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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been

fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TAP.2017.2708119, IEEE
Transactions on Antennas and Propagation

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(a) (b)

(c)
Fig. 11: Return Loss Performance of AUTs Simulated and Measured in Both Muscle and SAT Tissue Equivalent Liquids: (a)
SLM (b) Wire Dipole (c) PFMD

V. M EASUREMENT R ESULTS The SLM exhibits a strong broadband response with an in-
A. Wideband Return Loss Performance band |S 11 | < -17 dB in muscle liquid but this falls to an
average |S 11 | of -6.0 dB in SAT liquid. With the increasing
Figs. 11(a) - 11(c) show the measured return loss
comparative wavelength in SAT, the resonance of the SLM
performance of the AUTs in both muscle and SAT liquid
has shifted up in frequency producing a poor match in the
for a frequency range of 800 - 3000 MHz vs. the simulated
band of interest. The silastic insulated wire dipole exhibited
|S 11 | < found during the antenna design process. For
a broadband match in muscle and SAT. This is due to its
the PFMD shown in 11(c), the antenna maintained an
relatively thick coating of silastic which helps isolate it from
excellent match with |S 11 | < -17 dB in the band of
the surrounding tissue liquid. This means that it can still
interest in both SAT and muscle liquid. Variations from the
remain in band as it suffers a smaller resonant frequency shift
simulated results can be attributed to a number of factors
than the other two AUTs and it is still sufficiently broadband to
such as manufacturing irregularities (varying substrate/silastic
stay matched. The downside of this however is that its largest
thickness, solder roughness), difficulty in simulating the exact
dimension of 32 mm is not reduced by the presence of the
properties of the glue layer and the presence of the balun at
relatively high permittivity tissues which could be an issue
the input of the dipole and PFMD antennas. The balun itself
when designing an implantable device. Efforts to minimize this
has a frequency dependant return loss which would account
may reduce the bandwidth of the dipole and make it vulnerable
for why the lower resonance of the PFMD in muscle liquid is
to tissue dependant resonant frequency shifts.
”filtered” out.

0018-926X (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

phantom from the centre can cause a significant increase with the TRE gains produced by the substrate and improved in efficiency.2. Table III determining the radiation efficiency of an antenna [27]. Personal use is permitted. This can be attributed to the even a slight positioning error closer to the surface of the wavelength in SAT being significantly larger than in muscle.32 dB. The wire dipole however has a higher RE and measurement. TRE in SAT than the PFMD.2708119. It shows that the SLM is SAT liquid strongly agree with the measured results.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. . Antenna Efficiency Performance Figs.68 dB in muscle liquid. shows the band averaged (2. This difference between RE and TRE than the wire dipole in muscle liquid despite measured and simulated efficiency value in muscle liquid may having approximately half the maximum electrical length of be attributed to positioning errors within the phantom during the wire dipole. with the Dipole RE encountered in the SAT liquid. but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. 12(a)-12(d) show the measured and simulated REs electrical length of the dipole.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.33 dB to 3. It has window was from 0. The PFMD has a 1 dB higher simulation having the least deviation.2017. 0018-926X (c) 2016 IEEE. 12: (a) RE in Muscle Liquid Phantom (b) TRE in Muscle Liquid Phantom (c) RE in SAT Liquid Phantom (d) TRE in SAT Liquid Phantom B. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TAP.html for more information. with a the most efficient in both tissue liquids due to its significantly maximum deviation of only 0.4 GHz) RE and TRE values The RE and TRE simulation results for all AUTs in of all AUTs in both types of liquid. due to the mismatch losses results in comparison to simulation. As the muscle liquid is a high loss medium. The maximum deviation larger volume in comparison to the other two AUTs. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 9 (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. but has not been fully edited. The the highest RE in both scenarios but its TRE in SAT liquid is PFMD RE simulation had the greatest deviation in measured slightly less than the wire dipole. See http://www.ieee.36 . which is a major factor in and TREs of the AUTS in both types of tissue liquid. which can be seen in the difference between match of the PFMD unable to compete with the simply larger measured and simulated results. Content may change prior to final publication.

3 -2. This agrees with the efficiency measurements Efficiencies in Both Tissue Liquids as the PFMD also has a similar RE as the wire dipole. aprroximately the same as the wire dipoles value antenna radiation efficiency and total radiation efficiency along 0018-926X (c) 2016 IEEE. TRE -58. It also shows that the performance of an implantable AUT can be estimated accurately using the implant antenna testbed described in Section IV. 13(a) and 13(b) show the |S 21 | plots for all AUTs in both SAT and muscle liquid filled phantoms in an anechoic environment. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10 TABLE III: Band Averaged Radiation and Total Radiation of −79.4 -16. The power received from the in-situ PFMD transmitter unit was calculated using P r [dB] = P t [dBm] + |S 21 |[dB] + Lc [dB] (1) with Pr the calculated received power from the transmitter (a) unit at the spectrum analyser. C ONCLUSION alternated between horizontal and vertical polarisations. RE Avg.7 -64.8 wire dipole’s -64. this drops off with frequency through the measured Wire Dipole -16. . As A novel antenna is presented and was shown to maintain an can be seen from Fig.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.2 -32. TRE Avg. The PFMD has an |S 21 | value of testbed methodology was proposed which measured implanted −79.6 band averaged |S 21 | values of -63.1 -34.6 very similar |S 21 | traces although the PFMD has a higher Muscle SLM -32. Again.7 -81 -84 -82.ieee.2 -15. the PFMD and wire dipole antennas have PFMD -32.6 dB.4 dB. A robust and repeatable implant antenna due to its higher RE. The cable loss. Personal use is permitted.8 -32. Lc .4 -34.3 -2. RE Avg.7 -67. as having Fig. the SLM has the highest band excellent return loss performance in both a high and low water averaged |S 21 | value in muscle of -74.9 -34. Table IV shows the values used to calculate the power received from the in-situ PFMD transmitter and the measured received power value.6 -16.1 -17.2 dB lower than the calculated values in muscle and SAT liquid respectively. but has not been fully edited.5 dB.27 dB and 0. between the receive horn antenna and spectrum analyser was measured independently using a VNA.2017.4 -16. Figure Measurement (dB) Simulation (dB) 13(b) shows the AUTs |S 21 | performances in SAT with the SLM again having the highest band averaged |S 21 | value of Tissue Antenna Avg.5 -16. See http://www. The calculated and measured values are in excellent agreement with the measured received power being only 1. The polarisation of the receive horn was also VI.5 The implant transmitter measurements were used to verify that the PFMD performance stated in the radiation efficiency and |S 21 | measurements in Sections V-B and V-C are not heavily reliant on spurious cable radiation.5 Wire Dipole -33.5 bandwidth which is also apparent in the RE measurements.1109/TAP.2 -34. Pt the transmitter output power and |S 21 | the value found in Section V-C for that tissue equivalent liquid at that transmitter frequency.2708119.4 dB. both with vastly contrasting polarisation (vertically orientated) which was to be expected electrical properties. Antenna |S 21 | Performance TABLE IV: Transmitter Calculation Values (dB) Measured Measured Calculated Measured Cable Loss Tissue Tx Pwr |S 21 | Rx Pwr Rx Pwr (dB) (dBm) (dB) (dB) (dB) Muscle -0.4 -16.2 -36. Figs. Although the wire dipole has the higher SAT SLM -15. This further shows that a radiation chamber can (b) be used to validate the efficiency performance of implanted antennas in both high and low water content tissue.html for more information.9 -36. but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. D. 13: (a) AUT S21 Performance in Muscle Liquid Phantom at least 30 cm of high water content tissue liquid surrounding (b) AUT S21 Performance in SAT Liquid Phantom the coaxial feed cable can sufficiently dampen surface currents so that their effect can become negligible.3 dB when in co.7 -67. showing that the antenna is radiating with little or no cable effects. 13(a).3 dB compared with the PFMD -18.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal.8 -17. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1 -18.5 peak |S 21 |. content tissue emulating liquid. Antenna Standalone Transmitter Performance C.7 SAT -0.7 -33.