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Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting Trainers Manual

By: AR Shivakumar*

This Trainers Manual on Rainwater Harvesting has been developed as part of an initiative by the
Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology to promote large scale rainwater harvesting in
urban areas.

The Manual is targeted for use by trainers who will be building the capacity of diverse target audiences
such as architects, civil engineers, building contractors, plumbers and entrepreneurs who wish to expand
their scope of activities to include implementation of rainwater harvesting systems. It addresses
technical issues that affect the sustainability of rainwater harvesting systems and draws attention to
maintenance and troubleshooting aspects. Training programmes would need to be adapted to the target
audience and the manual serves as a guide for the same. The manual can also be provided as reading
reference material for the trainees since it gives detailed insight and practical implementation tips that
would be beneficial to practitioners.

It is important to note that practical issues will differ with local conditions and trainers are encouraged to
promote interactive training sessions that allow participants to share their opinions and practical
experiences. It would be appreciated if interesting insights are shared with the authors.

Session 1: Introduction
This session can highlight the importance and scope of rainwater harvesting. Rainwater harvesting as an
age old technique, its decline over the years and resurgence in the recent past can be showcased to the
trainees through relevant examples.

Session 2: Preparing the groundwork


The second session can introduce the concept of rainwater harvesting techniques and the trainees can be
made aware of important terms that will feature in the later chapters. To bring into focus the states
rainfall patterns, groundwater resources, soil conditions and geology can be discussed.

Session 3: Technical aspects


This session can be divided into different sub-sessions covering issues related to water quality and
focusing on specific components or techniques that are elaborated.

The depth into which the technical aspects are addressed depends on the target audience. The trainer is
free to focus on techniques that are applicable to the specific geographical area where the trainees will
eventually practice. Though the manual lists out practical implementation issues in each section, trainees
should be encourage to talk about their practical experiences and discuss issues they expect to face. The
points provided in the manual can also be discussed and analyzed.

Session 4: Calculations
Once the concepts and techniques of rainwater harvesting have been understood, the sessions can move
towards practical designing of rainwater harvesting systems. The first step would be calculating the size
of the storage devices if the water is to be collected and reused. Sample calculations for an independent
house have been shown.

Case studies have been provided to help trainees gain a better understanding of designing an optimal
system. Some sample practice exercises have been provided which can be worked upon individually or
* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 1
in groups. The designs can be discussed in the class and the trainer can guide the trainees by identifying
strengths and weaknesses of each design.

Sizing of the storage tank


This chapter discusses in detail the sizing of tanks for storing rainwater for future use. When designing
the size of a storage tank, the following factors come into play.

Rainwater yield
Estimated demand
Available space
Aesthetics
Budget

The storage tank is the most expensive component of the rainwater harvesting system as costs increase
proportionally with tank capacity. Therefore, adequate care must be taken to design the tank. In areas
that face severe water shortage, there may be a greater need to store as much rainwater as possible,
irrespective of the cost. In other areas, budget or space availability may be a limiting factor resulting in a
trade-off in collection efficiency.

In homes where a rainwater harvesting system is being retrofitted, the impediments to collecting all
available water may be far greater than if it is implemented at the building construction stage. When a
rainwater harvesting system for storage and reuse is being implemented in a building at the construction
stage, the sump and overhead tanks of adequate size as well as required plumbing systems can be
designed effectively. In all cases, it should be ensured that the tank size is optimal. There are two
methods of calculating the size of the storage tank, the first based on demand and the second based on
supply.

Sample calculations have been worked out for an independent home and the case examples and practice
exercises in the following chapters will further clarify design parameters for rainwater storage and reuse
systems.

Storage sizing based on water demand


This is a very simple method. The tank size is decided depending upon the following parameters,
provided that the catchment area and available rainfall are adequately high.

Daily water use


Number of days for which rainwater should meet water needs (as defined by the client) or on the
longest average dry period

A sample calculation has been worked out.


Daily per capita consumption = 45 litres
Number of people in the household = 6

Daily water consumption = 45 x 6 = 270 litres


Number of days for which water demand needs to be met
= 10 days (as specified by client)

Size of the storage tank = 270 x 10 = 2700 litres

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 2
Provided that the catchment and rainfall are adequately high, a tank of capacity 2700 litres would ensure
that the specified water demand can be met by harvested rainwater for 10 days after the tank is filled.

This calculation method is very elementary and with the maximum storage time as specified here there
will be no water stored during the dry months.

Storage sizing based on rainfall supply


This method is more commonly used by rainwater harvesting practitioners to design storage capacities.
It requires long term rainfall data which can be obtained from the offices of the IMD (Indian
Meteorological Department) in India and such similar agencies in other countries.
Results obtained by using daily or weekly rainfall averages would be more accurate than those obtained
by using monthly rainfall averages and are therefore preferred. A limitation would be the availability of
daily or weekly averages of rainfall data as against monthly or annual values.

Over the past few years there has been a significant deviation from normal rainfall patterns in many
parts. In order to include a factor of safety, especially in designing large rainwater collection systems, it
is advisable to use data for rainfall that is definitely expected in nine cases out of ten, that is, elimination
of 10% of the unusually high or low values of rainfall received in each month. This reduces the
collection efficiency in high rainfall years, but ensures a better cost-to-benefit ration in the long term.

In all cases, the design of storage sizing for rainwater harvesting should consider the cost-to-benefit
ratio. The most suitable size can be arrived at after discussions with the client on both issues.

The system sizing calculations that are typically undertaken are elaborated in the sections below.
Calculations are done using monthly rainfall data and monthly water demand patters, so that the concept
can then be easily understood by the trainees. The concept can also be extended further to work with
weekly rainfall data. During advanced training courses, concepts pertaining to factor of safety can be
introduced to the participants.

Monthly rainwater yield


The annual rainwater yield or the quantity of rainwater that can be collected from a given catchment
area over a year is

Q = (A x R x C x F)

Where

Q = annual rainwater yield = quantity of rainfall collected from the


catchment area (litres)
A = catchment area (sqm)
R = annual precipitation (mm)
C = run-off coefficient for a catchment material
F = filter efficiency

If there are multiple catchments (two types of rooftop materials, or roof top and paved ground
catchment, or rooftop and paved ground and landscaped areas catchment) the quantity of water can be
collected from each catchment area should be calculated and summed.

In a similar manner, monthly rainwater yield can be calculated as

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 3
Qm = (A x Rm x C x F)

Where
Qm = monthly rainwater yield (litres
A = catchment area (sqm)
Rm = average monthly precipitation (mm)
C = run-off coefficient for a catchment material
F = filter efficiency

If there are multiple catchments (two types of rooftop materials, or rooftop and paved ground catchment,
or rooftop and paved ground and landscaped area catchment), the quantity of water that can be collected
from each catchment should be calculated and summed.

Run-off coefficients for various catchment surfaces

Type of catchment Coefficients


Roof catchments
Tiles 0.8-0.9
Corrugated metal sheets 0.7-0.9
Ground surface coverings
Concrete 0.6-0.8
Brick pavement 0.5-0.6
Untreated ground catchments
Soil on slopes less than 10% 0.1-0.3
Rocky natural catchments 0.2-0.5

Demand estimation
Water demand varies widely and depends on the season, the activity for which the water is being used
and the number of people using it. It needs to be calculated on a case-to-case basis. Some pointers for
estimating demand that can be substituted with rainwater are given below:

Independent house
The Indian Standard Code IS:1172:1983 prescribes the per capita daily water supply norm in urban
areas as 135 litres. To get a more accurate estimate of demand Table 1 can be used. The values given
under approximate water consumption can be modified to introduce necessary corrections for specific
cases.

Domestic water consumption (in litres/capita/day)

Activity Quantity (LPCD)


Cooking 4
Drinking 3
Bathing 18
Washing 45
Flushing 37
Gardening 28

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 4
Total 135
Water usage for gardening is highly variable and is season dependent. Irrigation requirements are
usually 5 litres/sqm in case of large lawn areas. A bucket system can be used to estimate irrigation
requirements (number of buckets x volume of the bucket) and the monthly irrigation requirements can
be approximated accordingly. If water is used for other purposes, a similar method can be employed to
estimate consumption.

Table 1: Calculating estimates of demand for water

Approximate water Number of uses/ Weekly water Monthly water


consumption (A) household/ week consumption C consumption
(B) = (AxB) D=Cx4
Toilet
Regular flush 10 litres/flush
Regular flush 9 litres/flush
(new)
Dual flush 4 litres/flush (half)
9 litres/flush (full)
Bathing 20 litres/person
Washing clothes
by hand
Washing machine 75 litres/load
Irrigation
Miscellaneous
(floor washing,
vehicle washing
etc.)
Total

Apartment complex

Most apartment complexes have different sump and overhead tanks for delivering water to the kitchen,
as against those delivering water to common areas and toilets. The volume of water used on a daily basis
from the sump or overhead tanks delivering water to the toilets and common areas can be estimated.
This constitutes the water demand that can potentially be replaced by harvested rainwater. If that is
difficult to estimate, the method employed for an independent home can be used in this case also.

Schools and public buildings


In these buildings, water demand that can potentially be substituted by harvested rainwater is that of
water to be used in toilets, for garden irrigation, floor washing and air conditioning chillers (if present).

These can receive water from the municipal water supply, borewells and tankers. If water supply comes
from the municipal source or tankers, the total monthly water demand can be obtained from the monthly
water bills. If borewell water is used, the flow rate method can be used to estimate the monthly water
demand.

Water demand that can be substituted by harvested rainwater = total monthly water demand water used
at drinking water points and canteen.

Water demand in schools changes during vacations and examinations. If these buildings have large
landscaped areas, water demand can change depending upon the season.

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 5
Industries
In industries, rainwater can be used for the following:

Toilets
Landscape irrigation
Air conditioning chillers
Industrial processes
Fire fighting equipment

Most industries have water meters on each of the main water lines and maintain a proper log book of
water consumption. Hospitals and hotels are also considered as industries.

Monitoring water demand: flow rate method


1. Measure the time taken to fill a reasonably sized bucket at the tank water inlet.
2. Flow rate (l/s) = volume of bucket (l) / time taken (s)
3. Measure the number of minutes for which the pump is turned on
Everyday (to fill the tank)
4. Daily demand (l) = Flow rate (l/s) x duration of water pumping
Per day (mins) x 60
5. Monthly demand (l) = daily demand x 30

Table 2: Bangalore: Average annual precipitation


Month Mean total rainfall (mm) Mean number of rainy days
January 2.7 0.2
February 7.2 0.5
March 4.4 0.4
April 46.3 3
May 119.6 7
June 80.8 6.4
July 110.2 8.3
August 137.0 10
September 194.8 9.3
October 180.4 9
November 64.5 4
December 22.1 1.7
Total 970.0 59.8

Parks
Here, the water demand is for irrigation and can be assumed to be
litres/sqm.

Estimation of the storage capacity


Assumptions
1. Independent house in Bangalore
2. Rooftop area (A) = 100 sqm
3. Water harvested from RCC flat roof (run-off coefficient (C) = 0.8)
4. Filter efficiency (F) = 80%
5. Four members in the family
6. 40 LPCD (litres per capita per day) used for flushing and gardening

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 6
Annual rainwater yield
Q =AxRxCxF
= 100 x 970 x 0.8 x 0.8 = 62080 litres

Annual water demand that can potentially be substituted with harvested rainwater

= daily per capita water demand x number of people x 365 days


= 40 x 4 x 365 = 58400 litres

Simple tabular method of calculating storage tank size


To show how this is done, a sample calculation is shown in Table 3. The calculations are made based on
available monthly rainfall data. If weekly or daily rainfall data is used, the sizing becomes more
accurate. We must start the calculations with the month where there is rainfall after a significant dry
period.

Minimum storage required


= maximum volume stored surplus water left at the end of the year
= 9459 0 litres
= 9459 litres

For an urban home with a rooftop area of 100 sqm, it may not be possible to have a rainwater storage
tank of size 9500 litres. If we were to vary water demand during the low, average and high rainfall
months, the minimum storage size required can be calculated as shown in Table 4.

Table 3: Calculation of storage tank size


Roof area 100 sqm Monthly water yield = Qm = AxRxCxF
Run-off coefficient 0.8 Cumulative water yield = sum of monthly
Water yields that month

Filter efficiency 0.8 Monthly water demand = water demand/


Person/day x no. of persons x 30

Cumulative water demand = sum of


Monthly water demand until that month

Number of persons 4

Water usage for non-


Potable purposes 60 LPCD

Monthly water demand 7200 litres

Month Rainfall Monthly Cumulative Monthly Cumulative Volume Monthly


(mm) water yield water yield water water demand stored (B- deficit /
(A) litres (B) litres demand (D) litres D) litres surplus (A-C)
litres litres
May 119.6 7654.4 7654.4 7200 7200 454.4 454.4
June 80.8 5171.2 12825.6 7200 14400 0 -2028.8
July 110.2 7052.8 19878.4 7200 21600 0 -147.2
August 137.0 8768.0 28646.4 7200 28800 0 1568.0
September 194.8 12467.2 41113.6 7200 36000 5113.6 5267.2

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 7
October 180.4 11545.6 52659.2 7200 43200 9459.2 4345.6
November 64.5 4128.0 56787.2 7200 50400 6387.2 -3072.0
December 22.1 1414.4 58201.6 7200 57600 601.6 -5785.6
January 2.7 172.8 58374.4 7200 64800 0 -7027.2
February 7.2 460.8 58835.2 7200 72000 0 -6739.2
March 4.4 281.6 59116.8 7200 79200 0 -6918.4
April 46.3 2963.2 62080.0 7200 86400 0 -4236.8
Total 970.0 62080.0 86400 -24320.0

Table 4 Calculation of storage tank size with varying water demand

Roof Area 100 sqm


Run-off coefficient 0.8
Filter efficiency 0.8
Number of persons 4
Water usage for all non-potable purposes 80 LPCD
Monthly water demand during high rainfall months 9600 litres

Month Rainfall Monthly Cumulative Monthly Cumulative Volume Monthly


(mm) water yield water yield water water demand stored (B- deficit /
(A) litres (B) litres demand (D) litres D) litres surplus (A-C)
litres litres
May 119.6 7654.4 7654.4 6000 6000 1654.4 1654.4
June 80.8 5171.2 12825.6 6000 12000 825.6 -828.8
July 110.2 7052.8 19878.4 6000 18000 1878.4 1052.8
August 137.0 8768.0 28646.4 9600 27600 1046.4 -832.0
September 194.8 12467.2 41113.6 9600 37200 3913.6 2867.2
October 180.4 11545.6 52659.2 9600 46800 5859.2 1945.6
November 64.5 4128.0 56787.2 4200 51000 5787.2 -72.0
December 22.1 1414.4 58201.6 4200 55200 3001.6 -2785.6
January 2.7 172.8 58374.4 4200 59400 0 -4027.2
February 7.2 460.8 58835.2 4200 63600 0 -3739.2
March 4.4 281.6 59116.8 4200 67800 0 -3918.4
April 46.3 2963.2 62080.0 4200 72000 0 -1236.8
Total 970.0 62080.0 72000 -9920.0

Number of persons 4

Water usage for flushing & irrigation 50 LPCD

Monthly water demand during


average rainfall months 6000 litres

Number of persons 4

Water usage for flushing & irrigation 35 LPCD

Monthly water demand during


low rainfall months 4200 litres

Minimum storage required


= maximum volume stored surplus water left at the end of the year
* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 8
= 5859 0 litres
= 5859 litres
If a storage tank of this size also cannot be constructed the budget and/or space available for the tank
will play a major role in deciding its size. The overflow water which cannot be stored during the rainy
months can then be recharged into the ground, if possible.

System Design: Case exercises and case studies


Independent home (retrofit): storage and reuse

Mrs. Suma has a house on a 60 feet x 40 feet site in Bangalore. She gets her water supply from BWSSB
(Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board) but was interested in installing a rainwater harvesting
system to supplement her water supply. She had a fixed budget of Rs.10000 and was more interested in
the reuse of the harvested water than its recharge. The following are the details of her rooftop area and
existing storage structures.

Catchment area details

Plot area = 60 fee x 40 feet = 2400 square feet = 223 sqm


Rooftop area = 1000 square feet = 93 sqm

Balcony on first floor = 15 feet x 12 feet = 180 square feet = 16.73 sqm

Roof type: flat RCC roof with weather proofing

There is a good slope provided towards the downtake pipes

Number of downtake pipes = 2 (both on the same side of the house)

Available storage and total water demand

Available water storage tanks: 1 sump of capacity 3000 litres and two
overhead tanks of capacity of 1000
litres each
Present source of water : municipal water supply (BWSSB)

Borewell or dug well : not present

Monthly water demand


for all uses : approximately 10000 litres
monthly water bill is less than Rs.100.

There was no space to construct another underground tank on the plot because of the presence of two
coconut trees and the main sewage line running along the empty space in the plot.

Three options were recommended to Mrs. Suma. Each of these options along with its feasibility are
listed below:

Option 1

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 9
Harvested rainwater to be let into the existing sump. The homeowner did not agree to that since the
sump water feeds the drinking water line.

Option 2
Rainwater to be harvested in a tank kept at ground level near the downtake pipes. The water could only
be used for irrigation and floor washing, since the home owner did not want to undertake the costs for
pump, additional overhead storage and additional plumbing to toilets.

Option 3
Rainwater to be stored in a tank on the first floor balcony. Harvested rainwater could be used for a toilet
and the washing machine with minimal plumbing. It could also be used for irrigation and miscellaneous
washing activities. This was considered the best option despite the limitation in the size of the storage
tank. The home owner required that aesthetics be given adequate consideration.

Calculations
Annual rainwater yield

Yield (l) = roof top area (sqm) x annual rainfall (mm) x run-off coefficient x filter efficiency = 57734
litres

Water demand
For water use in one toilet, washing machine and miscellaneous washing purposes, water demand was
100 litres per day on an average.

Annual water demand = 36500 litres


Calculations (on a weekly time scale) revealed that the storage tank size required was very large and
impractical. Given the budget, space and aesthetic limitations, the home owner was given an option of
1000 litres, 750 litres and 500 litres off the shelf plastic tanks. The installation of a square tank of 750
litres met the owners water demand for six months. A brick and cement enclosure was constructed
around the tank and a cuddapah stone placed on it to make it look like a seating space. This suited the
aesthetic requirements keeping in mind the limitations of space.

Bill of materials for independent home (retrofit)

Sl.No. Description Quantity


A. RWH pipes and special fixtures
1. 75mm x 6m RWH pipe PN4 4
2. 75mm RWH tee 1
3. 3/8 inches x 1 inches anchor bolts and nuts 6
4. 75mm right angled adapters 4
5. 110mm x 40o adapters 4
6. Solvent cement litres 1
7. 75mm control valve 2
8. Wooden gatta packet 1
* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 10
9. Fasteners 1
10. 75mm c clamps 10
11. 12.7mm x 6m delivery pipe 5
12. Non-return valve 1
B. RWH filter 1
C. Tank: one 750 litre plastic tank 1

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 11
Techniques of Rainwater Harvesting
A.R. Shivakumar

Rainwater harvesting is the process of collecting and using rainwater in a scientific and controlled
manner.

Forms of Rainwater Harvesting


Roof top
1. Flat roof
2. Sloping Roof

Water storage structures


1. Overhead Tank
2. Surface Tank
3. Underground Sump

Ground water recharge


1. Infiltration Gallery
2. Rainwater Soak Pit
3. Trench Method
4. Basin Method
5. Recharge through Bore well/Open well

Rainwater Harvesting in Lakes, Tanks & Rivers


1. Check dams
2. Desilting and Deepening
3. Subsurface Dykes across rivers

Roof Top
Rainwater can be collected from any kind of impervious roof. The only common type of roof which is
not suitable to collect Rainwater are roofs with lead flashings or roofs with lead based paints and
asbestos roofs with loose fibers.

Water Storage Structures

The Rainwater collected from the rooftop can be diverted after filtration to a storage structure
Types of storage structure
Overhead Tanks
Surface Tanks
Underground Sump

Over head Tanks

These are elevated tanks to which water is pumped from the underground sump / well. The water from
the overhead tank is allowed to flow down due to gravity. Overhead tanks may be circular, rectangular,
square or any other shape. Overhead tanks could be of masonry or plastic or metal material. These tanks
are provided with inlet, outlet, drainpipe and air ventilation pipe. These tanks are usually mounted on
the rooftops of buildings, complexes etc., these tanks are built to meet the demand of the building for a
day or more. With plumbing, water can be made available in the building to cater to the needs and also
for other activities like gardening etc.,
* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 12
Surface Tanks
These are tanks, mounted on small structure or on the ground. These could be of various shapes. The
tank is provided with an inlet and outlet pipe. Normally there is no distribution system attached to it.
Water supply to these tanks can be from a sump, overhead tank, manual filling etc.,

Under Ground Sump

These are usually made of masonry structure or reinforced cement concrete. These are the main storage
tank in huge buildings. The sump could be rectangular, square or sometimes circular. The sump is
provided with an inlet pipe and a manhole to enter. Water is lifted out from the sump by using a
pumping device
* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 13
Ground water recharge

Groundwater

Water retained in the intergranular pores of soil or in the fissures of rocks below the water table is called
ground water. Some rocks allow little or no water to flow through these are known as impermeable
rocks or aquicludes. Others are permeable and allow considerable storage of water and act as major
sources of water supply these are known as aquifers. The boundary between the saturated and
unsaturated zones is known as the water table.

The water found in groundwater bodies is replenished by drainage through the soil, which is often a
slow process. This drainage is referred to as groundwater recharge. Rates of groundwater recharge are
higher when rainfall inputs to the soil exceed evapotranspiration losses.

The collection of rainwater from ground level catchments by creating minor modifications using open
space available in and around Residences, Play ground, open fields, Roads etc., is called artificial
recharge of Ground water.

Recharge pit with barrels


Under installation

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 14
Infiltration gallery
Infiltration
When water from a rainstorm reaches the ground, some or all of it will infiltrate the soil, this is called
infiltration. The rate of infiltration depends on the intensity of the input, the initial moisture condition
of the surface soil layer, and the hydraulic characteristics of the soil. Water in excess of the infiltration
capacity of the soil will flow overland as surface runoff once the minor undulations in the surface (the
depression storage) have been filled. Such runoff occurs most frequently on bare soils and in areas
subject to high rainfall intensities.

An infiltration gallery is an artificial tunnel extending into the earth, through which water flows by
gravity to the land surface or into a bore well or open well. It can be horizontal, sloping or stepped.
Depending on hydro geological conditions and the quantity of water, the infiltration gallery size varies.
Galleries can be constructed in consolidated or unconsolidated formations. They may be lined or
unlined depending on the nature of formation.

Rainwater Soak pit

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 15
In areas where permeable formations underlie impervious topsoil, a pit has to be excavated to expose the
permeable formation in order to make recharging feasible. These pits are usually provides with a layer
of filtering material. Soak pits can be lined or unlined. Rainwater is temporarily stored in soak pits for
infiltration

Trench method

Distribution of rainwater to artificial Trenches around the houses, farms, open fields, play grounds and
filling the same with permeable material like pebbles, gravels brick batter etc., and allowing the
rainwater through that is called Trench method of ground water recharge. The trenches could vary in
sizes depending on the hydro geological and Topographical conditions.

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 16
Basin Method
Small basins are formed by excavation or construction of bunds. The size of the basin depends on the
slope of the land surface. Large basins can be constructed in flat surface. Water is impounded in these
basins to make recharging feasible

Recharge through Bore well / Open well


The recharge area is commonly referred to as water intake area. In case of water table aquifer, usually
the areas occupying higher elevations with deeper water table constitute to the recharge area.
Recharge pits can be created around the bore well / open well by using layers of Sand, Pebble, Boulders
and Aggregates through which water is made to infiltrate to the ground for increasing the yield of bore
well / open well.

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 17
Rainwater Harvesting in Lakes, Tanks & Rivers

Runoff is the downward movement of surface water under gravity in channels ranging from small rills to
large rivers. Channel flows of this sort can be perennial- flowing all the time, or they can be ephemeral-
flowing intermittently after periods of rainfall. Such surface waters provide majority of the water
utilized.

The total land area that contributes surface runoff to a river or lake is called a watershed, river basin, or
catchment area
* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 18
Rainwater can be harvested in lakes and ponds by diverting the rainwater & runoff water to the lakes
and ponds. Runoff water accumulates in any depression to form puddles. In slopy regions, runoff water
is arrested to support the growing crops and plants by building earthen bunds along the contour in order
to retain water. Existing dried up ponds and lakes can be rejunavated by desilting and deepening them.
Subsurface dykes can be built across rivers. Water retained in ponds and lakes could be used during lean
months.

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 19
Design and Plan for RWH
A.R. Shivakumar

Various stages of Rainwater Harvesting


The various stages of rainwater harvesting are: collection, canalization, filtering, storage and Ground
water recharge.

1. Collection:
Roofs are of broadly two categories flat roofs and sloping roofs.

Flat roofs when made with reinforced cement concrete normally have waterproofing course on the
surface as a finish. The waterproof course is done with a small slope towards the downtake pipes.
Usual practice is to use lime surkhi, in recent times a rich cement mortar is used (muddy in local
parlance), weatherproof tiles are also laid on cement mortar. These types of roofs are ideal for rooftop
rainwater Harvesting.

Effective roof area for Rainwater Harvesting


Flat roof

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 20
Calculation of Effective roof area

Divide the roof area into convenient grids. And calculate the area of each grid.
Example A1= X x Y
Add the individual grid area to get the total roof area. i.e.
A1+A2+A3+A4+A5+A6+A7+A8..=A(Total area).
Effective roof area is excluding the peripheral wall thickness and any other opening.

Sloping Roof.

calculation for sloping roof


a
b x

y
a

b
y

Calculation of effective roof area


Divide the roof area into convenient grids and calculate each grid area by taking projected length &
breadth. Actual surface area i.e. x x y is not considered for the calculation of roof area but the projected
area i.e. a x y is considered.
Example:
(A1) Area of one part of the roof = a x y
(A2) Area of other part of the roof = a x y

Total area = 2 x a x y

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 21
2. Canalizations
Downtake pipes made of PVC or HDPE or even asbestos cement can be used for transporting the
rainwater collected from rooftops to filtration system before storing. The diameter of these downtake
pipes would vary depending on roof area to be drained.

Size of downtake pipes:

Parameters required:
Roof area
Intensity of rainfall
Discharge (m3/sec) = Roof area (m2) x intensity of rainfall (m / sec)
Downtake pipe
Q=AxI
Intensity of rainfall = highest amount of rainfall in mm per hour
Also, Discharge = area of conduit / pipe x flow through velocity
Q=axV
Flow through velocity = 1 to 1.8 (m /sec) (standard)
AxI=axV
a = (A x I ) / V
a=Q/V
d2 / 4 = Q / V
D = Square root of 4Q / V

Example: Karnataka State Council For Science and Technology. IISc


Roof area = 250 sq mts.
Intensity of rainfall = 60mm/hr (Highest annual rainfall)
= 60/1000 x 60 x 60=0.0016/1000 m/sec
Discharge (m3/sec) = Roof area (m2) x intensity of rainfall (m/sec)
Q=AxI
Discharge= 250 x .0016/1000 = .004165 m3/sec
Discharge = area of conduit/pipe x flow through velocity
Q=axV
(Q) 0.004165 = a x V
Area of pipe = Q / V

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 22
d2 / 4 = Q / V
Diameter of the pipe/ conduit
d = Sq.rt. 4Q / V
= Sq.rt. 4 x .004165 / x 1 = 7.28cm
= 2.86 inches
Nearest standard size of the pipe available = 3 inches
d = 3 inches
The diameter of the downtake pipe for the roof area of 250 sq m is 3 inches

3. Filtering
Filtering rainwater is an important process before its storage. For filtering rainwater, Popup Filter or a
sand bed filter is used. This will keep out all large organic and inorganic matter from entering the
storage system.

Pop up filter:

Designed and developed by A.R. Shivakumar

The various sizes of the PopUp filter are 90mm, 110mm and140mm.

Sand bed filter:


The water holding capacity of a sand bed filter is less than the gross volume as it is filled with porous
material.
* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 23
Area of the catchment = A (sq.mt)
Average annual rainfall = R (m/sec)
Runoff coefficient =
A factor of loose density (voids ratio). Void ratio = D
For commonly used materials like brick bats, pebbles, gravel D = 0.5
Porosity = D / (1+D)
Required capacity of sand bed filter = A x R x x (1/P)

4. Storage
Storage of harvested rainwater is possible at 3 levels.
Roof slab level
Ground level
Below ground level as a sump

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 24
Below ground level

5. Ground Water Recharge


Water from the rooftop can be filtered and channeled into an open well, a percolation pit or a dispersion
trench to recharge the ground water. Also excess water from storage systems can be led to an open well
or percolation pit to recharge the ground water.

Barrel method (A.R. Shivkumars method)


The capacity of the barrel is around 200 lts normally. One barrel is required for the roof area of 400 sq.ft

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 25
* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 26
Pebbles and sand method (Infiltration gallery)
Design of the Infiltration gallery (same as sand bed filter, but unlined)

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 27
Estimate (MKS) Schedule of Rates 2009-2010 Government of Karnataka
Estimate for Installing Rainwater Harvesting (RWH ) System

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 28
Sl Description Rate
No Rs. Amount
No L B D Qty Unit PS. Rs. Ps.
1 Underground Sump 50,000 Lt 1.00 8.38 3.05 1.98 1.00 m
a I) Earth work excavation for
foundation. Page No.5, Item No. 2.4
of PWD SR:2009-10 1.00 9.30 3.96 1.48 54.45 Cum 163.24 8,889
II) Above 1.5 mts depth Page No.6 &9
item No.2.4 of PWD SR:2008-09 1.00 9.30 3.96 1.26 46.59 Cum 204.05 9,508
b Filling available excavated earth.
Page No.6, Item 2.10 2.00 9.30 0.15 2.74 7.77
2.00 3.05 0.15 2.74 2.55

10.32 Cum 73.25 756


c Transport of excavated earth Page
No. 117 & Item No. 17.1 & 17.4 1.00 90.73 Cum 87.13 7,905
d Providing and laying in position
plain cement concrete of mix 1:3:6.
Page No.12 item No.4.1 1.00 9.30 3.96 0.15 5.61 Cum 4043.90 22,702
e Providing and laying in position
reinforced cement concrete of mix
1:1.5:3 with 20mm(M15)..Page
No.12 item No.4.11
i) Floor slab 1.00 9.30 3.96 0.08 2.81
ii) Side walls 2.00 8.84 0.23 1.98 8.01
2.00 3.05 0.23 1.98 2.76
iii) Baffle wall 1.00 3.05 0.23 1.83 1.27
iii) Roof Slab 1.00 8.99 3.66 0.15 5.01
19.86 Cum
Deduction for Roof slab opening 1.00 0.61 0.61 0.15 0.06 Cum
Deduction for Baffle wall openings 3.00 0.30 0.30 0.23 0.06
0.12 Cum

19.74 Cum 4673.54 92,820


* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 29
f Providing and Fabricating Mild Steel
/ HYSD Steel. S.R.page 16 Item.
No. 4.45
3099.24 Kgs

30.99 q 4978.82 154,306


g Providing and removing centering,
shuttering, strutting, propping etc.
SR page No. 14 Item No.4.29
Roof slab, Bottom 1.00 8.38 3.05 25.55
Long Sides (Outer) 2.00 8.84 1.98 35.02
Long Sides (Inner) 2.00 8.38 1.98 33.21
Short Side (Outer) 2.00 3.51 1.98 13.89
Short Side (Inner ) 2.00 3.05 1.98 12.08

93.79 Sqm 220.48 20,678


h Providing 12mm thick cement plaster
in single coat with cement mortar 1:4
to brick masonry. Page No. 96 & 97,
Item No. 15.9 & 15.23
Long wall 2.00 8.38 1.98 33.21
Side wall 2.00 3.05 1.98 12.08
Baffle wall 2.00 3.05 1.83 11.15
Flooring 1.00 8.38 3.05 25.55

81.99 Sqm 117.13 9,603


i Chamber covers "ISI" marked 24" X
24" of 50 Kg in weight. Page No.
XXXI Nos 2.00 Nos 2502.00 5,004
Sub Total
332,170

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 30
2 Underground Sump 10,000 Lts 1.00 2.44 2.13 1.98 1.00 m
a I) Earth work excavation for
foundation. Page No.5, Item No. 2.4
of PWD SR:2009-10 1.00 3.35 3.05 1.48 15.11 Cum 163.24 2,466
II) Above 1.5 m. upto 3m. depth Page
No.5 & 7 item No.2.4 of PWD
SR:2009-10 1.00 3.35 3.05 1.26 12.93 Cum 204.05 2,638
b Filling available excavated earth.
Page No.6, Item 2.10
2.00 3.35 0.08 2.74 1.40
2.00 2.13 0.08 2.74 0.89

2.29 Cum 73.25 168


c Transport of excavated earth Page
No. 117 & Item No. 17.1 & 17.4 25.74 Cum 87.13 2,243
d Providing and laying in position
plain cement concrete of mix 1:3:6.
Page No.12 item No.4.1 1.00 3.35 2.74 0.15 1.40 Cum 4043.90 5,668
e Providing and laying in position
reinforced cement concrete of mix
1:2:4 with 20mm(M15). Page
No.15 item No.4.12
i) Floor slab 1.00 3.35 2.74 0.08 0.70
ii) Roof Slab 1.00 3.05 2.74 0.15 1.27
1.98 Cum
Deduction for opening 1.00 0.61 0.61 0.15 0.06 Cum
Net quantity
1.92 Cum 4673.54 8,966
f Providing and Fabricating Mild Steel
/ HYSD Steel. S.R.page 16 Item.
No. 4.45
301.20 Kgs

3.01 q 4978.82 14,996

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 31
g Providing and removing centering,
shuttering, strutting, propping etc.
SR page No. 14 Item No.4.29
i Roof slab, Bottom
1.00 2.44 2.13 5.20 Sqm 220.48 1,147
h Providing and constructing burnt
brick masonry.SR. Page No.25 Item
No.6.5
2.00 2.90 0.23 1.98 2.62
2.00 2.13 0.23 1.98 1.93

4.56 Cum 3820.24 17,403


i Providing 12mm thick cement plaster
in single coat with cement mortar 1:4
to brick masonry. Page No. 96 & 97,
Item No. 15.9 & 15.23
Long Side 2.00 2.44 1.98 9.66
Short Side 2.00 2.13 1.98 8.45
Floor Slab 1.00 2.44 2.13 5.20

23.32 Sqm 117.13 2,731


k Chamber covers "ISI" marked 24" X
24" of 50 Kg in weight. Page No.
XXXI Nos 1.00 Nos 2502.00 2,502
Sub Total
60,928

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 32
3 Cement Ring well for Ground
water recharge (4 ft dia 25 ft deep) 1.00 1.83 7.62 m
aI Earthwork excavation for foundation
depth Upto 0.9 m. (3'). Page No. 5
& Item No. 2.3

1.00 (3.14X1.83X1.83X.91)/4 0.91 2.40 Cum 109.18 262


II Earthwork excavation for foundation
depth From 0.9 m. (3') to 1.5 m.
Page No. 5 & Item No. 2.4

1.00 (3.14X1.83X1.83X.59)/4 0.59 1.55 Cum 163.24 254


III Earthwork excavation for foundation
depth From 1.5 m to 3 m. Page No.
5 & Item No. 2.4

(3.14X1.83X1.83X1.50)/4 1.50 3.95 Cum 204.05 806


IV Earthwork excavation for foundation
depth From 3 m to 4.5 m

(3.14X1.83X1.83X1.50)/4 1.50 3.95 Cum 255.06 1,007


V Earthwork excavation for foundation
depth From 4.5 m to 6 m

(3.14X1.83X1.83X1.50)/4 1.50 3.95 Cum 318.83 1,259


VI Earthwork excavation for foundation
depth From 6 m to 7 m

(3.14X1.83X1.83X1)/4 1.00 2.63 Cum 398.54 1,049


VII Excavation 1.5m and above in width
in soft rock without blasting for
foundation depth From 7 m to 7.62
m. Page No. 5 & Item No. 2.6
(3.14X1.83X1.83X0.62)/4 0.62 1.63 Cum 1243.77 2,030

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 33
b Transport of excavated earth Page
No. 117 & Item No. 17.1 & 17.4 1.00 20.06 Cum 87.13 1,748
c Precast Ferro Cement Rings of
diameter 4' and thickness 2" with 1'
height 26.00 4.00 1.00 26.00 LS 1000.00 26,000
d RCC precast Ferro Cement rings top
cover (5 ft dia 0.3 ft thick) 1.00 5.00 0.50 LS 2000.00 2,000
e Mild Steel safety grill work made out
of 0.5" sq rod with 5" spacing both
ways painter for corrosion resistance 1.00 4.50 4.50 LS 1500.00 1,500
f Aggregates 40mm and above Page
No. I & Sl. No. 11 & Page No. 117
ltem. No. 17.1 & 17.4 11.11 Cum 765.53 8,505
Sub Total
46,418

4 Cement Ring well with infiltration


gallery (4 ft dia 25 ft deep) 1.00 1.83 7.62 m
aI Earthwork excavation for foundation
depth Upto 1 m. (3.28') Page
No. 5 & Item No. 2.3
1.00 (3.14X3X3X1)/4 1.00 7.07 Cum 109.18 772
II Earthwork excavation for foundation
depth From 1 m. (3.28') to 1.5 m.
Page No. 5 & Item No. 2.4
1.00 (3.14X1.83X1.83X.5)/4 0.50 1.32 Cum 163.24 215
III Earthwork excavation for foundation
depth From 1.5 m to 3 m. Page No.
5 & Item No. 2.4

(3.14X1.83X1.83X1.5)/4 1.50 3.95 Cum 204.05 806

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 34
IV Earthwork excavation for foundation
depth From 3 m to 4.5 m

(3.14X1.83X1.83X1.5)/4 1.50 3.95 Cum 255.06 1,007

V Earthwork excavation for foundation


depth From 4.5 m to 6 m

(3.14X1.83X1.83X1.5)/4 1.50 3.95 Cum 318.83 1,259


VI Earthwork excavation for foundation
depth From 6 m to 7 m

(3.14X1.83X1.83X1)/4 1.00 2.63 Cum 398.54 1,049


VII Excavation 1.5m and above in width
in soft rock without blasting for
foundation depth From 7 m to 7.62
m. Page No. 5 & Item No. 2.6
(3.14X6X6X0.62)/4 0.62 1.63 Cum 1243.77 2,030
b Transport of excavated earth Page
No. 117 & Item No. 17.1 & 17.4 1.00 24.50 Cum 87.13 2,135
c Precast Ferro Cement Rings of
diameter 1.22 m. and thickness 0.05
m. with 0.3 m. height 26.00 1.22 0.30 26.00 LS 1000.00 26,000
d RCC precast Ferro Cement rings top
cover (1.52 m. dia 0.15 m. thick) 1.00 1.52 0.15 LS 2000.00 2,000
e Mild Steel safety grill work made out
of 0.5" sq rod with 5" spacing both
ways painted for corrosion resistance 1.00 1.37 1.37 LS 1500.00 1,500
f Aggregates 40mm and above Page
No. I & Sl. No. 11 & Page No. 117
ltem. No. 17.1 & 17.4 15.53 Cum 765.53 11,889
Sub Total
50,661

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 35
5 First flush lock and Sand bed
filters 1.00 2.21 1.98 1.07 m
a Earthwork excavation for foundation.
Page No. 5 & Item No. 2.3 2.44 2.21 1.07 5.75 Cum 109.18 628
b Transport of excavated earth Page
No. 117 & Item No. 17.1 & 17.4 2.44 2.21 1.07 5.75 Cum 87.13 501
c Providing and laying in position
plain cement concrete of mix 1:2:4.
Page No.12 item No.4.1 2.00 2.44 0.38 0.15 0.28
3.00 1.52 0.38 0.15 0.27

0.55 Cum 4043.90 2,219


d Providing and laying in position
reinforced cement concrete of mix
1:1.5:3 with 20mm(M15). Page
No.12 item No.4.11
Roof Slab 1.00 2.21 1.98 0.15 0.67 Cum
Deduct for chamber openings 2.00 0.61 0.61 0.15 0.11

0.55 Cum 4673.54 2,589


e Providing and Fabricating Mild Steel
/ HYSD Steel. (32 x 0.02 x 7850)
=5024 kg. S.R.page 16 Item. No.
4.45
Roof Slab - 19.56 Cft = 0.67
Cumt
- @ 1.00 % per Cumt 0.01
0.01 Cum
@ 7850 Kg / Cumt 51.81 Kg

or 0.52 4978.82 4978.82 2,580


f Providing and removing centering,
shuttering, strutting, propping etc.
SR page No. 14 Item No.4.29
Roof slab, Bottom
1.00 2.21 1.98 4.38 Sqm 220.48 965

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 36
g Providing and constructing burnt
brick masonry.

SR. Page No.25 Item No.6.5 3.00 1.52 0.23 0.91 0.96
2.00 2.21 0.23 0.91 0.92

1.88 Cum 3820.24 7,180


h Providing 12mm thick cement plaster
in single coat with cement mortar 1:3
to brick masonry. Page No. 96 Item
No. 15.9 4.00 0.76 0.91 2.79
4.00 1.52 0.91 5.57

8.36 Sqm 110.24 922


i Aggregates 40mm and above Page
No. I & Sl. No. 11 & Page No. 117
ltem. No. 17.1 & 17.4 1.00 1.52 0.76 0.30 0.35 Cum 765.53 271
j Aggregates 40mm and above Page
No. I & Sl. No. 11 & Page No. 117
ltem. No. 17.1 & 17.4 1.00 1.52 0.76 0.30 0.35 Cum 1030.53 365
k Netlon mesh
1.00 1.52 0.76 0.30 0.35 Cum 50.00 18
l Relevant plumbing accessories for
inlet and outlet with auto FFL 1.00 LS 5000.00 5,000

m Chamber covers "ISI" marked 24" X


24" of 50 Kg in weight. Page No.
XXXI Nos 2.00 2.00 Nos 2502.00 5,004
Sub Total
28,240

6
Popup Filter - 4"dia 1.00 1.00 1.00 3000 3,000

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 37
7 RPVC Pipe 4kg/cm2 and
Accessories BIS Certified
a 160 mm rigid PVC pipe
1.00 1.00 1.00 m 282.00 282
b 140 mm rigid PVC pipe
1.00 1.00 1.00 m 213.00 213
c 110 mm rigid PVC pipe
1.00 1.00 1.00 m 131.00 131
d 160 mm PVC fittings - elbow
1.00 1.00 1.00 m 1056.00 1,056
e 140 mm PVC fittings - elbow
1.00 1.00 1.00 Nos 235.00 235
f 110 mm PVC fittings - elbow
1.00 1.00 1.00 Nos 90.00 90
g 160 mm PVC fittings - tee
1.00 1.00 1.00 Nos 460.00 460
h 140 mm PVC fittings - tee
1.00 1.00 1.00 Nos 310.00 310
i 110 mm PVC fittings - tee
1.00 1.00 1.00 Nos 104.00 104
j Reducer collar 160 -140 mm
1.00 1.00 1.00 Nos 130.00 130
k Reducer collar 140 -110 mm
1.00 1.00 1.00 Nos 62.00 62
l Pipe laying and fixing
1.00 1.00 1.00 m 33.00 33
m Modification for existing roof outlets
1.00 1.00 1.00 LS 100.00 100
m Relaying of pavers and misc.
1.00 1.00 1.00 LS 0.00 -
Sub Total
3,206
Total Amount 0.00 524,624
Add towards Consultancy ,
Miscellaneous and unforeseen
charges (20%) 104,925
Grand TOTAL (in Rupees) 629,549
Total cost of execution of the project Rs.
629,549
* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 38
Note: Above estimate is indicative and includes all items . Any deviations required as per the site conditions
need to be discussed with the Principal Investigator and necessary changes would be incorporated. Offers will be
considered on total value and no additionally will be entertained.

Prepared by

A.R.Shivakumar
Principal Investigator - RWH
KSCST

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 39
SUMP-5 0 0 0 0 lt Size: 2 7 '6 "x1 0 'x6 '6 "
2 9 '-6 "
2 7 '-6 "

1 1 '-6 "1 0 '-0 " 1 '0 " X 1 '0 " - 3 no's Opening

SECTIONAL PLAN

C.I. Chamber Covers C.I. chamber covers


GROUND LEVEL GROUND LEVEL

6" R.C.C. 1 :2 :4
Inlet Out let
1 '0 " X 1 '0 " - 3 no's Opening

#8 mm @ 4 " c/c

6 '-6 " #1 2 mm @ 4 " c/c


9 " Thick R.C.C. wall

3" R.C.C. 1 :2 :4

#8 mm @ 6 " c/c #8 mm @ 6 " c/c SECTIONAL ELEVATION P.C.C. 1 :2 :4


Not e: All dimensions are in feet

A. R. Shivakumar
Principal Invest igat or- RWH
K.S.C.S.T.
St eel det ails of sump - 5 0 ,0 0 0 lt Size: 2 7 '6 "x1 0 'x6 '6 "

#1 0 mm@ 4 "c/c

Opening Opening

#1 2 mm@ 4 "c/c

1 1 '-6 "

2 9 '-6 "
Sect ional Plan of Roof Slab

C.I. Chamber Covers #1 0 mm @ 4 " c/c C.I. chamber covers


#1 2 mm @ 4 " c/c
GROUND LEVEL GROUND LEVEL

6"
Inlet Out let

#8 mm @ 4 " c/c
6 '-6 "
#1 2 mm @ 4 " c/c

3" 6"
#8 mm @ 6 " c/c #8 mm @ 6 " c/c P.C.C. 1 :2 :4
Sect ional Elevat ion Not e: All dimensions are in feet

A. R. Shivakumar
Principal Invest igat or- RWH
K.S.C.S.T.

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 40
#8mm@ 4"c/c #10mm@ 4"c/c

10'
Opening

8'-6"

Sectional Plan of Roof Slab


#12mm@ 4"c/c #8mm@ 4"c/c
Manhole Cover

6'-6"
8'

#8mm@ 6"c/c Sectional Elevation Note: All dimensions are in feet

A. R. Shivakumar
Principle Investigator - RWH
K.S.C.S.T.

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 41
Size: 8' X 7' X 6'6"

R.C.C. slab of 6" thick Manhole Cover

6"

9" thick
brick wall

6'-6"

P.C.C. bed of 6" thick


R.C.C.

3" 6"
Sectional Elevation
10'
8'

8'-6" 7'

Sectional plan Note: All dimensions are in feet

A. R. Shivakumar
Principle Investigator - RWH
K.S.C.S.T.
* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 42
Cement Ring Well for Ground Water Recharge

0.22m

Rainwater in flow Ferrocement rings 1.2 m diameter

Side Filling 1.8 m diameter with


0.6m Boulders (40 mm & upsize)

Silt trap & filter bed Ferrocement cover (Perforated)


(20mm agrigate)
G. L G. L
Rainwater in flow
Mild Steel safety grill work
1m made out of 0.5" sq rod with
5" spacing both ways

Boulders(40 mm & upsize)

0.6m

7.62m

Ferrocement Rings

1.82m

1.2m

A. R. Shivakumar
Principal Investigator- RWH
K.S.C.S.T

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 43
Silt trap & filter bed
(20mm agrigate)
0.22m

Rainwater in flow Ferrocement rings 1.2 m diameter

0.6m
Infiltration ring of 3 m diameter 1m deep
with 40mm & upsize Boulders

Ferrocement cover (Perforated)


Silt trap & filter bed Mild Steel safety grill work made out of
(20mm agrigate) 0.5" sq rod with 5" spacing both ways
Rainwater in flow 0.6m G. L G. L

Boulders (40 mm & upsize)


1m

Ferrocement
Rings 7.62m

1.82m

1.2m

A. R. Shivakumar
Principal Investigator- RWH
K.S.C.S.T

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 44
First Flush Lock & Sand Bed Filter

9" thick Wall

Rainwater inlet Filtered water outlet

2'-6" 2'-6" 5'

Flush Valve
Filtered water outlet

20 mm and 40 mm Agrigate
Rainwater inlet
Filtered water outlet
3'
Flush Valve

6"

First flush lock Sand bed filter


A. R. Shivakumar
Principal Investigator - RWH
K.S.C.S.T

Details of Perforated Pipe


6 mm holes at 50 mm intervals

140 mm

450 mm
A. R. Shivakumar
Principal Investigator - RWH
K.S.C.S.T

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 45
General Maintenance for RWH

Keeping the roof clean and free from undesirable articles will improve the quality of
rainwater collected
Water / other fluid or chemical waste spilling or entering the rainwater collection surface
and channels should be avoided
Surface rainwater from road, pavements, garden area and other open space should be
separated / diverted from the roof top rainwater harvesting channels
Slight gradient sloping from the highest point of the roof to the storage sump of rainwater
should be maintained for all the pipes and channels to avoid water stagnation
Filter beds must be cleaned for the sediments during the rainy season
Rainwater sump should have light proof covers / manhole and other openings
Cost and details of pipeline installation in the project proposal are not detailed. Depending
on the site condition the pipelines have to be installed with a gentle slope towards the
rainwater storage sump
Existing storm water entry in to the designated rainwater pipelines / chambers should be
diverted to storm water drain
Perforated chamber covers should be replaced with air tight CI chamber covers
Rainwater collected may be tested for its quality before using other than washing and
gardening.
It is advised to keep the roof of the buildings clean before the rains and preferably apply a
coat of lime (white wash) every year. The silt traps and filter bed chambers need to be
cleaned once or twice a year.

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 46
PopUp Filter for Roof top Rainwater Harvesting:
Important
PopUp filter must be installed vertical only.
PopUp filter of 110mm can handle rainwater from a maximum 1000 sq. ft. of roof area (1000mm
annual rainfall)
Keep the PopUp filter dry during non rainy days by opening the flush valve to release stagnant
water.

Filter Cap (e)


Vent hole (h)
Filter Element (d)

Rainwater Outlet (f)

Stabalizer pipe (c)

Rainwater Inlet (a) Flush Valve (g)

Diffusion Chamber (b)

How PopUp filter works?


The PopUp Filter has three components (rainwater receptor, flush valve and filter element).
Rainwater receptor is where the rainwater is allowed to flow from down pipes in to the filter and a flush
valve is provided to flush the first flow of the rainwater along with leaves, dust etc. Water received in
the receptor flows upwards against gravity through a filter element to filter most of the floating elements
and allow water to stabilize in this filtration zone. Rainwater passing through this filter element is
relatively cleaner and flows out through an outlet, which can be led to storage device.
Filter element is mounted on a vertical stabilizer barrel with a friction fit. Filter element need to
be cleaned periodically during the rainy season to remove the impurities trapped and there by keep the
filtration system clean. In the event filter is not cleaned and the filter element is getting clogged,
PopUp Filter has a safety feature built into it. The water pressure pushes out the clogged filter
element from the stabilizer barrel and allows the water to flow out freely. This safety feature will avoid
flooding of the rooftop because of clogged filter. The first indication of the filter getting clogged is
rainwater flowing out of a vent hole provided on the top of the filter element.

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 47
PopUp Filter Maintenance:

Filter Cap (e)


Vent hole (h)
Filter Element (d)

Rainwater Outlet (f)

Stabalizer pipe (c)

Rainwater Inlet (a) Flush Valve (g)

Diffusion Chamber (b) Figure 1 : Pull out the Filter element vertically

Flush the first rainwater by opening the flush valve on the filter for few minutes, close the flush valve
after all the dirt on the roof is flushed. When the rain stops, flush the filter and remove the filter cartridge
gently from its place and wash it thoroughly under a running tap by gently tapping the filter element
with a stick on all sides.

Figure 2 : Remove Filter element gently from barrel

The dirt sticking in the filter element gets released and washes off. Replace the clean filter element back
to its place by gently inserting it in the barrel. Take care not to press it too hard at the end. If pressed
too hard, filter element gets locked inside the barrel and may require greater force to retrieve it back
when required for cleaning and also may not PopUp when the filter is clogged or chocked. Allow the
filtered water to get stored in tank for future use.

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 48
Figure 3 : Clean Filter
element in running water
Figure 4 : Replace Filter element
gently into the Pop Up filter barrel

Flush the PopUp filter after every rain


Clean the filter element once in 15 days during rainy season
Take care that the filter element is not forced inside the receptor tightly

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 49
First Flush Lock and Sand Bed Filter

The function details of automatic first flush separator and sand bed filter.

Rainwater collected from the roof top will enter the first flush lock, which will allow only the initial
rainwater with all the dirt and contaminants of the roof to flow in to the flush tank and automatically
divert the subsequent flow in to the sand bed filter chamber. The filtered water from the sand bed filter
will flow in to the sump for future use. The stagnant water in the first flush tank and sand bed filter
chamber is allowed to in filter in to the ground (the bottom of these tanks are not cemented to facilitate
ground water recharge). This arrangement automatically keeps the first flush and sand bed filter
chambers dry during the non rain days.

20 mm and 40 mm Aggrigate
Rainwater Inlet
Filtered water outlet

Flush Valve (For


surface tank only)

First flush lock Sand bed filter

Figure 1

Leaves , Plastic covers etc ...

Rain water
inlet Filtered water outet

Flush vavle (For


Surface tank only)

First discharge of roof


water with dirt and other
particles Percolation of Stagnent water
Dust and other Waste
materials
in to the ground

Figure 2

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 50
First Flush Float locked
after discharge
Leaves , Plastic covers etc ...

Rain water
inlet Filtered water outet

Flush vavle (for


Surface tank only)

Dust and other Waste Percolation of Stagnent water


materials into the ground

Figure 3

Clean the first flush chamber once in a month during the rainy season by scraping the bottom and
removing all the silt and other material collected in the chamber.

Physically remove any floating elements trapped on the filter bed periodically.

Filter bed of aggregates or sand need to be taken out of the filter chamber once in three months
and washed in fresh water, dry in sun and refill them back in the filter chamber.

Important:
Fix FFL vertically only.
Do not tamper the gas filled pressurized float of the FFL
Keep the FFL and filter bed chamber covers closed after cleaning

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 51
RAINWATER HARVESTING
DO'S of Rainwater Harvesting:

1. The roof should be kept clean before rains.


2. Suitable filtration methods have to be adopted to filter rainwater.
3. Filters have to be regularly maintained /cleaned.
4. All plumbing works have to be done properly using appropriate materials.
5. Suitable clamps for all pipes and gutters have to be fixed at a maximum interval of 1m.
6. Storage devices like sumps/tanks/vessels need to be cleaned before storing filtered rainwater.
7. Rainwater storage devices must have proper manhole covers, which should not permit
sunlight into the tank.
8. Paint the surfaces (inside and outside) of masonry tank/sump with lime every year.
9. Provide good quality, leak proof taps that are convenient for use.
10. Check the quality of stored rainwater for bacterial contamination every year if used for
drinking.
11. The first flow of rainwater that contains contaminants from the roof must be allowed to drain
out (first flush).
12. Sand bed filters need to be installed with properly cleaned riverbed sand and aggregates. The
sand, aggregates and plastic mesh of the filter have to be washed, sun dried and refilled every
month.
13. Rainwater is pure and can be used for drinking, cooking and all other purposes, as it is free
from fluoride, arsenic, bacteria, etc., However, contaminants may get added over the
collection surface like roof / open space.
14. Wherever possible ground water recharge methods have to be adopted for rooftop rainwater
or overflow of rainwater from tanks/sumps.
15. The sand and aggregates used in infiltration gallery should be cleaned, washed and sun dried
before placing them in the infiltration gallery.
16. The open wells have to be desilted and cleaned before being used for ground water recharge.
17. Pump-in test has to be carried out for bore wells before adopting direct injection of rainwater
for ground water recharge.

DONT'S of Rainwater Harvesting:

1. Rooftop rainwater or surface runoff should not be directly consumed without filtration
and proper disinfection.
2. The tanks/sumps used for storing rainwater should not have any opening that permits
sunlight inside. Entry of sunlight into the sump/tank encourages bacterial and algal
growth.
3. Collection of water by vessels/buckets from tanks/sumps through manholes has to be
avoided and taps/pumps/hand pumps must be used.
4. Rainwater from the roof or open spaces must not be directly allowed to flow into the bore
well casing pipe. Preferably an infiltration gallery method must be adopted for ground
water recharge.

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 52
RAINWATER HARVESTING - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1. What is Rainwater Harvesting (RWH)?


RWH is the process of collection of rainwater and storing it for future use.

2. How is RWH done?


Rainwater is directly collected from the roof or opens pace and filtered before storing or recharging
to the ground.

3. What are the methods of RWH?


There are three methods of RWH Roof top RWH, Open space RWH and Ground Water Recharge.

4. What are the advantages of RWH?


Rainwater Harvesting has many advantages:
Augments the existing water supply
Reduces water bill
Reduces effect of draught and flood
Improves ground water availability and quality
Environment - friendly technique

5. Who can do RWH?


Any individual or institution can do rainwater harvesting. If you are planning to build a house, you
can incorporate in the planning stage itself.

6. What is the cost of RWH?


The cost of RWH depends on quantity of the rainwater collected and the purposes for which it is
required. It varies from Rs. 2,000/- to Rs. 50,000/- for residential buildings.

7. What are the space requirements?


For a residential building, a sump of 5000 - 10000 ltr (6 ft. x 6 ft. x 10 ft.) needs to be built for
storing the rainwater. Bigger the storage facility, longer the availability of rainwater.

8. How does RWH benefit me?


The benefits of RWH:
Immediate fresh water availability
Reduces water bill
Reduced dependence on conventional water supply
Better living environment

9. What about the quality of water?


Rainwater is the primary source and is purest form of water. You can collect rainwater and use it for
drinking purposes. However, precautions need to be taken, to keep the water free from contaminants
on the roof, open space, during channeling and storage.

10. Who can help me in RWH?

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 53
With a little guidance, you can do RWH on your own. In case you need help you can contact an
architect or an engineer, who has knowledge of RWH. There are also agencies and consultants who
take up RWH on turnkey basis.
11. How long can I store the collected water?
Since water does not get contaminated when it is stored away from sunlight and air, you can store
water thats free from impurities up to six months.

12. How can I use the harvested rainwater?


Rainwater can be used practically for all purposes.

13. What is the approximate quantity of rainwater I can harvest?


In a 100 sq. mtr area with annual rainfall of 1000 mm, you can collect one-lakh liters of rainwater.

14. What could be the adverse effects of RWH?


If proper care is not taken, the following adverse effects could result
(a) Contamination of water, if the rooftop is not clean, (b) Water logging, if ground water is not
recharged properly and (c) Flooding of roofs, if filters are not properly designed and cleaned
frequently.

15. Is it one time or recurring investment?


RWH system is one-time investment. The storage facility is the single most expensive component of
RWH. Recurring expenditure are cost of cleaning the filter and pumping of water.

16. Can rainwater be harvested in industries / institutions and multistoried buildings?


Yes, since the roof area and open area available are bigger, rainwater can be harvested on a large
scale and the amount of savings will be huge. In multistoried buildings, it has to be a community
initiative.

17. Flat or sloping roof - which is better suited for RWH?


Both types of roofs are suitable for RWH.

18. Can the rainwater harvested be used for recharge of groundwater (Borewell / open well)?
Yes, it can be done. In fact, many dried wells have got a new lease of life after RWH

19. Can a family live entirely only on rainwater?


Yes, it is possible. In fact, there are many households which do not depend on public water supply
system.

20. Do I need to take any permission from any department or neighbors to install a RWH system for
Ground Water Recharge?
No permission is required.

21. Can sewage or any other water pollute ground water?


If proper care is not taken, leaking sewage pipes, nearby toilet soak pits and industrial effluents can
pollute groundwater.

A.R. Shivakumar
KSCST

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 54
Bangalores First Eco-friendly house to depend only on Rainwater Harvesting since
1994 Sourabha
Rainwater Harvesting can be defined as the process of collecting and storing rainwater in a scientific and

controlled manner for future use.

Rainwater Harvesting

Water is one of the most common substances on our earth. But urban areas face a shortage of water and
require an alternative source to bridge the gap between demand and supply. Rainwater would be an
immediate resource to augment the existing water supply systems by Catching water wherever it falls.

Sourabha is located in southwestern part of Bangalore (Vijayanagar). Plot area is 2400 Sq.ft. (40ft. X
60ft.). House constructed during 1995. This house is entirely dependent on rainwater for all its need
since 1994 (including construction).
Rainwater falling inside the plot is being channeled to three applications.
1. Roof top rainwater harvesting
2. Roof top rainwater channeled to recharge ground water
3. Percolation in garden area to recharge ground water.

Majority of the rainwater falling on the roof (85%) is channeled to the northern side of the house and is
allowed flow in to a tank of 4500 lts. capacity built on the ground floor roof. PopUp filter along with a
stabilization tank specially designed will filter the roof water before storing. This water is used during
the rainy season. The over flow of this tank is allowed to rundown through rainwater pipe on the wall to
an under ground sump-1 of 25,000 lt capacity built under the portico at the entrance of the house. In the
event of these two tanks getting full, the rainwater is diverted to percolate into the ground through a
system of percolation tanks / infiltration gallery (4 recycled plastic drums interconnected and buried
underground with their bottom cut open) to recharge ground water.

The remaining portion of the roof water (15%) is allowed to rundown through rainwater pipe on the wall
and a PopUp filter installed at the ground level filters suspended and floating material. Relatively
cleaner water after filtration flows to an underground sump-2 of 10,000 lt Capacity built inside the car
park (garage). Sump-1 and sump-2 together with 35,000 lt capacity are interconnected and the stored
rainwater water is used during the non rainy days when the roof top tank water is not available.

Rainwater falling in the open area or the garden area around the house is allowed to percolate then and
there in to the ground to recharge ground water.
In this manner not a drop of rainwater falling in the plot is allowed to flow out.

Bangalore receives around 1000mm of rainfall in a year. Which translates in to around 2, 23,000 lts per
year cumulatively in a plot of 60 ft. X 40 ft. Bangalore has an advantage of having nearly 70 rainy days
spread throughout the year.

There is no Corporation or BWSSB water connection to this house. Clean and safe water is available 24
hours 365 days a year and the quality of water is also periodically tested and found to be good.

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 55
Sourabha house has inbuilt simple mechanisms to effectively harness all the rainwater falling in the
plot and channel the same for different purposes. Even before constructing the house, rainwater
harvesting was the answer for the water requirement. The house was constructed by using the harvested
rainwater. Since 1995 the entire house needs including potable water is met out of rainwater. As a
family of four we need around 15,000 lts of water per month.
We require around 400 lt per day for all our needs except for toilet flushing. The need of toilet flushing
is met by recirculation of used water from washing machine. Used water from washing machine is
stored in an underground tank and is pumped up to a tank on the roof for toilet flushing automatically.

During days with more than 100 days of continues no rainy days which is very rare in Bangalore, water
drawn from a shallow tube well, which gets recharged from rainwater, meets the requirement. Ground
water table in and around the plot before the rainwater harvesting was as deep as 200 ft. (Sourabha is
located on the top most position of a ridge). With in one year of ground water recharge, water is
available at around 40 ft. In Sourabha the amount of water used is far less than the amount of rainwater
harvested and ground water recharged. Consequent to this, a social cause to recharge the ever-dwindling
ground water is also attempted.

There is no recurring cost involved except for the electricity used for pumping up water. The electricity
consumption in Sourabha is around 80kWh (units) per month, which includes water pumping also. Low
electricity consumption in the house is due to several energy conservation methods and renewable
energy techniques adopted in the house.

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 56
List of few techniques used in the construction of the house for cost reduction, energy conservation
and environmental protection :

* Use of the natural land topography to avoid excessive excavation or filling


* Design of the foundation with split-levels
* Use of rat-trap design in wall construction (good thermal insulation, saves bricks, cement and
time)
* Exposed brick or stone walls to avoid plastering and painting
* Provide rain water pipes to facilitate ground water recharging and direct water harvesting for
use during non rainy days
* House plan with all the water usage points like bath rooms, toilets, kitchen and utility to come as
close as possible to a open duct which carry all the pipes
* Provision of windows to get as much sun light and cross ventilation as possible
* Provide glass windows in the roof for more light
* Design of at least one bedroom to have natural air conditioning (rat-trap design walls, no wall to
get direct sunlight, windows to face green garden and in the direction of wind flow, roof to be paved
with clay tiles or painted white)
* Solar water heater and solar cooker built as an integral part of the house
* Solar lighting using PV panels
* Use of energy saving devises like, CFLs, HDPE pipe, high efficiency motor and pump, light
colors for interiors, suncontrol film on glasses of south and west facing windows, drip/sprinkle
irrigation for plants, light sensitive switches for security, electronic regulators for fans, toilet
flush with adjustable discharge, refrigerator with right side opening door, use of task lighting
methods
* Vermiculture/composting for handling garbage
* Provision to plant as many plants and trees as possible (including terrace)

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 57
* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 58
Questionnaire for Rain Water Harvesting Installation

1. Name:

2. Address:

Ph: (o). (R) .Fax: E-Mail:


.

3. Occupation:
.

4. House Ownership:
Own:Rented:Lease:.

5. Family Size: Age Details: Elders (50 +):. Adults (18 50)Children (-
18).

6. Total Plot Area:


7. Total Built-up Area:


8. Area of Open Space:


9. Single Largest Open Space:


.

10. No. of Floors:


..

11. Total Roof Area Exposed to Rain:


12. Sources of Water: Corporation/Municipality:


Borewell:.

Open Well: Tankers:


Others:

13. Quantity of Water Consumed/ Day/


Week:..

14. No. of Bore wells:

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 59
Working:.Yield:....Depth: Total:...Water
Level:Year:..

Not Working Yield:..Depth: Total:.Water


Level:Year:..

15. No. of Open Wells:

Working:...Yield:.Depth: Total:....Water
Level:..Year:...

Not Working.Yield:..Depth: Total:..Water


Level:..Year:..

16. No. of Underground


Sumps:.Capacity:...

17. No. of Ground Level


Tanks:..Capacity:..

18. No. of Loft


Tanks:.Capacity:....

19. No. of Overhead


Tanks:..Capacity:....

20. Water Pumps: BW/OW to Sump:.. ..No.:...Capacity:


HP/KWh..

Sump to OHT:...No.:...Capacity:
HP/KWh.

Separate Energy Meter for Water Pump: Yes / No If yes: Average Monthly KWh
Used:

Electricity Cost Per Month:


Rs

21. Water Use in Liters / Day: Drinking: Washing:


Cooking: Bathing: Flushing:


.

Gardening: Others:
..

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 60
22. Total Water Bill / Month:
Rs.

23. Water Quality:


Hard:.Soft:..Sweet:Salt:...Muddy:

24. How Rain Water is Drained: a) Down pipes to drain on


roadside..

b) Down pipes to
UGD.

c) Down pipes to Soak


Pit.

d) Roof Pipe extending to open


space..

26.Frequency of Corporation Water Supply: Daily /Alternate /Specify No. of


Hours:

27.Frequency of Tanker Water Use: Daily /Alternate /Specify. Nos..


Capacity

28. Water Drains /


Gutter:..

29.Down Pipe:
Size:..Nos:.

30.Type of Roof:...Flat:.
Sloping:

31. Details of Gardening: No. of Trees:No. of


Pots:..

Area of Garden:..Sq ft; Area of Roof


Garden:.Sq ft

Frequency of Watering: Twice a Day/ Daily/Once in 2


Days...

Quantity of Water used for Gardening:


....

32. Water Treatment : a) Direct for all use


..YesNo

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 61
b) Direct for all except drinking/
cooking..YesNo

c) Filter:..
YesNo.

d) U/V Filter:
YesNo..

e) Boil and Use.


YesNo..

f) Any other (Chlorine/ Lime/Alum).


YesNo..

33. Municipal corporation ward name and


No:

34. Willing to pay the implementation cost of the Rainwater Harvesting structure in my plot:
Yes.No.

35. I will abide & accept that I will not alter / modify / tamper with the RWH design / system for at
least 5 years from the implementation of the project.
Yes:..No..

36. Easy accessibility of the site in the city. Yes:..No..


37. Year of house
construction.

38. Whether socially interactive & recognized person? Yes:.. No:.

39. Willingness to spread the message of rainwater harvesting to others.


Yes:..No.

40. Willingness to share the common property of rainwater harvesting and ground water recharge for
social cause.
Yes..No

* A.R. Shivakumar, Principal Investigator RWH, KSCST, IISc., Bangalore 560 012. 62