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Name : 1.

Novi Indriyani (2016205602211032)
2. Sharopov Shavkat (2016205602211036)
3. Iqbal Alfian Rusydi (2016205602211038)
Class : 2A
Subject : Advanced Assessment on Language Teaching
Topic : Assessing Reading

ASSESSING READING
Reading for learning requires a conscious effort to make links, understand
opinions, research and apply what you learn to your studies. Reading becomes not
simply a way to see what is said but to recognize and interpret what is said, taking into
account subtleties such as bias, assumptions and the perspectives of the
author. Characteristic of written language including reading as follows: a) Permanence.
Written language included as permanent due to the reader has an opportunity to return
again and again, if necessary to a word or phrase or sentence or even a whole text; b)
Processing time. Most reading context allow readers to read at their own rate. Some of
readers are categorized as slow readers and fast readers; 3) Distance. The task of the
reader is to interpret language that was written in some other place at some other time
with only the written words themselves as contextual clues; 4) Orthography. In written
text, we called it grapheme. Graphemes are individual letters and groups of letters that
represent single phonemes. Sometimes punctuation, pictures, or charts lend a helping
hand; 5) Complexity. writing and speech represent different modes of complexity and
the most salient difference is in the nature of clauses. Sometimes there are some
ambiguity in a lot of reading text, the readers have to infer and interpret what they read;
6) Vocabulary. In written English or reading text typically utilize a greater variety of
lexical items than spoken conversational English. Sometimes the overall meaning of a
sentence or paragraph is nevertheless still clear, learners should refrain from the
frequent use of a bilingual dictionary; 7) Formality. It refers to prescribed forms that
certain written messages must adhere to. Formality in essay writing that demands a

writer’s conformity to conventions like paragraph topics; we have logical order for, say
comparing and contrasting something, etc.
Getting students to read English texts is an important part of the teacher’s job.
Many of them want to be able to read English texts for different purposes such as for
careers, study or pleasure. Reading texts provide good models for English writing.
Teachers should show students models of what they are encouraging them to do.
Besides, reading texts also provide opportunities to study language like vocabulary,
grammar, punctuation and the way to construct sentences, paragraphs and texts.
There are two approaches to reading, bottom up and top down. The first one is
related to “strategies for processing separate letters, words, and phrases”, the second
one are “conceptually driven strategies for comprehension”. Therefore, comprehension
is not the only objective when assessing reading. Due to the different genres of texts,
readers need to adopt one or both of the approaches in order to get the meaning and
sense of what is being read. Within the approaches to reading, some strategies can be
taught so students can develop microskills and macroskills.
Due to the fact that reading is a receptive skill, the way to assess it includes the
use of productive skills, whether speaking or writing. This is why special attention
must be paid to the different principles of assessment. First of all, teachers should
choose the appropriate genre of texts when assessing students in order for the test to
have content validity. According to Brown, there are four types of reading: perceptive,
selective, interactive, and extensive. And there are different tasks that can be carried
out which go from short to long, from a focus on form to a focus on meaning, and from
a bottom up process to a top down process accordingly.
In order to assess perceptive readings, the tasks that can be carried out are
reading aloud, written response, multiple-choice, and picture-cued items. To assess
selective readings, some of the tasks are multiple-choice focused on form, matching
tasks, editing tasks, picture-cued tasks, and gap filling. To assess interactive reading,
there are cloze tasks, impromptu reading plus comprehension questions, short answer
tasks, editing, scanning, ordering tasks, and tasks for information transfer. To assess

Schedule material signs. announcements e. applications. Technical c. d. Manual direction h. questionnaires. calendars e. short stories. skimming can be used. Memos cards. cartoons Each genre of written text has its own set of governing rules and conventions. Schedules. Letters/emails b. papers f. Directories drama. Messages a. greeting b. and note- taking and outlining.extensive reading. immigration documents j. Reference e. poetry i. notes. Comic strips. General a. Letters. An efficient reader also must know what their purpose . menus. jokes. emails. Financial documents g. Advertisements f. lists c. Financial documents i. d. magazines interest article b. Those kind of a text enables readers to apply certain schemata that assists them in extracting appropriate meaning. medical reports. Forms. summarizing and responding. opinion writing h. labels. Recipes. TYPES/ GENRES OF READING According to Brown. maps. genres of reading (written text) divided into three items. Reports c. Forms. Messages. Novels. Newspapers. They are: Academic Job Related Reading Personal reading Reading a. Test directions questionnaires f. Essays. Editorials and g. invitations reports d.

STRATEGIES FOR READING a. b.is in a text.  Retain chunks of language of different lengths in short term memory. deduce causes and effects. and how to retain the information. agreement. tense. according to form and purpose.  Infer context that is not explicit by using background knowledge.  Recognize cohesive devices in written discourse and their role in signaling the relationship between and among clauses  Recognize grammatical word classes (nouns. MACROSKILLS.  From described events. Microskills  Discriminate among distinctive graphemes and orthographic patterns of English. patterns. verb etc. the strategies for accomplishing that purpose. rules. Infer links and connections between events. and detect such relations as main idea. ideas. and pluralization). verb etc. agreement. patterns. tense.  Recognize that a particular meaning may be expressed in different grammatical forms. and elliptical forms.  Process writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose.) systems (e.g. rules.  Recognize grammatical word classes (nouns.) systems (e.  Recognize a core of words. .g. Macroskills  Recognize the rhetorical forms of written discourse and their significance for interpretation.  Recognize the communicative functions of written texts. and interpret word order patterns and their significance. MICROSKILLS. pluralization). etc. and elliptical forms.

new information. Use silent reading techniques for relatively rapid comprehension (for intermediate to advance levels) . Here are the following strategies in reading comprehension: 1. They may need hints and explanations about certain English orthographic rules and peculiarities 3.  Develop and use a battery of reading strategies such as scanning and skimming. make sure students know their purpose in reading something 2. the learners who already literate in certain language. Identify the purpose in reading Efficient reading consists of clearly identifying the purpose in the reading something. Whenever the teachers teach reading technique. and activating schemata for the interpretation of texts.  Detect culturally specific references and interpret them in a context of the appropriate cultural schemata. Reading comprehension is primarily a matter of developing appropriate. They are struggling with the control of limited vocabulary and grammatical patterns. detecting discourse markers. efficient comprehension strategies. generalization. guessing the meaning of words from context. one of difficulties students encounter in learning to read is making the correspondences between spoken and written English. they have to consider some strategies in reading comprehension. supporting idea.  Distinguish between literal and implied meanings. Strategies for Reading In comprehending the text. and exemplification. Use graphemic rules and patterns to aid in bottom-up decoding (for beginner level learners) At the beginning levels of learning. c. given information.

Skimming gives readers the advantage top predict the purpose of the passage or the main topic. The teachers can help the learners to become accurate guessers by encouraging them use effective comprehension strategies in which they fill gaps in their competence by intelligent attempts to use whatever clues are available to them such as guessing the meaning of a word. 7. skip over it and try to infer its meaning form its context 4. In vocational or general English. 8. preferably phrases  Unless a word is absolutely crucial to global understanding. or grouping ideas into meaningful clusters. etc. 5. Skim text for main ideas Skimming consist of quickly running one’s eyes across a whole text for its gist. The intermediate-to-advanced level students need to be speed readers the teachers can help increase efficiency by teaching a few silent reading rules:  The teachers don’t need to pronounce each word to yourself  Try to understand perceive more than one word at a time. scanning is important in dealing with genres like schedule. helps the readers to provide some order to the cause collectively induce order and hierarchy to a passage. Guess when you aren’t certain The key to successful guessing is to make it reasonably accurate. 6. guessing a grammatical relationship. guessing content messages. forms. Use semantic mapping or clustering The strategy of semantic mapping. Scan the text for specific information Scanning is quick searching for some particular piece or pieces of information in a text without reading the whole text. manual. Analyze vocabulary .

grammatical. or a simple chart or graph) (Brown. Capitalize on discourse markers to process relationships TYPES OF READING a. un. An example of a very basic grapheme recognition task would require students to decipher differences in similar words. 2004). 9. a brief paragraph. looking for grammatical context. Perceptive Perceptive reading requires students to process separate letters. punctuation. Bottom up processing is implied. co. look for roots of word. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings 10. The following example requires students to prove their comprehension of 20 short statements. This assessment tests for the students' understanding of simple graphemic characters. and other graphemic symbols of larger stretches of discourse (Brown. b. tive. etc). Selective Selective reading requires students to recognize lexical.). Another example of a selective reading assessment is the following multiple-choice cloze vocabulary/grammar task. so students need to focus on the form and context of what they are reading in order to select the correct response. they can analyze it using several techniques in vocabulary such as looking for prefixes (inter. or discourse features of language within a very short text (a sentence. etc. Students read one statement at a time and choose the answer that has the same meaning as the statement. When the learners can’t immediately recognize a word. looking for suffixes (tion. words. Another example of a perceptive reading assessment would be to match pictures with the corresponding words. Sometimes multiple items can be grammatically correct but not contextually correct. 2004). . and semantic context.

post-reading. but does aid the learner overall in the area of prediction of prepositions or conjunctions. short stories. Another way of assessing students' interactive reading abilities is to have them read cloze passages and fill in expected prepositions or conjunctions. and comprehension checks). . or books in order to assess global understanding of a text rather than the understanding of minute details (Brown 2004). The following example is for very advanced students. One such example entails a paragraph about ‘autumn and multiple choice comprehension-check questions following the passage’. These tasks have good washback potential because they require multiple stages of thought (pre-reading. This would be good for EFL students in the beginning stages of interactive reading. technical reports. Skimming tasks are also used for extensive reading assessments. essays. This can pose grading difficulties if there are multiple possibilities. 2004). Extensive Extensive reading requires students to read articles. Interactive Interactive reading can require students to read several paragraphs to one page of text or more and psycho-linguistically interact with the text (negotiate meaning) to identify relevant features and retain information that is conceptually processed (Brown. A very common example of an extensive reading assessment is to have students summarize long texts.c. in-class discussions. d.

the One That Doesn’t “Belong”. Seat Set S D 4. true/ false. Led Let S D 2. and/ or short sentences and reads them aloud one by one. 1. Multiple Choice Multiple choice responses are not only a matter of choosing one of four or five possible answers. Reading Aloud The test-taker sees separate letters. words. b. any recognizable oral approximation of the target response is considered correct. choose the letter and matching. c. Since the assessment is reading comprehension. Book Book Boot . Bit Bit S D 3. Piece Peace Piece 2.DESIGNING ASSESSMENT TASK “PERCEPTIVE READING” a. Other formats for low levels of reading include same/ different. circle the answer. Too To S D  Grapheme Recognition Task Circle the “Odd” Item.  Minimal Pair Distinction Circle “S” for same or “D” for different 1. Written Response The same stimuli are presented and the test taker’s task is to reproduce the probe in writing.

Picture-cued Items Test-takers are shown a picture along with written text and are given one of a number of possible tasks to perform.  Picture-cued Word Identification Point the Word That You Read CAT CLOCK CHAIR .d.

The picture is over the couch T F  Picture-cued Matching Word Identification 1. Cat __________ 5.  Picture-cued Sentence Identification Point to the Part of the Picture That You Read about Here The man is reading a book The cat is under the table  Picture-cued True/False Sentence Identification 1. The cat is on the table T F 3. Chair __________ 3. Clock __________ 2. Table __________  Multiple-choice Picture-cued Word Identification Rectangle . Books __________ 4. The pencils are under the table T F 2.

Shout 3. Type c. please __________ on the door. Kneel b. He’s __________ a. a. Young b. it is easy to administer and can be scored quickly. Single c.  Multiple-choice Vocabulary/Grammar Tasks 1. Multiple Choice This format is one of the popular methods of testing a reading knowledge of vocabulary and grammar. Which . The bank robbery occurred __________ I was in the restroom. While d. A husband 2.DESIGNING ASSESSMENT TASK “SELECTIVE READING” a. During c. a. Knock d. The reasons because of practicality. If there’s no doorbells. He’s not married. That b. First d.

live b. since 8. a. The same as 3. Definitely c.  Contextualized Multiple-choice Vocabulary/Grammar Task 1. a. The you were looking at c. a. could c. use to c. to live c. mine is __________ yours. You were looking at the file  Multiple-choice Cloze Vocabulary/Grammar Task I’ve lived in the United State (1) __________ three years. being 5. I have never (6) __________ back home (7) __________. Impatiently 2. The same as c. be b. I came to the United States. when b. can 4. a. I (2) __________ live in Costa Rica. Jack : Do you have a coat like this? John : Yes. a. I (3) __________ speak any English. 1. a. go b. was 7. Manager : Do you like to work by yourself? Employee : Yes. be c. will go c. since b. So same as b. Boss : Where did I put the Johnson file? Secretary : I think __________ is on your desk. but I might (8) __________ to visit my family soon. a. couldn’t b. a. The file you were looking at d. during 2. been b. As same as d. living 6. for c. while c. used to b. I used to (4) __________ homesick. going . Independently b. but now I enjoy (5) __________ here. You were the file looking at b. a. was 3. I like to work __________ a. been c. a.

too c. smaller c. understanding of others __________ 3. 3. a. which was (3) __________.  Vocabulary Matching Task Write in the Letter of the Definition on the Right that Matches the Word on the Left __________ 1. My parents were __________ with my bad performance on the final exam. the runners were totally __________ 2. enough 11. The test-taker’s task is simply to respond correctly. Exhausted a. tired __________ 4. Disappointed b. but it wasn’t big (2) __________ to fill all his clothes. The __________ listening of the counselor made Christina feel well understood. 9. excited  Selected Response Fill-in Vocabulary Task 1. largest b. Matching Tasks Matching is an appropriate format. larger b. Empathetic d. unhappy __________ 2. to 10. a. 4. a. He showed his suitcase (1) __________ me. Enthusiastic c. At the end of the long race. so b. Choose from among the following Exhausted Disappointed Enthusiastic Empathetic . from c. Everyone in the office was __________about the new sales raises. for b. So I give him my suitcase.

The abrasively action of the wind wears away softer layers of rock.  Test-takers read a sentence or passage and choose one of four pictures that is being described.  Multiple-choice Grammar Editing Task Choose the Letter of the Underline Word That is not Correct 1. . d. There are two way of making a gas condense: cooling it or putting it under A B C D pressure. A B C D 2. Editing Tasks Editing for grammatical or rhetorical errors is a widely used test method for assessing linguistic competence in English. Picture-cued Task Picture and photographs may be equally well utilized for examining ability at the selective level.c.

each describing a labeled part of picture or diagram. .  Test-takers read a series of sentences or definitions. e. Their task is to identifying each labeled item. Gap Filling Tasks Gap-filling gap can be also said as fill in the blank items. The test taker’s response is to write a word or phrase.

It suggests. . that changing (6)____ avoiding things that make you miserable may well make you less miserable (7) ____ probably no happier. auditory or cognitive) and supply omitted details. Cloze Tasks Cloze Task is the ability to fill in gaps in an incomplete image (visual. (5) ____ example. It suggests. fixed ratio deletion (every seventh word) The recognition that one’s feelings of (1) ____ and unhappiness can coexist much like (2) ____ and hate in a close relationship (3) ____ offer valuable clues on how to (4) ____ a happier life.  Cloze procedure.DESIGNING ASSESSMENT TASK “INTERACTIVE READING” a. for (5) ____ that changing or avoiding things that (6) ____ you miserable may well make you (7) ____ miserable but probably no happier. rational deletion (prepositions and conjunctions) The recognition that one’s feelings (1) ____ happiness (2) ____unhappiness can coexist much like love and hate (3) ____ a close relationship may offer valuable clues (4) ____ how to lead a happier life.  Cloze procedure.

the second half of every other word is obliterated and the test taker must restore each word. Different to c-test. The second version provides more washback as students focus on targeted grammatical features. In the c-test. but the second version allows the test designer to tap into prediction of prepositions and conjunctions in particular.  C-test Procedure  Cloze-elide Procedure b. cloze test required the test taker to detect and cross out the “intrusive” words. Impromptu Reading Tasks Plus Comprehension Question The most common technique for assessing reading is read a passage and answers some questions technique. In both versions there are seven deletions. Other versions of cloze task are c-test and cloze-elide. .

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 Contextualized Grammar Editing Task . the task designer can draw up specification for a number and rhetorical categories that match the content of the courses. there are several advantages gained in the longer format.c. the task simulates proofreading one’s own essay. Editing (Longer Texts) In editing tasks.  Open-ended Reading Comprehension Questions d. Short Answer Tasks A popular alternative to multiple choice questions following reading passages is the age-old short-answer format. They are authenticity is increased.

f. . graphs. That is assembling little strip of paper with a sentence on it into a story.  g. c. DESIGNING ASSESSMENT TASK “EXTENSIVE READING” a. etc. Information Transfer This is a technique to comprehend charts. It is a kind of reading a text quickly. Note Taking and Outlining Readers’ comprehension of extensive texts can be assessed through an evaluation of a process of note taking and/ or outlining. Skimming Tasks Skimming is the process of rapid coverage of reading matter to determine its gist or main idea. Assessment of skimming strategies is usually straightforward b. Summarizing Tasks One of the most common means of assessing extensive reading is to ask the test-taker to write a summary of a text. calendars. going through a text to find a particular piece of information. Scanning Scanning is a strategy used by all readers to find relevant information in a text. Ordering This is also called strip story technique. diagrams. maps. e.