or sideways: where
other plant were thenadded toit, and varied in fore, to invent a new order is as much impos
different capitals, according to the different sible as to invent an attitude or position, which
meanings intended to be signifiedby these ac shall incline toneither of the three. As for the
cessary symbols.7 The Greeks decorated it in orders called Tuscan and composite, the one is
the same manner, with the foliage of various that in which there is no ornament whatsoever,
plants, sometimes of the acanthus, and some and the other that in which various ornaments
times of the aquatic kind;8 which are, how are placed in different directions; so that the
ever, generally so transformed by their exces one is in reality no order, and the other a com
sive attention to elegance, that it is difficult to bination of several.
ascertain them. The most usual seems to be 157. The columns being thus sacredsymbols*
the ./Egyptian acacia, which was probably the temples themselves, of which they always
adopted as a mystic symbol for the same rea formed the principal part, were emblems of the
sons as the olive ; it being equally remarkable Deity, signifying generally the passive produc
for its powers of reproduction.9 Theophrastus tive power; whence IIEPIKIONIOS, sur
mentions a large wood of it in the Thebais, rounded with columns, is among the
where the olive will not grow;10so that we Orphic or mystic epithets of Bacchus, in his
may reasonably suppose it to have been em character of godof the waters ;13 and his statue
ployed bythe ./Egyptians in the same symboli in that situation had the same meaning as the
cal sense. From them the Greeks seem to Indian lingam, the bull in the labyrinth, and
have borrowed it about the time of the Mace other symbolical compositions of the same kind
donian conquest; it not occurring in any of before cited, A variety of accessary symbols
their buildings of a much earlier date: and as were almost always added, to enrich the sacred
for the storyof the Corinthian architect, who edifices; the /Egyptians covering the walls of
is said to have invented this kind of capital the cells and the shafts of (he columns with
fromobservinga thorn growinground abasket, them; while the Greeks, always studious of

6 Denon, pi. Ix. 12. 10 Tlepi tpvruv.
7 Denon, pi. lix. andlx. 11 If the choragic monument of Lysicrates
8 See ib. pi. lix. 1. 2. and 3. and lx. 1.2. 3., was really erected in the time of the Lysicrates
&c.; where the originals from which the to whom it is attributed, it must be of about
Greeks took their Corinthian capitals plainly the hundred and eleventh Olympiad, or three
appear. It might have been more properly hundred and thirty years before the Christian
called the /Egyptian order, as far at least as sera; which is earlier than any other specimen
relates to the formand decoration of the capi- of Corinthian architecture known.
tals. 12 Od. A. 127.
9 Martin in Virg. Georg, u. 119. . 13 Orplr. Hymn. xlvi.

&c. s. the personage is of the other sex. as Brimo. c. exactly as the moredis-> covered. which is otherwise some respects. pev ovv ets jTjv potav (airoppifTOTepos yap eanv S . ii. were it not employed on coins evi tinct symbol of the phallus is in a similar frag dently to represent water. above cited. is borne upon the back of one. or nelumbo.3 In monuments of Grecian art. 4. 19 Recueil d’Antiquit6s.18 By pre appears sitting upon it: 4 hence it is probable vailing upon her to eat of it. how of it. before ex 158. Pans. with which the thyrsus the male or active power. in the hand of Proserpine or Juno. of the Select Speci panied by a dog. instead of an aquatic plant.15 fies the same as the circle and cross. 3 Ta&rrfv ex^iv SoKei Trap’ Atyvrmois ttjv Sv- . lest it should lead himto divulge cordingly find the universal symbol upon many any of the mystic secrets of his religion. in numberless instances. pi. &c. whichis therea the most ancient symbol of the productive son why Pausanias declines giving anyexpla powerof the waters. 14. xxxiii. xvi. xvii.'Diana is often accom and in plate L. who was the principal sented an ear of barley springing fromone side deityof the ancient Gauls. in the hand of Isis . &c. Hecate. Upon coins. Aoyos) atpeiaSco pot. k m irapa. and The extremities of the roofs were almost always accordingly we find it on a bronze fragment adorned with a sort of scroll of raised curves. in the collection of the Earl of Carlisle. beingoccasionallyplaced upon is employed in various compositions. was em the conductor of the soul from one habitation ployed to signify the same meaning. Ibid. if Se ev ttj tpp iroKei iraaa yvvrj ean. called a Triton. there but as the rude effort of infant art. as the above-mentioned emblems do but on the Phoenician as well as Greek coins in those of Juno. in Mess. andwhich and destruction. vapiv 6 AvovfiiS olav vi 'E/cotij 7rap’ 'EAAtfai 18 Mus. the fruit peculiarlyconsecratedto to accompany him. vi. is more commonlyemployed pomegranate. The flower of it is also occasionally power arising from both . and consequently plained. or first-begotten Love. and Isis. affording bol of Hermes. Sv of toottj (KnA- KXetrov 8e epyov eireort Se of aretpavos xaPlTas Arjvp) Ttepiaaus aefiovaiv. Mercury. and we accordingly employed as an ornament upon the diadems of find that the old Pelasgian Mercury.7 who do not. It therefore holds the place of tablatures. in Eliac. iii. Motya. c. doors. 17 See coins of Syracuse. the The ram. pi. or. sitting on a rock. was a fish.1 esteemed to be the most mens. terminating in a the cockis the most frequent symbol. ovk atr AiyxntTwv pepadrjKaat. 16 AepKerovs Se etSos ev Qoivikti e6i)naapnvf 2 Onyap t ov Kvva Kvpius ’Eppi)v Xeyovatv (of 6eo. being represented by the head and body the same. and Dirceto. we have observed him Proserpine appears. vii. not as a symbol. appear to have had any statues of him 14 See Stuart’s Athens. on figure. as the ceremony of marriage still consists. ancient medals of Side in Paraphylia. and the bulb of the lotus. and a part of the Greek of the influence of the nocturnal sun. t ovt uv pepadifKaaiv of animal. is engraved a beautiful figure of the sagacious and vigilant of animals. 15 See coins of Tarentum. lib.16 tendants. ii. signi tempting to imitate waves. fig. and pavements. surrounded by dolphins . termi fore employed by the ^Egyptians as the sym nating in an aquatic plant. and meaning cians. 4. The bull’s head is.ap. of vol. oAA’ airo TleXaaywv. employed them to decorate their en fromthe other. that is. c. Pausan.17and upon the very the goat on his left. Hence Mercury places. and likewise rally worshipped at Athens. Camarina. 51. 1. Ttp Se aKiparpov t o 7 C<psar de B. only different modifications the infernal regions. 4 Particularly in an intaglio of exquisite fig. s. and consequently the same. lxiii. as the result of the union the meaning of which would not be easily dis of the bull and lion. xlix. and in some instances he her. opdov eariv atSotov evi exoov k m 'npas eTreipya. while in the more ancient fragment aXXoi. Corinth. G.2 and there mystic Cupid. 159. de Is. and in a fish. iii. so gene both Hercules and Bacchus. in the bride’s treading upon a pome appears to have been a personification of the granate. Proserpine. having only the horns and ears of the eTTLTots 'Eppats. The most obvious. feebly at fore. 20 To Se aya\pa rr/s 'Hpas eirt Opovov KaOijTai. and the tortoise at his feet. ment above cited. mixed figure. the goddess of the Phoeni bablya symbol of similar import. k m t o tptXoaotpov. de Syr. however. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY.. pediments. &c. work. Hunter. which.Ton 'Eppov Se t o ayaXpa.fj. or active generative attribute. or Diana.tz £evov r/ptaer] pev ywi)’ t o Se Skosov etc Atyvrrrioi) a\\a t ov Jwou t o rpvXaieriKOV.6 and probably the same personage as some of which we have seen distinctly repre the Celtic Mercury. almost every symbol of The cone of the pine.evas’ km t wv x eiP01v> t ov (}a6pov. c. at most. the male. 3. IIoAu.20* 1 of the earliest coins. et Osir. t jj pev Kap-irov <pepei (foias. The head of small figure of brass.5 was a Priapic forms the device of the Rhodian medals. expressed by a similar and more common the destroyer. Herodot. is pro it. ever. now extant.14 published by Caylus. in the Spirit upon the waters. who was more elegance and variety of form. vol. vol. XOovios uv 6pov Kai OXvpmos. both of generation of Bacchus is always surmounted. tab. both symbols are unmetamor 6 Ton Se 'Eppeco t o ayaXpara op9a exetv t o phosed. 1See coins of Syracuse. indeed. in many cock did that of the diurnal. km t o prfpoiv es atepovs iroSas ix6vos ovprf airoreiverat' aypvirvov. with a cock on his right side. 2. terminating below in a fish . in the hand of Ariadne and her at of a woman. and 3. Plutarch. &c. here half huma 5 AStfvaiuiv Se eari t o axypu t o rerpayuvov nised.19 The pomegranate. 47 elegance. Pluto is said to that both these animals signified nearly the have procured her stay during half the year in same. Dea. aiSoia TTOtevvTes. which we ac nation of it. Lucian. or Anubis. i. 1. peyedet peya xpuirov pev teat eXetpavTos. to another. s.

lib. xlvii. to Metam. gious philosophy of the ancients. spheres of the earth. iv. xlix. Legat.: Lucian. merely disso whence ASschylus introduces the heroes of the lution and renovation . personification of terrestrial fire : 18 whence he and whose office was to proclaim peace. The ordeal. xxxi.16 In the Greek ceus. 10'Hpas 8e iepov t o Sopv yeyopiirrai. b.3 and immediately to the Deity. c. p. the formof the Greeks and Romans to represent Juno 10 which is derived from the egg. 12. and venire sub hasta. xliii. essence. Ammian. 5 See coins of Phocaea. Vafthrud. who was the as the messenger of the gods. one hand always holds or a the guardian of the passage from the upper purse. Marcellin.This cap was first given to Ulysses by Nico- duntur. have been saved by the sea. xxi. 864. Sext. Apul. instead of the symbol. and 2. ASsernia. The same opinion prevailed . c. et mediumfreti pietate per iguem p. et seqq. c. p. signify the hemi sword. Pascitur . 593. a l’Hist. the wings and pe- tre of dominion between two serpents. Plutarch. Dialog. the devourer or engulpher. theologise prodideredoc arduas. &c. in excerp.*12 or a symbol of freedom and deciding civil dissensions or personal disputes emancipation. nunc atra nunc aurea facie sublimis. de Nat. 9 Hence the expressions. appears tion and creation were. 62.1 UiAovs r cmriBeaaiP avrois.9was employed by supported by water. These caps. aivurffopeuoi rr\p r]fu<r<paipecov Kara- 12Ab origine rerum pro diis immortalibus oxeurjj'. Plin. was the patron. The dogwas the emblemof destruction trial by fire and water. Antig. in Lucian. a symbol composed of the staff or scep and Roman statues of him. silver tetradrachms of A£nos.to signify the latter. seemto indicate the samedifference of signifying his power over it. 785. in this case. the tasus. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE till they received them from the Greeks and 161. Kvpins f) Otos eirovi'ojuaaTai" t o yap Sopv Kovpiv 19 Iliad A. Marcellin. of Vol.: Prisci Frag. <quemmundi velociorem sensumesse.56 Both destruc plements of war as divine emblems. Hemsterhuis. cvdwetv Sopt. Scyth.11 and received divine honors all worn by the Dioscuri. as it was among the Greeks and by duel. as it was among the most solemnand inviolable of oaths. moriam adhuc deorum simulachris haste ad. Rom. as well as the battle-axe and mounted with asterisks.6while the other holds the cadu. &c. to swear by the shoulder ing and evening stars. Hist.15 water were held to be the great efficient prin- 8Occulte Mercurio supplicabnt (Julianus) 15 Opvuai 8’ aixjtwjv. 5. 2 HiAotpopiKoi. of the Divine whichsometimes appears in the same character nature. c. according to the reli likewise to have prevailed among the Greeks .1 and it is possible that the supreme deity of those fierce nations. 3 See Tib. c. rear plate xlvii. the face of Anubis was gilded. The custom of swearing by the im on monuments of Grecian art. p. Kai t uv 18 See coins of Lipari. 11 Ey 8« 'Pijyta Sopv KaOiSpvpevov Apea irpotr. lib. x. Quest. were sup to each other upon the point of a spear or posed to be periodically liable. : also ttyakpaTwv aerijs <m)pi£erai Ta irAeruTa. 395. in Romulo. black. Lucian. Deor. mean the morn signified:12 whence. was considered as appealing directly Romans. cui pineus ardor acervo aeiv 8e irore Kai irvp Kai vSccp. xi. bythe latter of which the God of War. 149. c. to signify that productive attribute to the lower hemisphere . In these. sancti custos Soractis Apollo. of both which it might be con into the volcanic island of Lemnos. a painter of the age of Alexander the Herodot. 127. 14 H(lev S’ iroifioi Kai fivSpovs aipeiv j^epoiv 4 Phurnut. P. Sophocl. and therefore hishead. xi. was same source. Deor. even that of the Earth itself. is not easily ascertained. 20 Too cdov t o fipirovov Kai affrrip Sirepavw. motum 16 Hie horrendum attollens canis cervices mentiumsuscitantem.19 volcanos being signifying power in general.6 Fire and sword. Scythians of rank. Scyth. Kat itvp fiicfrrretv. Justin. it being only an appeal to the represented under the form of this animal. to be sold 17 See small brass coins of Metapontum. iv. keeper of the boundary between life and death. Kai eiri rovrois aryoptvetv. xxvi. and to sidered as the symbol: for the staff or spear. Great.20 and whichare and Mars . Hence it was character. lib. Lucian. (KsAtgu) t as tpvxas Kai rov Koapov emKpart]- Quemprimi colimus. Tat. which he occasionally wears upon emblems of life or preservation. xvi. c. 6 A<p8aprovi 8e Aeyoutri ovroi Kat of aAAot Summe Deum. and 130. V. to signify the former which is peculiarly the result of mental skill of which. as before observed.14 as well as Mercury:4 whence the ancient Northern as Germany and the North. Not. The dog represented Mercury as the Romans. xi. &c. and sacred to Mars as well have prevailed in Greece and Italy. iv. c. lib. Cultores multa premiums vestigia pruna. Isagog. and Edda Myth. see also veteres hastas coluere : ad cujus religionis me. See also machus. sur over the North. orcap. aerrepas. was the asterisks may. See also Justin lib. Ami. Empiric. 197. 3.: Ammian. is derived fromthe deity. and was fabled to have been thrown from heaven denounce war. fKaXovv oi naAaioi. Dial. . govern. xvii. de Danemarc. and xlviii. xxvi. the heads of figures of Vulcan.Achill. xxxv. 270.. Deor. lib. ii. 13 Mallet Introd. Plutarch. 535. which seems once to as well as vigilance. 160. and and sagacity. or 162. ille superum commeator et inferum trine.48 R. of whom Mercury. Gawr. and lib. Strabo lib. to which all sublunary Thebaid taking their military oath of fidelity bodies. was became a distinction of rank. 37. 1. as a slave. ix.17 similar caps beingfrequently upon always home by heralds. Voluspa stroph. but whence the cap of the horse and the edge of the sword.13and the Scythians.

8. says the polite old Priam to the blushing and Hence the period of 6. p. 41. 164. Cic. Ek Bew yap paxavai ira- 9 'O vovs yap ffpw 5 Beos. to remain during certain pe such extreme care and ingenuity.9 Hence proceeded the excavated with vast labor for the purpose. according to the intention of the animated. k m rovs pev avdponrovs evSaipovas Of pot etpwppifoav iro\epov iroXvSaKpvv eoeo0m . Eorai yap. aAAa Zevs Kai tlloipa. apud Clem. tra Cels. the only detached from the rest. 10. Kaireira oooet iravB' a irpooB' airwXeoe. Strom. body to another. iii. Crit. ta. and doomed. ’ • yifv Kara itepioSovs Kadaipopevrjv. e. and Bartholinus. Lucret.7 In this state those of the with all their respective consequences of pro vulgar were depoisited in subterraneous caverns. ii. irepiyKuoooi r' e<pvv. authority of Empedocles' against this passage of Af S’ amjAAaypevai yeveoeus tpvxai. which seems. oai fiporeais aperats• Menand. <J>Ae£ei paveur’* eirav S' ap cAAtirr? ro irav. The soul. pyre OKiav Ax m w — votovvras. in Grotii excerpt. embalmed reason and perception* which was personified them. Olymp. lib. v. which it remain so. ii. Kai riepotpoins Epivvvs. Philoiaus Pythagoric. 145. wisdomor folly. the principle of whom fuel was extremely scarce. tlevoipwros evBvve Aaipovos ovpov. rest are still impenetrable. all its impulses. lib. Ovid. evBvs yevopevtp puorayuyos rov fiiov• Pyth. that all human actions depended imme while their kings erected. sperity or adversity. aicavra raitlyeta Kai perapoia Pyth. ii. as the Hindoos cipated by fire. whilst the ^Egyptians. for having injured and insulted Achilles. and to the soul was supposed to migrate from one dispose him to good or evil. natale comes qui temperat astrum. Qu. the do at this day. de Placit. Bagvat Geeta Lect. to the last syllable of re of its complete emancipation. The great pyramid. iv. Fragra. ayaBos' Kaaov yap Saipov’ ov vopioreov 11 See Eddas. vy. Atrnj rov avrifs Saipov' avaKaXovpevif. Kai ooipoi. earat kgivos aiww xpovos Pindar continually inculcates this doctrine: drav irvpos yepovra Bifoavpov oxaorf Atos roi voos peyas Kvfiepva XpvotviTOS aiBifp' if Se fiooKtjBeioa <pAo{ Aaipov' avSpuv <pi\oov. 38. Olymp.000 years soimportant beautiful Helen. ii. p. pavreis. that was to be finallyeman burned the bodies of their dead. Hence the corded time. piyre rpotprjs Seopevovs. rai. ®eoiropiros Se <f>r]Oi Kara rovs payovs. eivai. Plutarch. and all the Scythic and Celtic nations* . gives Bairrai. by load Se Kai C EAAijves KaraKXuoptp if irvpi rifv saying. lib. Agamemnon excuses himself in ecclesiastical history. Fast lib. Kai iroAepeiv Kai avaAveiv ra rov erepov rov Horat. mortalis in unum- reioBai rw dew.163. 370. Impetus hie sacrae semina mentis habet. (the symbols mental principle of morality both in the elegant of that fire to which they were consigned. for some one that has been opened. No. albus et ater. Diodor. ep. two genii to each individual. (ppovSos pev eorai Kvparw airas fivBos.8 The alone supposed to be immortal and unchanged. p. . ovve^evierai. aAAa Se rpioxtAia paxeoBai Quodque caput . lib. Philos. Deor. among vital spark of heavenly flame.Naturae deus humanae. -------------Ayafioi Se Soph. was conceived to be the only means builders. v. Origen. 10. supposed to entire to the universal conflagration till when have the direction of each individual. and as the spirit or vital prin of the Mohammedan prince. for their own bodies* diately upon the gods. vi. xviii. notion. should be able tobeapart oftheaetherialsubstanceofthe Deity to support them. 123. de Nat. v. ii.) and finished compositions of the most ancient whose excessive strength and solidity were Greek poets. lib. vol. eyevovro. that it re riods imprisoned inmatter . ver. 49 ciples of both. i. Menander. con —— — ------Eyu S' ovk ainos eipt.*vultu mutabilis. rov fiiovfi\airrovra xp?forov' iravra yap 19 Maprvpeovrat Se oi naXaiot BeoAoyoi re Kai Set ayaBov eivai rov Beov. et Osir. Kai KaBairep ev ocopart rovrtp re- Plutarch. &s Sia rivas rtpcopiasa ij'ux®rV acopart Menandr. the most ancient and orthodox opinion. de Is. ix. according to his own system. agitante calescimus illo.«. Platon. s. and will probably the complete dissolution of the body. however. Kai oxa~ G . And Brucker Hist. Kai oorpoi Kara Aaipotf avSpes 7 Herodot. which forms the funda those vast pyramidal monuments. ava Scit genius. i. v. and quotes the Alex. 5. to contain Philos. lib. not quired years of labor and enormous expense to immediately derived from the material organs. bBSome indeed supposed the world to ~ Est deus in nobis. see Plutarch. 205. Sophocl. gratify the curiosity or disappoint the avarice were of course impulses of the Deity. lib. yif SevSpew epiiposjj ouS1aifp en Ek Beov S’ avifp oo<f>ats avBei eoaei itpa- icrepwra <pv\a fiAaoravet irvpovpevos' " irtSeoot. ®Savary sur l’Egypte. v. erepov reXos S' airoXeiireoBai (lege uiroAetoBai) 10 Ovn poi ainif eooit Beoi vv poi airtoi eioiv rov aSifv. whofirst laid opett ciple of thought and mental perception was the central chamber where the body lay. Kai xePffl @ta~ tAiravn Saipuv avSpt ovpirapiorarai. 20. in order that they might be preserved into the familiar daemon or genius. was the divine emanation. incerta. rov Se Kpa. Olymp. 11. 92. c. v. upon which they stood. apud Plutarch. 910. lib.19 As almost universally. 187. p. was closed up with unknown causes. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. Sic. be eternal in its present state. 79.10and in the rude strains of the well calculated to secure them as long as the NorthernScalds:11for asthe soul wassupposed earth. Greeks. fiepos rpioxiAta erif rov pev Kpareiv. Tracbin.

v. ov reXeus airoXeiirei 'Hpas eyKareBrixe irarijp avSpup re Beuv re. c. Kai ra pvoriKa Enumerat auctores Verrius. Gesner. i. de Morbis. The Xik po p. Hist.ji. Gesner utTKovvTas dpupres fiSovrai.AIKNITH2 of the Greeks: for he was repre- bable that the sanctity anciently attributed to sented by the filtering-vase. ac. 61. Plutarch. which is still em-9 red or purple' color. aXXa Kadapri Kai ipuroeiSeei hook of attraction in the other.actions. Cleric. had the ancients used an instrumentin thrashing corn.17 The prophetess of nese palace at Rome. irapirav aipiepepat.the Select Specimens. of vol. c. xxxiii. iroXXovs.wa3 supposed to purify the ajtherial soul from poreal objects until they had tasted the blood all gross and terrestrial matter. Jovis ipsius simulachri faciem die- avpurpep aXXijXois ol Koipupovpres. became possessedof the ./Egyptians appears to have been a personifica- knowlege of futurity by tasting the blood of a tion of the same attribute as the Bacchus lamb offered in sacrifice. not only to paint the faces of the pass the rest of their time with the gods . teat irapaKaXoviri Kai Secundum banc philosopliiam. and iv. No.derived. ed. in the nowextant. olov eXevBepai 15 Od. particularly one lately in the Far- person of Tiresias only. nam for a whip . rial purple of later ages is derived. ed. as it had been customary. s. t oo re ippeves epireSoi eurt" Kai <rvpe£oppuirtp. lib. ibid. ep PupaiK. top fiiov ayuvup. It was. A. though the formof it implies an active pocrat.-K. Hist. Not. bus festis minioillini solitam. 6evt i KaKov ouSeXxnrripopeanp. t o <t>iXoTifiov Kai ipiXoouparov.more distinctly expressed in the large bronze t os. i. p. qua vivunt. consol. by instrument is called by Virgil the mystic meansof which their facultieswere replenished winnow of Bacchus. The Canobus of the Argos. (Jl ^xv)' Platon.13 as statues of the deities with vermilion. in rVcv/iJj yap i) rov avBpuirov ireipvKep ep t jj voc. apyip. viii. de Socrat. iii. us yap aBXryras KaraXv. in Plutarch. 17 ----©riPaiovTeipeortao tfnXoripovpepoi it pos rip/ apenjp eyKeXevoprai MapnosaXaov. Even in the common small figures Sympos. was Bacchus is called AIKNITHS. perhaps. sive inditum adeo Kai Aoyous Kai oirovSas. . in like manner. oi8a Sri KuXvei and Winkelman. c. 4"JXV anima trvpirapaBeovai’ ovrus o! ireiravpepoi rup irepi est. owe noroimp Osiris has the winnow in one hand. Georg. arose fromits similitude to ployed to purify and render potable the waters Xafyvirai roXomov airo cruparos. xxviii. Daemon. Si aperi/p \fwxijs yevopepoi pous mens est. been such taken for a flail. called N002. wTax« yap efapBet t o piXBa/op. Ka0’ 'Ho’ioSov. 166. Xeyopres ebs ouSev ovSapp rip 8laXv. Pythagoric. as fire are spoken of as voidof all perception of cor. signifying the ' cording to this ancient system. and <f>PHN. which puri- Ulysses’s evocation of the Dead. The corporeal residence of this divine 165. quibusdam Saipopes.that principle of vitality the symbols both of the destroying and gene- fromwhichthey had been separated : for. 50 R. 13‘CUnrep de Xeyerai Karat up peppijpepup. P. and tors. lnterloc. that flowedfromthe samesource. de Corde. yeyopvtr) ex njs SiaKpurios t oo alpa. Plin.16both of which were pulchral monuments . apa Kat BeppoP eirri Kai vypop. Odyss. xxiv. was the mystic sieve in which Bacchus was 14 To alpa ripavBpuiripirXeurrop ovpPaXXerai cradled .rative attributes upon tombs. c. however. animabus superadditum. vii. spirant. that principle of vital heat and animal motion. aXXa tois eiri ravro [a Deo ?]. Hippocrat. lib. 492. than in any other that vapiv. ol ireiBoviri t up ayaXparup expifyp. ffe irioreveip 6 irarpios Xoyos. ii. as appears from many allowedto remain entire. Hip. liv. us aXtiBus t op Xotirop \popovpera Beup8iayovaa 20 Orph. Phsd. corpora: sic Camillum triumphasse. Satpopes eurtp apBpuirwv em. a sit necesse. and the airo njs vtjSdos. i. t o nap. which are irepiovffrp. xlv. aA\’ erepovs Orphic.90 a metapho- supposed to be the blood :14 whence. in the mysteries. Hence this of the victims15 which he had offered. if/vXVS’ rpeiperai Seovre oiriourip. but also it was byinitiation that they acquired a know. figure of him engraved in pi.. it is strange that it shouldeverhave been taken Nullius carnis sanguinem comedetis. urav eyyvs tjStj t ijs eXiriSos Tip Kat reBpeiun po o p irope Xlepcreipopeia. viii. des Arts. Kai ffvp. as well as of the grosser emancipation and purification of the soul. in many instances. divinius quiddam. aluntur t a ep\jwxa. ' xvii. in the shades. Dialog. rather than a passive sense. of Topep aipa KvpiuraTTiv t up ep ipip e\op 8w. 18 Pausan. Plutarch. Hymn. See Hesych. in allusion to the particle or emanation. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE the principles of this systemwere explained in that of blood . s. ffcuTOj acnci}<nvfaroyr/pas. 16 Now pep epi faxth 'PVXW1' S’ evi aupan peXeis. we know. in rical title taken from the winnow. ii. Those of the latter and perception.See also Plin. 152 et seq. triumphantumque ad Uxor. persons initiated were said to early times. Nat. Levit. y vpva^upevois Te\os evpeveis opres. Airoair. even upon se- sensation. from which the title may have been pepos ovpecrios’ eptoi Se Xeyovcrt. there were separation and regeneration of the soul per- two souls. Plutarch. 14. i. the shades fied the corn from the dust and chaff. calledtFYXH. 10. lib. the one the principle of thought formed by the same power.the bodies of the Roman Consuls and Dicta- Jege of their affinity with the Deity. in eund. Xair) koiXit) (T7js KapSnjs. from which ancient custom the impe- emanations. and are. though it might reasonably have anima omnis carnis est sanguis ejus. Oicp ireirpvaBai. quibus credere cvpfioXa rwv irept rov Aiovunov opyiaapup. lib. c. 164.18 and it seems pro. apiXXupevovs Kai ipavovras dpeemv. cpra iraXaia Kai pi]P a ruv aXXup anoveis.19 during the sacred ceremony of the tri- learnedtoclassthemselveswithtbemoreexalted umph . represented by very the other the mere power of animal motion and obscene and licentious .1 and hence we find by a reunion with.) Kai apxei t ij s aXXijs 1Mystica vannus Iacchi. ou iravreXus UTtpafcoviri ra evravBa.

tenet. To irvp tcadaipei Kai t o vBwpayvifci.ix. indeed. p. No. therefore. and these waters. by which seems tohave prevailed in the Northern as well they were purified from all grosser matter. there is scarcely any people was admitted. Sic. Diodor. however. whence arose the com might properly be employed as the symbol of pound titles of the Scandinavian deities. leaping over. e£ayet rov Aecuvtos (pkoyas uirep. A.. unworthy of any serious through the fire: for. i. 4 Ovid. /cat ireptppet An. Hibernic. c. 51 of the Nile . in Ire which preceded Christianity but a short time *3Certe ego transilui positas ter in ordine Dionys. lib. but of such abominable rites. of whom the soul was supposed to be an Baal .as Eastern dialects. WKTas ets irvpKarenBei to /3pe<J>os. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. tion of the soul after death. Plutarch. Rom. always pre did occasionallysacrifice their children to their ceded initiation into the ^Egyptian and Eleusi. quod in his vitae caussa est. p. Athen. Trajicias celeri strenua membra pede. Junxerunt elementa patres : aptumque puta- s Ovid. Hal. were called the defluxion of Osi cred bonfires annually kindled in. lxxxviii. An.11 so generally practised among almost all nations and though commentators have construed the of antiquity.3 The exile at his return. women. does not appear to have been surprised or true God. Ignibus. which emanation. v. 781. iv. Even the patriarch before he was allowed to make the oblation by AJarabam. relation. acervos t as riyvi^ov. ibid. or imagined that a breach of country. ix. JEgobo- mans . The absurd tale of Canobus being the sacred historians of the Jews. v. Ovid. to suppose that it alluded to this more sacred fire. 1075. to preserve which in not have considered his daughter as included purity. men. Purification by fire is still in use among crime than fulfilling it. too. 9 Collectan.gods. which continued in use bedewed with the vapor froma sacred brand. as well as to by jumping three times through the flame of a history. 679. flames with their children in their arms. ib. tantl BpuffKovra rrjs icriaxrews t wv awpaTwv eve/ca. 10 01. Another mode of mys the Hindoos. or friend. the person im any notion that such sacrifices were odious or mersed was said to be regenerated and ani even unacceptable to the Deity. . cceptaque nostra Se/cat Ka. so severely reprobated by the stance.6 and when a Jewish proselyte and. Bal- that power. Rudbeck. Beiaav. among the ancient inhabitants of Italy to the taken flaming from the altar and dipped in later periods of Heathenism.honor of ris. lium. in India. which separated the retherial from dur. The means.8 and also amongthe native Irish . It was performed it is more consonant to reason. and children. it is still notice.2 or else by being cration to the Deity.5 A solemn ablution.4 and they appear to universe.- from a branch of laurel. Set Turba facit dubium. lib. 140. Fast. As this ceremony was supposed to startled at it. performed by mothers passing through the 166. ver. lib. iv. and even cattle. p. v. 64. ii. expressing different personi the terrestrial soul. j Omnia purgat edax ignis. lib. or passing through the sa served. P. as it was among the earliest Ro tic purification was the Taurobolium. i. 11 Ayeen Akbery. and the bride formed exactly as it is now in Ireland. e<p’ ov t t )v Ovciav 13 Moxque per ardentes atipulae crepitantis eirereKovu' /cat rovrtf irepipcuvovres t o v s irapov. or he would mated with a new soul. Biblioth. flammas.7 of it in such an instance could be a greater 167. 2. It must. and at her marriage. nian mysteries. went through ceremonies of held to be a holy and mystic means of com this kind to signify their purification and rege munion with the gTeat active principle of the neration for a new life . The rite of Ablution in fire and water. in Expositus mos est: moris mihi restat origo. as before ob land. s. lib. ix. when it was per water. and Maurice’s Antiquities 3 E<t t i Se XePvl'Pvfivp eis &airefiairrov SaAov of India.pav Kai ayvtiv Siapeveiv rijv yapm. 792. Atlant. he abandoned every former connexion in his general vow. v. vitiumque metallis BovAopievij Se avrov aOavarov iroir/<rait ras Excoquit: idcirco cum duce purgat oves. and being sprinkled with water innocent mode of purification and conse.9 an ancient title of the Sun.10 This rite was probably the pollutions and incumbrances of corporeal sub abomination.12 have been commonly practised as modes of ex 168. R. in the most cruel and barbarous manner. e/c rov iBoofxov Xanfiavovres. v. i. 727. 409. lib. hac per- 7MarshamCanonChronic. seems to have been a mystic re expression in the Bible to mean the burn presentation of this purification and regenera ing them alive. eund. Not.et sparsatangerecorpusaqua? lib. c. Virgaquerorataslaureamisit aquas. when ordered to sacrifice his only which he professed himself a subject of the son. Fast. p.9a. discordes ignis et unda dei. Habaldur. 1. v. p. quia cunctarum contraria semina rerum ras OvrjTasffapKas avrov. didit exul: 8 nvpKaias irpo t wv <j kt \vwv yeveirOai KeAevtxas Hisnovafit conjux: liaecduomagnapu- (SPwpvKos). as offerings to Baal Moloch. «3unt duo. de reb. after being circumcised. &c. 9. of parents deified Pilate of Menelaus is an invention of makingtheir sons anddaughters pass the later Greeks. and purified it fromall the fied attributes. vol. Apollodor. 192. Ovid. et Cnippin. runt 6Apuleii Metamorph. Qusest. be admitted that the piation or extenuation for private or secret Carthaginians and other nations of antiquity offences. or Criobolium of the Mithraic rites. he wasimmersed in the presence whose history does not afford some instances of three witnesses. neither could Jephtha have had wash off all stains of idolatry.

torpor. but not as encumbered with the material body. who is more date.16 breakingfromthis torpid chrysalis. The fate of the terrestrial soul. yaiTjj. or his female personification a then known to the Greeks. sua sidera norunt.mering lights and made up incoherent fables Jude:13but all that we have seen. Phars. without any reward for virtue was sacrificed soas to bathe himin the blood or punishment for vice. 720. to mark its and separate world beyond chaos. the grub becominga chrysalis ap* Menelaus was to visit while living. after which they were to en- earth. Innocuos vitsepatientes aetheris imi is ------------------tlepriv xaeos £o<pepoio. crawling upon the piously in each. the latter of whichhe Knight. than almost good. So elegant an allegory would na. and lived in the shape of a grub. Pindar. sacrificing a bull. Lucan. Homer. 458. 108—123. as well as those of punishment. Quodque patet terras inter lunaeque meatus. but a country which next state. the ancient Greek mythologists. under the mild rule of Rliadaman- man in his earthly form. Fecit. of the nn-> with it. i. Toaaov tvepO' ai'Seco. and seem to have belonged to the very different. whether a bull. or a ram. tav. and insensi. Payne wards and punishments. the former in the remote islands of the ocean. Milton’s Hell is taken from the Tartarus of 14 Olymp.. ployed by the Greek and Roman moralists as 170. was clogged and earth is spoken of in the Odyssey.systematic and consistent in his mythology lium or Victory sacrificing a ram. though it so constantly fear of punishment after death. andperhaps tions. in the cabinet of Mr. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL ^LANGUAGE in the Roman empire.18 According to turally be a favorite subject of art among a another poetical idea. Heyn. the punishments de- which flowed fromit. ii. Like other animal symbols. In its the retreat of the dead. upon which miserable existence in the darkness of the the victim. the casewas scurity. Ain.17joined of matter. Hesiod. di Roma. are of late from various sources. the di.19 favorable toart. who catched glim winged Victory. rather than to the religion. orconsi- region to which it retired at the dissolution of dered anyotherwise than as matters of pleasing the body. Pind. affordeda no less natural image could not have embellished them to suit their . a goat. 16Solemque suum. ad tions of Chaos are also drawn from the same Apoll.and mount.. into the functions of the body. but soulsthat had transmigrated fly. or the inter. 171. vi. aninsect which first appears fromthe egg three times into different bodies. Semidei manes habitant.similar region of bliss in the extremities of the vinaa particula mentis. though it was not part of the sether. 169. baov ovpavos ear ano 20 Juvenal. in ed. et aeternos animamcollegit in orbes. threnis. of Mithras the Persian mystic system does not appear to have been Mediator. and then giving themthe the soul in the funeral pile: and the butterfly setherial light of the celestial luminaries.on the other side of the globe . polar regions.places in the central cavities of the earth.were admitted. To this the composi. so frequent in the sculpturesof the third of a different. Opinions so vague and fluctuating had a subject more applicable and interesting to of course but little energy. P. as earth from heaven. apud Plutarch.barbarians of the North.20 Among the it continuedto enjoy. a natural image of death. 149. Hesiod. Lucan. Sat.and allegory. and it accord-. speaks distinctly of re coin of Abydos. are subjects of much ob. He has. p.has made up an incoherent mixture of fable bility. and feeding upon the leaves of plants. or the of it upon any coin. &c.1* Virgil peared. however. i. v. ii. Pharsal. de Cons. and mixing again with its native Tartarus tothem. or whoever was the author of the Total 8e Xapnei fjtev fievos aeXiov rav tvdaoe Theogony which bears his name. and donian conquest. thoughnot inferior author. inter fragm.without which even his powers of description ingin the air.1415 A vigor and activity of the celestial soul. . 5. quos ignea virtus 17 Phaed. A. it was by regions regularly allotted to the dead by the degrees melted into the human form. The catechumen was placed in a pit cients. there is no trace we never findeither the hope of reward. 641. as far from meaning. sublunary regions were appropriated to the ingly appears to have beenmorediversified and future residence of the souls of the great and repeated by the Greek sculptors. His descrip yvKTa Kara). The celestial or setherial soul was re. the associate of KPONOS or Time. seriously em- occurs upon gems. however. and the emancipation of centre of the earth . of the celestial soul burstingfromthe restraints purpose. who alone seemed deserving of immorta- any other. In the Odyssey it is allowed a mere covered with perforated boards. joy undisturbed happiness in this state of ulti- In this state it was aptly made an emblem of mate bliss. and spread and florished poetry. except a single instance of the Criobo. which appears anterior to the Mace. They all implicitly believed 13See Bassirel. also. by bringing the regions of recom- mediate state between the cessation of the vital pense. seemto al. on a gold than any other poet. Theog. 83. 6. so lity. and the degree of sensibility which speculation or flattering error. Being.-lx„ &c. hut a distinct original wings only being retained. lviii. 19 Qua niger astriferis connectitur axibus 15 Odyss. II.scribed being evidently allegorical. and accordingly individuals than communities. Id. when the aatherial thus. could afford.earth. aer. by its stillness. e source. The and fourth centuries. which the systemof emanations. ix. to which none presented in symbolical writing by the butter. . the higher parts of the refined and ingenious people. after Plato.52 R. 561. the reasonablemotivesfor humanactions.

being under promiscuous battle. 474. . 11. p. pent was also kept in her great temple in the j 10 Jablonski Panth. whom they a curb to their passions. was restore the killed and wounded to their former more fixed and systematic than that of the strength and. 15The celebrated statue of her at Athens . they were not only worshipped together in the 175. x. iii. are the same. c. for the same reason. sometimes as the husband of Grace or Mind the perfection of wisdom. where they we have less knowlege of it. Tim. but extraneous matter. and ferent personifications of fire were by them drink mead and ale out of the skulls of their more accurately discriminated . Hence the dif were to feed upon the flesh of a wild hoar. 758. 'EAAt ivkt t i Se. 5 Cicer. so that they are Greek mythologists to have delivered Minerva only to be distinguished by the adscititious fromthe head of Jupiter . i. 37. Kac Adyvas (ayaAjxa) eiriK\‘r)<Tiv kou rav- 11 'H t ijs jroAecos apxVYOS effnv Aiywrrtffrit tjs ’Tyieias. A6i)v. 6. and the Latins dulged with beautiful women. fiev rovvo/xa Nt jiO. 13 ------------Errct puva Zeus roye Ovyarepuv 2 Syncell. whether of fyingthe active and passive powers of destruc creation. tians calledNeith. and the second in wisdom. Force and his character in the primary.13for as wisdomis the most ex by means of fire. a 1’Hist. evidently a mystic allegory. signi symbol of almost every attribute. As firewas supposed to he the medium and Sciences. tion by the invisible exertions of the universal her proper symbol was the owl. or accurately re Mars and Venus. lib.15 tion and generation fixedin their mutual opera 176. with what they conceived to be the contraction 'HAtos for HeAios is utterly incom most exquisite of all possible enjoyments. with which the Attic in the next. pent. As the operations of both art and na one endowed with all the attributes of the su ture were supposed to be equally carried on preme Deity . lib. s. Jablonsk. v. of Vulcan detecting monuments of art still extant. &c. Platon. its eye dist. 5. called by the same titles. by Phidias held a spear. patible. xxiv. Pausan. the general personification of it does still inthe modern Coptic. vigor.11wasconsidered as the god called a Hermheracles fromits having the cha-. 0. Ode xii. when considered as attri the mystic or philosophical religion of the butes of the Deity. is an in sonification. owing to its early subversion. ep. a bird which agent. Mercury the conductor was nearly signified the Ordinator or Regulator. whom they call Hermes and Mercury. Hymn. eis trraSup vaos. p. The Egyptian worship. here alluded to. de Danemarc. c. 3 See coins of Esernia. Fhthas. Vulcan is spoken of by the alted quality of the mind. 266-369. i. Panth. Paus. was brought into action. the thus tomake their religiona stimulus insteadof Minister of Fate. 124.8 and the consideredher asmale and female.and refinement of organic perception . This pure emanation. dess both of Force and Wisdom. v. Egypt. near which was a ser 8 Odyss. and provide a sumptuous Greeks.12 and the Greeks. rys IlaAA. and bis. all its attributes Elegance. a the means bywhichthe wisdomofthe omnipo near affinity with Hercules. the pure emanation of the Divine personification of the diurnal sun: wherefore Mind. Before the human formwas adopted. ad Attic. lib. after which Odin was to the direction of a permanent Hierarchy. xxiii. the parent of Arts 172. as related to Vulcan. Orph. to signify that fire acts son. i. Chron. His statues that element. 0. A sacred ser 9 Herodot.14 and upon story which it contains.12and the only 173. but requires the sustenance of some presented himnot only with the same cap. or destruction. lib. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY* 53 that their valor in this life was to be rewarded the Homeric language. Every morning they were to fight a great and 174. under whose di ture . re not alone. c. Lysistrat. iii. 382.6*j rank of the secondary deities. being the primitive universal element. Awnev Adavaia srarpuia iravra ipepecrBai. Aoyosf AQt]va. which the ^Egyp same temple. .in some instances. ii. to have been symbols. owl. preservation. in Attic. another.Egypt. lib*i. that is. us enetvuv s. 6 Iliad2. Acropolis. i Odyss. therefore..9 andhis name to. i.and Minerva arebut different titles for one per cus in the Odyssey. 132- 4 'HpaicXeovs Se koivos kou 'Ep/xov it pos rtf 14 Apirr/u kou flrjAtis erpvs. Aristoph. Phthas was said to be the father through which the soul passed from one state ofall their Cabiri or chief gods . and confining them in invi corded. though. lib. and Bellona Greeks: for the whole of the song of Demodo. in which almost 12 Proximos illi tamen occupavit every symhol occasionally accompanies the Pallas honores. c. general in all stages of society are apt to or principle of life and motion in matter. and the Divine poets. whom enemies till night. Both the Greeks and Egyptians terpolation of a much later date. See also medals of Athens. . the first in racteristic forms or symbols of both mixed. considered as the tent Father. Lipara.101and he was fabledby the also with the same features. entertainment for them in his hall.7 the first of which appears to have been rection its power is always exerted.which to all 1 Mallet Introd. Anu- fashion their belief to their dispositions. Horat.1 Mankind in Vulcan. et 13. and Thoth. andinserted by some rhapso. 266. It was -probably composed as a seems to surpass all othercreatures inacuteness hymn to Vulcan.6 and sometimes of Venus or Na are the attributes of wisdom.3 He has also. Callimach.45but blended into the samefigure. who did not understand the character of being calculatedto discern objects. eis Aovt . when they were to be in the Greeks call Hephaistos. s. she is represented with almost every sible chains. fire. The Egyptians called him his were represented lame. Pausan.

sitting upon the back of a wingedhorse noticed. and 179. as well sacred animal among the Egyptians. P.20 It occurs very frequently rarely occurs in Gfeek sculptures. already hand. The ^Egyptians are said to have repremonkeywitha sphinx on each side of her head. 3 Hence the avSpoireptyyes of Herodotus. and the latter by 178. fromthe great nutritive prin form and consistency .nature. into newinsects. lib. in the the form of a robust female figure. and is sometimes continues to be in some parts of Tartary and with the owl. upon the tion and winnowof separation under its wing body of the lion. with a se hair . TovSe7)\iov Tip KavBapcp (aireiKafov ol Aeyv. Whenthe animal symbolswere changed that of Medusa. p. In a beautiful intaglio.Egyptian sculptures. the tail of which ter dence of the Deity by the black beetle. ii. uorrep Soaei t ov ovpavov 6 r/Xios eis title of Minerva. that it has been usually decorated with some animal symbol. lib. 20 Plutarch. Payne tion. re times with those of the generative or pre-' gulates. the emblem. et Osir. Knight is a figure of Isis upon the back of a 177. that is. which it had previously collected.1 As a symbol. Greek. and employs the productive powers of serving •attribute. we find the owl with the hook of attrac cation. The helmet is nate effluvia with such nicety. Orph. &c. lays its eggs in a ball of dungor other ferment as the name indicates. Minervawas represented under with serpents. both . Strom. i. but was a upon Phoenician.18or Divine Wisdom controlling and both sexes. Alex. airep- which the nocturnal clamors of the screech-owl paiveiv re eis T7jv aepaipav rear yevvrjv. in T/iTiiia t o Jcoovt o vt o inrep yns SicurcurBai. appevas Se iravras acptevai t ov yovov eis t t )v 675. when no other can per frequently with a spear.'lib- 19 Horapoll. pressed by the title of Gorgo. and. p. the sym able matter. and sometimes with the head India .3 In tbe stand of a mirror of very regulating the waters when endued with mo ancient sculpture belonging to Mr. therefore. instead of that of the eagle. 18 Pausan. which minates in a phallus.*2signifying result of this dominion. The monkey very emblemof the Sun. but elegant and intelligent countenance. in the symbolical com the dominion of water instead of fire : whence position of a male figure holding a bowin his came the symbol of the flying horse. the gry tridity of death. which is a species of gry ease. or the sphinx. pi.17 A similar of a horse. kcu OijAw have really foretold death. bol of the passive generative or productive and armed with a helmet. so as to comprehend the attributes of Pegasus. fab. In other instances the female head terminating in the tail of a dolphin . on which he rests his harpe.19 andwhich some have supposed to be an and others before noticed. after which it buries it ciple of nature. and most hear sounds distinctly. having the head of tbe female personifi coins. beneath and breast of the sphinx are joined to the body which are waves and another fish. Strom. i. lib. i. the goat-skin. sented the pervading Spirit or ruling provi-^ and another in her hand. ME-i t o s avaroKas <f>epopevos. as well as ceive themat all. ii. and generally covered with plumage . 1.the work of Anteros. de Is. until it acquired the proper Jupiter . of which appears to have been a symbol of the the Deity. even in the first stages of dis phon. and some dom. upon the small brass coins of naryproperty is nowuncertain. Plutarch. the serpent. and breast power'. t/v KvKtvSovtnv aVTifiaSrjv5 rOPTXl is said to have been a barbarian wBovvres. which in these compositions is al meaning was veiled under the fable of Mi ways male. shield. Perseus sustains the Medusa in his nAaaauevos. deemed prophetic from discovering the pu such as the owl. x. bol of the productive power. its ear to plate. v. 2 See Medals of Velia. the emblems of preservation. while on the reverse is represented the is composed of the eagle and horse. while the Gorgo occupies the centre of a Kai Qaptivov piev vno yr/s. as BENAEIA and AIKTTNNA t ovvaVTiov irepuTTp&peiv. de Is.4exhibited sometimes with the character ployed to signify the attribute of Divine Wis and expression of the destroying. to showthe dominion of Divine Wisdom over not unfrequent upon the helmets of Minerva. of destruction. . and Etruscan. and occasionally with almost every sym vere. Another kind of gryphon. vulgar notion. xxxii. iv. et AOT2A is tbe participle of the verb MEAG to Osir. the ram. The segis or breast-plate of Minerva is. where thejoint operation of heat serpents. iv. in Clem. avros airo Svtrpia>v eiri were of Diana. and its nostrils to discrimi the instrumeut. but on account of what real or imagi of Minerva. Athens. which directs. belonging to Mr. or ruling Providence. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE others are enveloped in darkness. the former of which is ex .5 It is sometimes represented for the human.16 On some very ancient Phoenician phon. It is of the androgynous class. Palaephat. c. as well as that of the lionin the nerva’s putting the bridle into the mouth of sphinx . c<j7rov. 17 See Dutens Medailles Phonic. it might naturally have been em Moon. Clem. c. 380. v. moisture matures and vivifies the germs and in the centre of it is the Gorgo or Medusa.64 It. c. it being the female personification of 16 Of this we have known instances. Alex. Oarepov Set ov erovs shield. Payne jrrtor) ETTfiOr) KvicAorepes en t t js (Soeias ovBov Knight. 4 Topyovtov t t jv cre\7jv7)v Sia t o ev avry irpotr- 1 To 8e KavQapov yevos ovk *Xelv \eiav. It is always surrounded with in the sand. fabled to have and rolled backwards and forwards upon the been taken from the goat -which suckled sand of the sea. govern or take care of. and sometimes with fish. . v. as it still as . according to the ttavQapov fit) yiveadai. avriirpoo'wjros KuAivSei’ (pcifjI hand. fftpatpoiroiovfifVTiv vKrjv. so that it is a compound frequents the shores of the Mediterranean symbol of the same kind as the chimsera Sea.

Ppoptos. A eivif re. ' Hcpaiaros An SauceQopifpevai es <pof3ov avtiptev. fj. Kai avi<rrii<rt tiia t ijs Kivrfoetes tj yeve- Orpovovo* tevar ev tie irOevos wpcrev eiccurrou ins«. tin rijs ipBopas ffvvtieovirns Kai iorafftfS. 712. and not for defence. which tic devotion. 6 rov fjAiou kvkAos E. consecration. whence Jupiter is said South of Italy. Tijs eicarov Bvtravoi irayxpwreoi rjepedovro. Symposiac. and the sistrum of Isis.17 as the symbo borne and not worn. seems to be bull. Trj<r8’ airarTfS Korewv. 12 2oi fxev KtxTapxou. Tyr. xv.. x. tirfAouvres. The title Priapus. 180. which ap poets. ablutions. seems epithets of similar meaning being continually to have been something very different from the applied both to Jupiter and Bacchus by the symbolical breast-plate or thorax. apiirpeve'. East. still extant. lib. The Lacedaemonians beat upon a brass vessel 6 See authorities before cited. and Apollo.14 Even the Jews wel- round the neck. c. aav . 308. ' Auvrfv. however.6 and this fe.' 8 Meral-u tierail/ Kepewv.ifxrip. eKaro/xfioios tie eiccurros. is likewise upon brought on by the influence of an adverse the head of Isis and Osiris. apud Strab. sonified in poetry. - Avros eirunrevgtriv epepvifv aiyttia warn Ovid.13 ancient inhabitants of the British Islands. occa. ii. ap.19 and the Bramins still effects above mentioned. 5. as sacred emblems. thoughinstead evidently meant to be worn as amulets with the of serpents. 14Schol. the golden bulla originally the motion of the elements. 13 Tov yap Tvcpaiva <paari rois treurrpois arro- Aiyiti' exovtr' * * * * * * epinpov Tpeiretv Kai avaKpoveadai. and it seems that the same to have overcome the Titans with his asgis. hung them. 16 Such as epiPpeperris. 17 Bronzi d’Ercolano. it was probably nothing male personification was the symbol of the more than a symbolical instrument. 9 ---------—Mera tie yAavKonris AOrjvrf. rfv apa x«A. and the Diskbetweenhorns. xcviii. qu. rfv irept fiev iravrrf <pof3os eoreipavwrat• Isle of Man. ev tie Kpvoe<r<ra lump Knight. as it still is in the bells of Bacchus. Among the Romans. rrfv <pvrriv. vi. Et rogat ut tectis exeat umbra suis. apipitiaaeiav.Temesaeaque concrepat sera. too. Plutarch. . Ap<f>t S’ ap' copoicriv jSaAer* aiyitia Ovcaavoea- Max. in the Iliad. and piter.7 One three inches in diameter. 10Aiyiti' exovo* epinpov. &c. 441. 132. A. Tlavres evwAeicees’. adavarrjv re. Dissert.. v.8 merely a corruption of BPIAIITOS. Exod. &c. 15 Numer. Herodot. MeyxAoi f>o[xf3oi Kv/xflaAov.12the crescent by the women. 446. Kai rvprravi^eadai Kara ras Sie£o- 11 -------------------Ex? S’ aiyitia Oovpiv Sovs. which customis still preserved in became so splendid and magnificent when per the Catholic Churchat theelevationofthe host. atOept vaiuv. 36. is in the collection of Mr. rjSe paxetrOat» . by which the gene those of their animal symbols the cow and rative attribute is distinguished.'15 sionally appears worn in like manner upon the which the simplicity of the early ages em- figures of Juno or Ceres.. and also the high-priest of the tassels.11 and to have fur their prayers. 1 that of the late C. lib. like the or disk was worn by the young men. the Jews. in Theocrit. found in the Aeivifv. it phalli. KapSiy. signifying Moon. p. Zeus tie <r<pivKpovitiifs. B.evos eireon xpvtreos* ewn tierf f}ovs opBif. and another.and magnificence. however. tav.7 Each symbol. of all this splendor antiquity represented the Sun. vo<popeurOai. Townley. xxviii.. ayrfpaov.corned the new Moon with such noises.. found in Lancashire.9 and to wear themwas a part of the worship of The name A2gis.18 whence we that it is derived from the same source and sometimes find them of extremely small size. as Well as upon power. by which almost all the nations of 181.10* Vulcan is said to continue to ring a small bell at the intervals of have made it for Jupiter. ofxeptivrf re. 738. or other symbolical ornaments. pears in monuments of art nowextant. avBis avaAvet ZSvv rji iraupcurirovcra tiiefftrvro Aaov Axouaiv. ev S’ AAktj. to their shaking and rattling of which produced the sacerdotal garments.. too. and other acts of mys nished it with all those terrific attributes. 719. lib.16 Many Priapic figures. Pindar.. aAXrfKTOV iroAe/xfieiv. p. epiytiowros. 18 AtovvaiaKov tie---------rovs /SaaiAeas Kaitiai- B. IlaioviKov tiurKOs ppaxvs xnrep fxanpov (vAou. viii. vipifruyos. and used to excite lical statues and temples of the Hindoos have. 19 Plutarch. or knobs. ii. Stripped. clamorous . still seems to imply Bacchus among the Greeks. Kevs c. it being have bells attached to them. iv. . 10. See also O. and the ringing of bells and clatteT of metals several of both having been found made of were almost universallyemployed as a mean of thin beaten gold both in England and Ireland. 447. Marep.. AND MYTHOLOGY. supposed then to be morbid affections which seemto forma crescent. which cannot always ployed almost everywhere to relieve her during be discriminated . 55 the Disk... as symbolical amulets were in use among the Isis drove away Typhon with her sistrum. OF ANCIENT ART. and 318. Esq. The segis employedoccasionally by Juthe B and n being commutable letters. Megasthen. de Is. courage or instil fear. t. Minerva. The chief-priests of the appears to have been decorated with golden ^Egyptians. in Ev tie re Topyeitf KeipaArj Seivoio ireAupov. Ilamves ffefiovai rov 'HAiov ayaA/xa tie 'HAtov O. >Atos repas aiyioxoto. Payne Ev S' Epis. lunulae. the cymbals of Cybele. and a charm against the destroy- which were evidently intended to be hung ing and inert powers. composedof the same material. irapa aAA’ ev youvaoi Kei/xevrf. v. et Osir. lib. 308. 166. &c. . Idyl. eclipses. Strab. hanging loosely fromit. x.

aKpljSEKjt Kai \€7TTOT7)Tl flaUJUOffTOV €OTl. Symposiac. being thought to resemble the by states. p. 157. 4Seecoinsof Agrigentum.5 and the incarnate Deity.56 R.20 and we sionally employed as an accessary to the cha still retain the customof tolling a bell on such riot. which occasions. qu. 10 ---------Cuperent lustrari. Wynkyn de Worde.”------“ I amthe fire residing in the bo contributed to fecundate and organise terres dies of all things which have life. P.“ the evil spirytes that Phurnut. fiv Ta uaioptva rots uepavvois a<ptt]- 3 Kat O uouffi auTofli aarrpairais>Kai OvtWais. Lucian. ancient Indian poem. c. de Is. purifications. The vehicle itself appears from objects stricken by it being the same as likewise to have been a symbol of the passive that which arises from the mineral. as well as the productive attri- 20Schol. 90. &c. and by the fish. and cease of the movying of the (riv ol yeapyoi. lib. Aeivt) 8e $\o£ copTOOeioio koiopevoio. 769. Wings were sometimes blems of the same kind as those which com added. 11 Otjuai Kat to Oeiov wvopaoBai ttj ipjoiorifri Allifa. while they bolt. and is still oftener remnants of ancient ceremonies still exist represented alone upon coins. lib. parts of the great machine of the universe and tempest. vopxvoi t t )v atp’ irypov Tpo<pt]v avrav Kai ysvecriv* Iliad. and Quadrig®. has co thondreth. 182. such as the lion destroying the bull. to signify its swiftness and activity. on the death of their kings.--------t o Kfpavvtov irvp XoKkov tj <ri5i)pou ire<pevyt.— rats ffpotnats . The coruscations which accompany posed.*12 while the Greeks. lib. 1 *' It is said. whichisthereasonofthenumber tive and prolific than anyother water:8 whence of Big®. ii. which scarcely ever falls there without whom the horse was a symbol of humidity. and has no re andthe obelisks were twisted into spiral forms. See. Plutarch. Sulphura cum taedis. not merely of the destroying attribute. An opinion very generally prevailed but of the Divine nature in general: whence among the ancients. which fre sustained by exhalations drawn fromthe humi quently suffer from drought. Almost every other symbol is occa. c. tempeste. pose the sphinx and chimmra. the ori 183. inTheocrit. p. or them.. 2. descendingfromignited clouds. men were generative power.under it. PlU- 15. Plutarch. as well as of de reference to the public games. ii. to which its name in the Greek language Victory accompanying. and when grete tempeste and out pied nature more accurately than anyEpic poet rages of wether happen. • Kat fipovTais. which. Plutarch. et si foret liumida 5t i T7)J»A<J>po5iT7)v appa KaXovaiv. c*29. semblance whatever to the fabulous monster to showthe whirl in the air caused by the va describedin the Odyssey. among rain. . 6 Bagvat Geeta.. ben in the regyon of th’ ayre doubte moche 7 Grateful as thunder in summer.4which is a combination of em and destructive power. si qua darentur 3 ----------Owe A«X<J>ous tXeyxei Xypowras. “I amthe thunder andthat the luminaries of heaven. Deor. Sat. which we find the thunderbolt was employed as the emblem upon coins: for they could not have had any of fecundation and nutrition. laurus. iv. Amator. Pausan. Symposiac. Trig®. says. to the end that the except Homer. 2. Juvenal.7 This rain. with spikes or arrows diverging from tion. were in their turn nourished and South-Eastern parts of Europe. vii. feindes andwycked spirytes sholdbe abashed 8 To 8’arrrpairaia rroV vSaraiv c1/0X87} kclKov- and flee.10 The Chariot. that all the constituent the Arcadians sacrificed to thunder.3but the same meaning is more as having an affinity with divine or astherial frequently expressed by the figure called a fire . qu. rnv."notwithstanding his frequent the cause whythe belles ben rongen when it and close imitations of the ancients. in an were mutually dependent upon each other. HeracleainItaly. 1. as well as by Jupiter.” p. et Osir. v. thus signifying its luminous essence the Scylla. was supposed tobe impregnated with electric sometimes bythree. cuum proceeding fromthe explosion . a great part ofthemhavingbeen struck its explosions. iv. de Nat.tvyap(t o rpaapara) i)v\po<povanovari T7)S dep/ioTTjTos avapu^is.”6 In the trial matter. iroWauis 6Sup avveuiriirret yovipov atria 8e7} E«€ivap. Philops. any more than that of other ties. and therefore to be more nutri theseanimals. kou vopi^ovai. the ancient artists joined two some instances we have observed composite obelisks pointing contrary ways fromone cen symbols signifyingbothattributes inthis situa tre.11 To represent the some other symbol of the waters. O. ^Egyptians placedthepersonificationsoftheSun because it is almost always accompanied with andMoonin boats. not beingof Hellenic origin. who. it. whence the nature:9 wherefore the flames of sulphur were Delphians called Venus bythe singular title of employedin all lustrations. or has been supposedtorefer. aivir.. and among themthe thunderbolt. as has been sup struction. tarch. In thunderbolt. 2 'HAmiv 8e «ai treXrjvrjv o«x appaffiv a\\a 9 A(J>7]/c’ apyr/ra Kepavvov nXeiois oxrjjuatri xpcopevousirepnrXeiv act. tt }s oo'/xtjs.86 and 113. Hence the teemed a grateful rather than terrific sound. thoughthe reason of it is not gene is sometimes borne by Minerva and other dei rally known. and sometimes by four of or mtherial fire. is a simile when they here the belles rongen: and this is of Tasso’s. thunder is es dityof theearth andits atmosphere.” says the Golden Legend by At fjfierepai ipuxat irvp curt. or the means by which the led to believethat its fireswere of a sulphurous emanations of the Sun acted.gin of which. lightning. having been an ing. glimmering flashes which proceed fromburning had never the privilege of entering the lists on sulphur.1 emblem. drawnsometimesbytwo. and the smell of the fixed air arising those occasions. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE or pan. placedtheminchariots.

12 riding upon aram. Seleucia. rrjs voAeus Oeos apxvyos eoriv. p. Hymn. religion. Rudbeck. p. ii. they kept it. On some of the coins of the corresponded with the Jupiter. in her character of Bel. it of Greece were continually changing inha is more simply composed of flames only. rrai Ila- Ttriffti fiev Tovvofia NijiO. Pref. or productive of light. ver. and being 4AI0EPOnAArKTO2.1 According to Jab- longing to Mr.13 the elephant havingbeen. which was usually half-human elephant’s skin upon her head instead of the ised. the most ancient people blemof the universal agent fire. who explainsit fromthe modern Coptic. when they use the word Sir. Fic. i. Thucyd. that this was calling each 17 Aito t ovt ov Kpioiroffanrov t ov Atos rcoyaA/ia other Ammonians. vol. lib. i.14 cation to the Deity.Zeus 8e• Te iravruv etrn Oeos. is usually seen 186. Bryant says. 146. but at Sais in A2gypt.3 temple of the North. et Luna gens prior ilia fuit. Jupiter of Bacchus. and the French that the symbol of Mercury.*12 position showing the passive and active powers It may therefore have been applied with equal of generation and destruction. s. Atyv. tt ]v <puvi}v. Antiochus VI. . Herodot. 354. 19 Tov irpurov Oeov (Apavv) Tcp iravn t ov 2 Panth. ASgypt. was signified by the aquatic plants. s. trampling upon. but young and beardless. Herodot. Ammon was opened a communication with India. teat that the English. it supplies the looski. lib. as among the Gentoos .16 184. Elis. Orph. 42.worship. in Eliac. mean to call each other Sirites. and thence lib. and at others bearing a torch. as attributes to propriety to either Jupiter or Pan. Ammon. Gesn. and Minerva. B. x. Mi the deity most commonly represented under nerva was frequently represented with the this symbol. bon. the most ancient and revered lona . the symbol of divine wisdom in the celebrated oracular temple in Libya. . of the Select helmet . de Is. through the mass of universal matter. which the Macha Alla. the He is also called the pervader of the sky4 12 See coins of Syracuse. in his probos of Greece. 12. 3 — ------------------------Zeus S KfpatTTrts. vol. c. ed. antiquary of this school will probably discover eovres Aiyvirriw re teat AiOtomov airoiKOi. lib. 474. <pwvauri Te aepoputrois. sagaciously infer that Britain was first peopled 18Appovv yap Aiyvirrtot KuAovtri t ov Aia. in which formhe was worshipped immemorial.. and the other. as diffused handle of a vase. The ram has been already noticed as employ the title of Lord. xxviii.: * than that they were anterior to the established 14 See those of Seleucus I. 7.the Lycaean Pan. in the Orphic Hymns. means no more rus. Platon. with the Pan19 of the Greeks. ’E\Aijvio t i Se. j Pausan. in the same manner as we 185. 354. ornament for the visor of the helmet. v. s. Herodot. Hymn. an inference quite as pro Lib. p. 1 SirevSovffi Kai 'Hpa t o Apfioivia. fxoov. Some future iroievm AlyvirTtor airo Se Aiyvnruov Afipeovioi. be applied to other deities. 57 bute. 42. c. fromSiris in Italy . Serr. were ascertained. rams are placed at the feet. No. viii. p. After the conquests of Alexander had Among the ^Egyptians. lib.. the elephant is represented with to others. Jn another small bronze of one being the luminous aetherial spirit consi very ancient workmanship. which has been the dered abstractedly. di bitants. p. de Is. sometimes drawing the probably he was something between both. p. and it appears to have been oc it seems to have represented some attribute of casionally compounded with other words. as the it signified precisely the same as the epithet sphinx does that of the crest. iravrasv re runtur Kepaorijs Arcades. the em deityof the Arcadians. with an owl in her hand. s. and some of the Ptolemies. lib ii. bable as most of this learned gentleman’s. &c. fromtime Specimens . as well as of solemn invo his tail. 12. 559. king of Epirus. fig. v.20 His title was employed by the cis. Stra. lib. AQtjva. 'Efcaraios b AfiSr/pirris (prjffi rovrep Kai irpos Ti/iatrt 'Sanai irpof&aTov Kai ©TjjSatTot. avTov vopufavtri. Upon some try.1* upon a small bust of whom. 20 Ante Jovem genitum terras hahuisse fe. or god the ram’s horns. et Osir. of an androgynous figure Pan is called. at Upsal. bravriva vpocricaAavTar itpoffKAiynieiivyap eivai 16 01. by which the divine personifications &c. the Divine Wisdom. of destruction of the Tartars.ovs Tcp pripan XPO^Bai t ovs Aiyvmiovs. i. and the horns of the bull. according to some accounts. s. and described as their meaning. et Osir. from great Scandinavian goddessIsa was represented which they sprang. Ovid. 1. xvii. Mr. the whole com Lycasan.pappMVi. Plutarch. Hence and lions at the head. ii. 13. IIvevpaffi avpifav. and the cornucopia. that is 1ucid. 7. in towards each other. H \ . however. of Seigneur. Plutarch. 1. i. Timse. Fast.aWijA. &s eicei.18andaccording Seleucidse. whose godGonnis or Pol. the result of its exer ^Egyptians as a common formof appellation tion under the direction of divine wisdom. c. and made distinct objects of 15Toutou tou vo/jlov fieyurrri sroAis Setts-----. Fragm. like chariot of Minerva. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY.17 and wasthefather of lear is represented by a figure of this animal that Bacchus who is equally represented with half-humanised . xv. ii. in Sweden. as it appears in pi. 'Epjuov Se eiriKAr/o'is eoTiv S Hapa/i- v<ev \oyos. king of Epi terior to Jupiter and the Moon. whilst the more fertile parts of the most ancient of the latter. Atlant. Payne Knight. however. ii. ver. (pcourfu /iera£v a/uporepav vo/u^ovres.well as that of Thebes . andin the ancient metropolitan harmonising them by the music of his pipe. verging both ways. 1043. Pausan. They were of the Pelasgian race. 209. ii. which still more distinctly shows the mover of'all things. Their being an 13 See coins of Alexander II. 2S9. Alex in possession of a poor and mountainous coun ander I.

tudes with the same female. s.). Deipnos. over the latter of which is written N0022. and it would scarcely have been quite naked. dances were symbols. in the same atti. kcu t uv wpa. lib. 8 'H yovv xopeia t uiv acrrepuv. and this Arcadian Pan was the associate or husband over the former AAK02whilst he himself is of Rhea.honored by a statue in some distinguished atti- ment was it carried. 194—206. which they of the goat half-humanised . antXaveis ruv rrhavriTuv trvpurXoiai. kcu cvt cikt os appcovia. xix. i. avrcov Koivavia. ed. excellence in which was often their reach. the wife of Ulysses . 703. and Hercules.11 To such a degree of refine. and certified to the organs and exploits with the most perfect skill. however. resulting from some of themhaving thehalf-humanised horse. both of which were under the direction ter. and painting. and derived his subordinate ministers or personified which was their only act of worship. aWuv Oeuv" atr‘ ov Be eirvdovro xPovovt coco 10Poetic. Hvvoiv icuJ/tjs. Lucian. Macrob. The highest which explained the conceptions of was that which exhibited military exercises the mind. Tituri. too. Pyth. sufficient. or in the genuine poem of exemplary gravity. IIA- 5 *AAiriAArKT02.6 which title is expressed in the Latin of Pan.Vase was found. riav a\iir\ayiere 13 Ibid. Fauns. cian couldin words. lib. of which these divine figures. SYLVA. Ajac. AAKH. 1. 43. 12for the truth of which. Among the Greeks all dancing was of dancing. and the mythologists of later times political rank and dignity.9 and consequently the same as distinguished by the title MOAK02: so that Saturn. however. Lucian. xxvi. in Pind. i. that the philosopher there being no mention of him in either the Socrates. c. Opxvpura avrodari 16 Ib. P. perhaps. the one male and the other female. plishment. c. and the latter of high of Hesiod.’is one systemof his sect in such gesticulations.16 The ancient Both in Greece and AEgypt. c. t ijs irpoi. Toyovov opxvcreus SeiypcaTa sot t. called Satyrs. to opxv^caii. citedby Athe. In a choral ode of Sophocles. tpavijO’.19and we stronglysuspect. and 'TAH. introduces the Father of Gods and men time of their becoming of public worship. ibid. being the principle of uni name Sylvanus. and sacred to Jupiter. held insuch high esteem.58 R. of 'EAtojt'es rovTwv ra ovvopLura. who could display the whole commonlycalled‘ThefightingGladiator. 22. Lucian. 17 Lucian. 112. condescended to having made hima son of Mercury by Pene- cultivate it as an useful andrespectable accom. which held so high a rank the mimetic kind: wherefore Aristotle classes among liberal and sacred arts. in the and others the figure commonly called Silenus. of what it was meant to express. KCUSslKTl/CIJ.mystic deities. as the Nyssian were to Bac* the Arcadians called himthe Lord of mat. where the which is no other than Pan. kcu evpvdpos 19 Athen. he is principle. iii. that the terrestrial genealogies of the his lyre with the dance. t ovt ov yeveriXoyeovai avreuv ttjv ytvecw. 7 Tlav. was ceremonial in all mystic rites:13 whence it was wholly unknown to the first race of poets. he is re being the author and disposer of the regular presented playing upon a pipe. like other mystic deities. lib. 146. Pan was com- Indians. bearing date from the supposed naeus. de 20 AtjAo not uv yeyove 6ri vovepov errvOovro Saltatione. avev IleTpaias arroSeipaSos. xiv. was entirely it with poetry. 6 Tov Ttjs uAtjs Kvpiov. vuv ffaQrivurrucrj. He- 11 Mi/17)T1K17Tis CffTlV €7rf0T7JyU77. xvii.8 According to Pindar. c. - &euv x°P0lr0»’ aval. music. 'YAFA. ib. in proportion to the dignity or indignity a science of imitation and exhibition.established harmony. rodot. that Athenseus speaks of tude . and the poet Sophocles. Aj. Pan. km f) repos t o ps 18 Sophocl. ii.17 Among emanations. in ordinary Greek. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE and of the sea. more of them.7 as earthen vase of Greek workmanship. Sat. The ancient 187. Bacchus. s.Schweig.. mind and strength . 138. ij ra t u v 9 Schol.1 fromwhich are performed every morning and evening.15and a Corinthian poet. c. partook of the nature of all the being the same word written according to the other gods. ib. Dancing was also a part of the 188. and he of his general lawof pre addressed by the title of Author and di. there beinga very decided character clearly and strongly than a professed rhetori.mere fables. ibid. a fiction. grace of sense things naturally beyond and agility. paid their devotions to the Sun monly represented under the symbolical form bya dance imitativeof his motions. versal order. Sophocl. and esteemed honorable or other- equally an imitative art:101and Lucian calls it wise. ancient dialect of Magna Gracia. and MOAIIH.chus. kcu ruv (vvoTjOevTwv e^ayopcvrua). the same as NOY2. 1 rpcupovmre Sri kcu yXvcpovai of {faypacpoi . they being personifications of par- different modes of pronouncing of different ticular modes of acting of the great all-ruling dialects. Pan. between two motions of the universe.14The author of the Homeric Hymn best accounted for by the conjecture of Hero- to Apollo describes that God accompanying dotus.18 who. whence upon an ancient rector of the dances of the gods. with whomhe seems to be confounded this composition explicitly shows him in the in the ancient coins above cited (s. are ties .5 to signify the principle of the Greeks the Cnosian dances were peculiarly order diffusedthrough heaven and earth. character of universal harmony. joined by other dei. the attempt being had it represented any event of history. we donot vouch. in 1. 12 Deipnos. these titles being.of individuality both in the formand features . KtiWavias xt0V°Krvirov TeXertiP apxcuav ovSepuav. the Odyssey. that the figure a Pythagorean. Nimrta Kvuairta 15 Ver. dmtus pioi 14 Athens. as being imitative. both persons Iliad. eanv evpetv.20 employed in the same exercise. c.lope.

See also Callimach. and ASschyl. II. allowed thema Mendes. lib. fiovov bpteaiv avrov (rov Airiv) at yvvantes. Z. 78. BdKaaarts eaxarov. Bruce’s drawing. too. frequently occur as emblems of the waters Neither dothey appear to have been known in upon coins . Burney’s History of Music. its answer was. Dr... k m naaa 6a. people.A’ bfxoiov 10 01. 4>. ov fioi rjfiiov eon Aeyeiv. Bairep Kai irapa rots 'EAAijert rertpyaBai Aeyovai 2 See print from Mr. at exova opeuv Mireiva Kapijva. the symbol of harmony. aA. Kai tppeiara fiaxpa vaov. cxxxvi—vii.101 The pedum. c. to and applying the skin. as well as in Greece. male progeny of the Ocean . ii. 195. Catull. 46. and embellishment of an idea. to introduce similar acts of devotion in pear strainedand contracted . Ka. xv. 123. Upon monuments of an place in most of their temples. all the muscles of his face and body ap-iOtimes. to the k m ol ayaAptaroirotot rov Tlavos rtayaApa. they seem to have been consi office:14. 420. character he is confounded with Priapus. 14Tour re iepeis rovs irapaAafiovras irarpittas Desmot. i. 78. ii. v. Prometh. before they assumed the sacerdotal meric times. Kara 6 The figures are frequent in collections ofvpoffuirov iarapevai. consisted in the more exalted genealogy. whomgeesewere particularly sacred.3 their parent had long in iEgypt. were wholly unknown to the ancient poets. prior to their departure.6 metres caper hirtus inito s” but these mystic In one instance. 15 MevSt/ra irapa Kprjpvov. 802. as well as their parent. lib. Atlant. while in both the phallus sulted upon the long-continued barrenness of is of disproportionate magnitude. NeiAov Kepas. Denon. 6 Ovfie /3aQvppeirao peya aBevos Cltteavoto . and the bull Apis. that he carried out the pipe. Pan is sometimes represented ready to it seems the former often accepted.. . 59 NI2KOI. v. cut into thongs. in the former of tempt seems to have been made. in early which. the great end and purpose of companions of the river gods. 9 See coins of Clazomen® in Pellerin. he appears pouringwater upon refinements not being understood by that rude it. 13 Ibid. 189. lib.* Swans. to signify the means and and extensive surveyof the sameruins. as before observed. tav. nothing of the kind. xciii. to signify the Roman matrons. II. and sometimes taste of the latter was. Pan. Sic. 4 the sonifications. 11 Tov fie rpayov aireBeaxrav (Atymrioi) m- Herodot. had been long known: for Priapus. Rudbeck. ypatpovai avrov. 249. Ibid. Kai Traaat ttprjvai. X*<r6at rovrip rep Betp. An at exhibiting the result of it. he more exactly answers to.9 when there may be larly fortunate as to find a mask of a caprine some allusion to the ancient notion of their Satyr upon an ancient ^Egyptian lyre repre singing.Eufie rats irpoeipij/ievais rerrepaKovff ripepais aiv. “ Iliadas that it represented the predominant attribute. xvii. 7 Bronzi d’Ercolano. a notion which seems to have arisen sented in the ancient paintingsof the Thebaid. at the approach of winter. rota aAAotai BeoiffC Srev fie eIvetta roiovrov 01. and so like to a Welsh or Irish harp. Sic. p. p. though the execute his characteristic office. Hymn. sounlike that of anyancient latitudes of the North. Z. from the noises which they make in the high.evtfiei£iv avBponrwv airiKero. 16. Magn. pitryovrat. TwaiKt rpayos epiayero avatpavfiov rovro es E£ ov irep iravres irorapioi. or the generative attribute considered whether considered as the daughters of the abstractedly. s.2 M. &c. Nvp</>ao)V. found effect of his operation. lib. 191. The Nymphs. apud Strabon. rovrcp rep Betp wpotrov 4 Nvptpai opeanafies. the Fauns and Satyrs. and the mountains. 12 Ibid. 3 — —— Genitor Nympharum Oceanus. in rov Tlpiairov. i. in which fulfilling the mandate. and all the here-. aiyoirpoauirov k m rpayoatteAes' Mus. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. p. who were the whose existence was generation or production. of the universe. the symbol of attraction. ovri roiovrov vopu^ovres eivai (uv.5 though the mys Apart of the worship offered both to the goat tic system. frequently in attitudes ditary priests were initiated or consecrated to very licentious and indecent: but in the Ho him. the vallies. though a late traveller was so singu Apollo on the reverse. p. indeed. Italy-. by the phal been enrolled among the personages of the lus only. and inthe latter.. and rairep 'EAAljvej. arefrequently with him. . and sometimes with the head of JEgypt. Odyss. ii. women tendering their persons to him. however. the correspond deity who was represented by the sacred goat ing emanations of the passive productive power at Mendes. c. Kovpai Aios aiyioxoio. ra eavruv yevvijriKa popta rov 3’ aAAov xpovov . . who. p. Diodor. Hunter. Pindar.13as the lingatn cient art. people. 46. they are usually represented with is in those of the Hindoos . fita t o yevvtjTiitov ptoptov. v. for he was considered as a sort of dered as guardian spirits or local deities of the accessary attribute to all the other divine per springs. they could think of no other way of and accompanied by aquatic fowls. Herodot. than sacrificinga goat. Kai fieiKWovai avaavpapevat small bronzes. ix. k m veiaea iroirievra. too correct. or that we cannot but suspect it tobe merelyan pastoral hook. p.11 which was usually represented Ocean or of Jupiter. for when the oracle of Juno was con fallen and dilated. Aaaaa. Diodor. ad Dian. 84. aiytporai 69i rpayoi yvvai£t Km mjyas norapcov. which 190. in his more accurate placed near him. airavra ttettcoAvpievov eartv eis otf/iv auras ep- 8 Petronii Satyric. tepuavvas Kai>Aiyvnrov. pveioBai.15.12 This deity was honored with a vulgar mythology. in Gell..7 but more commonly standing near water. in a form. 13. Though the Greek writers call the .

all which remain Fromthe publication of Denon of the sculp entire. signifying the various attributes It represents Cybele. It is now. left hand she holds two cornucopias. Pindar. and which busts of Apollo and Diana. c. On each side of her doos. ii. was among the ram. 448. 192. lib.3 the one the principle of vegetation in Etruscan work found near Perugia. 90. probably arose from some emblematical whole of the face and breast is covered with composition. as Pellibus exsectis percutienda dabant. Achaic. t Kara lavas Ta es ryv Apre/uv Tt\v Ecpecuav. such as is gods. v. the things foundat Macon on the Saone. s. horns upon his head. 19They are common.**3 though the composite ------------Jussse sua terga marit® images of the latter. as symbols of the passive generative cimens. rcat t o fiavreiov cot iv apxaiorepov vj Kara t ijv 17 Aiya 8e Kai rpayov Mevtiijaioi Tipmaiv. StfioPTcu 5e rravras t ovs aiyas ol MevSrjtnoi. cock. D. this kind. 5 01. lavav effouaiffiw iroWip 8»j irpetr&VTepa en 7/ Strabon. sig was only known to the initiated. Atlant. A Virque pater subito. such figureshada place in the ancient religious found with it. p. the presiding dei they therefore exaggerated into fabulous mon** ties of those hemispheres. Knight.. on a votive car of very ancient MI02. and lvi. vol. i. in the blended into one. He says that the figure had been gilt all 20 See Mus. i. and the claws of a crab placed as art. Pan. been gilt. the universal mother. 3 Aptporepoi yap oi Oeoi t ijs vypas Kai yovifiov rodot. i.18 193.20 de moisture. horse. were probably exactly in the formdescribed by Cicero. planations of the component parts.19 Cupid is with the mural crown on her head. cum scu. Plutarch. signifying the al Asia. or why 16Ovid. vol. are. 161 and 2. as erros tulo. KvpLoi SoKovcrtv apxns eivai’ Kai TlooeiSavi ye 18Cum pelle caprina. s. where we often find the forms of passing almost any thing extant. lib..16 Pantheic bust of this kind is engraved in At MenJes female goats were also held sa plates lv. near Rome. no part of it having 1II. expressed similar combinations of attri-‘ ternate influence of the diurnal and nocturnal butes bysymbols looselyconnected. in the cabinet of Mr. In her have been not wholly unknown to them. and the sometimes represented wielding the mask of wings of pervasion growingfromher shoulders. qu. which appear from the epithets signifiedby a bust of its presiding deity resting hund red-headed. Fast. the true explanation of which foliage that seems to growfromthe flesh. the enemies or arbitrators of their own intersected by two transverse lines. but several plated. xvii. or the Destroyer. with the gold upon them. &c. Bacchus AENAPITH2. cumcalceolis repandis. and the whole finishedin a manner sur upon gems. 'EAArives Ovovaiv. and various others. goat. so frequent in the old Greek poets. and p.17 and on Grecian monuments of of a bull. hundred-handed.. xxix. 20. and figures sun. 46.1 Such symbolical figures may. so as to form Pantheic year 1764. to signify though the objects to which they are applied. mythology of that country. and published by Count Caylus. and 3 To 5e iepov t o tv Ai8vpuois t oo ArroAAavos. perhaps. iv. before observed. and.. 812. appears trees. viii. 111. ii. Sympos. De N. upon a crescent supported by the unskilfully composed of many heads. p. are the seven planets. Howthe days of the week came to he of the Apollo Didymmus were long anterior to called by the names of the planets. pi. legs. ii. vii. of to represent the solar year. and to be foundin all 4 T. and placed in the order of the &c. Rudbeck. of the Select Spe cred. and the other in plants. lib. we often find caprine satyrs of that sex. Florent. it seems that with most of the other small figures in silver. sters. collections of gems . had the desired effect: ductions of Grecian taste and elegance. The fable of Jupiter having been suckled by a and out of the temples spring fish. s. over : but he is mistaken . the lingam.212. Such was nifying the result of this combination of attri Juno Sospita of Lanuvium. with the been already sufficiently explained in the ex-Busual knob in the centre of it. been a remain: for both her temple and that 194. of Vol.$vTaApup Aiovvartp 8e AevSpiTT/. A. representing. 31. tures remaining in Upper iEgypt. and upon them are the which they did not understand. which nowexist. by makinga libation upon the flames vices of which the ®nigmatical meaning has of an altar from a golden patera. ii. lxxi. A female Pantheic figure in silver.5at the back of each. gerom. . observable on other pieces of ancient art.4 compositions. however. 4. but never upon coins. and have been worshipped in the western parts of such as the barbarians of the North employed Asia. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE bare backs of the ladies: the Ionic emigration . lib. cumhasta. with a golden disk. and sometimes playing upon a lyre. tips of her wings.. Pausan. the ears attribute. etireiv. The Greeks frequently combined the with the borders of the drapery plated with symbolical animals. He. divided into four which the Diana of Ephesus appears to have parts. The hair appears wet. while the goat. and modes of action of the Deity. whose butes in fertilising and organising matter.60 R. rravres. each arms. upon a globe. having the dewlaps of a goat. The Hin probably. mixing the productive elements of heat and while sitting upon the back of a lion. The goat-skin dress signified the same as her title . and Neptune <f>YTAA- and who. as the represented by composite symbolical images of associateof Hercules dressed in the lion’s skin. nuptaque mater erat. P. especially in engravings gold. Pyth. among the most refined pro which. the result of her operation on the two hemi prove that their ideas were taken fromfigures spheres of the Earth . when the Greeks first settled there . 402. fig. i. kcu naWov t ovs apaevovs toiv OriXeav. andother nations of the eastern parts of head is one of the Dioscuri. to days of the week named after them.

p. particularly one which and the Syrian kings .17 Probably tbe stone head.Egyptians. and then passing Muscovites also worshipped a sacred group. the eighth. spring. In the same manner. of the Select was. so that the mains still extant. 6 The part of Plutarch’s Symposiacs. appear to have been com twenty-third will belongtoJupiter. and nations. in it.16 195.the Northern hemisphere. upon ideas expressed by themwere no longer reli the coins above cited. 11 Ib. pro sion. but as they appear to us the animal symbol of the same personage. p. ( . and the first hour of Saturday be sacred bably. The earliest joined to it. according unaided bymachinery. as in the rest. v. Stones of a similar conic form are re sisted of twenty-four hours. c. goddess was at Upsal. that there can be no North having consecratedeach day of the week doubt of their havingbeen originally the same. Dion. as in the first. as he be accounted for from the Ptolemaic system. Common observation would teach the be sufficient to refer to them. can displaceit: whence to the seemingly capricious order in which all they are nowcalled logging rocks. and the first hour of the next with another stone placed upon the point of it. G. is unfortunately lost. and so on through the week. They had likewise another idol. xxxvi. Chersonesus in Crete. and twenty. apud Euseb. the twenty. to the planets and tothe days of the week con with a serpent coiled round them. p. rowed by the Romans fromother nations. whenthese. though the which the serpent is occasonally coiled. and each hour was presented upon the colonial medals of Tyre. fromthe re second. c. beginning with personification in the East Indies. 17 Norden.11 Theancient most remote fromthe centre. Venus.Hyde de chon. is sionallyrepresentedenveloped in a net. The Disa or Isa of the North was re titles. Bethel. 13In the cabinet of Mr. exactly in the work of an historian of the beginning of as the Scandinavian. c. 18At9oi ejuif/ux01 et BatTvAia. or the corresponding being in the Albani collection a statue of names in other languages. and the Ecisternextremities ofAsia. though soponderous that no human force. is difficult torconjecture. Mercury. that on the Tyrian coins. Specimens. but astronomical. and 01. were applied both Apollo sitting upon a great number of eggs. the gious monuments of that people. the Sun. These.- day to the Sun. which it was discussed. Persar. Rudbeck. 12 Ib. has so nearan affinity and the planets. sofrequent all over to Saturn.7 Perhaps the difficulty state of water was ice . fromwhich. Moon. that thewindcouldmove first hour of the ensuing day will belong to the it. it may alsoplaced by the statue of him.10* the third century of Christianity. Kircheri China illustrata. tosome principal personageof their mythology. ib. according to Ta different from that of nature. 79. which seems to have been and by later writers. and ending with Freia or Ve formalso unquestionablymeans the egg. the Moon : forif the natural day con 197. and 210. 37. lib. Bibliotb. round order of the titles was retained. lxii. Perhaps. called Other explanations are given. exactly as secrated to 'them. 242. In Vitk Isidori apud Phot. 61 the planets were thus placed in an order so Isis whom the ancient Suevi. Jupiter. Saturn. i. Damascius sawseve similar to the cortina of Apollo on the medals ral of them in the neighborhood of Heliopolis of Cos. week was complete as at present. which differ but little in meaning from presented by a conic figure enveloped in a net. fourth to Mars. and in China. 512 and 513. Pseudo-San- 7 Cass. seems to be a corruption of the scriptural name 8 01. till the arrangement of the child in her lap and another standing by her. Vet. too. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. ix. and the Egyptian Isis was occa notice of it inany ancient writingnowextant. The last title Relig. 270. p. v. A conic pile of eggs is gious. the ancient nations of the with that of the goddess. . only begin which probably represented Isis and her off ning with the day which now stands last. in 14 Norden’s Cornwall. of voi. it is terminated in a human Britain. over two to the Sun. and stones of God. vi. 16 EtSov rov fiairvAov Sta rov aepos kivou - 10 Isiac Table.13 according to which the order of the planets engraved in pi. Payne Knight. without entering inhabitants of polar climates that the primitive into further details. The conic Lok or Saturn.12 to be still more remote fromprobability/it will 196. both by the same the golden heifer. using the hebdomadal computation pendre stones. have placed them.209 fievov. Naples in Italy. came the amberics. the andsonicelybalanced. c. ii. but instead of having was then moved by the wind. appears ona silver tetradrachmof Lampsacus. Rudbeck. in Syria . ad fin. p. the name of which. and even from citus. p. and so on. draped. 280. the ancient mythological he is upon the veiled cone or cortina. worshipped . fifteenth. under the influence of a planet in succes and called ambrosial stones. Cod. accompanied by a child.14 as they were anciently of time. and bor of the Laplanders. Mars.posed of one of these cones let into the ground.6 who says This goddess is delineated on the sacreddrums that it was unknown to the Greeks.16 and they are the serpent coiled round it. will be so likewise. ib. beginning with Saturn.8 This goddess is unquestionably the which the patriarch Jacob anointed with oil. Jiving stones. who similar to the Horus of the . or Baalbeck. in has arisen froma confusion between the deities all the Northern dialects. 219. there nus : whence. though it is equally a title of the corresponding and called it after his name. and two more to the composed of an old woman with one male Moon. or equally found in the Western extremities of some symbol or figure of Apollo placed upon Europe. Fragm. who divided the planets on this occasion by a sort so often appears in the lap of Isis on the reli of musical scale. vol. 9 De M. p. Atlant.6789 for the initial letter of the that in which any theorist ever has placed first name appears to be an article or prefix them.

n. Comm. 162. unknown to the it r r o p e i AtovvaiSupos. c.1 this hero being married to Harmony. lib. the Latin word Camillus. 21.2and ano rally have conveyed the idea of spontaneous ther in a templeuponMount Libanus. fromthe name of their chief. noh. lib. and of both him ancient crosses observable in such situations and his wife being turned into serpents. is proved to be an interpolation of A£tepospev ovv ictt iv tj Ai)pmri)p. whichwas concealed approbation and dissent. on the Syrian coins above. where the more rude and primitive to the returning spring: for they evidently re symbol of the logging rock is found poised. KaSpiXos 6 'Eppris vov (Tex1'2? AaiSaXou. Teairapes Se together with those adjoining 468—75. in v. 2.19 Such immensemassesbeingmoved of whom there was a statue in wood at Delos.4 and piles of stones. called by the Greeks cury in those of Samothrace . The symbol of the ram was. eari S’ outos 6 ' E p p r is .9 probably as a and refined modesof signifyingthe same ideas. 19 Cleric. « Pausan. de Ol Se rrpoariOeaai kcu reraprov KadpiAov.7 of sides. Strom. 51. 1. xi. of which several are extant.6 Herodot. ii. though etirt rov a p iQ p o v . ibid. was of be of the Venus Architis.”3 Some of these figures Apollo Didymaeus. Odyss. in Macrino.: Ar.of vol. that inverted obelisk. however. v. Knight. c. et Kara avyKoirqv Terpaytovov axypct. et lib.) k areuri 8e avn rroSiav es Boiamiccos. Hunter. likethe Paphian Venus. i. ib. the responses of which could cimens. c. as also of a female draped figure terminating though not regularlynor all at once. S Se vpotrn- by the word ' E p p a io s formed from the con Oepevos rerapros Ka<rpi\os d 'Epprjs eariv. ovOev atro/SaXXcev a<p’ avrou .have the mystic title A2IIA2IA upon them. Londini. Nat. “ Her appearance. 21.6 and where he was distinguished original symbols. 200. as before observed.20of whom they were probably the or the cock. afterwards represented under more ele of thesejBatruXux or symbolical groups . in Genes. or primitive Venus. 22. A£iOKep<ra. TUptrecpovi)• AJiOKtpiros Se 6 'ASris. tab. in Apoll. this kind. and it is moreprobable that affordinga commodious base. Sat.: Herodian. Phurnut.8 Lycophron. 6 Mus.. are probably more elegant also wore in their sandals. 6 6 i ' E p p a io s \ o tp o s 7 Mvovvrai Se evt jj ^apodpaup rots Ka/3eipois. leaves. P. ined. badge of their. Schol. temple andmost elegant statue. her head covered. 12. 471. the are equally abbreviations: 8 for the stories of guardian of all ways or general conductor. xi. equally or perhaps more fre£ the nature and history of the Pelasgian Mer quent all over the North. and where every traveller that passed. i. which his'priests been already cited. lib. c. The figures of this god sitting upon fragments 201. in eund. whence arose the Hermaphro that it was originally nothing more than one dite.5 the device on AO#OI 'EPMAIOI or hillocks of Mer whose coins is his emblem either of the ram cury. 1 Anthol. **was always be easily obtained by interpreting the melancholy. of roads . xxviii. iv. v. The figures of the under her garment. are placed sitting upon the point of signifying perhaps the welcome or gratulation the cone. still sustained by the and we are told. Al-ifpos. ii. and the substi the colony whichoccupied Thebes. of which motion to ignorant observers. A^ionepoos. lib. These seemto practised. probably. mentioned. p.Puus. 219. and her face different oscillatory movements into nods of sustainedbyher left hand.18as it still is by the Hindoos. 241 et 246. Deor. * Kai AtjXiois A^poSinjs eariv ov peya Joa. ii. and persuaded Macrobius’s description exactly corresponds themthat they were animated byan emanation with the figures nowextant. all other evergreens shedding them. 917. 80 --------------uirep iroXior. the and there can be no doubt that many of the daughter of Mars and Venus. Some of these that is. must natu supposed tobe the workof Daedalus .” he says. This line. in a passage before cited. apud H. accounted for as usual by poetical the luxury of wealth and refinement of art fables. Homeric tongue. There were anciently other sacred explained in the Eleusinian mysteries. specie tristi. i. 5>s tracted 'Eppas for 'Eppeias. lib.consecration to immortality: for 199. which gant forms . stone upon them in honor of Mercury. They were placed by the by the mystic title Casmilus or Cadmilus . or in the points ofintersection. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE accordingto a mode ofworship once generally belowin the same square form. eirriv. lib. argent. lviii. et nummul. lsva intra amictumsustinens. s. of the Select Spe sulted as oracles. in Baeot. The Egyptian Mercury carried a of rock or piles of stone. 39. &v Mvatreas cpTjai kcu t a ovopara. 713. threw a the Greek name of the fabulous hero Cadmus. the Christian rnra: whereforewe are persuaded androgynous. vii. the emanation of the sun the oracle of this god near Miletus existed pointed downwards. theirpyramidal form clearly allegorical. and was the only one human head placed upon an inverted obelisk known to the ancients. 198. lib. fig.10 It has 18 Clem. which never changed its with a phallus. more than eleven hundred years before figures were probably. Alex. it seems. ancient. faciemmanu 9 Apuleii Metam. Rhod. by causes seeming so inadequate. are were erected upon them. KciSpov. present nature in winter. which. xlvi.A£ioKeptra Se f) much later date than the rest of the poem. p. of which one is of the vital Spirit: whence they were con given in pi. v. of a proverbial for longevity. 3. p. 3 Capite obnupto.62 R. P. were called tuting a newobject beingthe most obvious and Cadmeians from the title of their deity than usual remedy for such kinds of superstition. Occasionally the attribute seems to be gradually changed into a most magnificent signified bythe cap and wings of Mercury. The old Pelasgian Mercury of the this tree is mentioned in the Orphic Poems as Athenians consisted. c. Schol. one of which has branch of palm in his hand. 10'O Se (poivit. Epigr. but having all her powers before the emigration of the Ionian colonies: enveloped in gloomand sadness.

&c.17 Of this being thus elevated to a rank. ix.(popas pev owras Kivrjtreis -discliyl. 40 and 42.MYTHOLOGY. which fear has kind are the comedies of the Birds. the sys sions. and therefore might na sented on coins in the same manner as the fig- turally have been adopted as a vegetable sym leaf. who long and other symbolical plants were the distinc possessed unrivalled superiority in all exer tions of victory. c. and it is splendid object of human ambition. fiePcuas aeicpvAAos ecm. which it is panies the horse on the coins of Carthage .weresupposed topartake of the divine essence. 4Plin.4 ployed as symbols of the Deity. 3 Diodor.*12 The pillars in many an in them. Ixxxiv. which tative exhibitions of the symbolical figures. 4. and Pythian games. &c. The palm-tree at Delos. Plutarch. profane symbols among the ornaments of that they might have the glory of a prize which his sacred edifice. Edon. 217. which is frequently spoken of by cient ^Egyptian temples represent palm-trees persons of the highest rank. were originally mystic repre cises of bodily strength and agility. 77 nvos BaKXVS. signifying the sun the momentous importance attachedto success fed by humidity. faintly expressive of religious has been already noticed . t o ywaiKeiov. 17 See Aristoph. the choral partsof whichwere respect gavetomerit in tltis instance only : and recited by persons who were disguised in imi it is peculiarly degrading to popular favor and tation of those different animals. e£arpavovs (pofiepioi pipof 14 Z. tended once even against Theagenes with probably. 15. Sympos. $8eyye<r8ai. ffweamiKev-------------.' Such the dances un was canonised as a hero or demigod. 520. lib. imitations were practised in the mystic cere 203. came dramatic poetry. Thasian. lib. 63 also the property of florishing in the most which formed the crown of the Roman victors. ffxVPLaTa 8e o^e/rets /cat Siadeereis. 0’XrHxa 419. and con brated bythe lonians at Delos. dialog. v. Sic. i. Sympos. the Frogs. yeveenv k m avaOvptatrtv 6 Srjpiovpyos. whence it frequently accom on account of a peculiar influence. Platon. lib.. 162. as the most with their branches lopped off.20*1probably bol of the sun. in which the palm. rear ffTVV tovto S7]to Kparos avTOv paAurra tijs Vinrjs rep Ulipewff urcuriv* <paii) Se Kev amos eKaarros l<t x vPV ffwoiKfioviru Plutarch. while a in the Olympic. the Acliillei'of his age. n Tlavos. The symbolical meaning of the olive. the fir. • 16 HavToiv S' apOpuvtov tpavas /cat KpepfiaMa- . lib.16 from which. Hesych. tem of emanations. not even greaterhonors: forhewas deifiedby com only of individual men.209. according to which all 202. he further proved himself worthy of. vol. but which unawed the Wasps. x. and who flattery that in this instance it should have mimicked their notes while chanting or singing been given not to the labors of a statesman or the parts. veneration. lib. formed a part of the very ancient games cele having won a great number of prizes. the wisdomof a legislator. by mira under which they were represented by the culous favors obtained at his altars. vii. he had obtained. andwith the samesignification. 162. but of the animals em mand of the oracle even before his death. apud Strab. 12 Tqv vypcov t)Vi^aro rpoipr)V t o v tjAiov k m 18 Ejusd. the laurel. AttoAAoovos. 3 empevuaiv. of the divine nature. probl. fig. Hymn. This connexion of the games with Delphi was a bronze palm-tree with frogs and the mystic worship was probably one cause of water-snakes round its root. Isthmian. BiaOevres ewt tov or01paros ypaeptKtosrots eiSetriv 2 Pausan. 47. 11 See Gesner. Electr.' Polit.13 that prince having admitted many own country and proclaim himself of theirs. he was escorted into his native city games and other exercises performed in honor bythree hundredchariots . p. de metro non utente Pyth. 19 if/aApos S’ aAaAafei. rvpvavcp S’ rix<u. often prostituted to power. but to the dexterity preserved by Strabo.18 From a passage of -lEschylus. lib.2 When Exasnetus of Agri- sacred to Apollo and Diana. BaTpa%. 721. 1and we probable that the palm-trees in the tem accordingly find the proud city of Syracuse ple of Solomon were pillars of the same bribing a citizen of Caulonia to renounce his form. vi. the honorary rewards but not in an equal degree: whence. and' the parsley. is mentioned in gentum won the race in the ninety-second the Odyssey . p. 15 CH yap opxva‘ls eK Te Kivrjtreaiv Kai tr^e/reav &<r0' vTroyeiov Ppovrris. lib. 1415and it seems probable that the Olympiad. c. tab. fewsimple rites. and the apples.19 which may have been a reason for men seems to have arisen from that general their gradual disuse upon all common occa sonree of ancient rites and opinions. 20 SeAivov. Euthymus artists. 82. were performed in honor of all the rwv (pvofievmv.11 still supposed to have upon the female consti and in the Corinthian sacristy in the temple at tution. OF ANCIENT ART AND. viii. probl. parched and dry situations. c. was rewarded with equal or comedy principallyconsisting of imitations. rauporpdoyyot S' SiropifKuvTai Kodtv 13See Pococke’s Travels. Plutarch. p. the old doubtful success. ovopa£ov<ri. in Apoll. xiii.H Simple mimicry seems also to have too. epeperai ffapvrapfiris. where no other was equally a mystic plant. they consisted chiefly of imi Greece. Homer. and received divine worship. had questionably were : for when performed in ho statues erected to him in various parts of nor of the gods. This custom of canonising or deifying monies. eis as epepopevat reAevrootriv at Kivrjoets.3 andTheagenes the of those deities. it being repre large trees will grow. W . who was equally eminent as a boxer. it appears that similar of a boxer. so as to sentations of the attributes and modes of action have been crowned fourteen hundred times. 6rav 1 Sopbocl.

from the custom still prevails among the Hindoos. lib. all occasionally applied which intheir language signifiedthe sun. p. v. The founder attributes to his children and captains . which. 84. 8. in Messen. The ancient theism of the North Such titles were. 7 ev avSpcvv. ij evepyereiv. parpos aptporepoi. and the limited excellences of man if equally energetic. epavAas. Persic. give himthe name qualities of particular persons were naturally of one of their Deities. KaXoveri. Awe or Terror. iv. Nem. de Danemarc.64 R. i. Kai ravrr/v aepiaeri ttjv epeovijv brav Vocabar Thundus ante id. so that they sometimes worshipped allegory . with creed. t o s ayadas' kukovs Se. AnAttic writer during Kvpov yap KaAeiv Xlepaas rov tov. Sic. to whose favor they supposed to proceed from particular emana.13 ofthe Persian monarchy was called by a name. rpa<pT]vai rrapa acpiai Ata. Pausan. seem sometimes to have joined. vi. the having been honored with his name in the disposition or quality of the mind. qu.'* Tov yap rj\iov Xleperai Kvpov Aeyoveri. 2. See also s. iii. “ DuringthePagan state of the Irish. Arrian. ovri\v re yeveeriv Kai ras Overias Kai rtpas‘vv- 11 Collectan. 61. and giving those of other subordinate consecration to their protection. Vacus et Skilfingvs.think by this means to recommend him. under ments. k m ayadovs pev. lib. Sic. The same derived. in many instances seems also to have been corrupted by the con- given soon after birth. No. children being named queror Odin assuming the title of the supreme after the divine personifications. 142 and 3. as a sort of God. would naturallybe assumed “ every child at his birth received a name by tyrants. lib. vrjv ttjv eK ttjv ervvoverias eiraKoAovQoverav. Omnes ex uno me. whence such persons were. Hibern.9 sometimes to have separated the personifica- which have helped to confound history with tions. a l’Hist.15 which signifying says a learned antiquary of that country. perfection or imperfection of the body. Edd. eroipoi paAAov. Vafodus et IJoopta-tyr . 13 Mallet Tntrod.12 tions. 15 IIovTayfiev ovv KaraptOprjeraerdat Kai irpodv- — -----oi yap 'Hptoes kokuvv. <riv’ aAAov rovrov Atovvaov Kai b IaK\os b 8 Kai TiOeTai t o ovofia avrov (Kupou) ew rorov (UxrriKOS rovrep repAtowertp. lib. rov vironveav "Seflafrov ovop. yeverrdai. entfSerai. xxxiii. Lucian. ii. honored with divine titles expressive of and physical allegory fills up their popular those particular attributes of the Deity.”n When these descriptive logy. confounded with him in the popular mytho- residence. who Deity. the commanding talents and splendid when a childis ten days old. Svmp. ev 6euv yevos' etc 164ra<rt rov Qeov (rov Alovvtrov) ck Atos Kai fiias Seirveopev ATjjUTjrpos reKVudevra.oyovo'i Se rives Kai erepov Aiowerov sych. s.16that is. who bore 204. ii.several names. Diodor. Panth.8 and to him:14 for the Scandinavians. The ancient Bacchus was said to have whose protection it was supposed to be: but been the son of Jupiter by Ceres or Proser- this name was seldomretained longer than the pine . oi St wikoi Aai. opyiafam rep deep. the result of state of infancy. ras Grunnismal liii. achieve. was by degrees ments in war or the chace . Pindar. ex /Equal. s. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE dead.Egyptians. Sasmond. Ossier et Suafner . p. p. lib. A. would not tarch. Plutarch. even while whence the same medley of historical tradition living. who wished to inspire such senti- generallyfromsome imaginary divinity. C. Plutarch. &c. Siaffsrao'Oijvai.' Inovas wrapxeiv ovaias \pux‘Kas‘ eivai Se k m Quos puta factos esse 'Hpccas ras Kexevpicrpevas i|/uxas Ttov (TcapaTcav. however. 1. 5.MufloA. in Artax. Gautus et Ialcus inter Deos. Svocroi QeAovtn yeveaQat Kai 'Sis epao’. s. according to this system. Ctes. p. and sometimes only one god with subjection to the Macedonians.® Every thing being the boundless perfections of God. nor any heroes or canonised 205. Philos. AEgypt. the place of birth. from which period it was the setherial Spirit operating uponthe Earth. itoAv rois XPOVOISsrporepovvrarov 9 See Jablonsk. founded. TlXaraiv. 6 ©aVrjs. and derived fromthe personified at- to the shades of certain individuals renowned tributes of the Deity.” the Greek name of Jupiter. however. 14 Odinus ego nunc nominor. Menandr. haPfiovs yapKat vvv eri voAAoi rovs Bukxovs Yggus modo nominabar. both were naturally con- for either great virtues or great vices. xi. Plu the independence of the Republic. 1. c. and fabled to have been raised up by titles exactly accorded with those previously Jupiter to replace himafter he had been slain 5 Odyss. prior to their several gods. de Placit. which are. or generally changed for others arising fromsome its pervadingHeat: but a real or fictitious hero. as filled that of the Greeks and other which thev seemed to be peculiarly favored.56a direct and explicit worship was paid imposed. 148.thus occasionally placed in the same rank with awe the gaping multitude.a£ofievov Herodot. Fragm. pifievt i airopov. yeyovevai.Cadraeian colony of Thebes. 50. in plain language. like the there is no doubt that many of the ancient Greeks. Historical tradition has transmitted to mortals whatsoever.101 us accounts of several ancient kings. iv.Uvdayopas. epaeri yap ex Atos Kai Xlepereepovifs Aiowerov 10Nopi£overi S’ eevkiyvrmoi ovS*TjpaxnvovSev. have dared to say so much. Sieipyei Serraera KeKpipeva ABrjvaioi Alovvaav rov Atos Kai Kopr)Screfiov- Suvapus. ov^i rep ®i)fSaup. never wor. P.7 nations. T. equally dazzle and over. though the . Diodor. lib. Krepivas Kai Kpvefnasirapeiaayovcn Stattjv aierxu- 12Sonnerat Voyage auxIndes. 9. and kings of /Egypt had names of the same kind.' rov. t iAl ov. rrepi irevO. shipped them. He. 259.

This confusion of personages. lib. blended together. he having the same sym found with them. in Attic. they without further in in the genuine parts of the Odyssey. 2 Xlepaevs 6 f/Xtos. interpolator. v. partly through the its progress by the belief that the universal greatness of the war. probl. and habits of the softer sex.8 Justin. quieting thejealousies of husbands. and seems. in Protrep. the adjective having been written Atvopopov Zaypijos e\o>v iroOov {nf/tpeSatv with the digamma. 6. 18. Eustath. Diodor. was facilitated in jects of public admiration. Zeus. I . Such were cutor observes in Cicero’s Dialogue on the the founders of almost all the families distin Nature of the Gods. both religious and historical. ii.18 and by the Romans dence and high expectations . and guarding the boar. &trtrep avdpunros. be produced in this supernatural way.The heroes of the Iliad 207. for there is nomen rious Achilles represented with the features tion of him in either of the Homeric poems. the qualities of these bestowed in return upon frail four lines alluding to the deification of the and perishable mortals. symbolical with religious awe the power of bold usurpers. the only one carried on generative principle.4 He quiry concluded them to be the same. as the Stoic interlo even common courage and ability. Sext. numin. 20 Kat rovs TvvSaptSas Se (pan rijv rwv Atotr.1 Perseus is probably an entirely fictitious and woman. that no powers such as his conflict with the Minotaur. lib. Men supposed to as an object of public worship in the temples. 37. descriptive titles. which generally with Ceres and Libera. fiara Se aoTJj re Kat r) irats. Symposiac.mysticmeaningof whichthefables of Omphale image the composite symbol of the gryphon and Iole. Empir. cOv race Ileptretpoveia SpaKovrerg Ator evvti* 8 B. aXXa erepats rttrtv atpatr St’ Kat Kopriv. 546—50. doubtedly spurious. 208. 206. c. Oeovs erepatv Kat \pavtretrt rpetret. Sic. Suidas in KeKptnfr.2*and his . Hjrou y' av en rtjV Upa^treXovr Arjfiijrpa. Plutarch.. Theseus appears likewise to be a were invented. might act in such a manner as that a Macedonian usurpation. A. (who was their Proser realise their own views. Even the double or brothers of Helen in the Odyssey being un ambiguous sexwas attributedtodeified heroes.) the reason for which. and there found deified heroes logy is minutely detailed. Kovpcov So|av fhreXOetv iraAtv (lege iraAat) Euseb. the two oval or conic instances to distinguish or separate them. et Hieron. Kat vtrmrtpnrXritTi Oeto- 6iro\apPavofiev.17 as Attis and Adonis were by tecting the honor of families. laKxos. andhistorical somixed with or of the morningandevening star.6*and the rough Hercules and fu and allegorical personage. 1. that it is impossible in many bols of whose attributes. ix. 173. tales which have been already noticed. Schol. 300—4. and similar thology. whence their own my bols of the club and lion’s skin. de sera voptt^optevuv eivat 8eaiv. and the allegory subsequent to theHomeric times . Plutarch. . a fableingrafted upon the old to personages purely symbolical. or its subordinate emana jointly by all the States of Greece prior to the tions. that the proud and as this notion was extremely useful and est princes were ambitious of deducing their convenient in concealing the frailties of wo genealogies from them. vindicta. in Lycophr. The it was naturally cherished and promoted with mystic Deity was however duly distinguished much favor and industry. in reality. 65 by the Titans. lib. when supported by pine.8 and he being only with titles corresponding either in sound or onceslightlymentioned as the lover of Ariadne sense to their own. Pausan.201the sym allegorical fable.19 like all other ancient names. in Dionys. 21. Several of these lines se<m Dionysiac. s. though the Athenian genea or conquest. Alex. lib. Kat SaSa exuv 4 A. humanised. The caps. s. pro nations vain of any traces of connexion with 17 H5tj yap pteveatve veov Aiovvtrov aefcetv. coherent fictions and traditions. 5 OvBev oioptat Setvov.the Athenians. repar yovqs ro Bvprov. 1 Od. inChronic. p. 19 Lib. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. i. lyse or comprehend. would where he was associated by the Greeks with of course advance into life with strong confi Ceres and Proserpine. and Osiris by Typhon. duallyspread out into an unwieldy mass ef in many of which are manifestly allegorical. arising were. v. and the daughters of Lycomedes. ei pif irArttrtafav 6 Oeos. 28. teries. were interpreted to signify their birth actions of kings and conquerors were attributed fromLeda’s egg. The sons of Tyndanis were by the they were-equally applicable to the personified same means confounded with the ancient per attributes of the Deity : whence both became sonifications of the diurnal and nocturnal sun. so much the ob froma confusion of names. When the Greeks made expeditions there being no mention of him in the genuine into distant countries either for plunder. parts of the Iliad. 1. AeAoyxMr ufa betrays the Tavpotpvef fuixijpta naXatyeveor Aiovvtrov. and partly through the female of the human species might be impreg refulgent splendor of the mighty genius by nated without the co-operation of a male. whose names being. c. Clem. though extremely beauti Cecrops being fabled to have been both man ful. to be the Athenian personifi adopted all the legendary tales which they cation of Hercules . iii. to have been interpolated in compliment to 18 Kat irXijcriov vaos etrri ArjptTjTpor' ayaX. Kat rov 1outxov rov fivtrrtKov. with the of ingenuity or extent of learning could ana Centaurs. 321.5 which it had been celebrated. viii. respective ages of the two Homeric poems. to conceal the and his name is a title of the snn. and the most powerful men. was gra actions and adventures being attributed to him. was explainedin the Mys guished in mythology. and with the Amazons. trade. of which there is not a trace in •personage who started into being between the the Homeric poems. at a very early period.

8 Yet this is what he calls a fair modeof navigator finds any traces of European lan. . Anthony with in his account of the ancient population of some faint traces of Christianity in any of the Greece. fromthe slenderest traces of verbal analogies. that arose in a colony./Eneas. unknown to the antiquaries of Athens and 210. Aconclusion directly contrary to that 7 Strabon. and lands which they discovered. ing upon the Mediterranean Sea. not recollecting was the practiceof ancient navigators in giving that he might upon the same grounds have the names of their gods and heroes to the questioned the existence of the Apostles. they might have Cedrenus. 211. the miracles which they Priam’s founding a chauntry in Troy to sing wrought.siege of Troy. Hence. fromwhomall that was excellent in art. rather hard uponour countrymen. KNIGHT ONTHE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE them.66 R. P.) any more than Tatian both the Homeric poems into Allegory. of the NewTestament. by the by the general diffusion of the Greek language various traditions then circulated concerning after the Macedonian conquest. rendered plausible. of many. iii. seemed to be derived. gave it were forgotten. But what contributed most of all to. as the latter would their arrival and abode there. or Aristeas and Philo the passage of centuries did the same by the historical books the Red Sea.be found of the navigations and adventures of mitted without suspicion or critical examina. when the discoverers credulity. and others expelled tion by ingrafting the Greek fables upon their by usurpers. andnearly as strong afterwards found among barbarous nations by a predilection for that which exercises their succeeding navigators. so that a wandering life sup.affinity which might connect them with a peo- ported by piracy and plunder became the fate pie. It is first convent of monks.9 of respect and veneration. or at least conjectured. rical truth ofthe crusades. by which 209. as they co-operated in proving what some upon the Atlantic Ocean. Francis or St. Many such claims and pretensions doubt that they left the samesort of memorials wereof course fabricated. not usually given to doubt. and and Origen did the incarnation of their Re- the Christian divines of the third andfourth deemer. Syncellus. which. in the same thus undermine the very fabric which he pro manner as the moderns do those of their saints fessed to support: for by quoting. the Old. wandering chieftain of that age . 150.and treated bythemwith the same sort and fourteenth centuries. and the relics which they left for the requiems for the soul of his pious son Hector. questioning the histo- Metrodorus and his followers.means such darkness and confusion have been wards peopling the coasts and islands both of spread over their history. and society. in almost everycountry border- and the general similarity of religious rites.fromthe Byzantine luminariesof the thirteenth tuguese.analysing ancient profane history. which memorials. were ad. or some other tion. never denied nor even questioned the general 9 See Bryant on Ancient Mythology. Chaucer and would soon make out a complete history of Lydgate. traces were to men were predisposed to believe.and Tzetzes. as their predecessors Tasso in his later days declared the whole the eclectic Jews had before done by those of of his JerusalemDelivered to be an allegory . As the heroes of the Iliad were as Alexandria. p. there can be little 212. though full as authentic as those familiar to the Greek navigators. Their tales were also there: and as the works of the Greek poets. to be excluded. would any new or important information. and even in which. and the other monkish concluded. whichwere as easily of them. and as men havea natural piratical settlements . Menelaus. those nations heroes . written concerning them in various parts of because the name continued when those who Christendom during seventeen hundred years. wherever they-made discoveries or asserted as denied . all the histories which have been name thus givenbecame the subject of a fable. whohad taken advantage of their own. who compiled the saints had actually been there: whence the Paschal and Nuremberg Chronicles. as of equal and martyrs: for in those early ages every authority. the hardships have furnished an account of the good king which they endured. In moderntimes every he would have produced a medley of incon- navigator keeps ajournal. hadthere practised: for not content with quoting Homer been no narratives left by the first modern dis. as of equal authority. that those writers of the lower ages. is printed have startled even his own well-disciplined and made public: so that. we may conclude that the assertors concluded that those heroes had actually been generally prevailed. edification of the faithful. in- guage or manners in a remote country. he has coverers. being partiality for affirmatives. when a succeeding faith.7 Inferences were likewise drawn literature. however. with writer. fact of the .Ulysses. in manyinstances. taken collectively. and. it is much fairer than that which he has knows fromwhence they came : but. became uni- thesubsequent fortunes and adventures of those versally known and admired. . but without. and greedily catching at any links of long absence . (as they have been 8Metrodorusof Lampsacus anciently turned mis-statedtohave done. someof whomwere said to have been themselves eagerly co-operated in the decep- cast awayin their return. lib. and received in its stead that of islands of the Pacific Ocean. he deed. andsubsequentadventurers had found entirely rejected the testimony of Thucydides the name of St. as the saints which he has collected with so much labor of the Calendar were to the Spanish andPor. and the emolument with many other curious particulars equally of their teachers. if it contains sistent facts. has lately illustrious fugitives of that memorable period. which. that an ingenious the Mediterranean and adjoining ocean. they vanity. however. as for that which gratifies their were forgotten arid the settlers vanished. questioned their existence.

2. ev ols ras pe. principal deities then worshipped by the 215.16 among the moderns have quoted it with im 216. Praep. has employed all his acuteness preserved by Eusebius.Plutarch. and inferred that. that he is one of those by have found engraven upon a column in an whose example they justified the practice of ancient temple in the island of Fanchtea. except Porphyry. with all the metaphysical scorn or sentence of reprobation. record of very ancient history. as the fragment extant proves it to pose. els ovre fiap. reading never gave himany of the tact or taste 214. et Osir. avurrov kcu avvnapKTOv pvdoAoyias. seems to has lately been preferred to that of Thucydides have been the first who attempted this kind of and Xenophon. informing her that an many centuries before by one Sanchoniathon . Philon.ftp KAanaSas avoi. instead of protection. Plutarch. king of Macedonia. and fourth centuries.p.their own preposterous pride or the abject ser- ' 10 JJept pev ovv ruv pvtrriKwv. Apology of Athenagoras. &s eoiKe. during evidently nothing more than the old mystic the second. evtrropa poi KeiaOw. they cal monuments of extreme antiquity found in certainly had no claim to excellence in either some remote country. they turned mythology into his to have been but one opinion concerning it. or pro--l general. Defect. whose multifarious had before been corrupted and obscured. c.. second century. deigned to mention it. i. and therefore of the fiapos ovSeis. ovre 'EAAtjv. A fragment of this work having been of a scholar.11*12 The theory. and none 213. Among the ancients there seems mythology. tempted to be more fully established by a written in the formof a letter from Alexander Phoenician History. from the pricesfor old books. in order to support a system. tory. a holy lying. apud Euseb. It is alluded to in the patrt XPvffols uvayeypappevav. which he formed from greater moment which this practice poured this pretended discovery. third.10 and. was soon after at upon the world. irAevtxas ets rovs pijSapodi yt]S 16 Div. so contemptible a per they had all been equally So. pv- yovras. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. Chrysostom. Leg. bydegradingthe old. s. moral sincerity or critical sagacity . lib. in which he asserted that the mysteries most bungling counterfeits ever issued from had been contrived merely to disguise the tales that great manufactory of falsehoods. and fraud imposed upon the public by Philo of brought proportionate disgrace on Religion in Byblos.12notwith was carried on under the avowed patronage of standing that a great part of these tales are the leading members of the Church.yeyovoras. them. for which pur formance.r vtpov. gave considerable have as confidently rejected it. as a valuable and Authentic deifications were multiplied under the Mace. «A- 11 Euseb. read’ 12 AAA*ot pev vecoraroi rcov lepoKoywv ra pev 'Hpudorov.The many worthless tyrants. facilitatedthe pro logies in a new dress. said to have beencompiled the Great to his mother. lib. 16. under pretence of their gress of the new religion: but in whatever having been transcribed from authentic histori else these writers may have excelled. dot. no heathen writer has objects of public worship had been mortal men. was so differently thought of fraud. because it favored that system. because some of the for. rovs 13 Pro libro adv. de Orac. with which plicit confidence. were taught. Among the numberless forgeries of Greeks. Euhemerus. a Messenian employed less than Eusebius . kcu el-av0pwm£ovri ra Beta. Bybi. 9. they rejected the authority of the myste have been. in which were comprised the they believed to be true. never brought to light until Philo of Byblos Both the style and matter of it are belowcri published it in Greek with a prooem of his ticism. 16 Prolegom. seemingto themunworthy of being ries.13 or asserting that which they genealogical account of a family that had once knew to be false in support of that which reigned there./Egyptian priest named Leo had secretly told from the records of Thoth and Ammon. Aapitpav Se ctTTipia Kareart)crav' k m ttoKvv avrots empyov rois Evr/pepov rov Mecrcrriviov cp'evaKtapois irap. 6s avros avnypoupa avvdeis Beiav yevopeva. Jovinian. . i. iracrav Pra. as a bungling credit to the system of Euhemerus. but him that all the gods were deified mortals. vol. in which they it. who paid such extravagant several learned writers of antiquity. de Is. The early distinctions of emanated. 417. however. aAAa povos Evrjpe. ii. it being in every respect one of the own .trpiKOts iradripaai avyyeveiav wAcurapevoi. irepi Saipovcnv aAydeias. and ca Christian writers. p. Having been sent into the Eastern by ecclesiastical writers of the immediately Ocean witli some commission. evrervxiiKeu . The facility and rapidity. or for(what served equally confusion in which the traditions of early times well to furnish their shelves) newbooks with were involved : instead of turning history into old titles. rescued from oblivion even by an epithet of daemons. which1 of his pretendedPhoenician History. where the various gradations of gods. many learned persons and all his virulence in its defence.15 though1Warburton. Aqyoptas km pvdovs emvorjeravres. &s dt) iruAat yeyovorav' ev Se TlayxMa ypap. personified. who. 67 of this ingenious gentleman was drawn by drian Library. pi)Se ovras Tlayxcuovs k m Tpicpv- yiffras epcpaaeis kcu Stacpacreis Aafietv earl tt j s Aiovs. yeyovora srpaypara c( apxvs aTteitepypavro. pos. while others donian and Roman empires. Evang. &s pn fiaSias Tiva crvvopav ra Kar’ aAij- pricriav SiSovras. whom cure money from the founders of the Alexan. is one in favor of this system. though his authority under Cassander. he pretended to subsequent ages. de Sacer-> ovopara trrpartiycov Kai povvapxaiv /cat fdacriAeaiv. ibid. p. Evang. and heroes. took it under their nonised beings. k m rots ko - —MeyaAas pev rip adeep A. aOeorijra KaTacTKeSavvvcn t ij s oiKovpevris.14 Ja- allegories copied with little variation fromthe blonski only wasted his erudition in exposing theogonies of the Greek poets. c. voptfropevovs deovs iravras 6paAcos Siaypacpa>v ets 14 Hieronym. brought out the old allegorical genea which. 213.

5 Lib. concerning which we historical personages: not that they under. 'Hpav eKeivoi (Tvppjjm) Ktnrpav KaAouai.tues and symbols which decoratedthem. ac- mystic worship. S. Plutarch describes her in the same eiri t jj KetpaAri irupyocpopeei. though the order. Many guisers of their religion. ot 8e 'Hpav.ministers of both sea and land. ingly sometimes blended in one symbolical and the regions under the earth. 271. of the of such solemnimportance was too firmly esta. 19 Qetrf. whoseattributes have beenalready blished to be altered.and near it was the statue of the corresponding rit. S. k m Nepte- 1 Demosthen. v. naming first the awful and by others Venus. Draco having solemnrites.Mother. the waters. Berecynthian same effect. p.6 to signify tre and instrument of his power. 4 Hoavov apxcuov KaAoviri (Aanaves) Arppu. he givesa complete abstract of the nautics of Apollonius Rhodius. lib. aav antav kcu tpvcnv vopi^ovaiv. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE vility of their subjects exalted into gods. Nature. and may be found more regularly upon the gods to attest and confirmhis treaty detailed in a speech of Mopsus in the Argo- withPriam. is to the those of the Ephesian Diana. of these existed in various parts of the Mace- upon all great and solemn occasions. syra the pervading Spirit that animates bols. in which honors of a god. who were accord- that pervade the waters. p. which was borne by bulls. lib. resort toits so well known as that of Hierapolis. kcu AcppoSirijs. or the Sun. pure fromthe superstructures of mythology in to that which excluded him from its only the forms ofjudicial adjuration. s. the many-named vious destruction. 369. 5 Exci 8e t i AOijvmijs.cessible only to priests of the higher order . ‘ 17See Sueton.*123“ She was. Trjv itavra dpij. &c. it is natural being too easily discernible. who 219. was founded. crios. de D. and others of the kind. kcu ‘Perjs. iroieovai. so asto signifymany attributeslike secret rites of Ceres and Proserpine. or the supreme all-ruling Spi. but because they followed the ordinary goddess Astarte.that of the goddess was by lions. called by the Greek Apollo. but none are now public adjurations andinvocations. 815. in Crasso.1 secresy. the cen. the great corrupters and dis. 36.18 figure by the very ancient Greek artists. The principles of that he shuuld prefer that systemof religion. who was precisely the same practiceof the earliest times.Lucian. as and regulator of the world. and lastly the subordinate so that she comprehended in one personifica- diffusions of the great active Spirit tion both these goddesses. “ by some called Juno. that the active power or astherial spirit is sus- then upon Almighty Pallas. they could not of course engage in 218. then before explained.Other invocations to the same purport are to votion of mankind than they themselves had.4 The invocation of the Athenian women. or nniversal mother. Dea. oicoirfv 'Pei)v AvSoi words. 0. 6 Se ravpouriv etpe^erat. i. or the tained by its own strength alone. theology appear to have been kept equally which decorated himwith its highest honors. 276. daughter of Latona or night. apud eund. de Bello Aeovres fiiv tpopeovfft. to prevent the mystic allusions from daringto enter a mystic temple. nevertheless. in 11.the personifications are introduced is often ousness of his crimes prevented him from varied. while the pure emanation of his wisdom. l’ausan. are only more compendious upon Neptune. in Ner. ZLeXijvavqs. T. P. Lucian. or the emanation of ways of representing these composite.5 It was cated and philosophical refinements of the placed in the interior part of the temple. ol fie ras Aeovres tpopeovtriv. 15. de D. es Aia oitjjs 'Hpas.Phrygians.19 ship bad no better title to the homage and de. apxas k m cveppara itaaiv e£vypav ttopairxov.”5 Universe. at the same time that consci. The great Pantheic temples exhibited anycontroversyonthe subject.Kai Sr/ra t o ji£tt t oo Aios a/yaApa. the harmoniser writers Jupiter. or meant to reveal Lucian. The minotaur and sphinx. iii. Neptune. and introduce no fabulous or holy city in Syria. upon which the mystic as Appian observes. then upon the golden-Iyred male personification.” old elementary system. Ven. 240. onlyadapted to the more compli. be found in many of the choral odes both and when an universal despot could enjoy the tragic and comic. p. and advantage: for as all persons acquainted with Minerva. otherwisethey a similar progression or graduation of per- might have appealed to the testimony of the sonified attributes and emanations in the sta- poets themselves. 1098. de Syr. &c. and by others held to be venerable Father of all.and lastly upon the would naturally be pleased to hear that the Nymphs or subordinate generative universally recognised objects of public wor. 6 --------apupai ifavTM’ aAAa ryv (lev 'Hprjv 3 Ol fiev A<ppoSiTt]V. This system had also another great under the sanction of Jupiter. bon. then the Sun. eiri Tiponp.have a particular treatise falsely attributed to stood the mysticdoctrines. kcu 50Schol. or the first principles. such as donian and Roman empires.io<p.50 whilst in later times Ceres was the mystic doctrines were strictly bound to joined to the two former instead of Minerva. then passive or terrestrial requires the aid of pre- upon Diana or nature.17 enacted that all solemn depositions should be 217. piter. or the cause which produced the be-J who superintends and regulates the ginnings and seeds of things fromhumidity . k m Moipeuv. It was called the temple of the Syrian them. Her statue at Hierapolis was variously areintroduced byAristophanes celebrating the composed. First they call upon J u.68 R. When Agamemnoncalls explained. . the earth. kcu Apre/udos. who. icm Ke<paAr)v icai dfiaru k m eSpTjv . Kat rv/iiravov e\ch kcu Parth. Stra- 18 II. which in matters as the Cybele. Lucian.

and it often appears in their sculptures. others Deucalion. have been noticed in the repeated mention that but which is of Asiatic origin . Plut. et Osir. and the same kind. Rudbeck. of Magna Gra:cia. been taken for Deucalion. in another. and being the Bird or Spirit. 63 220. p. who in one of her personifications which was signified so many various ways in appeared riding upon a ram accompanied with the emblematical language of ancient art.14 Among as well as the features effeminate . Asimilar union of attributes versal deluge. or three carried off a golden figure of the symbol of human legs. It was therefore the same figure as that on but afterwards personifiedby the mylhologists the Phoenician medal with the bull’s head on into a son of Apollo. and must. 369. Oda Thrymi Edd. 28. and any splendor or importance. 115. signifying splendid or luminous. carrying different the fabulous histories of this personage are not symbols.*7 It and Phaethon. Seleucus I. a triple per with a golden dove on its head should have sonification of one godhead is comprehended. like Pan. 104. the chair. of the Sun. 69-72. Or\Xeia. 18 Particularly on the coins of the Colonies 12 Plin. called. together with the thun Syrians. the supreme carried in procession upon men’s shoulders.101 The Colchians indeedwere which sometimes appears upon Greek monu supposed to be a colony of . ol 8e es 2ep. called Odin. who seemto have adopted himfromthe Hercules and Bacchus.ivayovai. it certainly would supposed to allude to the island of Sicily. et aA\’ ovfie yevemos avrov irepi km eiSeos Aeyovcri. or Disa. Dea. apepoiv eyyovcp. or plastic emanation. cav.16 Argonautic expedition . aworeAeopa. which the Syrians namesin different mystic temples. xxi. therefore. vol. Rudbeck. is probably froma composition of goat. de Is. Introd. as deities are God the Father. ap in the story. Ibid. springing from a central disk or their god: but had it been an expedition of circle. upon a his mother. c. 7 ---------ovSe rt ovvofxa iSiov avrtp edevro. In that of didnot chooseto explain. de 13 TIoBos.11and ments:18 but the most ancient form of this it is possible that there might be so much truth more concise and comprehensive symbol.fig. de Danemarc. p. 01. representing the Sun in a boat in Pacific Ocean. vii. and it is the Chinese sects. 4. Sis 10 The four lines in Odyss. the principle of infant Perseus floating in an ark or box with universal harmony . entertained: whence we are led to suspect that Lien. called Venus./Egyptians. with a quiver of arrows at her back. ii. The supreme Triade. Aecova. God the Son. Ibid. the first of whichcomprehended the proceeded from both and was consubstantial attributes of Jupiter andMars. like Bacchus he was the god of the seasons. Fothos. tarch. p. Thor bore the club of Hercules . probably arose the fable of the tending to every individual. to signify. WliOpijv Tlepirai rov p. 11 and appevt. Antiochus IV. et Osir. M. lib. 15 01. ttju 8e iiroretvou- 13. thus represented the square incuse . The music. 343. vol. 373. s. which have retained or peculiarly remarkable that such a figure as this adopted the symbolical worship. rijv pev irpos opOas. Aspendus in Pamphylia. begotten Love. and which is repeated with slight 14 Mallet Hist. Mithras. and others Semirarais. xxxiv. x- Kcu fuv ol /xeu es Aiovutrov. in that country. had the general com proves that the body of the figure was covered. 209 and 8 Meffov S’ apepoiv rov M iGprjV eivav Sto km 10. and. Freia.12 or Nature. 9 La Chausse Mus.15 Even in the remoteislands of the observed. Isis and Horus being repre ears of corn in her hand. which has been called a Trinacria. Rom. mand of the terrestrial atmosphere. Sis manifestly interpolated. s. Between themwas a third figure with at Hierapolis. and his chariot was drawn by goats. tab.13 and at Upsal in Sweden. c. which appear to have been peo stead of a chariot. and with many arms. signifying the Mediator. Samothrace it appeared in three celebrated but which some supposed to be Bacchus. de Is. assumed different forms and a golden dove on its head. Tr/i/ 8e fiatnv. ii. are apxpv. of whom cor in the goddess Pussa. Plu 16Missionaries’First Voyage. to signify her do-’J sented enclosed in this manner on the mystic minion over generation. rrjv 8e Imv Sis Siro8oxvv•rov 8e 'Clpov. . or call by any name. aXAoi 8e es Aeofea. and the third those of sians. . Atiant. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. as before struction. have been an androgynous Light. from which boat being pled from the Malay shores. c. km rov pev Otripiv. but from some symbolical com was expressed in the Scandinavian goddess Isa position of the plastic spirit upon the waters. to signify the various operations of derived from any vague traditions of the uni universal nature. ii. and de or Isiac hands . 31. as that a party of Greek pirates pears to be that of the three lines. QaeBcovis an Homeric title Syr. by three figure. desire. Attraction.17 Homeric poems.e<riri)v ovopa'£ovm. subordinate to whom are ornamented with symbols of Ammon taken an endless tribe of local deities and genii at fromthe ram. statues of Scopas. whom they represent responding ideas must of course have been sitting upon the lotus. pi.ipap. variations on the silver coins of Alexander the p. 17 ---------etKaffreov ovv. &c. as mediator be The doubt expressed concerning the sex tween heaven and earth. and sometimes upon the km fuv ovSe eOeAuv aAAais eiKcureis. whence he was called by the Per of Juno and Venus. which andThor . and most probably signified the first. sometimes alone in 221. of which there is not 222. p. the second those with both. Lucian.figures equally symbolical. vegetation. 16. lib. but Great. 11 Herodot.8 der of Jupiter: for Thor. its earliest ap is made of the heroes said to have been con pearance being upon the very ancient coins of cerned in it. The ^Egyptians are said to have sig a trace in the genuine parts of either of the nifiedtheir divineTriade bya simple triangle.9 and the Egyptians.

54. however. A bird was probably chosen for the rEgypt. it was con- represented under a human form. that they of Apollo clothed and bearded. 69-72. which occu- symbols of love or attraction. which bore the finer came the personifications of their various attri- exhalations. 380. with the hook or attractor in one hand. it usually lodging under the same roof with much celebrated bythe Greek poets as a magi- him. xliv. is loomuch bent for any of the dove kind .ever. which was sacred to they were said by the poets to carry ambrosia Mars. was more generally employed distinct kinds appear in the attitude of incuba-' for this purpose. by the style of work must be much anterior to with a serpent wreathed round a battle-axe the adoption of any thing /Egyptian into the inserted into it. vii. ii. Birds. Asimilar old coinwith the symbol on the 7 Pindar. however. Hunter. &c. aif>’ ov * Sec Phoenician coins of Melita. de Ccel. the beak of the bird. or ceremonial of worship. on pomegranate in the other hand . noieeaBai. symbols of that power. being thus common bols. lib. c. S. i. how- their offspring. Knight. and evade further questions. and for a sort of conjugal at. as like. c.ments of ancient art.ties .1and in the Jupiter of Dodona. a bird appears in the same pressed. After the supreme Triade.6 but what it account of its domestic familiarity with man ./Egypt. which • tiuns. the very early coins of Syracuse and Rhegium. 80 Brass coinin the cabinet of Mr. we have never observed in any monu- tachment and fidelity to each other. Pharmac. 1 IIpos ras ayurreias raiv Oetov xpwixtQa rip 9 E/crrjs 2aj3ivrjs ot TliKevrivoi. which. The dove. No.Payne Knight. lib. It was found in Epirus. however. Deipnos.^Egyptian Isis. iii. in some instances. which-held a in preference to every other species ofbird. 6 Pausan.70 E. less they are sufficiently ancient to serve the Ev 5e /cat aWo rip tnperepip AnoAAuvi kaivovp- purpose for which they are here quoted. as an accessarysymbol signify-' religion of Greece.9 from the ocean to Jupiter:4 for.a beautiful figure in brass belonging to Mr. of two tripod. c. lib.8 The the symbol on the sceptre of the Argive Juno dove would naturally be selected in the East in ivory and gold by Polycletus. BpvoKoAanrov apiOpup Tovrcp. as in the figures. and in endless variety of ways. 15. c. which are called after sions called ambrosia. 12. p. according to the vari. and among which was an ancient statue nated. Kai rovvofia' IUkov yap rov opviv rovrov ovofia- 3 /Elian. meant is vain to conjecture. in the figure in ques- Priapic cap or /Egyptian mitre upon its head.The lines of the Odyssey are. the seems to have been represented with the dia- thumb and two fore-fingers are held up to sig. Strab. ii. it has generally wings. which was the winnow or separator in the other. as re yyqvrat /cat nptoBrifiriv noieovai' fiovvoi 56 before observed. have authorised its use. 10 Kearat |oavov AnoWuvos. Knight. Jot/cri. employed with mystic solemnity. by which was figuratively expressed the called pigeons. 1: rt\v 65ov fiyriaafievov rots apxiyyerats. back to their original source. under the name of lunx. KNIGHT ONTHE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE body of the eagle or back of the lion.*1*3 On the same account Picus of the Italians. ii. 8 Hist. and v. de Animal. which gia it is represented between two asterisks.' In this figure she staff or sceptre in the Isiac processions. lib. iv. to the principal goddess both of Dodona and 223." When Libya. being the 224. which to have been the Juno-Venus.5 Like others of the kind. and is foundcomposedin an tion on the heads of the ^Egyptian Isis.10 In the 19See Mus. ovx oiov ecoSee 4 Odyss. iv. . and the golden disk of Ceres . ous attributes meant to be specifically ex. ing preservation and destruction.80 In the with other articles. meric times. the number three was female personification of the supreme God. lib. or composite seemto have been borne upon the point of a personage above-mentioned. de D. Pyth. going from Thebes in . tab. fructification of inert matter. On the coins ofMenecratia in Phry.posture on the head of a Grecian deity . they were the pied the adytus of the temple at Hierapolis. M. and. P. iv. the dove of the nify the three primary and general personifica. with which water. Birds of appears by the description of Aristotle 8 to be this kind were also remarkable for the care of the larger spotted woodpecker .' back of a lion is inthe cabinet of Mr.butes and emanations. Similar figures of Apollo are upon some of 5 Lib.demand sceptre of the former. nor do we know of any wise for the peculiar fervency of their sexual natural properties belonging to it that could desires. the immortal and celestial infu. oftwopigeons. who appears emblematical hands above alluded to. Athena:. c. or priestesses tion. c. tion. caused by the and founding the oracles of Dodona and vital spirit moving upon the waters. was Dione. the the names of the corresponding Grecian dei- prolific element of the earth.7 from one remote place to another. The figures of Mithras . and and is more like that of a cuckoo. interpolated : but neverthe ouroi AnoAAwvos yeveiifreto £oavov Seucvvovat. 17. v. ol (levyap aAAoi names AnoAAtova veov xi.latter. Tlieocrit. had beenimpreg. whence they were sacred to Venus. ii.toldbyHerodotus. while the peculiar attributes of each three last symbols were also those of the are indicated by the various accessary sym. lib. Nem. where the 2TNNA02. contrary to the might be again absorbed in the great abyss of usual mode of representing him. Al yeovtrr fiovvoi AnoAAwva elfiacn Kocrfieovcri. Anim. and without trived toveil the mystic meaning of symbolical the emblem. and being employed as his messenger cal charmor philtre. Aristot. 491. may account for the confused story emblemof the third person to signify incuba.19 The the divine essence. at least to the Greeks. Another bird. andlib. legories so refined were unknown in the Ho Lucian. It seems to be the and emblems of love. /cat vofu^ovaiv Apeos tepov.

Hecuba. 18See Tacit. Oeoicrt dpuAeet. though divine inspiration. vi. 300 ells 16 See the beautiful marble bust called high.17 from their general celebrity. or the bust was contrary to the general festive character of placed upon some sacred and appropriate the Greek worship. in kcu irnroi. Deor. was not properly deification. and address himwith what manifest signs of his predilection. Thesaur. Clytia in the British Museum. 71 vestibule wefe two phalli of enormous magni to Lucian. the reason of temple at Hierapolis. tive to that spiritual enthusiasm. or esteem. . The ancient German pro many of them are of persons who were never phetesses.Time. and in the court were Phrygia among the priests of Cybele andAttis. The of several religious rites.19is RomanCatholic Church still practises under the said to have had children by the Sun. The legendary tale of Conibabus nifying the fertilising quality of those waters. was held to be 225.14 particularly that of the sexes. the tions were uttered. 19 UapBcvcov.12 and pray for the velope: for the same custom prevailed in prosperity of Syria. and to which all sensual indulgence. 'Aoyos rctiv avoppijraiu canv. but was probably invented. such as Achilles. adduced by the author of the treatise ascribed which renewed and reintegrated annually the 11 Accordingto the present reading. de Dea Syr. 5. though pre-eminently ever. still exist under the accumulated soil. it is probable that cros Aovptcvrfv rcapBtvov yivcceBav ovros picv most of the marble statues which adorned it Sri fftpuriv ck reAer^r. who had either been benefactors to it. own family the object of his admiration. some of making themselves emblems of the Deity by which were tame and of great size . that of the priests cas whichwas explained in theArgive mysteries.a cnvovrat. and other deified per allegorical.attire of women. but who was equally famed for her virginal purity. G. who appear to have been a kind been considered. gra or chosen fromthe rest of the species by some titude. Kat aerot. or in open violation of the esta traordinary.2 trating themselves. fromsome of heroes. of Time by Jupiter. kcu Aeovres’ kcu Androt. is one of the most unac that this was an ancient figurative mode of sig countable. too. avBpuirovs ovSafj. according to the modern ac of priests of that god. p. The most common mode of signifying peculiarly adverse : whence strict abstinence deification in a portrait was representing the fromthe pleasures of boththe bed aud the table figure naked. priests. been thought &c. canonised for their ceptation of the words. by bathing in acertain 226. was sometimes radiated.fiction. 14 This temple having been in an alluvial 2 Evrauda rrju *Hpay cpacnv Apyctoi Kara country near the Euphrates. Hector.18 Perpetual ever rites of'devotion he thought proper. and. gems. pro virginity was alsotlie attribute of many of the vided he did nothing contraryto the peace and ancient goddesses. Helen. having been thus represented. eagles. wherefore{a deified or canonised been his children by Divine Wisdom. x. and. how selves prolific. probably 30. in Demosth.16 or the inverted obelisk. virginity every year. and philoso qualified for the sacred office of transmitting phers. too. &c. Thisconsecration. kings. Scbol. lib. vaos rfV cv rj? atcporroAei. Andromache. Tlap- 13EvSe r?i auAr/ acperoi vcfiovrat f}oespcyaAoi. 1 and Juno is said to have renewed her of their faith.11 upon one of which a person resided nation of it. fjv ayovtrt rp 'Hpa. 1 Gruter. xxxviii. as Phurnutus conjectures. that they might worthy to be ranked with them. kept the sacred or symbolical animals . 12 Ol p. and about acquiring an androgynous appearance. 723. de M. the object of it having Corybantes . The Pythian priestesses symbol. which mounted the tripod. to conceal rather than de- municate with the gods. Orat. Divus. Roman emperor was not called Deus.20 Diana. every individual could consecrate in his crated to the Deity. or. certainlydoes not give a true expla tude.15 the flower in particular fasted very rigidly before they of the lotus. Among the have thought a deprivation of virility an incen former were many of the Macedonian princes. Lucian. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY. what may seem ex order of society. of some who had proved them blishedformsofworship. bears. tion of Heaven by. like the Roman Vestals. were equally virgins conse faith. likewise. in the control over a people that would submit to no loose and indeterminate system of ancient human authority. _ . - euri Kat xeipor]0cis* Ibid. poets. Otvou Adijvas. men.cv ttoW oi vo/it£ov<rt. or with the simple chlamys or was required preparatory to the performance mantle given to the statues of the gods. Pausau. kcu ayada reaar) Hvpiy aireet. called title of canonisation. and assuming the manners in which the initiated were probablyinformed and . fabled to have a god. Minerva. such alone being nent Grecian statesmen. such as the cornucopias. fromwhich their predic last mode was by far the most frequent. horses. and the temple were an immense number of statues perhaps. Among the rites and customs of the fountain in the Peloponnesus. c. Jt is possible. like during seven days twice in each year to com others of the kind. ii. p. xli. to which wo and among the latter several of the heroes and men were observed to be more liable than heroines of the Iliad. who exercised such unlimited canonised by any public decree: for.13 In haps it might have arisen from a notion of an adjoining pond were the sacred fish. aAAa iravres tpoi re 20 Strabon. and both they and the greatest part of the busts nowextant of emi Sibyls were always virgins . therefore. a title which the early Christians has the title of mother in an ancient inscrip equally bestowed on the canonised champions tion . lib. rather as a saint than knowledge. 15 Of which there are many instances in c. though all abstinence head. such as those of the castra sons. drt vtpov roun 17 De Nat. Per as bulls. Kai apieroi. such who had no such story to account for it. &c. lions. 147. but what the distinguished by the title of the virgin.

-They are probably the Homeric talents 5 ALlian. may equally Shiven. li. p.their theories and opinions. who is also the regenerator: signs to express them. in- of the hypotheses founded upon Euhemerus’s strumental.particular subordinate attributes. prove that Theism. anymore than the primitive no- the supreme ineffable God. ii.9 Maurice’s Indian Antiquities. nations. no when not limited and ascertained by divine trace of suchanisland as Fanchaea. though indefinite notions of certain 22S. according to the Indian philosophy. which have treme antiquity and universal reception of the afforded such abundant materials for the ele- system of emanations. These 227. though the fol* sis.as goodness.most every nation of the world. fin. creation. attributes or modes of action of one first The species consecrated to the Syrian Goddess cause. always consecrated in his temples. Anim. Bryant. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE productive powers of the earth. the narrative itself was entirely fiction. forged which it is respectively placed under the triton by the Alexandrian Jews and Platonic Chris- of Corcyre. wisdom. distinct. and employ similar the destroyer. symbols. though ap. being the endless and intricate personifications of nowto be found. iv. upon some kinds of fishappears to have been and were anciently worshipped collectively an ancient mode of consecration and apotheo. branched out. dolphin was the common symbol of the or to fraud and forgery.bably invented.generic divisions are universally three . 7 jElian. and size of these coins see Mus. and titles of ancient my. the signify the complete restoration of the procrea. ad tarch. whose by the Greeks. Hence . 8 Six are in the cabinet of Mr. cular people . for as the organs of sense and whoisrepresentedwithfourheads correspond.thing is still the generation of another. This figura.symbolical fictions with each other.for. and the foundation of its tameness34 and lubricity. the goat of tians. Hunt.less. Hence al- narrative . 3 which. that we know. in every monstreted. and thus forming other powers of nature act. the ram of Clazomenae. Taras. while he rides upon an eagle. celebrated for from simple theism.under the title of Trimourti. to veil which under the usual covering of lowers of the two latter now constitute two fable. which have been Greeks. and fromwhom mankind.72 R. who still find them convenient to sup- the generative. Upon this principle. the universal Triade. first produced Brama the creator. no* tive or mystic renovation of virginity seems to thing is destroyed or annihilated. vol. p.8water end in generalising and classing the particular being the general means by which all the ideas derived fromthe senses. Maurice’s mos. by the natural subdi- of the historical records or memorials which vision of collective and indefinite ideas.the principles of intellect are the same in all ing with the four elements . 979. &c. JEgse. vol. &c. &c. of which the allegories. Animal. &c. Anab. has the tive organsof theuniverseafter each periodical lingam. that has de searches of modern travellers into the ancient viated from the rude simplicity of. and power. held the same rank among fish. and the gryphon of Teios. iv. OTacles. or did among quadrupeds.7 and therefore pro. the tales of Arion.damped the ardor or abashed the effrontery of hablysignifyingother attributes combined with those. the lion of Cyzicus. tab. fig.9 they being more prolific than any other class 229. The thunny is also the sym. but only be signified in the Orphic hymns by the epi. with part of the world.port.10 Its real bol upon all the very ancient gold coins struck source is in the human mind itself. from any one parti- the great one. which. or tions which they signify. has beenfully and clearly de. xviii. but quoted as authentic by Mr. countries which lie between the Arctic and 230. This triform division of the personified of animals. called Brarae. join on some occasions in the worship of blems of the productive power of the waters. tion. c. lib. such thology in favor of the mystic systemof ema. both being gregarious fish. money.on Ancient Mythology. they would all naturally formsimilar proceeded Vishnoo the preserver. de Solert. and may be considered as the first 6 Plutarch. de Solert. in 10 See Sibylline verses. seems to have been the first departure seems to have been the Scarus. were pro. c. i. The remarkable concurrence of the attributes or modes of action. the ex. the placingfigures three deities were still only one in essence. and Shiven ideas from similar objects. abundantly employed upon this subject: nor. or of any revelation. and efficient. i. According to the Hindoos. 4 Xenophon. 1.5 Sacred eels were seek for it in the philosophy of any particular kept in the fountain of Arethusa:6 but the people.plied to a male personification. Flu. has had its Trinity in Unity . P. For the form Indian Antiq. neverthe- . potential. as the goat To trace its origin to patriarchal traditions. lib. de Animal. the more explicit symbol of genera- effort of nature. and destruction. been derived. stamped. 976. so that the destruction of one thet nOAYIIAP0ENO2. is alone sufficient to prove the falsity preservation. Knight. so long as natural and 3 Hymn. On the contrary. . the bull of Sa. in which it almost invariably feeble and inadequate attempts to forman idea serves as the base or substratum for some of one universal first cause would naturally other symbolical figure to rest upon. in which last it religious mythology in every part of the earth. as the thunny was of the Pbomicians. and Mr.opposite and hostile sects. will only lead to frivolous conjecture.transmuted. or even vegetables. The similitude of these allegorical and Pacific Oceans. and the accurate and extensive re. Fish were the natural era. de Animal.symbol of the destroying attribute. primitive religions and traditions of the East. is no proof of their having whose modificationofit we arebest acquainted. which. into he pretended to have met with there. over all those vast gant fictionsboth of poetry and art. andremarkable for has repeated detection and exposure either intelligence and sagacity. 66.

to profuse donations to snake were in. and as the re. that dis have undergone.machine as the implement which he employs. as it affects both bis lions. are above the wretched improve and exalt the characters of individual outcasts. and. which we call taste'and divine essence. they have faith with both. however. Nevertheless the struc- 11 Maurice’s Indian Antiquities. as brious and nutritious of food. to have been spontaneous oraccidental. to fix the date of spective distinctions are in both hereditary.race . also. and 231. though unwillingly and by con- would everywhere be adopted. but to severe penances. while the they were wanted. the spirit of respectable and opulent of these degraded controversy will accompany the spirit of devo- mortals happen to touch the poorest. like the ancient . The lights of all the long. fromwhich genius. but they will for ever destroy the repose . as the virtues. are equally beasts of prey body and his soul. sculpture. as also with the ancient been eminently successful in all works of art. and the the most virtuous and happy of the human other in constantly supplying the most salu. are to be obtained might have been adopted fromone people by between the different transmigrations of the another without any common origin or even soul. Wolves. re-absorption into the powers of the mind. destitute of all those graces ing infamy and humiliation.have learned to think themselves equal in the alted religious rank. employed it to serve its own particular teristic qualities of the egg. and many other nations. held out by productions of one climate are employed as their religion. fraud. and new com. the the fall of European domination in the east soul being supposed to descend into one class fromthe prevalence of European religion. It requires therefore no with death : even to let his shadowreach him. &c. though be. Gauls. and. new symbols back of a bull. or regions of bliss. or architecture./Egypt and Hindostan the general simi. are not to any social or practical symbols by the inhabitants of another. a Hindoo can suffer. they were known : nor would the bull and cow 232. tion would naturally become more extensive. and panthers. placed one class of human sionaries succeed in diffusing among them a beings so far above another. The that require only methodical labor and manual Hindoo casts rank according to the number of dexterity. Should the pious labors of our mis- lence of usurpation. though in general a mild and tween . and would naturally be em. K . usage. at commercial communications. or the inso. vol. and by fixing each individual immoveably in One of the most remarkable is the hereditary his station.and reduces both him and his posterity for ployed as symbols of destruction. or intellectual abyss. and as the lotus and hooded monies.straint. the poetry of the hope even in posterity . renders him almost as much a division into casts derived from the' metem. spirit of prophecy. and its consequent proximity covers the smallest trace or symptomof those to. they may unionwith their source. and of which the most early and un it-sprang : and in no instance in the history of perfect works of the Greeks always showsome man. and tries came originally from the Hindoos. but less uniform mins. hierarchy. or distance from. are crimes by which the most virtuous binations of thembe invented in proportion as of men is irrevocably subjectedto it. the offence. most worthless person of ex. Should the most in with the lights of the Gospel. the serpent. became which certain periods of residence in their more free and intimate. instead of those of the community in goat. nor even any extraordinary is to defile and insult him. the wretched parents Hindoos seems to be in the same style as their having nothing to bequeath to their unfortu. humiliating. extends beyond the grave. which was a fundamental article of Hence. in points remote fromcommon represses activevirtue. forpunishment and ascendinto the otherfor re.art.more pure and more moral.operose fictions. but the ambition of a hierarchy has.submissive race : for the same system which larityis toogreat. who other respects. and painful transmi. and nate offspring that is not tainted with everlast.usual. which make it probable the priesthood.European literature and philosophy will break grations yet before them. The future rewards. and it will soon be found that men. when it was found that the one efficient virtue. would be punished estimation of men. gloomy. psychosis. Had this powerful engine of influence be less obvious emblems of creative force and been employed in favor of pure morality and nutrition. worst excesses of cruelty. above all. whose souls are approaching to a re.degree of political sagacity.233. and as observa. and to consist of gigantic. the Hindoos might have been might be employed in tilling the earth. particular symbols paradise./Egypt. the interests.represses aspiringhope . will assert their equality in the the Hindoo governments. in some of sight of God. and are therefore supposed to have and tranquillity of the mass. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY".and less energetic systemof religion. The charac. in all countries. or be placed with certain ceremonies upon the as intellect became more active. 73 not conventional signs were used. in tion. has the craft of imposture. perjury. Fromthe specimens that haveappeared ward. as the sacred Bra. The only certain proof of plagiary or peculation leave no stains nor pollutions what- borrowing is where the animal or vegetable soever. v.and fraudulent.so far as to sell future happiness byretail. are no less obvious./Egyptians. operose cere- lion is in Tibet. wherever ever to a situation belowthat of a brute. As to publish a tariff of the different prices. Britons. The Brarains have even gone that the religious symbols of both those coun.general: whence to taste of the flesh of a cow. Loss of cast is which distinguish the religious and poetical therefore the most dreadful punishment that fables of the Greeks.dawning. but have never produced any thing transmigrations which the soul is supposed to in painting.11 The Hindoos are of course a faithless connexion of general principles . the misery of degradation is without in European languages. who are without any rank in the men.

fig. 8 Six are in the cabinet of Mr. i. Anim. Plu. stamped. held the same rank among fish. in 10 See Sibylline verses. seems to have been the first departure seems to have been the Scarus. lib. Fish were the natural era. Bryant. 7 ^Elian. tab. who is also the regenerator: signs to express them. and size of these coins see Mus. This figura.3 which. and titles of ancient my. the narrative itself was entirely fiction. The remarkable concurrence of the attributes or modes of action . no when not limited and ascertained by divine trace of suchanisland as Panchaea.for. and employ similar the destroyer. though indefinite notions of certain 228. prove that Theism. will only lead to frivolous conjecture. neverthe- bably invented. is alone sufficient to prove the falsity preservation. which. 1. On the contrary.particular subordinate attributes. and remarkable for has repeated detection and exposure either intelligence and sagacity. vol. li.9 Maurice’s Indian Antiquities. and thus forming other powers of nature act. money. first produced Brama the creator. so that the destruction of one tliet n0ATITAP©EN02. upon some kinds of fish appears to have been and were anciently worshipped collectively an ancient mode of consecration and apotheo. &c. countries which lie between the Arctic and 230.thing is still the generation of another. is no proof of their having whose modificationofit we arebest acquainted. lib. the goat of tians. The thunny is also the sym. For the form Indian Antiq. and Mr. the ex. as the thunny was of the Phoenicians./Elian. and efficient. potential.port their theories and opinions. branched out. de SoleTt. the placingfigures three deities were still only one in essence. c. that has de searches of modern travellers into the ancient viated from the rude simplicity of. the universal Triade. ’ fin. both being gregarious fish.opposite and hostile sects. These 227. c. so long as natural and 3 Hymn. Animal. i. or tions which they signify. and may be considered as the first 6 Plutarch. Upon this principle. creation. attributes or modes of action of one first The species consecrated to the Syrian Goddess cause. &c. has beenfully and clearly de. whose by the Greeks. may equally Shiven. tion. or even vegetables. which have treme antiqqity and universal reception of the afforded such abundant materials for the ele- system of emanations. and destruction.5 Sacred eels were seek for it in the philosophy of any particular kept in the fountain of Arethusa:6 but the people.symbolical fictions with each other. while he rides upon an eagle. called Brame. forged which it is respectively placed under the triton by the Alexandrian Jews and Platonic Chris of Corcyia. cular people . . the lion of Cyzicus. in which it almost invariably feeble and inadequate attempts to forman idea serves as the base or substratum for some of one universal first cause would naturally other symbolical figure to rest upon. p. by the natural subdi- of the historical records or memorials which vision of collective and indefinite ideas. that we know. and Shiven ideas from similar objects. ad taTch.most every nation of the world. Knight. were pro. in which last it religious mythology in every part of the earth. as the goat To trace its origin to patriarchal traditions. join on some occasions in the worship of blems of the productive power of the waters. vol. xviii. with part of the world. JEgse. but quoted as authentic by Mr. distinct. into he pretended to have met with there. de Solert. de Animal. who still find them convenient to sup- the generative. The similitude of these allegorical and Pacific Oceans. Taras. they would all naturally formsimilar proceeded Vishnoo the preserver. and fromwhom mankind. or of any revelation. 4 Xenophon. the signify the complete restoration of the procrea.under the title of Trimourti.damped the ardor or abashed the effrontery of bablysignifyingother attributes combined with those. Maurice’s mos. which. primitive religions and traditions of the East. Hence al- narrative . This triform division of the personified of animals. Hence . and the gryphon of Teios. has had its Trinity in Unity . p. and the foundation of its tameness34 and lubricity. 66. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE productive powers of the earth. ‘in- of the hypotheses founded upon Euhemerus’s strumental. though the fol- sis.less. such thology in favor of the mystic systemof ema. to veil which under the usual covering of lowers of the two latter now constitute two fable. the bull of Sa on Ancient Mythology.transmuted. abundantly employed upon this subject: nor. for as the organs of sense and whois representedwithfourheads correspond. Hunt.8*water end in generalising and classing the particular being the general means by which all the ideas derived fromthe senses. the ram of Clazomen®.72 R. mo tive or mystic renovation of virginity seems to thing is destroyed or annihilated. and the accurate and extensive re. iv. 976. being the endless and intricate personifications of nowto be found. the more explicit symbol of genera- effort of nature.10 Its real bol upon all the very ancient gold coins struck source is in the human mind itself. &c. de Animal.7 and therefore pro. celebrated for from simple theism. According to the Hindoos. or did among quadrupeds.9 they being more prolific than any other class 229. has the tive organsof theuniverseafter each periodical lingam. and power.the principles of intellect are the same in all ing with the four elements . which have been Greeks. over all those vast gant fictionsboth of poetry and art. the tales of Arion. any more than the primitive no- the supreme ineffable God. oracles.symbol of the destroying attribute. but only be signified in the Orphic hymns by the epi. though ap. 'They are probably the Homeric talents 5 . dolphin was the common symbol of the or to fraud and forgery. nations. P. always consecrated in his temples. 979. been derived.generic divisions are universally three . of which the allegories. from any one parti- the great one. symbols. iv. in every monstrated. Anab. according to the Indian philosophy. wisdom. &c.plied to a male personification. ii.as goodness.

so far as to sell future happiness byretail.race . while the they were wanted. as it affects both his lions. are crimes by which the most virtuous binations of thembe invented in proportion as of men is irrevocably subjectedto it. in tion. to profuse donations to snake were in. ’in all countries.have learned to think themselves equal in the alted religious rank. would be punished estimation of men. but less uniform mins. are above the wretched improve and exalt the characters of individual outcasts. nor even any extraordinary is to defile and insult him. which make it probable the priesthood. forpunishment and ascendinto the otherfor re. Fromthe specimens that haveappeared ward. though be. as brious and nutritious of food.more pure and more moral. the misery of degradation is without in European languages. the spirit of . will assert their equality in the the Hindoo governments. but the ambition of a hierarchy has. or the inso. employed it to serve its own particular teristic qualities of the egg. and new com. the serpent. usage. and many other nations. The lights of all the long. the Hindoos might have been might be employed in tilling the earth. spirit of prophecy. and of which the most early and im- it-sprang : and in no instance in the history of perfect works of the Greeks always showsome man. are not to any social or practical symbols by the inhabitants of another. Had this powerful engine of influence be less obvious emblems of creative force and been employed in favor of pure morality and nutrition. respectable and opulent of these degraded controversy will accompany the spirit of devo- mortals happen to touch the poorest. .degree of political sagacity. renders him almost as much a division into casts derived from the' metem. they may unionwith their source. which we call taste'and divine essence. The future rewards.general: whence to taste of the flesh of a cow. whose souls are approaching to a re. tion would naturally become more extensive. though in general a mild and tween AJgypt and Hindostan the general simi.represses aspiringhope . as the virtues. Nevertheless the struc- 11 Maurice’s Indian Antiquities. vol. also. fromwhich genius. who are without any rank in the men. but to severe penances.233. and nate offspring that is not tainted with everlast.dawning.and reduces both him and his posterity for ployed as symbols of destruction.and less energetic systemof religion. and. are no less obvious. fraud. Should the most in with the lights of the Gospel. when it was found that the one efficient virtue. and painful transmi. are to be obtained might have been adopted fromone people by between the different transmigrations of the another without any common origin or even soul. which was a fundamental article of Hence. to fix the date of spective distinctions are in both hereditary. The charac. It requires therefore no with death : even to let his shadowreach him. to have been spontaneous oraccidental. &c. that dis have undergone. and tries came originally from the Hindoos. and as the re. the interests. they were known : nor would the bull and cow 232. instead of those of the community in goat. or distance from. and. held out by productions of one climate are employed as their religion. and 231. however. worst excesses of cruelty. and the the most virtuous and happy of the human other in constantly supplying the most salu. gloomy. operose cere- lion is in Tibet. or intellectual abyss. and it will soon be found that men. the poetry of the hope even in posterity . a Hindoo can sutler. though unwillingly and by con* would everywhere be adopted. Should the pious labors of our mis- lence of usurpation.machine as the implement which he employs. The Bramins have even gone that the religious symbols of both those coun. new symbols back of a bull. are equally beasts of prey body and his soul. like the ancient ^Egyptians. sculpture. the offence. became which certain periods of residence in their more free and intimate. or architecture. has the craft of imposture. Britons. and by fixing each individual immoveably in One of the most remarkable is the hereditary his station. 73 not conventional signs were used. above all. as also with the ancient been eminently successful in all works of art. the wretched parents Hindoos seems to be in the same style as their having nothing to bequeath to their unfortu. re-absorption into the powers of the mind.European literature and philosophy will break grations yet before them. the the fall of European domination in the east soul being supposed to descend into one class fromthe prevalence of European religion. and as observa. particular symbols paradise.operose fictions. peijury. but have never produced any thing transmigrations which the soul is supposed to in painting. in some of sight of God. Gauls. at commercial communications. in points remote fromcommon represses activevirtue. and are therefore supposed to have and tranquillity of the mass.submissive race : for the same system which larityis toogreat. The only certain proof of plagiary or peculation leave no stains nor pollutions what- borrowing is where the animal or vegetable soever. As to publish a tariff of the different prices. most worthless person of ex. as the sacred Bra. but they will for ever destroy the repose hierarchy. extends beyond the grave." Wolves.11 The Hindoos are of course a faithless connexion of general principles .art. The that require only methodical labor and manual Hindoo casts rank according to the number of dexterity. or be placed with certain ceremonies upon the as intellect became more active. humiliating. v. wherever ever to a situation belowthat of a brute. placed one class of human sionaries succeed in diffusing among them a beings so far above another. and would naturally be em. destitute of all those graces ing infamy and humiliation. and panthers. OF ANCIENT ART AND MYTHOLOGY.straint.usual. they have faith with both. or regions of bliss. psychosis.dEgypt. and its consequent proximity covers the smallest trace or symptomof those to. and as the lotus and hooded monies. Loss of cast is which distinguish the religious and poetical therefore the most dreadful punishment that fables of the Greeks.and fraudulent. who other respects. and to consist of gigantic.

ever at brethren. so that each religion may be good without After the supreme Triade. of theart and geniusof that fort. tematic in itsemanations andpersonifications. and China. therefore. nonationof transmigrations already past to go through theEast. being equally abundant and more sys. KNIGHT ON THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE. under their chiefsMoisasoorandRhaabon. or lose their model ofexcellenceworthytobe thecorporeal cast. the goodness of the immense host of inferior spirits to have been Deity naturally allowing many roads to the produced. P. cherish. Tartary. mayneveroccuragain! countries. except the again. totheinhabitants ofwhichtheyhad . asexamplesof what redeemingthemselves. and in different but once. are pass through eighty-nine transmigrationsprior above all others calculated to call forth the to their restoration.totheir respectiveclimates andcircumstances.thedivinepersonagesof man is capable of under peculiar circum thegreatTriadehad at different timesbecome stances. and have all the tedious and painful habitationof theDeity: but this. to prevent which. andthus tion of ordinary forms. who endeavourto makethem citinghisambitiontosurpassthesimpleimita violate the laws of the Omnipotent. tureof their mythologyis full as favorableto given different laws and instructionssuitable both. byexpanding and were exposed to the machinations of their exalting theimaginationof the artist. Tibet. &c. andex former leaders. which. the 234. were allowed to com ments.74 R. inwhichthey wereto ples of India. and assistthemintheir passage. part of whomafterwards rebelling sameend. as they have never occurred incarnate in different forms. These incarnations. Let the preciouswrecks andfrag ful to the Omnipotent. which form the material worldwas prepared for their prison principal subjectsof sculpturein all thetem andplaceofpurgation. nor indeedof the Earth. in order to producea relapse into hopeless perdition. they suppose an being exclusively so. During this time they ideal perfectionsof the art. their more dutiful Greeks and thosewho copied them. theemanations that remained faith tempted. wonderful people be collected withcare and andthat all might have equal opportunities of preservedwithreverence.

136 Ambrosia 223 Blood 143.19.220 . 180 Baldur 167 Chariot 182 riEgobolium168 Baptism166 Charon 15 Agrotera 226 Barley 43. 52. 219 Cadmeians 52. (Personified.) 231 Abraham 168 Baal 83. 185. 19. 200 Astrology 78. 75. 200 Ambrosial Stones 197 Boar 120.] Cornucopia 133. 159. 100. 179 Argonautics 220 Bulla 179 Criobolium168 Ariadne 99 Burial 162 Cross 46. 97. 77 Cap 161 Dancing 186.100. 193 A2nA2IA197 C.152 Anchor 155 Brama 228 . 201.48 Cherub 111 ^Egyptians 64.117. 19.) 215 Bell 181 XOIPO’PAAHS 19 Allegory 10.140. [There is an Consecration 25. 136. Casmilus 200 Cast. B. 144. 4. ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF THE PRI NCI PAL MATTERS.) 64. 53 Briino 143 Cortina 195. 138. WITH NUMERALS REFERRING TO THE SECTIONS. 198 Arion 227 Burning 162 Crown 102 Ark 220 Butterfly 169 Cuckoo 223 Arrow 129 Cursing 57 APTEMI2 142 Cybele 42.) 40 Canonisation 203.205 Ceres 18. 120.229 Corybantes 226 Aphrodite 43 Bubastis 87 Cosmogony 3.128. 11. 205 Adjuration 217 BAITTAIA 197 Chaldaeans 81 Adonis 18. 89.225 Antenna 119 error with respect to the Corinthian Order 153 Anubis 161. 100 Cypris 43 Asterisk 96. 156 Darics 131 Axe 160.125. 184. 225 Apis 29.17 Ampelus 126 Bow 129 Columns 147.100. 158. 187. 18. 224. (Sacred. 120 Baldness 112 Chaplet 47 A£gis 179. 195 Arabians 30 Bull 28. 66. 225 Daemon 163 Augury 67. 185.122 Ccelura 38 Ammon 50. 224 Buccinum51 Cow52. 114. Cecrops 25.159. 35. 161 Cadmus 20. Crab-fish 139 Architis 199 219 Crescent 32. 186 Boat 182.121. Centaur 111 Actaeon 114 188. Cyclops 107 Ass 123 Cymbals 181 Astarte 38. 5 Apollo 88. 216 Aurora 111 Capitals 153.174 latter reference. 205 Bellona 175 XPTSAAP 129 Amazons 50 BtjAos S3 Circle 91 Amberics 197 Bird 223 Cista 25. Comedy 201 Androgynous 207 Brame 228 Composite Order 156 Angels 82 Bramin 232 Cone 195 Animals. 53. 164 Cock 104. 132. 207 Acmon 38 126. 151.167 Castor 135 Abstinence 226 Babylon 83 Castration 226 Acacia 153 Bacchanals 74 Cat 141 Acanthus 153 Bacchus 10. 132. 80 Caduceus 160 Atheism 60 Calf 53 D. Attis 96. 158. 97. 85.115 . (Indian. Coins 14. 31.196 AfcHTflP 129 Bryant 211. 90 Canobus 165 Attributes. (Letter of. 120 Camilius 200 Attraction 24. 76. 218. 150 BAYBA87 Chimsera 127 jEscuIapius 140 Beads 47 China 31 APIAH2 145 Beetle 177 C hinese 60 Alexander.222 Carthaginians 168 Deer 110. 224 Bridle 176. 143.

204. 222. 62 . 53 Hertlia 36 137. 231 Eumolpus 21 Homer 22. 119. 234 224. 227 Frey 122 Incubation 223 Delphi 70. 223 AIONT202 18 188. 135. 134. 132 Freya 60. 113. 134. 34.210 Lion 109. 2 136. 142.142 Diespiter 103 Giants 10 Juno 36. 221 Iunx 223 Dioscuri 135. 234 Logging Rocks 197 Euhemerism ) 213. 112. 202 'mniA S 113 Deus 4 Gamr 162 'mnios 3 Diadem 47 Ganymede 121 Isa. 184 Fillet 47 Iao 134 Mars 116. 122. 220 Expiation 143 Hook 176. 139. 178 KPONQ2 34. 118. Diurnal Sun 132 Graces 44.224 Lizard 128 Erichthonius 25 Hieroglyphics 12. 223 A1N02 89 Gio 54 Juno Sospita 191 Dione 36. 66 Loadstone 89 ‘EPMAIOI A04>01198 High Places 94 Local Deities 57 Evergreens 49 Hindoos 5.110. 115. 184 Ice 53. Fortuna 119 Incarnations 233. 220 ATKEI02 102. 76 INDEX. Isi. 116. 228 Emanations 63 Heroes 207.114. 201 Lucina 140 Horus 88. 115. 59. 133.196 Hawk 108 Libations 68 'EKATONTAKAPAN02 192 Hecate 159 Liber 18 EKATOrXEIP02 192 Herald 160 Libera 118. 208. 85. Duel 160 Habaldur 167 Labyrinth 96. 223 Greeks 61. 19. 142.223 Druids 5 H. 221.) 146 Latona 87 » Happy Islands 170 Laurel 49. 162.191. (Love of the. 130.211 Hymns 22 Lux 102 Fanina 120 Lyre 116 Fasting 226 Fates 106 I. 195. 170 Doric Order 154 Dove 45.173 Dodona43. 159. 206 Gonnis 184 Juul 122 A1$YH2 100 Good and Evil 106 Disa 25. 76. 54. 120 Fig-leaf 43 Janus 131 Macha Alla 25. (Priapic. 71. 195 Goose 190 Disk 32. 224. 221 Infinity 34 Delta 43 Frogs 201 Initiation 163 Demigods 207 Ino 20 Demodacus’s Song 173 Invocations 217 AENAPITH2 192 G. Key 46 Dog 159. 158. 216. 113. L.220. 38. 205 EAATE1PA BOON144 Hercules 3.207. Deification 203. 97 Hades J4'5 Lamp 41 Hand. 64. 223 Goat 33. 155.185. 191. Hydra 130 AT2I02 L„ Hyes 133 AT2flN J Fables 39. 208 A04*01 ‘EPMAIOI 198 Europa 144 Honeysuckle 155 Love 24. 31. 116. 190 Lucetius 103 Horse 111. Libitina 118 Elementary Worship 1. 172. 221 Diagoras 60 TENETTAAIAES 44 Isis 18.227 Jephtha 168 Mediator 220 Fly 125 Jews 61 Medusa 179 Forgeries 215. 44.188 M. 69 Eagle 108.188 Light 24 Elephant 28. 43. 144 Genius 163 195. 52. 22S Hindostan 31 Lok 194 Euhemerus J Hippopotamos 108 Lotus 146. 56.194. Fauns 33. 103. 200 Leucothea 20 Egg 24. 205.195. Epaphus 28. 197 Germans 5 Ithypliallics 138. 227 Gryphon 144. 220 Didymaeus 133. 196 May-pole 23 Fisb 98. 54. 228 Hare 108 Leopard 126 Eel 227 Harmony 116.208. andJ. Fig 45 Jaggemaut 103.) 3 Fire 41. Jupiter 71. 233. Diana 114.184 Hermaphrodite 19S AIKNITH2 165 Eleusinian Mysteries 7 Hermheracles 172 Lingam 98. 161 Groves 73 KOPH 117 Dolphin 98.158 Japon 31 Marvellous. 219.158. 38.179 Gorgo 179 K. 122 Fir 72.115.219 EPE 37 Hierapolis 219. 229 Ilitliyiae 140 Melampus 20 . Io 54 Derceto 158 Tonic Order 155 Destruction 162 Gabriel 82 'mnA ) Deucalion 220 Games 201. 120.117. 186 F.

142.214 Mithras 220 Perseus 206. Ordeal 160 Orders of Architecture 153 Orpheus 21 R.136 Poppy 69 Spear 134. 219 Pegasus 111. 221 Pussa 221 Sword 160 Oil 197 Putrefaction 125 Sylvanus 112. 181. 185.160 NOD2 164 Priapus 19.169 Mercury 159. 230 X1MH2TH2 143 Pythagoras 89 Ops 38 Pytho ^jQ jog Oracles 68. Rhaabon 233 Thigh 48 Panchaea 212. 23.168 Persians 5. 186 Olen 70 Pvrstheia 91 Symbolical Writing 13 Olive 27 Pyramid 103. Birth of. 85 . Prytaneia 41 Stonehenge 101 VTXH 164 Sulphur 183 Oak 71 Psyche 169 Sun 55. 198. Rewards 170 Theseus 99.61 Sanconiathon 213. 200. 219 Nymphs 189 Prometheus 124 Spires 104 Proserpine 117. 157 Raphael 82 TERRA 37 . 31 Money 14. IN D EX 77 Mendes 191 IIANI2KOI 188 Rivers 96. 4. Water. *PEA37 Thamyris 21 P. Hooded. 185 Pam 131.152 Scarus 227 Monkey 178 I Philyra 112 Scylla 182 Moon 139.155. 225 Purple 164 Swan 190 Ocean 189 Purse 160 Swine 123 Odin 171. 16 . 9 Pipe 190 Siamese 58 Mythology 3. 162 Symbols 10. 26. Poetry 75 Snail 51 Pollux 135 Snake. 119. 188.209 II0A02 119. 221 Temples. 76 nr©io2 5 u * T.204. Modius 69. 206 190.186 Mithraic Rites. Taates 38 Osiris 10. 174 RES 37 Theogony 3 Pan 33. Red 164 Thebes. 147. 220 Saturn 38. Equine and Caprine. Pantheic Figures 192. 145. . 181 Pluvius 121 2MIN0ET2 128 N. 55. IS Sphinx 178. 147. Mnevis 29 Personification 40 Satyrs. 186. 62 201 -------------Temples 218 Rudder 119 Metempsychosis 231 Paphian 49 Rustam 131 Michael 82 Paris 121 Migration 208.145.179 Phoenix 120 Seasons 106 Mouse 128 4>PHN164 Semiramis 220 . Musaeus 21 . 52 Palm-tree 201 Renovation 162 Themis 42 ' Pallas. 39. 90 Nelumbo 146.11.158.19. 228 Rhadamautlius 170 Thor 31. Pillars 131 Shell 43. 61 Myrtle 48 Pine-cone 158 Shiven 228 Mysteries 6.187. 172.191. 201 Naith 175 nOATIIAPGEN02 226 Solar System89. Philae 54.137 Soul 163. 191 Moisasoor 233 Phaethon 221 2ATPOKTON02 128 ' Moloch 167 Phallus 23. . 97. 146 ' Petasus 161 112. Phtlias 174 Serapis 38. 205 Square 95 Prostitution 83. 221 . 176 Mises 126 Penance 143 Samothracian Mysteries 200 Misletoe 71 Persecution 60. Taras 227 Ill Rabbit 141 Tartarus 170 0TPAN02 38 Radiation 102. 185 Pedum 190 S. 223 2ATEIPA117 Net 195 Poplar 133.138.108. 122 Obelisk 102. 159.112. 211 Parsley 202 Mimicry 201 Pasiphae 96 Minerva 174.224 Scandinavia 5. 188. 151 Regeneration 166 Thebes. 105. 146 Snake. 152 Polypus 45 Socrates 60 Nepthe 1IS Polytheism 57 2ATHP 138 Neptune 100 Pomegranate 158. Boeotian. 5. 29.Planets 193 Silenus 112. 85 Statues 94 0. M)9. 93 Satyrs 33 . Symbolical.170 Night 86 Pothos 221 Sparrow45 Nocturnal Sun 132.191.18. Minotaur 96. 102. 175. 184.186 Pluto 145 Sistrum 141. ^Egyptian. 63. 92.225 Taurobolium 168 Owl 176.152 Names 203.190.145 Music 75 4>TTAAMI02 192 Serpent 25 Mygale 87 T Picus 223 Sesostris 131 Mylitta 83.106.193 Romans 61.

(Solar. VALPY. The Aut hor takes this opportunity of correcting an error. 228 Triade 56. 221.) 125 Tuscan Order 156 Zendavesta 93 - Tyndarus 113. Human. Triumph 164 W. Winnow165. and l x x iii.206 Water 41 ZET2 4.) 193 Trimourti 228 .221 Wolf 124 Tityri 188 Vesta 42 Worship.142. 34 Typhon 10. (Principles of.) 75 Tombs 136 Victims.^ THE END. 172.173 Year. in attributing the formation of the Pet wor t h Collection of Marbles to the Duke of Somer set .126 of.43.182 Writings. Z.184 Victory 119. 46. 19. Triangle 222 Urotult 30 Trinacria 222 l Vulcan 161. .78 INDEX* Thoth 174 • U. 176 Titles 204 120. 69. whereas the country owes it entirely to the taste and mag nificence of the late and present Ea r l s of Egr emont . etc. RED LION COURT.168. S. added by Mr. into which he and others of the Committee of Publication were led by a most respectable and lamented Member. l x x u . 51. 3. 229 Uriel 82 Y. 196 Wings 24 • Titans 123 Venus 18. (Baal.159 Vine 68. 117.173. See Explanation of PI. 143 Wreaths 49 Torch 41. V> • c . Br et t ingha m . PRINTED BY A.90 Thynny 227 •i Veil 87. (Stages and Modes Tortoise 44. Zebub.105 Waves 157 Zodiac 137 P. of the first volume of Select Specimens.and V. Weathercock 104 Three 222 Week 194 Thunderbolt 183 • ' Vase 68 Wheel 89.Vulture 124 Tripod 222 Triton 158 .) 12 Tragelapbus 114 i Virginity 226 Transmigration 170 Vistnoo 120.116. FLEET STREET. 199.