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**Tuning of PID Controller using Ziegler-Nichols
**

Method for Speed Control of DC Motor

**P. M. Meshram Rohit G. Kanojiya
**

Associate Professor, Dept. of Electrical Engg. PG Student, Dept. of Electrical Engg.

Y.C.C.E, Wanadongri, Nagpur, India Y.C.C.E, Wanadongri, Nagpur, India

praful 1087@rediffmail.com rohitkanoj@yahoo.com

**Abstract-In this paper, a weighted tuning methods of a PID is developed using Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) and Modified
**

speed controller for separately excited Direct current motor is Ziegler-Nichols .The performance measure to be minimized

presented, based on Empirical Ziegler-Nichols tuning formula

contains the following objectives of the PID controller, that

and modified Ziegler-Nichol PID tuning formula. Both these

methods are compared on the basis of output response, minimum

will be studied separately,

settling time, and minimum overshoot for speed demand 1. Minimize the rise time, time required for system

application of DC motor. Computer simulation shows that the response to rise from 10% to 90% (over damped); 5%

performance of PID controller using Modified Ziegler-Nichols to 95%; 0% to 100% (Under damped) of the fmal

technique is better than that of traditional Ziegler-Nichols

steady state value of the desired response,

technique.

2. Minimize the maximum overshoot, Maximum

Index Terms-Ziegler-Nichols tuning, Modified Ziegler-Nichols

overshoot is the maximum peak value of the response

tuning, Optimal control, PID controller. curve measured from the desired response of the

system, and

I. INTRODUCTION 3. Minimize the settling time, Time required for

response to reach and stay within 2% of final value.

I the direct current machine became more and more useful

NSPITE of the development of power electronics resources,

**this Nowadays their uses isn't limited in the car applications
**

II. DC MOTOR MATHEMATICAL MODEL

(electrics vehicle), in applications of weak power using battery

system (motor of toy) or for the electric traction in the multi This DC motor system is a separately excited DC motor [7],

machine systems too. The speed of DC motor can be adjusted which is often used to the velocity tuning and the position

to a great extent as to provide controllability easy and high adjustment. This paper focuses on the study of DC motor

performance [4]-[6]. The controllers of the speed that are linear speed control, therefore, the separately excited DC

conceived for goal to control the speed of DC motor to execute motor is adopted. Make use of the armature voltage control

one variety of tasks, is of several conventional and numeric method to control the DC motor velocity, the armature voltage

controller types, the controllers can be: PID Controller, Fuzzy controls the distinguishing feature of method as the flux fixed,

Logic Controller, Genetic Algorithm technique, Particle is also a field current fixedly. The control equivalent circuit of

Swarm Optimization technique or the combination between the DC motor by the armature voltage control method is shown

them: Fuzzy-Neural Networks, Fuzzy-Genetic Algorithm, in Figure 1.

Fuzzy- Ants Colony, Fuzzy-Swarm.

Ra La

In 1942, Ziegler-Nichols presented a tuning formula [1, 3,

7], based on time response and experiences. Although it lacks +

**selection of parameters and has an excessive overshoot in time
**

response, still opens the way of tuning parameters. Modified

Ziegler-Nichols tuning based on Chien-Hrones-Reswick

(CRR) PID tuning formula [3, 8] for set-point regulation

accommodate the response speed an d overshoot. In this paper,

an optimal PID controller for DC motor speed control

J B

Fig.1. The control Equivalent Circuit of DC Motor using the Annature

ISBN: 978-81-909042-2-3 ©2012 IEEE

2. The 2 PID controller system block diagram of this paper is shown in d e (t) de Tm (t) = J + B =KTia (t) (3) Figure 6. DC Motor Armature Voltage Control System Function Block A. +eb(t) (2) far. integral gain (K [ ). (2). Ra : Armature resistance III. and (3) into Laplace transform.IEEE. 31. IV. The response is characterized by two parameters. The main features of PID controllers are the capacity to eliminate steady-state error of the response to a step reference signal (because of integral action) and the ability to anticipate output changes (when derivative action is employed). and Kp. PlD Controller Block Diagram. the equations can be formulated as e(t) u(t) E(s) U(s) (4) (5) Fig. respectively. Because the structure of PID controller is simple. it Making use of the KCL voltage law can get is the most extensive control method to be used in industry so . and to the derivative Tm : Motor torque of the error (derivative action). dt dt Take (1). Where. then de eb (t) =Kb -=Kbco(t) (1) K(s)=K p [ I 1+_ _+Td(S) 'Ii (s) ] (9) dt These functions have been enough to the most control processes. This method is applied to plants with step responses of the The transfer function of DC motor speed with respect to the form displayed in Figure 4. PID CONTROLLER La : Armature inductance PROPORTIONAL-integral-derivative (PID) controllers [1] ia : Armature current [3] are widely used in industrial control systems because of the if : Field current reduced number of parameters to be tuned. The corresponding transfer function is given as directly. a fIrst order system with transportation delay.e('r )dl+Td -e(t) T. d dt 1 (8) Kb: EMF constant 0 KT : Torque constant Where u(t) ande(t) denote the control and the error B : Friction constant signals respectively.International Conference On Advances In Engineering. L the delay time and T the (7) time constant. namely t w: J: An angular velocity of rotor Rotating inertial measurement of motor bearing [ I f U(t)=Kp e(t)+. This type of response is typical of input voltage can be written as follows. and differential From Newton law. 'Ii and Td are the parameters to Because the back EMF eb is proportional to speed (0 be tuned. (6) Transfer function can also be expressed as U(s) K Figure 4 describes the DC motor armature control system K(s)=--=K +-' +K dS (10) E(s) p S function block diagram from equations (1) to (6). They provide control signals that are proportional to the error between the ea : Input voltage reference signal and the actual output (proportional action). the motor torque can be obtained as gain (KD ) to achieve the optimal control performance. Traditional method Diagram.2012 118 Voltage Control. The PID controller is mainly to adjust an appropriate dt proportional gain ( Kp). to eb : Back electromotive force (EMF) the integral of the error (integral action). 3. These are found by drawing a tangent to the step response at its point of inflection and noting its intersections ISBN: 978-81-909042-2-3 ©2012 IEEE . dia (t) ea(t)= Ra1a(t)+La -. ZIEGLER-NICHOLS TUNING Fig.Science And Management (ICAESM -2012) March 30.

from which the parameters of k. DC MOTOR PARAMETERS TABLE I ZIEGLER-NICHOLS TUNING FIRST METHOD Parameters Motor 1 Motor 2 Motor3 Armature Resistance Ra Controller type Kp Ti Td (0 ) 2 2 1 P TIL PI 0. In real-time process control systems. the Ziegler-Nichols formula in TABLE m Table 1 can be used to get the controller parameters.02 1. Ki and Kd are obtain from tables 1 G(s)= (11) TS+l and 2 to form the transfer function for PID controller as given by (9).Block Diagram of DC Motor Control System.6/a T 0.5 0. (3)) previously.023 regulation.5 0.023 Compared with the traditional Ziegler-Nichols tuning formula.2 0.2 0. MODIFIED ZIEGLER-NICHOLS TUNING SECOND METHOD Transfer function for motor 1. The CRR PID controller tuning formulas are various parameter models for different motors as shown in summarized in Table 2 for set-point regulation.01 0.4T 0. Fig. yet) V. EMF constant KB 0. With K[=Kp/Tjand 0. Response Curve for Ziegler-Nichols Method.The Transfer function these three motors are given by TABLE n following equations. and T are obtained from the Transfer function for motor 2.01S +0. More sophisticated curve fitting approaches are shown in Table 3. Ziegler and Nichols derived the following control parameters based on this model. (R201Oa) Simulink. In addition one qualitative specification on the (Nm/A) response speed and overshoot can be accommodated.015 0. we be measured through an experiment. (2).lS + 2.95/a I. the output signal can be can construct the model with the environment MATLAB recorded as sketched in Fig. The plant model is therefore L Ke-s Thus the values of Kp. L. With L and a. SIMULAnON AND ANALYSIS A standard test model as considered is taken for study of DC motor with Z-N tuning controller.2 0. Controller type Kp Ti Td O. 31. Modified Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Method (Kgm2) Modified Ziegler-Nichols tuning using Chien-Hrones Friction constant B 0. a large variety of plants can be approximately modeled by (11). performed to extract the parameters for the approximate model (11). 3 shows the block diagram of DC motor driving an inertial load. where a = kLlT ) can be extracted by the simple shown in Figure 1. can also be used. The model of the DC motor in Simulink is L.44 KD=Kp*Tct• ISBN: 978-81-909042-2-3 ©2012 IEEE . The various parameters of the DC motor approach shown. .5 PID 1.14S+0.47T Here the parameters k.5L (H) Moment ofTnertia J 0. If the system model cannot be physically derived.4001S PID 0. experiments can be Fig.International Conference On Advances In Engineering.Science And Management (ICAESM -2012) March 30.3 Armature Inductance La 0.00003 Reswick (CHR) tuning algorithm emphasizes on set-point (Nms) Torque constant KT 0. table 3.2T/L 2L 0.SS+ 0.5. Actual Speed Fig.7/a G\(s)= (12) 2 PI 0. The test model below Tangent Line at inflection point shown is completely designed in SISO tool.OIS P 0. (Vs/rad) the CRR method uses the time constant T of the plant The system is simulated for the unit step response for explicitly. For instance.4. response curve of figure 4.9T/L LlO.01 B. 4.2 G2(s)= (13) 2 O. and T (or a.2 0.IEEE.2 0. if the step response of the plant model can From the state equation (refer (1).2012 119 with the time axis and the steady state value.

0. Modified Ziegler-Nichols Tuning method Using MATLAB R2010a we can design compensator by Ziegler-Nichols open loop tuning method based on Chien Hrones-Reswick (CRR) tuning algorithm.. ISBN: 978-81-909042-2-3 ©2012 IEEE .(a) Step response with Traditional Ziegler-Nichols method.6. Ki and Kd] of PID controller according to Table I 0.� (b) Fig. The controller is connected in cascaded fashion and step responses for different motors are shown by 8(a).1 01 Find the PID controller Transfer function by equation 9 �L---��--�----�3 -----��----�--�----� HIIl �� Finally.Matlab Simulink Model for Armature Control of DC Motor Run the DC motor open loop Transfer function for each set of Parameters VI.Science And Management (ICAESM -2012) March 30. T Parameters and Calculate Parameters [Kp. Multiply the DC motor and PID controller (a) Transfer function and Find close loop step response l' END Fig. B. 9(a) and 1O(a).010015S+0. �.8.023 G 3 (s) (14) 0. The Flow Chart of Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Method. Traditional method Flow Chart as shown in fig 4 is used for MATLAB coding to find the PID controller parameters and to get DC motor Close loop unit step response of the overall transfer function. (b) Step response with Modified Ziegler-Nicolas method.7. RESULT AND ANALYSIS lAr----r----�--�r--� Find the open loop step response of gi ven motor Transfer function and Draw the Tangent line of open loop step re 'ponse at Maximum slope Find L.• £ are shown by 8(b).IEEE.International Conference On Advances In Engineering. Jrl�----� START Fig.000559 = A. The step responses � 4 i . 31.2012 120 Transfer function for motor 3. 9(b) and 1O(b).005S2+0.

the step response of DC motor 2 is shown in the fig.527 tuning ��--�l�--�-----+a----�4�--�r----+----� Modified 0.---.9.Ill methods have been made on the basis of Objective i...10.9 2. The step response of DC motor 1 with two methods is show in fig.9(b) and the step response of DC motor 3 is shown in the fig. TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF MOTOR 1 (b) Step response with Modified Ziegler-Nichols method.-----.99 2.lO(a) and fig.359 7. 8(a) and fig.84 0. 31.:.G « TABLE IV TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF MOTOR 1 DA Method Rise time Maximum Settling (sec) overshoot time (%) (sec) Q1 Traditional ZN 0.0508 5.----.--.312 27..----. From both Modeling and MATLAB coding a comparison between these two ..International Conference On Advances In Engineering. cQ.... (b) Step response with Modified Ziegler-Nichols method.---.....439 � t 2 � 4 5 S ZN tuning nlll (il� (b) TABLE IV Fig.33 Tlln1�Dl ZN tuning (a) ISBN: 978-81-909042-2-3 ©2012 IEEE .(a) Step response with Traditional Ziegler-Nichols method.27 tuning I I I I I I Modified 0.(a) Step response with Traditional Ziegler-Nichols method.-���----___i DA 01 � � rIM (E) (a) (b) Fig.---r---.074 14.7 1. Method Rise time Maximum Settling (sec) overshoot time (%) (sec) Traditional ZN 0. A .68 tuning ��--��----� Modified 0.9(a) and fig.07 ZN tuning TABLE IV TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF MOTOR 1 DA Method Rise time Maximum Settling (sec) overshoot time (%) (sec) Traditional ZN 0.786 6.IEEE. 12 .2012 121 1 .Science And Management (ICAESM -2012) March 30... Overshoot and Settling time as..iI .8 5..e Rise �Co time...lO(b).377 51.8(b)..5 0.

A. Castillo. "Performance of a Simple Tuned Fuzzy Controller and a PID Controller on a DC Motor. Language and Image Processing (ICALIP-2008). M. Linear Feedback control.Engineering and Technology 32.1682-1686.Issue No. [2] B. Z.364-370. P. 2. Design and Tuning. "PID Controller Tuning for Glycerin Bleaching Process Using Well-Known Tuning Formulas.2002. [10] O. "Design of PI and PID Controllers With Transient Performance Specification ". PID Controller: Theory.759-768. R. R." in PrOG.2007. and Minimum settling time) But.Automatic control system. Naik and P.2007.pp.pp. Nichols. Yusuf and M. "Optimum setting for automatic controllers. Melin. CONCLUSION In this paper.. The results of both the methods are checked by MATLAB coding as well as simulation.pp. Minimum overshoot. Kamaruddin. Y." in FroG.120-134.400-407.Issue No. Porta and 1.International Conference On Advances In Engineering. Ziegler and N. Astrom and T. of 35th Annual Conference of iEEE on Industrial Electronics (IECON-2009)." (lJAEST) International Journals of Advanced Engg." in ProG.7th ed. Education. G. of Second International Conference on Industrial Mechatronics and Automation (ICIMA). Aung.Science and Technologies.2012 122 VII. Liu and C. ASME. "Stability Enhancement of DC Motor using IMC Tuned PID Controller. Shrikant. The Modified Ziegler-Nichols is the best controller which presented satisfactory performances for the objectives (i.1942. Z.Science And Management (ICAESM -2012) March 30. Montiel.2009. M.2007. iEEE Symposium on Foundation of Computational Intelligence (FOCI-2007)." Trans.2010.pp. "Design of Parameters Self-tuning Fuzzy PID Control for DC Motor.C.2011.pp.345-348. N. C.e Minimum rise time. P. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. vol. Hagglund." in FrOG." PC Based PID speed control of DC motor.531-537. Sepulveda. Basilio and S. O. [6] W. ISBN: 978-81-909042-2-3 ©2012 IEEE . for higher power application DC motors (Motor 1 and Motor 2) and for lower power application motor traditional method found satisfactory. Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics. 299-306. the Modified Ziegler-Nichols tuned PID controller efficiently is better than the traditional Ziegler-Nichols. Lee.4. [8] 1.pp. vol. Y.4. Xue. Ma. Haung and S. vol.vol. A. [9] J.IEEE. [3] D.092- 096. Taib.Kuo. Janin.pp.6. "Analysis on Modeling and Simulink of DC Motor and its Driving System Used for Wheeled Mobile Robot. 1994. . 2nd ed. [5] K. Matos." iEEE Trans. The speed of a three different DC Motor parameters is controlled by means of these two controllers." World Academy of Science. Chen and D. of International Conference on Audio. [4] Y.ch. According to the results of the computer simulation. 31. [7] G. Atherton.pp.2003. Wang Elissa.I. REFERENCES [I] K. PID controller is designed using Traditional Ziegler-Nichols and Modified Ziegler-Nichols ( CHR) tuning algorithms.2008.A Simulation Study. [II] N.pp. P.64. B. 45.Prentice-Hall of India PVT. Meza.

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