You are on page 1of 92

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 1

A Glossary of
Marine Nature
and Fisheries

Stephen J Lockwood

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 2

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 3

A Glossary of
Marine Nature Conservation
and Fisheries

Stephen J Lockwood

Countryside Council for Wales. Bangor. 2001 A glossary of Marine Nature Conservation and Fisheries. ISBN: 1 861 69 085 1 CCC 183 2k Contract No.: FC 73-02-171 Countryside Council for Wales Plas Penrhos Ffordd Penrhos Bangor Gwynedd LL57 2LQ © Crown Copyright .Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 4 Anon.

............................... 53 N ............... 51 M ............................ 32 E .............................................................................................................................................. 63 S .................................................... vii Abbreviations and Acronyms ....................................................... 75 Y .................... 44 H . 63 R ................................... 76 References ..................Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 5 Contents Foreword .......................... 27 D ............. 47 J ......................................................................... 50 K ..................................................................................................................................................... 50 L ................... 45 I ................................................................................................................. 1 Names of Animals in Text ......................................................................................................... 60 Q .............................................................................................................. 74 V ..................................................................................................................... 72 U ..... 77 iii ........................................................... 75 W ......... 66 T ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 59 P .......... 23 C .............................................................................................. 57 O ........................................................................................................................... 76 Z ................... 19 B ............... 11 Glossary A ................................................ 40 G .... v Acknowledgements .............................................................. 36 F ..........................

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 6 iv .

We hope that this glossary will help to achieve such an aim. it is important to ensure that all those involved with fisheries and the environment have a common understanding of terms. This is why this glossary of terms for marine nature conservation and fisheries was commissioned. particularly relating to the Habitats and Species Directive. v . it can be a nightmare. The EC Biodiversity Strategy [COM(1998)42] calls on the Community to develop programmes for public information. which has led to new terminology. education and awareness raising on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. A similar commitment applies in relation to information on the impact of fisheries on marine ecosystems. At a time when the European Commission is pushing for consideration of the environment alongside all activities (through a process called integration). It is of paramount importance that integration of fisheries and the environment occurs in practice. at the grass roots level and not just in principle. This should also apply to the Commission’s action plan for biodiversity in fisheries. A number of communications from the European Union stress the importance of disseminating scientific information in a way that is easily understood. There has been wide consultation with a cross section of individuals over the definition of terms. which in itself helped increase common understanding.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 7 Foreword The whole field of fisheries is so beset with jargon and acronmyns that for anyone wishing to understand the issue. Add to that increasing calls to protect marine wildlife. Countryside Council for Wales on behalf of the UK statutory nature conservation agencies.

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 8 vi .

non-governmental organizations and government reports. many of them qualifying as the ‘gray literature’ of national and international scientific bodies.: FC 73- 02-171) as part of its fisheries and marine environment programme. This work was funded by the Countryside Council for Wales (Contract No. universities and the fishing industry suggested terms for inclusion in the glossary. Many friends and colleagues in the voluntary and statutory nature conservation bodies. This glossary is very much a compilation. Several of them also gave generously of their time to read and comment on the draft definitions.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 9 Acknowledgements A glossary such as this cannot be wholly original work. of these diverse publications for the assistance which unwittingly they have given. We acknowledge our appreciation for the help these authors and publishers have given. it must either comprise the edited contributions of numerous authors or be compiled by reference to as many sources as are relevant and readily available. We are grateful to the authors. The publications that provided most help are listed in the references. Dr Stephen J Lockwood (editor) Dr N Clare Eno Coastal Fisheries Conservation Senior Maritime Policy Officer & Management Countryside Council for Wales Colwyn Bay Bangor vii . We thank them all but shoulder the responsibility for any shortcomings the reader will feel or find. both named and anonymous. In drafting the definitions we have referred to a great many publications. government fishery laboratories. Where a definition was taken more or less verbatim from a particular publication the source is cited in the text as well as including it in the references. including several dictionaries.

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 10 viii .

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 11 Abbreviations and Acronyms ACFA* Advisory Committee on Fisheries and Aquaculture (EC) ACFM* Advisory Committee for Fisheries Management (ICES) ACME* Advisory Committee for the Marine Environment (ICES) ACOPS Advisory Committee on Protection of the Seas ALARA As Low As Reasonably Achievable AM Assembly Member – member of the National Assembly for Wales AnaCat* Anadromous and Catadromous Fish ASCOBANS* Agreement on Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Sea. an Annex to the Bonn Convention* ASFC Association of Sea Fisheries Committees ASMO Assessments & Monitoring Group (of OSPAR) ASP* Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning ASSG Association of Scottish Shellfish Growers ASSI* Area of Special Scientific Interest (Northern Ireland) BAP* (UK) Biodiversity Action Plan BATNEEC Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Cost BIM Bord Iascaigh Mhara / Irish Sea Fisheries Board BioMar Biological Diversity in Marine Systems – an EU LIFE Project BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand BODC British Oceanographic Data Centre. Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (NERC) BSFO British Sea Fisheries Officer CA Countryside Agency (formerly the Countryside Commission) CBD UN Convention on Biodiversity CCAMLR Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources CCMS Centre for Coastal & Marine Sciences (NERC) * Further information is given in the main text of the Glossary 1 .

University of Newcastle * Further information is given in the main text of the Glossary 2 . States of Guernsey Department of Agriculture & Fisheries. CZM* Coastal Zone Management DAF Department of Agriculture & Fisheries. States of Jersey DAFF Department of Agriculture. University of Portsmouth CEMIEP Coastal and Estuarine Management Institute for Environmental Policy. University College Scarborough CFO Chief Fisheries Officer (of Sea Fisheries Committee) CFP* Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union CITES Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species CORINE Co-ordination of Information on the Classification of the Environment (EU project) CPUE* Catch Per Unit of Effort CSD Commission on Sustainable Development CSW* Chilled Seawater tanks – the hold on pelagic fishing vessels. Transport and the Regions DG XI * Commission of the European Communities Directorate General for the Environment – now DG Environment DG XIV* Commission of the European Communities Directorate General for Fisheries – now DG Fisheries DGPS* Differential Global Positioning System DI District Inspector of Fisheries DML Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory DMLC Dove Marine Laboratory Cullercoats.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 12 CCW Countryside Council for Wales CEC* Commission of the European Communities CEFAS Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science CEMARE Centre for Economics & Management of Aquatic Resources. Fisheries & Forestry. Isle of Man DANI Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland – now DARD DARD (NI) Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (Northern Ireland) – formerly DANI. DETR Department of the Environment. University College London CERCI Centre for European Research in Coastal Issues.

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 13 DoE Department of Environment. Now part of DETR DoE(NI) Department of Environment (Northern Ireland) DoT Department of Transport. Now part of DETR DSP* Diarrhoeic Shellfish Poisoning DTI Department of Trade and Industry EA Environment Agency EAGGF European Agriculture Guidance & Guarantee Fund (inc Fisheries) EC* European Commission (formally. Commission of the European Communities CEC) ECA European Court of Auditors ECJ European Court of Justice EcoQ Ecological Quality EcoQO Ecological Quality Objective ECSA Estuarine & Coastal Sciences Association EEA European Environment Agency EEC European Economic Community EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone EFH Essential Fish Habitat EHO Environmental Health Officer EHS Environment & Heritage Service (Northern Ireland) EHWST Extreme High Water of Spring Tides EIA Environmental Impact Assessment ELIFONTS Effects of Large-Scale Industrial Fisheries on NonTarget Species (EU project) ELOIS European Land-Ocean Interface Study ELWST Extreme Low Water of Spring Tides EMP Estuary Management Plan EMS* European Marine Site EN* English Nature EP European Parliament EQO Environmental Quality Objective * Further information is given in the main text of the Glossary 3 .

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 14 EQS Environmental Quality Standard ERDF European Regional Development Fund ES Environmental Statement ESF European Social Fund ESUSG European Sustainable Use Specialist Groups (of the IUCN) EU* European Union EuroPeche Umbrella body for EU national fishermen’s organisations (not an acronym) F* Fishing mortality rate FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations FCS* Favourable conservation status (Habitats & Species Directive) FIFG Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (EU structural fund) FO Fisheries Officer FoE Friends of the Earth FOOCG Fisheries & Offshore Oil Consultation Group FRS Fisheries Research Services – Marine Laboratory. University of Hull hp Horse Power 0.7355 kW HWST High Water Spring Tides * Further information is given in the main text of the Glossary 4 . Scotland & Wales GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (UN Advisory Group) GIS Geographic Information System GMO Genetically Modified Organism GPS Global Positioning System HAB* Harmful Algal Bloom HAP* Habitats Action Plan (part of UKBAP) HAT Highest Astronomic Tide HelCom Helsinki Commission/Convention for the Environmental Protection of the Baltic Sea HIE Highlands & Islands Enterprise HIFI Hull International Fisheries Institute. Aberdeen GB Great Britain – England.

University of Hull IEEP Institute for European Environmental Policy IFOMA International Fish Oil & Meal Association IMM* Intermediate Ministerial Meeting of the North Sea Conference IMO International Maritime Organisation of the United Nations IOC International Oceanographic Committee of the United Nations IOE Institute of Offshore Engineering. Fisheries and Food * Further information is given in the main text of the Glossary 5 .Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 15 IACMST InterAgency Committee for Marine Science & Technology IBSFC International Baltic Sea Fisheries Commission ICCAT International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas ICES* International Council for the Exploration of the Sea ICZM* Integrated Coastal Zone Management IDBNI Industrial Development Board for Northern Ireland IECS Institute of Estuarine & Coastal Studies. Heriot-Watt University ISF Irish Sea Forum ITQ* Individual Transferable Quota IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature & Natural Resources – also known as the World Conservation Union IWC International Whaling Commission JAMP Joint Assessment and Monitoring Programme (OSPAR) JNCC Joint Nature Conservation Committee kW Kilowatts LAT Lowest Astronomic Tides LEAP Local Environment Agency Plan LGA Local Government Association LIFE L’Instrument Financier pour l’Environment (EU funding package) LNR Local Nature Reserve LOIS Land-Ocean Interface Study LPUE* Landings Per Unit of Effort LWST Low Water of Spring Tides M* Natural mortality rate of fish MAFF Ministry of Agriculture.

in Scotland) MMS* Minimum Mesh Size MNCR Marine Nature Conservation Review (JNCC project) MNR* Marine Nature Reserve MoD Ministry of Defence MPA* Marine Protected Area MPCU Marine Pollution Control Unit (now Counter-pollution branch of the Maritime & Coastguard Agency) * Further information is given in the main text of the Glossary 6 . Plymouth MBAL* Minimum Biologically Acceptable Limit MCA Maritime & Coastguard Agency MCA* Marine Consultation Area (Scotland) MCS Marine Conservation Society MEHRA* Marine Environmental High Risk Area MEP Member of the European Parliament MEY* Maximum Economic Yield MHW Mean High Water MHWNT Mean High Water of Neap Tides MHWOT Mean High Water of Ordinary Tides MHWST Mean High Water of Spring Tides MIFOS Modelling the Impact of Fisheries On Seabirds (EU project) MLS* Minimum Landing Size MLW Mean Low Water MLWNT Mean Low Water of Neap Tides MLWOT Mean Low Water of Ordinary Tides (the seaward limit of ‘land’ in England & Wales) MLWST Mean Low Water of Spring Tides (the seaward limit of ‘land’.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 16 MAGP* Multi-Annual Guidance Programme MarLIN Marine Life Information Network (marine element of National Biodiversity Network) MarPol International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea from Shipping MBA Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 17 MSC* Marine Stewardship Council MSP Member of Scottish Parliament MSVPA* Multi-species Virtual Population Analysis MSY* Maximum Sustainable Yield NAFO* North Atlantic Fisheries Organisation NAO North Atlantic Oscillation NASCO North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organisation NAWAD National Assembly for Wales Agriculture Department (previously WOAD). the Department covers fisheries NBD National Biodiversity Network NCEAG National Coasts & Estuaries Advisory Group (now a SIGSOG) NEAFC North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission NERC Natural Environment Research Council NEUT Working group on Nutrients and Eutrophication (OSPAR) NFFO National Federation of Fishermen’s Organisations NGO Non-Governmental Organisation NI Northern Ireland NMMP National Marine Monitoring Plan (UK) NMBAQC National Marine Biological Analytical Quality Control Scheme NMPMMG National Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group NNR National Nature Reserve NRPB National Radiological Protection Board NSTF North Sea Task Force NTZ* No Take Zone OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development OPRU Oil Pollution Research Unit ORNIS Scientific Advisory Committee of EC Birds Directive OSPAR* Oslo and Paris Commission / Convention PDA Potentially Damaging Activity (in MPA) PDO Potentially Damaging Operation (in SSSI) * Further information is given in the main text of the Glossary 7 .

eg North Sea QSR QUASIMEME Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environment Monitoring in Europe RA* Relevant Authority (Habitats (Conservation) Regulations Ramsar* Town in Iran after which the Ramsar Convention is named RN Royal Navy RSPB Royal Society for the Protection of Birds RSW* Refrigerated Seawater tanks – the hold on (pelagic) fishing vessels SAC* Special Area of Conservation SAGB Shellfish Association of Great Britain SAHFOS Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Oceanographic Science SAMS Scottish Association for Marine Science. ‰) QSR Quality Status Report. Oban (previously SMBA) SAP* Species Action Plan (part of UKBAP) SBL* Safe Biological Limits SCANS Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (EU project) SCI* Site of Community Importance SCOPAC Standing Conference on Problems Associated with the Coastline SCOR Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (IOC) SEPA Scottish Environment Protection Agency SERAD Scottish Executive for Rural Affairs Department (previously SOAEFD) * Further information is given in the main text of the Glossary 8 . University of Liverpool. Bidston (NERC) PRIMER Plymouth Routines In Multivariate Ecological Research PSP* Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning PSSA Particularly Sensitive Sea Area psu Practical Salinity Units ( replaces parts per thousand.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 18 PEML Port Erin Marine Laboratory. Dunstaffnage. Isle of Man PESCA The name (not abbreviation) of an EU fisheries funding package PML Plymouth Marine Laboratory PO* Producer Organisation POL Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory.

Species. University of Southampton sp. singular and plural SPA* Special Protection Area SPFA Scottish Pelagic Fishermen’s Association SSB* Spawning Stock Biomass SSFA Shetland Salmon Farmers Association SSGA Scottish Salmon Growers Association SSMG Scottish Shellfish Marketing Group SSSI* Site of Special Scientific Interest STECF* Scientific.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 19 SFC* Sea Fisheries Committee SFF Scottish Fishermen’s Federation SFI* Sea Fisheries Inspectorate SFIA Sea Fish Industry Authority now known as Seafish SFPA Scottish Fisheries Protection Agency SIGSOG Special Interest Group of Senior Officers Group (of LGA) SMA* Sensitive Marine Areas (England) SMBA Scottish Marine Biological Association (now SAMS) SMP Shoreline Management Plan (flood defence & coastal protection) SMRU Sea Mammal Research Unit. Environment and Fisheries Department (now SERAD) SOC Southampton Oceanographic Centre.. spp. University of St Andrews SNH Scottish Natural Heritage SNIFFER Scotland & Northern Ireland Forum for Environment Research SOAEFD Scottish Office Agriculture. Technical & Economic Committee on Fisheries (EC) STQ Single Transferable Quota SVPA* Separable Virtual Population Analysis SWFPA Scottish White Fish Producers Association SWFPO South West Fish Producers Organisation TAC* Total Allowable Catch TBT Tri-Butyl Tin – antifouling component in marine paint * Further information is given in the main text of the Glossary 9 .

45 engine power (kW) VMNR Voluntary Marine Nature Reserve VNR Voluntary Nature Reserve VPA* Virtual Population Analysis WDA Welsh Development Agency WDCS Whale & Dolphin Conservation Society WOAD Welsh Office Agriculture Department (now NAWAD) WWF World-Wide Fund for Nature (previously World Wildlife Fund) WWT Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust Y/R Yield Per Recruit YPR Yield Per Recruit Z* Total mortality rate 10 . 1992 UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 20 UK The United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland UKBAP* UK Biodiversity Action Plan UKBG UK Biodiversity Group UKDMAP United Kingdom Digital Marine Atlas Project UKOOA UK Offshore Operators’ Association UN United Nations UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment & Development the ‘World Summit’ or Rio Conference. Cultural & Scientific Organisation VCO Voluntary Conservation Organisation VCU* Vessel Capacity Units [length (m) x breadth (m)] + 0.

............ Balanus spp Elminius modestus Semibalanus balanoides Bass ..............................................................Modiolus modiolus Lamprey .......................................................................................................................................................Platichthys flesus Fulmar ............................................................................................ Solea solea Eel............................ Tursiops truncatus common ........ Scylliorhinuscanicula greater spotted ............................................................................................ Molva dypterigia Blue whiting . Micromesistius poutassou Cockles ... Cerastoderma edule Cod ......................... Anguilla anguilla Flounder ..Clupea harengus Horse mussel ....... Sepia officinalis Dogfish.. edible/brown ......................................... Maia squinado velvet/swimming .................................................................................... Petromyzon marinus Limpet ................. Melanogrammus aeglefinus Hake ........... European ........ Necora (Liocarcinus) puber Cuttlefish ..........................................................Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 21 Animals Named in Glossary Common Name Scientific Name Barnacle .. Scylliorhinus stellaris Dolphin.................................................. Dicentrachus labrax Black fish ... lesser spotted............................................. bottle-nose .................... Merluccius merluccius Herring ...................................................................................................... Delphinus delphis Dover sole ................... Gadus morhua Cold water coral ...................... Lophelia pertusa Crab....... Centrolophus niger Blue ling ........................................... Cancer pagurus spider ..............Fulmarus glacialis Haddock ....................... Patella vulgata 11 ........................................................

........................................................... native/European ....... Liza aurata thin lipped ................. budegassa Mullet................................... Mullus surmuletus golden ................. Homarus gammarus Lophelia – a deep water coral ...................................................................) ................ Lutra lutra Oyster.......... lesser (northerly sp.................... Phocoena phocoena Pout whiting or bib .................... Scomber scombrus Maerl or calcified seaweed ................... Liza ramada thick lipped .... Lithothamnion spp................................................. common/harbour ........................ Lophelia pertusa Lugworm .................... Trisopterus esmarkii Octopus.......... Arenicola spp...................Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 22 Lobster ............. Pollachius pollachius Porpoise...............Sardina pilchardus Plaice .............. Chelon labrosus Mussel .........Mytilus edulis Nephrops – Dublin Bay Prawn ............... white .. Mackerel ..................... L............ Raja clavata 12 .......................................... Lophius piscatorius black .................................................................. red ...................... Eledone cirrhosa common (southerly sp.................................................... Ostrea edulis Petrels .............. Hoplostethus atlanticus Otter ........................... Phymotolithon calcareum Megrim .. Octopus vulgaris Orange roughy ...................................................... Pleuronectes platessa Pollack ...........Nephrops norvegicus – Langoustine – Norway Lobster – ‘Prawns’ – Scampi Norway pout ..................... Hydrobatidae Pilchard ....) ................................................. Trisopterus luscus Ray....................................... Raja naevus Ray................Raja brachyura cuckoo ..................... blonde ......................... thornback (roker) ... Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis Monkfish (anglerfish).................................................

............................................ basking .................................................Testudinata 13 ................................................................ Alosa alosa twaite .................. Cetorhinus maximus blue ...................................................................................................... Sabellaria alveolata Sabellaria spinulosa Roundnose grenadier . Acipenser sturio Swordfish .............. Atlantic .................. common . brown .... migratory or brown ... & Ensis spp......................... Lamna nasus Shrimp.. queen .....................Squalus acanthias Sprat ......... Sturgeon......................... European ......................... Raja batis long-nose ..................Salmo salar Sandeels .Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 23 Razorfish .......................... Raja oxyrhincus Spur dog ........................... Pecten maximus Scallops........................... Coryphaenoides rupestris Sailfish ................................ Red fish ................ Istiphorus albicans Saithe (coley) ......................Loligo spp.............................Sprattus sprattus Squid ....................... sea............................ edible ....................................... Alosa fallax Shark......................... Sea urchin..................................................... king ................. allis .............................. Xiphias gladius Trout............................................................ Solenacea eg Solen spp.............. Chlamys spp.................... Alloteuthis spp. common ....................................................................................... Crangon crangon pink .................................................... Pandalus montagui Skate...... Pollachius virens Salmon................ Salmo trutta Turbot ........ Halichoerus grypus Shad............ Echinus esculentus Seal.... Ammodytidae Scallops..Prionace glauca porbeagle ..............Scophthalmus rhombus Turtles .......................................................... Phoca vitulina grey ............... Sebastes marinus Reef-building tube worms ..............................

............................. baleen .................................. Physeter catodon Whelk .................... Odobenus rosmarus Whales...................................................................... eg Orcinus orca sperm .. Buccinum undatum Whiting ............................................... Thunnus spp.......................... Merlangius merlangus Winkle ............................. Walrus .............................................. killer .............. Littorina spp................. 14 ........ eg Balaenoptera spp...Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 24 Tuna ....... toothed.......

.................................. Walrus 15 ....................................... Haddock Merluccius merluccius ............................... Dublin Bay prawn Langoustines Nephrops Norway Lobster Scampi Odobenus rosmarus ......Horse mussel Molva dypterigia .......... Queen Scallop Clupea harengus ..... Roundnose grenadier Fulmarus glacialis ............Grey seal Homarus gammarus ................................................................ Monkfish Melanogrammus aeglefinus ..............Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 25 Scientific Name Common Name Arenicola spp.... Basking shark Chlamys spp........ edible... brown Centrolophus niger ...................... budegassa ...... Hake Micromesistius poutassou......... Lobster Hoplostethus atlanticus ..................... Cod Halichoerus grypus ..... Cockles Cetorhinus maximus ..Maerl or calcified seaweed Phymotolithon calcareum Lophelia pertusa . Crab. Lugworm Cancer pagurus ................................ .................... Fulmar Gadus morhua ..................................................................................................................................Blue ling Mytilus edulis ...... .... ............................ Cold water coral Lophius piscatorius .................................................................................................................. Orange roughy Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis ............... Mussel Nephrops norvegicus ... Black Fish Cerastoderma ....................... Megrim Lithothamnion spp..................................................................................................... Herring Coryphaenoides rupestris ...... Blue whiting Modolius modolius ..................... Anglerfish or L.........

......................................... Sea trout Sardina pilchardus ............................................................... Plaice Raja brachyura .... Dover sole Trisopterus esmarkii ..... Mackerel Squalus acanthias ...... Common seal Phocoena phocoena .. Norway pout Trisopterus luscus .................Limpets Pecten maximus ................. Spur dog Scylliorhinus canicula .Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 26 Ostrea edulis .................... Common or harbour porpoise Pleuronectes platessa ........... Cuckoo ray Sabellaria alveolata ...... Lesser spotted dogfish Scylliorhinus stellaris .................Native oyster Patella vulgata ............................................. Pout whiting or bib 16 ......................................................... Reef building tube worms Sabellaria spinulosa Salmo salar ....................... Red fish Solea solea . Thornback ray or roker Raja naevus ....................................................................... Greater spotted dogfish Sebastes marinus ......................................................................................... Blonde ray Raja clavata .................................................................................................................................................................... King scallop Phoca vitulina ........................................................ Salmon Salmo trutta ...... Pilchard Scomber scombrus ......

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 27 17 .

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 28 18 .

working groups and formulating ICES advice to the fisheries commissions abyss – great depth. in Rio de Janeiro. 3). from the seabed. typically taken to (Fig. ACME – the ICES Advisory access rights – authorisation granted Committee on the Marine Environment by the coastal state for others to fish responsible for reviewing scientific within the coastal state’s fishery limits . miles of EU coastal state baselines and vice versa. Some states have the acquis communitaire – all ‘historic right’ to fish within specified European Union (EU) legislation that is sections of the UK 6-12 mile fishery adopted by states as part of their limits. be depths greater than 2000 m (Fig. accession to the EU. 1992. (Fig.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 29 Glossary A abiotic – anything that is non-living. the ‘Earth development and the environment Summit’. II-group them with the appropriate gear. etc. 1). assessments undertaken by ICES eg benthos. aspects of marine environmental Access may be granted free of charge management other than fishery or licensing fees can be levied by the management (see ACFM). I-group. The EU negotiates formulated for various international with third countries allowing them commissions. The ICES convention is to allocate all marine fish a notional birth date of ACFA – the Advisory Committee on 1 January. Committee on Fisheries Management responsible for reviewing stock air lift – a system for lifting material. 2). eg OSPAR and HelCom access to fish between 12 and 200 (Fig. Advice is competent authority. accessibility – the condition where age group or class – all the fish in fish occupy a position that enables a species’ population that are of the fishermen to approach and capture same age. Many organisations and UK councils are developing and participating in ACFM – the ICES Advisory ‘Local Agenda 21’programmes. 3). Fisheries and Aquaculture: a committee of (EC) DG Fisheries that Agenda 21 – an environmental includes representatives from the management programme for the 21st fishing and aquaculture industries as century developed at the UN well as non-governmental Conference on Environment and organisations with interests in Development (UNCED). A flexible 19 . eg 0-group.

ICES and STEFC are advisory only. 22 .Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 30 Figure 2: The fisheries management framework in Europe and the north-east Atlantic.

the 21 . dredge head. eg piers. also introduced species and non- native species. fishery enhancement. at any stage of the tidal in the water and suffocation of many cycle. Anoxia algal blooms – all phytoplankton occurs most frequently in static water goes through an annual cycle of bodies or ones that have very low abundance. shellfish and seaweed. alien species – a non-established. As the air rises and expands it forces water from the top of anadromous – fish that spawn in the pipe and is replaced by water freshwater but spend a part of their life moving rapidly into the dredge head. and their artificial reef – any man-made subsequent collapse. Bonn Convention focusing on the anacat – fish that live part of their life conservation of small Cetacea. anadromous (eg salmon) and Compressed air is released into the catadromous (eg eels). introduced species that is incapable of fisheries undertaken in inshore waters establishing a self-sustaining or self. and the associated benthos are anoxia – the lack of oxygen in an then lifted up the pipe to the surface. Some algal species are multitude of purposes. It is caused by either algae – marine plants that include the abnormally high production rates macro-algae. material resulting in a high biochemical oxygen demand. enrichment (eutrophication) . eels and shads. eg shipwrecks. eg salmon. from small boats using traditional or propagating population in the new basic methods with relatively few area without human interference. or partially significant depletion of oxygen content submerged. and the microscopic algae algal blooms) or where there are high known as phytoplankton and concentrations of decaying biological phytobenthos . an annex of the ASP. mud. It may be placed by design for a species. The spring bloom is the circulation rates. normal increase in abundance associated with increasing day length. from ‘dredge head’ on the seabed.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 31 pipe passes from the surface to a seawater. or by chance.) ASCOBANS – the international Agreement on Small Cetaceans of the amnesic shellfish poisoning – see Baltic and North Sea. (HAB) . jetties. and vice versa. associated with ‘harmful algal blooms’ coastal defence. artisanal fisheries – typically. environment. commonly known as relative to the oxygen supply (eg see seaweed. may be associated with nutrient fish. aquaculture – the artificial rearing Abnormal increases in abundance that and husbandry of aquatic organisms. at sea. in freshwater and the remainder in ASP – amnesic shellfish poisoning. See This disturbs the seabed sand and also catadromous and diadromous. can result in structure that is submerged. (See technical aids.

22 .Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 32 Figure 3: An outline of ICES structure and the distribution (1999) of working (WG) and study groups (SG) that contribute to the formulation of ICES advice.

Some are legal. usually on the associated with a particular outside. The also use worms and soft-shelled baseline is normally mean low water (‘peeler’) crabs. eg May – December inclusive.) mg/100 g shellfish flesh commercial harvesting and sale is prohibited.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 33 loss of short-term memory resulting comparing their attributes by from eating bivalve molluscan shellfish standardised procedures. coastal and estuary sites around the ballast water – water carried in coast of England and Wales in which bilges. 6. Similarly. eg Pseudonitzschia sp. chafers are illegal as they inhibit mesh selection. Some areas are are not fully laden with normal cargo. 2) The that have accumulated toxins (domoic evaluation of the likely impact of a acid) from certain diatoms in the development on the environment (as in phytoplankton. crab pots and 200 nautical miles) and the are baited with fish. (See When toxins are detected above 20 also stock assessment . 12 fishing gear to attract fish. or animals and/or plants that are additions to a trawl . environmental impact assessment. season. biotopes and species in an area and B bait – any organism. ASSI – see SSSI. 23 . tanks or the holds of cargo fishing for bass from boats is either vessels to enhance stability when they prohibited or restricted. weights must not assessment – 1) the evaluation of be attached to a cod-end as they serve importance through the orderly to close the cod-end meshes and gathering of information about prevent the escape of undersize fish . fishery limits (3. gathering benthic species buried bass nursery area – 37 designated deeply in sand or mud. restricted throughout the year but the majority are subject to a closed BAP – see UKBAP. but it can be measured from a ‘bay closing line’ where the bay’s headlands bait boat – boats that fish primarily are separated by less than 24 nautical to gather bait for use in other fisheries. long-lines are exclusive economic zone (EEZ – 200 baited with fish or molluscs. that is attached to Territorial Sea. eg chafers environment and can be used as an attached to the underside of the cod- identifying characteristic of that end to reduce wear but top-side environment. anglers nautical miles) are measured. assemblage – a mixed grouping of attachments – modifications of. but usually baselines – the point from which the animal in origin. miles (2 x 12 nautical miles of baitpump – a suction system for Territorial Sea ).

of European Wildlife and Natural ends of the net.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 34 Figure 4: The main parts of a heavy beam trawl (left) with a chain matrix or ‘mat’ (after Nédélec. on seabed habitats. deep. 4). 1996) and details of the trawl head and beam from a lightweight (shrimp) trawl (after Graham. and all vertebrates and is binding on Each end of the beam is attached to all signatories. part of an ecosystem. The convention beam trawl – a bottom trawl that is offers protection to plants. terrestrial. which includes the UK. typically depths between 200 and invertebrate animals that live in or and 1000 m depth. 24 . intertidal zone. invertebrates kept open laterally by a rigid beam. high (Fig.75m living. the apex of a roughly triangular metal biocoenosis – the biological. and the ecological complexes of which plants – the benthos and habitats they are part. biodiversity – the variability among belly – the under-part of a bottom living organisms from all sources trawl that is in contact with the seabed including. 1956) bathypelagic – see Fig 1. ie ‘trawl head’ or ‘shoe’ ca 0. marine and other aquatic ecosystems benthic – a description for animals. while fishing. among others. this includes diversity associated with the seabed (Fig. within species and ecosystems (CBD 1992).1).5-0. including the beach seine – a light-weight. encircling net deployed parallel to the Bern Convention – the Council of shore and then drawn in to the beach Europe Convention on the Protection by long ropes attached to the wing. mid benthos – all plants ( phytobenthos) water. Habitats (Bern 1979).

Birds Directive – the EU Directive quotas. Also referred to as the standing stock . distinctive biological the (marine) Palaearctic Region. and their habitats . biome – a term generally applied to It can be applied to many fossilised large-scale. including the horse biosphere – that part of the Earth’s mussel Modiolus modiolus. forests. animal communities with common characteristics. bioturbation – the disturbance or biological conservation reworking of seabed sediments by the measures – fishery management animals that live or feed on or in the measures that are aimed at a particular sediment. communities.) birds and the habitats of listed species. closed areas. At one level the marine normally used to describe living environment might be viewed as a structures such as those created by the single biome but UK sub-tidal kelp cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. fishery biological interactions . – major subdivisions of the Earth’s biota – any living organisms. for example. Lophelia pertusa) or reef. The smallest unit of a habitat that can be delineated bioherm – a build up of biogenic conveniently and is characterised by material in one place to produce a the community of plants and animals mound (eg the cold-water coral living there.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 35 Biodiversity Convention – the UN biological reference points – see Convention on Biodiversity signed at limit reference points and safe the UNCED ‘Earth Summit’ in Rio de biological limits. Janeiro 1992 to safeguard the total variety of animals. plants and all other biomass – the total weight of living living matter on Earth. species or stock of fish. either by species or all species biodiversity . combined. eg minimum landing sizes (MLS). both surface encompassing plant and animals and plants. The UK falls within the biotope – the physical habitat with its NE Atlantic (Iberia – Norway) part of associated. bivalves – molluscs with two hinged shells that encase the soft parts of the 25 . such as chalk cliffs. biogenic reef – any structure that has been formed from living material. but is communities. and molluscs. terrestrial botanic structures. environment that is occupied by living biogeographic zones or regions organisms. could also be colonial worms such as Sabellaria spp described as a biome. ie the matter. (See also technical (79/409/ EEC) seeks to protect all wild conservation measures . rather than the method of on the Conservation of Wild Birds fishing. in particular through the designation of biological interactions – see special protection areas (SPA).

broodstock – the mature animals in Agreements reached under the 26 . oysters convention include ASCOBANS.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 36 Figure 5: The main parts of a demersal trawl (after Butcher 1980) animal. eg cockles.5) common name for a deep water shark: that is towed across the seabed rather Centrolophus niger. (SSB) necessary to support a fishery that would produce the maximum bridle (sweep) – the wires that sustainable yield (MSY) . outer) on Migratory Species of Wild Animals ends of the trawl (Fig.5). appropriate authority as required by EU fishery regulations. of the swept area or track from which cycle takes them across international fish can be caught. mussels. doors and thereby increase the width particularly those species whose life. and jurisdictional boundaries. bottom fishing gear – any fishing black-fish – fish that are landed in gear that is operational when in commercial quantities without being contact with the seabed but usually recorded in vessels’ fishing log books applied to trawls . or Bonn Convention – the Convention ‘otter boards’. Also the bottom trawl – a trawl net (Fig. Bmsy – the spawning stock biomass Bpa – see limit reference points . include both beam trawls and otter trawls. than through mid water. They are also referred to as a demersal trawls and Blim – see limit reference points . They help to (Bonn 1979) seeks to co-ordinate the increase the distance between the conservation of migratory species. etc. to the wing (front. connect an otter trawl ’s doors. dredges and some or without being declared to the seine nets.

prawns and brought onto the deck or fishing shrimps. a term catch. carrying capacity – the maximum catch per unit of effort – CPUE. all buffer zone – a transition zone have the power to introduce and around a protected (or closed) area in enforce byelaws that can have a which some activities may be bearing on the marine environment restricted but not prohibited. byssus – a tough. investment through the continual addition of technical aids such as deck catadromous – species of fish that handling machinery and electronic spawn at sea but spend a large part of navigation and fish-finding aids on the their life in freshwaters. ie landings plus discards. narrow that a given ecosystem.) more commonly applied to aquaculture than to wild populations byelaw – legislation introduced at a where the term spawning stock local level to meet a specific need. eg the bridge. enhance the benefits to be gained from the protected area. thread-like structure by which mussels attach themselves to by-catch – the catch of non-target the substratum . They are a environment or abundance of the common feature along the outer resource. station. By-catch of commercial mussel’s foot. C canyons – steep sided. animal and plant. sonar etc.) carapace – the hard shell forming the catch (C) – the total quantity of fish back of a crab and the front half that is retained by fishing gear and (thorax) of lobsters. committees (SFC) and ports and harbour authorities. environment valleys that are typically found running or habitat can sustain without a down the slope from the continental deterioration in the quality of the shelf towards the abyss.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 37 a population that will breed and (See also discards and incidental generate future year classes. to and its resources. anadromous and diadromous. eg multiple echo-sounders. for example. in the capital stuffing – high levels of ecosystem or habitat. European eel and flounder. The byssus is species and undersized fish of the generated by a gland at the base of the target species . ‘Total carrying capacity’ is margins of the Celtic Sea. or all 27 . sea fisheries applied. species may be retained or discarded along with non-commercial by-catch. biomass (SSB) is more generally Local authorities. number or biomass of a given species the quantity of a given species. (See also RoxAnn. applied to the sum of all species combined. DGPS.

palourdes. rough ground to minimise the amount catchability ( q) – the fraction of a of stone entering the trawl.) which fishing for a particular species. porpoises and whales. that is taken from chain mat or matrix – an inter- the sea (or landed – see LPUE) for each linked network of lateral and unit of effort (eg days at sea. or fishing for one or more chafer – a sheet of material. molluscs that live buried in the seabed. 1993. fish stock that is caught by a defined charismatic species – a species unit of fishing effort (Ricker 1975). particularly beneath (See Rogers 1997. (‘Top-side chafers’are an closed seasons – a period during illegal attachment . demersal trawls . 6). cuttlefish and octopus. to reduce wear and tear (Fig. eight or ten sucker-bearing tentacles clam – a colloquial name for bivalve around the mouth. species abundance in the area of a 4). hours longitudinal tickler chains across the trawling etc) that is expended in its mouth of a beam trawl between trawl capture. eg cockles. but typically those species that can Cetacea – marine mammals that give close the two shells completely. that is readily recognised.) the cod-end. It provides a simple index of heads (‘shoes’) and groundrope (Fig. the legal title for the European chilled seawater tanks – see CSW. 1). frequently catch rate – see catch per unit of with widespread popular appeal. eg dolphins. closed area – an area within which (For further information see References fishing by one or more methods of – EC Current.) fishing. attached to the underside of closed or be subject to closed seasons. Commission (EC) (Fig. 2 & 4). Mats are fitted when trawling on fishery. on a (conservation) campaign or used CEC – the Commission of the as a logo. Such areas may be permanently netting. eg the Marine Conservation European Communities (sic): since Society dolphin or WWF panda. including squid. including all marine fisheries within 200 miles of member states’ baselines. between the species. birth at sea. climax community – the ‘final’ CFP – the Common Fisheries Policy of community or assemblage of species in a particular habitat after progressing the European Union (as revised in: through a process of colonisation by Council Regulation 3760/92). 5). Cephalopoda – molluscs that bear circalittoral – see sublittoral (Fig. They are sometimes used to focus attention effort . is 28 . is prohibited (see Fig. often old species of fish.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 38 species combined. often within a specified area. It first one then a succession of species provides the framework for the until a state of equilibrium is reached management of the EU fishery sector.

(Courtesy of CEFAS. 6 miles – the area covered by national legislation and local byelaws. Pragmatically. as ‘the surface water on the landward side of a line every point of which is at coastal zone management – a distance of one nautical mile on the CZM. fisheries. but there is no universally coastal fisheries – see inshore recognised definition for the coastal zone (eg see Harden Jones 1994). salmon coastal zone – the space in which (Salmo salar).Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 39 Figure 6: Examples of some closed areas around the UK within which fishing is restricted as a stock conservation measure. eg the and which exercises jurisdiction over Territorial Sea (national legislation). or that sea area. Lowestoft. and native oysters environments influence the marine (Ostrea edulis) may only be taken in environment and vice versa (Hiscock UK waters at certain times of year. migratory (sea) trout land-based activities and terrestrial (Salmo trutta). see ICZM. For example. seaward side from the nearest point of Cod Boxes – areas of the Irish and the baseline from which the breadth of North Sea within which fishing for cod the territorial waters is measured’. and the coastal waters – are defined in the waters within which only UK (draft) EU Water Framework Directive registered vessels may fish. 29 . the seaward boundary coastal state – the country off to the coastal zone is usually set by the whose coastline an area of sea occurs limits of enabling legislation. Crown Copyright) prohibited. 1996).

and from which it is Com Doc – see Communication. back end of a a fishery. through regulations that may be necessary to 30 . Only in exceptional approximation to virtual population circumstances can these rights be analysis (VPA). to the point where it no longer generates sufficient recruits to support cod-end – the narrow. commercial fisheries – any fishery cod equivalent tonnage – a that is undertaken for financial gain conversion factor that can be applied but particularly one that generates to any species subject to TAC sufficient revenue to contribute a management and national quotas. Salmonella. These rights include different species. of all. eg see Several with which to construct fish population and Regulating Orders . facilitate the original CFP quota common law right – Magna Carta negotiations and continues as the basis (1215) guarantees the rights of the upon which nations exchange quota in common man.0).Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 40 is prohibited. a mathematical model reduced or amended. ie one individual but are for the benefit all fish spawned in the same year. including fish in cohort analysis – a simplified tidal waters. that of cod (= 1. eg ferae naturae. authority that has the statutory powers collapsed stock – the decline in to introduce byelaws or other spawning stock biomass (SSB) . eg together in a particular place. life-tables as a basis for assessing the current status of a stock and Communication – a formal forecasting the probable consequences document (Com Doc) adopted by the of adopting various fishery European Union outlining the management options. eg coliform bacteria – rod shaped proposals for new fishery management bacteria. unhindered access to the ‘commons’ – cohort – all the fish. the right to take wild animals. Consumption of animals and plants that is found living contaminated bivalve molluscs. It significant proportion of the total equates each species’ market value to income of those engaged in the fishery. diarrhoea but the shellfish are readily competent authority – an purified of bacteria by depuration. during the spawning season. trawl into which the catch is funnelled while towing. eg Escherichia coli and measures. Commission’s views. released after hauling. or animals in a assets and benefits that belong to no population that are of the same age. causes. habitat oysters and mussels. intentions. whose presence in coastal waters are indicative of faecal community – the grouping of pollution. and other fishing sustained fishing pressure or natural restricted. The concept was introduced during the 1970s to Commission – see CEC and EC. or proposals on a particular subject. can cause or environment .

and The Parliament . continental shelf – the area of Court of First Instance – a part of seabed extending from the shoreline to the European Court of Justice that a depth of about 200 m or where the deals with relatively simple matters slope increases sharply to abyssal and member states’ challenges or legal depths (Fig. 2). government departments. &c. (This should not be Habitats and Species Directive . It serves to ensure that Directive in the UK. The Regulation 33 of the Conservation Council is composed of one minister Regulations to ensure that a European of each member state who is site maintains a favourable authorised to speak for their conservation status . France) Institutions of the European Union in which 40 member states discuss (EU). The court can impose fines 31 . Council of activities but with no significant Ministers. depending on the legal Conservation (Natural Habitats. ie the environment as a result of human Commission (EC) . an EU institution). financial management of the EU.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 41 meet national obligations towards EU agreements and conventions. but particularly for the Bern Convention . government. and its development funds.) of the European Union (EU) is one of the main Institutions of the European conservation objective – one or Union. the Conservation Regulations – The Council adopts legislation on its own Conservation (Natural Habitats. Court of Justice and the adverse effects (GESAMP).) or jointly with the European Regulations (1994). Council of Europe – a non. On the basis of Commission (EC) proposals. It is the final arbiter in disputes issues of mutual interest or concern.) base (Fig. ports and harbour authorities. ministers.1). &c. European Parliament . actions against the EC. eg the legislation. are the Statutory Instruments Court of Auditors – is the (1994/2716) and (1995/380) setting out Institution of the European Union (EU) the powers and responsibilities of responsible for financial control and competent and relevant authorities to auditing the accounts of the EU and its implement the Habitats & Species Institutions. It is the principal decision- more measurable or otherwise making body of the EU with both definable objectives required under executive and legislative powers. (See Council of Ministers – or Council Conservation Regulations . arising under the EU Treaties and Action is implemented through legislation. sea fisheries committees (SFC) . is sound and contaminant – the increased not fraudulent. (Northern Ireland) Regulations (1995). eg confused with the European Council. It reports to the four presence of a substance in the other main Institutions. Court of Justice – one of the main legislative forum (Strasbourg.

A very high proportion of the engages primarily in fishing with plankton.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 42 on member states. a vessel must be dahn – a small. The mesopelagic (ca 400 - decommissioning – the formal 1000 m depth) and bathypelagic procedure for removing a vessel from (>1000 m) species are not exploited the fishing register and reducing the commercially by EU registered vessels. but cause irreversible changes or be see ICZM. water and benthopelagic species (Fig. A reduction in roundnose grenadiers. lobsters and crabber – a fishing vessel that crawfish. It is made up of 15 impossible to replace in human judges and 9 advocates-general who timescales. CSW – chilled seawater tanks. In the UK. total tonnage of vessels or vessel Among the more commercially capacity units (VCU) engaged in important benthopelagic species are commercial fishing. A potential management than 400 m depth. Commercial CPUE – see catch per unit of effort . species include: shrimps. the loss of which could CZM – coastal zone management. are appointed for a period of 6 years following agreement between member Crustacea – invertebrates with a states’ governments. fleet size/capacity is a requirement of orange roughy – and the angler or 32 . the multi-annual guidance programme (MAGP). deep-water specie s – species that days at sea – a means of measuring are normally found in waters greater fishing effort . or lobster pot. environment. which many pelagic fish species feed. creel – an alternative name for a crab are also Crustacea.1). flagged buoy attached physically scrapped to qualify for a to the end of fixed gear to mark its decommissioning grant. They form three measure to limit fishing effort by main categories: mesopelagic and restricting the number of days per bathypelagic species that live in mid- month or year each vessel may fish. shell and many legs that are used for walking or swimming. position. D Danish seine – see demersal seine. crabs. the fish critical environmental capital – holds on (pelagic) fishing vessels are that part. blue ling. or parts of the environment flooded and the waters cooled to a that is fundamental to the well being of temperature that is less than ambient species and habitats within the but is not fully refrigerated (see RSW). particularly that part upon pots/creels for crabs and lobsters. prawns (eg Nephrops).

prohibited. When the two ends of the rope derogation – a variation to. For example. or department. 5). or are hauled. a long rope that is shot in a wide circle. in the European Commission (EC) that has depleted stock – the decline in lead responsibility for EU spawning stock biomass (SSB) to a environmental policy. General. cod. The animals for a prescribed period in term also applies to fishing gear that is circulating seawater that is worked on the seabed (Fig. example. haddock. During the process. the bivalve molluscs by holding the live seabed. Conversely. demersal seine – a trawl-shaped net the bivalves purge their guts of food with extended wing ends each side of and any coliform bacteria that may the net mouth. These processes contribute to the determination of environmental DG Environment – the Directorate- carrying capacity . the mortality rate in a designated port – one of 31 UK nursery area may increase as the fishing ports where UK registered number of juvenile fish in the nursery fishing vessels over 20 m in length increases (density-dependent must land their catch unless they make mortality). or in close proximity to. they gradually draw the temporary exemption from. a derogation might community of species by processes be granted for a temporary or local whose effects are proportional to the prohibition to be imposed in an abundance of the population. particularly light-weight beam trawl – density dependence -–the sometimes known locally as ‘shank regulation of a population or nets’. including level that is approaching. Similarly. the growth rate their landings in another EU state (eg may decrease as the number of fish. ‘klondiking’.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 43 monk-fish that is also found in coastal collapse. marine nature conservation – formerly. eg flatfish. It is set in the middle of have collected there. continuously sterilized. the use of beam trawls might be prohibited in an demersal trawl – a net that is towed area but there are derogations for on the seabed rather than through mid shrimp trawlers which use a water (Fig. includes specific locations for increases (density-dependent growth). see flag ship). ) demersal – species of fish that live depuration – the purification of on. Designated port status and hence competition for food. necessarily reached the point of 33 . eg by an ultra- violet light source.1). (See also limit reference waters (UKBG 1999). EU ropes and wing ends together and herd legislation which enables an activity to the fish towards the net and the cod. the lowest historic record but has not DG XI. or is below. be undertaken that would otherwise be end. For otherwise ‘open’ area. points and safe biological limits.

1998) 34 . The details vary according to the subject being discussed (after Maughan.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 44 Figure 7: An outline of the procedure for agreeing EU laws.

DGPS – differential global positioning eg clams. DG Fisheries holds variety of ‘otter boards’ that are ‘absolute competence’ with respect to attached to trawlers’warps (towing all aspects of fishery conservation and wires). DG XIV – see DG Fisheries. but management within the European horizontally. If a temporary illness caused by eating member state fails to meet its bivalve molluscan shellfish that have obligations under EU legislation it can accumulated toxins from be reported to the EU Court of Justice . (See also DSP are not permitted for sale. states to decide how it should meet its obligations (eg primary legislation. either at the surface or lower in clearly defined target species . DSP – diarrhetic shellfish poisoning: a Statutory Instrument . or other living deliberate disposal of catch.) dumping – a colloquial term for the discards – any fish. scallops. eg a the water column. 7). system: a satellite navigation system Boats tow groups – ‘gangs’ – of with an accuracy that can be better dredges. saltwater. and a their life in freshwater and part in heavily reinforced or chain link bag. coastal waters for herring and related species (eg pilchards) and on the high Directive – EU legislation that is seas for migratory fish such as salmon binding but leaves individual member and tunas. dredging – a method for catching molluscs that live on or in the sea bed. Pelagic fish are pelagic fishing vessel may target trapped when they try to swim through herring or mackerel but invariably in them but are too big and become different areas and at different times of wedged. byelaw). Shellfish containing (EC) . netting that hang vertically in the directed fishery – a fishery with a water.) in the most probably by the Commission phytoplankton. They are widely used in UK year. dinoflagellates (Dinophysis spp. They work like a kite. a metre in width. that is not General or department of the European retained but returned to the sea – alive Commission (EC) with lead or dead. Regulation. matter caught when fishing. They are made of a robust steel frame.) diarrhetic shellfish poisoning – drift nets – curtains or sheets of see DSP. responsibility for EU fishery policy . pulling the wings of the Union (EU) (Fig. 5). eg anadromous salmon and (See also French dredge and catadromous eels. often with a toothed diadromous – fish that spend part of bar across the lower edge. each dredge rarely more than than ± 5 m. native oysters. 2). It implies 35 .Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 45 DG Fisheries – the Directorate. Newhaven dredge. and fined (Fig. trawl out to the side and holding it DG XI – see DG Environment open laterally (Fig. doors – a generic name for a wide formerly DG XIV.

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 46

a scale rather greater than discarding with, for example, the disposal
and usually refers to fish that would (dumping) of dredge spoil at sea which
normally be landed for sale. The is an activity licensed by MAFF under
causes of dumping can be market FEPA (Food and Environment
saturation, closure of quotas and high- Protection Act 1985).]
grading. [This should not be confused

EC – the European Commission or Parliament .
strictly, the Commission of the ecdysis – see moulting.
European Communities (CEC) , one of
the main Institutions of the European echo-sounder – an instrument
Union (EU) (Fig. 2 & 7). A Commission mounted in a ship’s hull that generates
President leads a body of 20 a pressure wave and records the
Commissioners, each nominated by energy reflected back from the seabed
their government: two each from or any object in the water column. It
France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the records depth or indicates the presence
UK, and one from each of the ten of particles in the water column,
other member states, but ratified by the including fish. Echo-sounders are also
European Parliament , to which the attached to mid-water trawls to
Commission is answerable. Each monitor their position in the water
Commissioner has responsibility for column and the catch as it enters the
one or more of the 24 Directorates- net. Steerable, hull-mounted echo-
General, eg DG Fisheries (Fig. 2) and sounders (sonar) are used to search
DG Environment . The Commission ahead or around a ship for fish shoals.
draws its powers from the European
Treaties (eg Treaty on European Union, ecological quality (EcoQ) – an
EC Treaty); it formulates and overall expression of the structure and
implements EU legislation and is function of the (aquatic) systems,
‘guardian’ of the Treaties. About taking into account the biological
15,000 civil servants work in support community and natural physiographic,
of the Commission. geographic and climatic factors as well
as physical and chemical factors
EC Decision – a legal instrument of including those from human activities
the European Union (EU). Decisions (OSPAR).
can be formal responses by the
Commission to a query or challenge ecological quality objective
on the meaning or interpretation of a (EcoQO) – the desired level of the
Treaty, eg the Treaty of Rome or ecological quality (EcoQ) relative to
Maastricht Treaty, or a step in the predetermined reference levels
initiation of new legislation (Fig. 7) by (OSPAR). (See also EcoQO reference
the Council of Ministers or European level.)


Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 47

ecologically significant habitat – ecotone – a narrow and fairly sharply
is a habitat of importance for the wider defined transition zone between two or
ecological processes, functions and more communities (Allaby 1998); eg
species it supports. the different plankton communities
that occur on opposite sides of front s.
ecologically significant species –
is a species that has a controlling ecotope – the non-living, ie abiotic,
influence on a community, ie a part of an ecosystem.
keystone species.
EEZ – exclusive economic zone; the
ecology – the study of the inter- area of sea (typically 200 nautical
relationships between animals, plants miles from baselines) over which the
and the non-living components of their coastal state claims ownership of all
environment , in their natural economic resources, eg minerals,
surroundings. hydro-carbons and fish. NB The EU
holds ‘absolute competence’ with
EcoQO reference level – the level respect to all fish and fishery matters
of ecological quality objective where within 200 nautical miles of member
the influence of human activities on states’ baselines. The UK Government
the ecosystem is minimal (OSPAR). does not claim an EEZ, but see UK
EcoQ – see ecological quality. waters (Fig.1).

EcoQO – see ecological quality effort (f) – the total quantity of
objective. fishing gear in use for a specific period
of time (Ricker 1975). Effort can be
ecosystem – a discrete unit expressed in a multitude of ways: days
comprising both living and non-living away from port, hours trawling, length
parts; it can range in size from of drift net , number of hooks used,
something as small and ephemeral as and so on. At its most basic, it is the
an intertidal pool, or rather larger, eg total number of boats engaged in a
the North Sea or Earth’s oceans. fishery and/or the number of days they
were fishing.
ecosystem approach – the pursuit
of a simultaneous understanding of the effort control – a system of fishery
dynamics of all the populations in an management that focuses on limiting
ecosystem and their interactions with the quantity of fishing gear or the
each other and their environment. duration of its deployment rather than
on limiting the quantity of catch that
ecosystem management – a can be taken. (See also TAC and
framework for maintaining the quota.)
equilibrium between all the
component parts of an ecosystem EFH – see essential fish habitat.
rather than focusing on individual parts
of the ecosystem, which is the current egg survey – a means of estimating
practice with fishery management. spawning stock biomass (SSB) by
taking plankton samples at regular

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 48

intervals of space and time across the environment or the communities of
target species’ spawning ground and species that live within that
season. The number of fish eggs in the environment.
samples is proportional to SSB.
epifauna – animals that live on the
elasmobranch – fish with a skeleton surface of the seabed or other
of cartilage, eg sharks and rays. (See substratum.
also teleost.)
equilibrium yield ( YE) – the catch
endangered – a species, stock or taken from a fish stock when it is in
population is ‘endangered’ if it is equilibrium with fishing of a given
facing a high risk of extinction in the intensity, ie the fishing activity is not
wild in the near future (IUCN Current). causing the abundance of the stock to
change. This is also known as
endemic – a natural or naturalised
sustainable yield (Ricker 1975). The
population that is normally found in a
year-on-year yield can be in
particular area.
equilibrium with the stock even if
engine capacity or power – is spawning stock biomass SSB is
measured in numerous ways. For depleted.
example, shipyards frequently express escape gap – a gap between the
a fishing vessel’s power in terms of
base and the netting of a crustacean
‘tonnes bollard pull’ or horse power
parlour pot to allow small crabs and
(hp) but EU regulations refer to engine
lobsters to escape. (See also sorting
power in kilowatts (kW).
grid and square mesh).
environment – the physical essential fish habitat (EFH) – any
surroundings and climatic conditions
habitat that is fundamental to the well
that influence the behaviour, growth,
being of populations or communities
abundance and overall performance of
of fish. It may be applied to a habitat
a population or species.
that a species utilises throughout its life
environmental sustainability – or at a particular time, eg spawning,
the control of current and future nursery or feeding areas. The concept
activities to prevent irreversible or was given statutory recognition in the
other significant, long-term change to USA (1998) and now forms part of the
the environment or its dependent US national fishery management
living resources. (See also sustainable programme.
development.) EU – the European Union: a politico-
environmentally sustainable economic association of 15 European
fisheries – fisheries that safeguard the nations: Austria, Belgium, Denmark,
requirements of all animals and plants Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,
within an ecosystem or habitat and do
not cause irreversible or other Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
significant, long-term change to the UK. The Union’s affairs are managed


It has co-decision exploitation pattern – the variation powers with the Council of Ministers in fishing mortality . 2). The Council meets twice (OSPAR & EU Urban Waste Water a year and sets the broad guidelines for Treatment Directive). the eutrophication – the enrichment of Court of Justice and the European water by nutrients causing an Parliament . but its reports can ‘spur the Commission (EC) to Exclusive Economic Zone – see action’ (Weidenfeld & Wessels 1997). accelerated growth of algae and higher forms of plant life to produce an European Council – is made up of undesirable disturbance to the balance the executive head of government of of organisms present in the water and each member state of the European to the quality of the water concerned Union (EU). the Council of Ministers .Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 49 through its main Institutions: the European Union – see EU. 2 & 7).) do national assemblies. There are European Parliament – one of the exclusion zones of 500 m radius main Institutions of the European around all offshore gas and oil Union (EU). Others can be found on elected members of the European military ranges and around historic Parliament (MEP). exploitation rate – the ratio of fish European (marine) site – a caught by fishing (F) to total mortality conservation area designated under the (Z) (Ricker 1975). by age group . It has general powers for supervision of exotic species – see non-native the Commission and it ratifies the species. Habitats Directive (SAC) or the Birds Directive (SPA) . 39 . cannot initiate legislation directly. anchoring. (See also fishable call in the Court of Auditors if it is not stock/biomass. It can reject the EU budget as a whole. the Court of Auditors . (This should not to be confused with exclusion zone – an area within the Council of Europe . is not permitted. fisheries (Fig. (See also closed area. EEZ. appointment of new Commissioners. and often passage. There are 626 directly installations. EU development and activities (Fig. The parliament wreck sites etc.) which fishing. Commission (EC). ) happy with the Commission’s financial management. in a on environmental issues but not for fish stock . as buffer zone and NTZ. exploited stock – any stock of fish alter non-compulsory expenditure not that is subject to commercial fishing specified in EU primary legislation and activity.

factory ship or trawler – a large vessel that takes the catch from other boats. ie through Crustacea and fish to F0. freezing and sometimes. and the specific structure and functions that are when a more exact estimate is not necessary for its long-term possible (Fig. and fishing per unit of time). and the landmark ruling of the Court of Justice conservation status of its typical (ECJ) against the UK government species are similarly stable or concerning flag-ships. favourable conservation status – F 0. It is an approximation to the level of the natural range of the habitat and fishing mortality that will generate the the area that it covers are stable or maximum sustainable yield (FMSY) increasing. The conservation status of a yield-per-recruit (Y/R) curve where the habitat is ‘favourable’ when: slope is 10% of the slope at the origin. introduced legislation that sought to The conservation status of a species is 40 . They have facilities for filleting. registering vessels in the UK. fishing mortality rate (F) is equivalent to the maximum sustainable yield (F msy) and the fauna – all animal life from microscopic benthos and zooplankton point at which the slope of the curve is approximately 10% the slope of F=0. The government increasing.10) mankind. but more fishing against the UK quotas. and processes the catch on board. canning and the production of fish meal and oil. provisions of the European ‘single market’ and that the UK government must pay compensation to the companies that were affected by the UK legislation. They form the focus of klondiking operations most frequently Figure 8: A generalised yield-per-recruit originate from Russia and countries of (YPR) curve showing the point at which the the former Eastern Bloc. maintenance are likely to continue Factortame – the name given to a for the foreseeable future. 8).Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 50 F F – formally. the proportion of the ruled that this was contrary to the population killed each year by fishing.1 – the estimate of fishing mortality a basic requirement of the Habitats (F) that corresponds to a point on the Directive. or fishes itself. the instantaneous rate of block non-UK nationals from fishing mortality (the natural logarithm establishing fishing companies in the of the change in abundance due to UK.1 (See also Fig. The ECJ simply.

be managed (ICCAT). However. in EU legislation the competence’within 200 miles of term ‘stock’ is used to mean a species member states’ baselines and of fish living in a defined sea area. 1986). reduced fishing mortality (F) and the fact that cod will prey on species other fish – taxonomically. and will probably can increase in abundance as there are continue to be. cod fecundity – the number of eggs that abundance can increase. Mollusca and international bodies convened to agree Pisces. including elasmobranchs and teleosts . UK fishery legislation management measures for the cannot be applied directly for the conservation of internationally management or conservation of exploited fish stocks (Fig. but particularly on a long-term basis as a viable those that are influenced by fishing component of its natural habitat. when habitat to maintain its populations trawl activity is directed away from on a long-term basis. the fish stock – scientifically. Commission (NEAFC). retains ‘absolute pool). ‘fish’ are than Nephrops (Brander & Bennett members of the superclass Pisces. fishery conservation – the fishable stock or biomass – that conservation and sustainable use of part of the total biomass that is exploited fish stocks. 2). Conversely. there is a close the species’ natural range is neither relationship between cod (the being reduced nor is it likely to be predator) and Nephrops (the prey) in reduced for the foreseeable future. therefore. activity. fishery management may be subject to commercial falls to the North East Atlantic Fisheries exploitation. For example. the Baltic Sea Fisheries Commission (BSFC).Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 51 ‘favourable’ when: fishery biological interactions – the species’population dynamics any interaction between two or more indicate that it is maintaining itself populations or species. In UK law ‘fish’ are all animals fishery commissions – are classified as Crustacea . When Irish Sea cod are at a low level the Nephrops population there is.) objective of UK and EU fisheries 41 . Beyond species such as edible sea urchins or the 200 mile limit of EU member lugworm even though such species states’ baselines. Thus. (Holden 1994). the Irish Sea. a sufficiently large fewer predators. the represents member states on two are not always synonymous international fishery commissions. cod towards Nephrops. This is due to a female fish produces annually. (See also exploited stock . as represented by the independently of other stocks (cf gene EC (DG Fisheries). a North Atlantic Salmon Conservation population of a species of fish that is Organisation (NASCO) and the isolated from other stocks of the same International Commission for the species and does not interbreed with Conservation of Atlantic Tunas them and can. The EU. It is the principal exploited.

1). nor can it be objective is pursued. but patrolled by vessels of the Scottish very limited.) Only UK registered similarly. Around the coasts of does not diminish the international England and Wales Sea Fisheries right to navigation and free passage). governments (Fig. (There are some. decision other ministers of member states’ making. planning. The Fishery may introduce and enforce national Protection Squadron of the Royal Navy management measures within 12 (RN) operates on behalf of MAFF nautical miles of baselines (the within 200 miles of UK baselines and Territorial Sea ). 2 & 6). ‘discriminatory’. Member states fishery legislation. subject to the approval has the powers to inspect and enforce of DG Fisheries. ie it must not favour one group of fishermen to the Fisheries Council (EU) – the disadvantage of another group. formulation and enforcement of fishery regulations which govern the present fishery limits – the European and future fishing activities in Commission (EC) holds ‘absolute particular to ensure the continued competence’ for all aspects of fishery productivity of the resources (EC management within 200 nautical miles 1999). Member states are responsible for enforcing fishery protection vessel – fishery management measures on their various agencies’ patrol boats that own national fishing fleets and within inspect fishing vessels’ gear and catch their own sector of the 200 mile EU at sea and enforce EU and national fishing limit (Fig. DARD maintains a patrol fishing vessels are permitted to fish boat for operation off the coast of within 6 miles of UK baselines (but this Northern Ireland. All UK The Environment Agency also patrols fishery legislation is subject to within 6 miles of England and Wales’ approval by the EU (DG Fisheries) and baselines enforcing legislation for 42 . of member states’ baselines. fishery management is the must not be in conflict with EU primary method through which the legislation. Committee (SFC) byelaws . half of the UK Territorial Sea (6-12 The waters around Scotland are nautical miles). popular name for the Council of Ministers when the agenda is fishery management – the dominated by fishery matters and integrated process of information fisheries ministers attend rather than gathering. reciprocal arrangements Fishery Protection Agency and for UK vessels. allocation of resources.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 52 legislation. Committee (SFC) boats operate in their There is a body of UK legislation that own districts (within 6 miles of applies only within the 6 mile limit (or baselines) – with the exception of the 3 miles in a few small areas). analysis. Some EU member fishery legislation aboard UK registered states and Norway have historic rights fishing vessels operating in the waters to fish in prescribed areas of the outer of other nations or on the high seas. eg Isles of Scilly SFC whose district is Environment Agency and Sea Fisheries patrolled by the Cornwall SFC boat.

fishing effort – see effort . unit area. forms the lower edge of a drift. eg hours trawling per ICES Rectangle. a motor a dome-shaped yield-per-recruit curve and the value that will produce the trawler is more powerful. Thus. company registered in another EU member state (most frequently the French dredge – a heavyweight scallop dredge in which the tooth bar 43 . flora – all plant life including phytoplankton. (See registered fishing vessels are required also fishery limits and sea fishery to make a minimum number of inspectors . fishing against the UK quota. see ICES Rectangle . Flim – see limit reference points. flag ship – a UK registered fishing vessel. than a sailing maximum sustainable yield (MSY) smack or steam trawler and a purse. a fishing mortality rate – see F. Fpa – see limit reference points . Order fisheries – orders that remove or megrim. phytobenthos and fishing intensity – fishing effort per seaweed. from a fish stock (Fig. fixed gear – any fishing gear that is tangle or trammel net . lightweight form of demersal seine. limit the public. flatfish – bony fish (ie not skates and Fishery Order – a generic term rays) that live on the seabed and have applied to regulations that establish a pigmented upper surface and a pale either Several Order or Regulating or white underside. All UK salmon) and pollution control. anchored or attached in some other foul hooked – a fish that has been way to the seabed so that it does not caught in any hook-and-line fishery drift or move while it is in fishing where the hook is impaled somewhere mode. 8 & 10). fishing power – a relative measure FMSY – the level of fishing mortality (F) of the ability of one vessel or type of gear to catch fish compared to another that corresponds to the peak value on vessel or type of gear. plaice.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 53 migratory species conservation (eg Netherlands or Spain).) visits/landings to UK ports but the majority of flag ships’ catches are fishery or statistical rectangle – landed in their ultimate owners’ states. freezer trawler – a trawler that operated by a UK company but one processes the catch and freezes it at that is a subsidiary of a parent sea. in terms of catching capability. eg Dover sole. gill. bottom set gill nets . fly dragging/seining – a common name for fishing with a fly seine. seiner is more powerful that a footrope – the weighted rope that driftnetter . common-law right to fish. eg crab pots. long-lines and other than through the mouth.

gear restriction – a fishery generation time – the average time management measure that prohibits or taken for an organism to develop from otherwise restricts the use of particular fertilisation through to sexual maturity. haddock. These restrictions are widely small organisms such as phytoplankton adopted by Sea Fisheries Committees or 5-10 years for large. mouth is not spring-loaded. eg from. a different warps.) position by stakes. closed areas and closed seasons. fishing methods in a specified area or This can be as little as a few days for season. pout whiting variations and mutations. held within a and others. genome – the sum of genetic material 44 . in the Welsh Dee. tickler chains. typically funnels may be repeated further down where the thermocline (a steep the net if it is very long. They are most temperature gradient) or halocline commonly used for eel fishing in rivers (salinity gradient) reaches the surface. genetic material. whiting. and contribute to. migratory as a ‘leader’ to the net mouth. These different physical properties. A plain wall biological activity in the vicinity of a of netting several metres long is often front including concentrations of attached to the mouth of the net to act plankton. pollack. fishing G gadoid – fish of the cod family. etc. It has a diving plane across the top of the fyke net – cylindrical nets (ca 0. species – and consequently. plankton feeders. (See also Newhaven hoops and fixed in their fishing dredge. late maturing (SFC) and are often associated with fish such as sharks and rays. eg gene pool – the sum of all the cod.5 m mouth to help force the dredge into diameter) held in shape by a series of the seabed. dredges. populations of the same species. including its saithe (coley). long-line. but occasionally they are used in There is often above-average estuaries and intertidally. Norway pout. gene pool to that of salmon that breed bridles. eg gear – an all-embracing term for salmon in the Scottish Dee are drawn fishing equipment in total or in part. group of organisms that interbreed but form a more or less separate breeding gastropods – snail-like molluscs population (ie stock) from other such as whelks.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 54 across the lower edge of the dredge activity. winkles and limpets. An inverted funnel of netting forms part of the net mouth front – the boundary or boundary to aid fish entering the net but zone between two water masses with hindering attempts to leave.

The swim through the net’s meshes. eg – species associated be referred to as ‘nuisance algal with red tides (including Gonyaulax blooms’. consuming oxygen. front edge of a trawl or sperm before they unite in fertilisation demersal seine (Fig. 45 . contact with the seabed while towing or closing. the has been lost or abandoned. haddock also drift. the difference is that each group of fish (See also Tragedy of the Commons .). As a result. that trap fish by their gill gutted weight – the weight of fish covers – operculum – when they try to with their viscera removed. otherwise ceases to fish. eg weighed down with weed. Such gear stock as a whole is fished at a level can continue to fish until it is retrieved. Significant de-oxygenation can spp) and..Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 55 held in either an individual egg or the lower. where it cannot deliver the maximum destroyed (by time and weather) or sustainable yield (MSY) . tangle and trammel nets . Blooms of collapses and the dead organisms create otherwise harmless algae that have an abnormal increase in biochemical increased to a point where they are oxygen demand (BOD).) etc) and flatfish (eg sole. either in a weight per unit of time. fixed position (eg surface or seabed) or drifting. 4 & 5) and is in to form the genotype.) keeps better if stored in their respective groundrope – the rope that forms condition.) fish are caught before they are able to make their optimum (in terms of ghost fishing – the continued growth) individual contribution to capture of animals by fishing gear that exploited biomass. The instantaneous rate of growth is the natural logarithm of gill nets – curtains of netting that the ratio between the initial and final hang vertically in the water. debris and/or growth rate – the increase in weight cadavers. blooms causing problems of de-oxygenation are of dinoflagellate phytoplankton that are also ‘harmful’ but may more generally inherently toxic. plaice etc) are normally landed gutted (but see Graham’s Great Law of Fishing ‘rounders’ ) whereas pelagic fish are – all fisheries that are unregulated landed whole. The principal reason for become unprofitable (Graham 1943). or when the bloom and Alexandrium spp. (See also genome. H HAB – harmful algal blooms. per unit of time. or shellfish poisoning (eg happen at night when the algae are Pseudonitzschia sp. Dinophysis spp. (See majority of roundfish (eg cod. genotype – the sum of the genetic material in each organism following growth overfishing – occurs where fertilisation.

Such programmes hauling by hand but an increasing can include the reintroduction (stock number of ‘handliners’are now fitted enhancement) of animals and plants with hydraulic shooting and hauling normally associated with the habitat. rocky common and grey seals. Habitats – sandbanks slightly Modiolus beds. Serpulid reefs. (See also long-line. lampreys. systems. shads. when pipeline through a mud patch could the CFP was ratified (1983) it resulted result in the mud being fluidised and in the TACs being set higher than ICES unsuitable for Nephrops burrow recommendations for several years in construction. among others: littoral and sub-littoral chalk. Marine ‘priority member states to protect scheduled habitats’for which plans have been species and to designate and manage published (UKBG 1999) include: special areas of conservation (SAC) for the protection of. provide particular habitats that are (See also Conservation Regulations . large shallow beds. reefs. For example. highly dependent on fishing (eg Ireland and the Highlands and Islands of habitat degradation – adverse Scotland) were allocated quotas from alterations to a particular habitat type the TAC that were greater than was through physical disturbance or justified by their track record from the pollution. 46 . mud covered by seawater at all times. order to meet the terms of the habitat restoration and Preference without ‘disadvantaging’ other member states. mudflats. sub-littoral sands or partly submerged sea caves. submerged muddy gravel. tidal rapids. sheltered inlets and bays. reefs. activities causing adverse effects and improve the condition of a habitat by handline – a hook-and-line method active intervention and return it to its of fishing. habitats in deep water. Areas that were Habitat Action Plan – see HAP. bottle- organism lives. sandbanks and mud holes all otters.) Habitats (and Species) Directive HAP – habitat action plan: these – Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the plans form part of the UK Biodiversity conservation of natural habitats and of Action Plan (UKBAP) to protect UK wild flora and fauna requires EU species and habitats . saline lagoons. lagoons. sturgeon. and gravel. or even survive in the others. For example. Sabellaria estuaries. harbour porpoise. maerl beds. reached by the Council of Ministers (The Hague 1976). (See Holden rehabilitation – programmes to halt 1994). physical features. seagrass sandbanks. ostensibly previous condition. trenching a early 1970s. eg for mackerel.) occupied by animals adapted to live in or on one of them but probably cannot Hague Preference – an agreement thrive.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 56 habitat – the place where an Species – Atlantic salmon. intertidal mudflats and reefs. as characterised by the nosed dolphins. As a consequence. Lophelia pertusa reefs.

Generally. The larger animals are them. are found in the deepest water. eg cockles. It does not member states’ governments from undertake research in its own right but around the North Atlantic (including has a secretariat (in Copenhagen) to Canada and the USA) and Baltic Sea. within the Regulated from the shore (and depth of water). as if these secondary rights were a Several Order . the abundance of plaice is (SFC) . hydraulic dredge – a method of this means beyond the Territorial Sea fishing for bivalve molluscs that are but ‘high seas fisheries’ are those that buried in the seabed. eg x hauls per describe a particular practice for day. species and gear. It is funded by 19 affect their abundance.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 57 harmful algal blooms – see HAB. sand and undersize animals are that certain nations’ fishing vessels returned to the sea. High Seas – the sea beyond the jurisdiction of coastal states. retained by a sorting grid while the historic access rights – the right water. an fish stocks. haul – the act of drawing-in a net to recover the catch but also used as a Hybrid Order – a general term to general term for effort . As the water rises up the pipe it and. managing a shellfish Regulating Order fishery. or size groups that have a lower creates suction and lifts the sand and commercial value even when it would benthos (including the target species ) not be an offence to retain and land to the surface. their biology and all factors independent scientific advisory body (natural and man made) that may founded in 1902. More usually a Sea Fisheries Committee specifically. The dredge is fishery limits or EEZ. season. The rights of the Regulating Heinke’s Law – the largest plaice Order are held by an organisation. occur beyond coastal states’ 200 mile razorfish or clams. Order fishery. and their size is access and stock ownership rights to directly proportional to their distance individuals. trailed behind the boat at the end of a 10-20cm diameter pipe. have to fish within the 6-12 mile band of the UK Territorial Sea . The majority I ICES – the International Council for encourages research into commercial the Exploration of the Sea. Water is high grading – the practice of pumped at high pressure to the mouth retaining only the most valuable part of the dredge and directed back up the of a catch and discarding the species pipe. which then allocates fishing inversely proportional. of these rights are restricted by place. It facilitate and co-ordinate 47 .

3) 48 . into ‘sub-rectangles’ (quarter degree Resource Management Committee. 9). division of the Northeast Atlantic Work is carried out through numerous based loosely on biogeographic zones. working groups convened under the The North Sea. variable number of ICES (fishery or Advisory Committee for the Marine statistical) Rectangles. committees: ICES Division – statistical area of Advisory Committee of Fisheries the Northeast Atlantic comprising a Management (ACFM) . are collected and collated in ‘ICES Mariculture Committee. latitude by one degree of longitude. Rectangles’. these are half degree of Marine Habitat Committee. between member states.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 58 Figure 9: ICES sub-Areas (Roman numerals) and Divisions (Roman lower- case letters) around the British Isles collaboration. and (See Fig. The rectangles may be further divided Oceanography Committee. forms remit of one or more standing ICES sub-Area IV (Fig. Fisheries Technology Committee. including fishery stock ICES (sub-)Area – a major statistical assessments. for example. eg Division VIId Environment (ACME) . latitude by half degree longitude). 9). ICES Rectangle – fishery statistics Living Resources Committee. and VIIe are the eastern and western Baltic Committee. English Channel respectively (Fig.

mammals. the North Sea" (Svelle et al. overwhelmingly within the as an alternative to by-catch and Territorial Sea if not within 6 miles of discards but also used to differentiate the coast. inkwell pot – a traditional. intertidal – the foreshore or area of indicator species – a species that seabed between high water mark and can be monitored as a representative low water mark which is exposed each of a broader community of species or day as the tide rises and falls. eg sprats. eg days at sea. measures. (EC 1999). and oil. The majority of inshore the individual captures of boats are less than 10 m in length and (charismatic) species that are not a have a ‘permit to fish’ equivalent to a normal part of the catch. inshore fisheries – occur in coastal incidental catch – sometimes used waters. an Class A licence (MAFF 1999). regulatory and management alternative commercial use. incidental catch could be commercial integrated coastal zone species such as porbeagle or basking shark. Also one whose abundance gives an called the littoral zone (Fig 1). turtles and marine management – see ICZM. 1997). resources and processes found in and affecting the coastal zone. Target species include oil-rich ICZM – integrated coastal zone pelagic species such as mackerel and herring but more commonly they are management. indication of the status (‘health’) of a introduced species – any species particular habitat . functions to safeguard all natural sandeels and Norway pout. wicker- In 1997 a meeting of west European work crab or lobster pot with a single ministers and EU Commissioners opening at the top. the co-ordination of all the smaller species with little or no activities. infauna – animals that live buried in IMM – the Intermediate Meeting of the seabed. Subsequently. The controls protection and nature conservation in can be any one. or birds. Thus. A Statement of Conclusions was issued input controls – the management following the meeting setting out measures introduced to limit the general targets and aspirations for amount of effort used in the closer integration of environmental exploitation of a stock. ecosystem or that occurs outside its normal environment . gear these became part of EU fishery policy restriction . Wicker-work has convened in Bergen "to discuss the largely been replaced by steel rod and integration of environmental issues in plastic. closed areas etc. geographic range as a direct or indirect 49 .Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 59 exceptionally. may be divided again industrial fishing – the capture of (one quarter degree of latitude by one fish specifically for reduction to meal quarter degree of longitude). Ministers to the North Sea Conference. eg cockles and lugworm. or a number of fishery management.

The trap is set to one side of haddock’. The 50 . their quota is taken or if it should be Irish Box – an area of sea off the leased or sold on to a third party. ITQ management is practised in Iceland south of Ireland to which access by and New Zealand. It is also the name for a the outer end of a ‘leader’ wall of short-handled rake used to gather netting – thereby forming a ‘J’ shape. (See also ecologically forms an essential part of a community significant species and habitats. J J-net – a type of intertidal / coastal jumbo – a name often applied to the stake-net salmon trap that is worked largest market category of certain fish. The which quotas are allocated to term applies equally to non-self individual boats. ie one handlines that are ‘jigged’ up-and. reef catches. It is for the sustaining (alien) populations and to skipper/owner to decide if and when established non-native species. (See also vivier. minimum landing size – MLS). K keep box – a floating box in which worm Sabellaria spp or the horse live Crustacea are kept until collected mussel Modiolus modiolus are for market. For example.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 60 result of human activity and one that ITQ – individual transferable quotas has not been found to occur naturally are a form of fishery management in in the area within historic time.) or assemblage of species without which the rest of the community klondiking – the practice of ‘landing’ cannot exist. that has not reached sexual maturity down. on the east coasts of Scotland and NE eg ‘jumbo mackerel’ and ‘jumbo England.) keystone species that provide specific habitats within which many other keystone species – a species that species live. Spanish registered fishing vessels is limited to a maximum of 40 at any one time. fisheries. eg Burry Inlet and Morecambe Bay. cockles manually in certain intertidal (See also T-net). jigging – a term most frequently associated with fishing for squid with juvenile – an immature fish. On squid fishing boats the (but could still be larger than the ‘handlines’ are operated hydraulically. to building species such as the colonial factory ships anchored offshore. usually of pelagic species.

a fishery. restrictions plus a limited number groups (as used in VPA) where ageing that are. larvae – the developing animal after it Class A (pelagic) licence to fish for has hatched from its egg but before it herring. or ‘permit fishery management that limits entry to to fish’ for all stocks. and up to 500 t area of a fishery. mackerel. long-lived. large elasmobranchs and marine mammals. hours trawling etc) expended in its capture.) tend to be large. the basis for ‘miscellaneous species’. species except pressure stocks. Vessels <10 m in length licensing – a widespread method of Class A (<10 m) licence. only the gear used and landings provide the only record of quantity/number of fish that may be total catch. that is landed for each classes of licence: unit of effort (eg days at sea. stage. It Vessels >10 m in length is an alternative means of expressing Class A (whitefish) licence to fish catch per unit of effort (CPUE) and all demersal species. procedure for constructing a Class C – licence to fish for population life-table. through to specifying not which is put ashore. Anyone who wishes to fish landings per unit of effort – the commercially in the UK must obtain total quantity of a given species. but length cohort analysis – a including non-pressure stocks . is difficult or otherwise not practicable. as in some salmon fisheries. including provides an index of abundance in the ‘pressure stocks ’. Licence conditions can vary from simply granting an individual the 51 . Many marine larvae drift in the Class B licence to fish all demersal plankton.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 61 catches still count against the catching fecundity and are best adapted for vessels’ national quota even though stable environmental conditions. has reached the adult or even juvenile pilchards. too. horse mackerel. ie the landings plus taken but the time and place of fishing discards. with low L landings – that part of the catch right to fish. sprats and blue whiting. (See also r-selected k-selected species – species that species. eg they are not put ashore. of pelagic species per year. or all one or more of the following four fish combined. using that are not subject to TAC length-groups as an alternative for age. ie species analytical stock assessments . Frequently.

but particularly the intertidal zone (Fig.) precautionary reference points that identify higher biomass thresholds than log book – a set of forms issued by Blim and lower fishing mortality the EC that skippers of vessels >10 m in thresholds than Flim: length must complete after each haul Bpa = precautionary minimum recording: date.the fishing percentage of unexploited mortality (F) is below that which will biomass. species composition and estimated weight of retained catch (ie Fpa = precautionary maximum total catch less discards). limit which precautionary action must be reference points may be expressed taken to safeguard a fish stock. The certainty with which these points live weight – the weight of fish can be identified varies with the before it is gutted. biomass threshold. Squalus (lim stands for ‘limit’).Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 62 limit reference points – are stock and the spawning stock is not biological or fishery management clear. place. time. ie the whole (or quality of assessment data available.1). Blim = minimum acceptable biomass live bearers – animals that incubate Flim = maximum acceptable fishing their young internally and produce mortality live. In many instances.5 m) lengths of line – In circumstances where the ‘snoods’– attached to the main line at relationship between the exploited intervals of 2-5 m. drive the spawning stock to the (See ICES 1998b). harbour or produced at sea at the request of a fishery inspector. a condition that must be avoided. Completed fishing mortality forms must be handed in on return to (pa stands for precautionary approach). free-living offspring. has hooks set on (ICES 1998a and ICES Current). An inshore cod long- biologically acceptable limit – MBAL line. for example. duration of biomass fishing. Thus: littoral – the edge of the sea. In order with respect to the ‘unexploited stoc k’: for stocks and fisheries exploiting them Ulim = minimum acceptable to be within safe biological limits . 2 . acanthias. (See also gutted weight Therefore. short (ca 0. percentage of unexploited there should be a high probability that: biomass 1 – the spawning stock biomass (SSB = B) is above the threshold where Upa = precautionary minimum recruitment is impaired. The total length of 52 . eg many sharks including spur dogs. the value for Bpa will be the same as the value long-line – a method of fishing with previously identified as the minimum baited hooks. ICES has also identified and rounders . as is the case with some of the indicators that define the point at deep-water species of fish. live) weight.

Maerl is marketed as MPA. M M – formally. eg to exclude the vessels of a member state from fishing in a Mackerel Box – a mackerel nursery particular zone (Holden 1994). ‘calcified seaweed’ for horticultural use. old is split in two. 53 . of approval. The. All reduce the total fishing power of the fish products that MSC judge to be combined EU fishing fleet. Celtic Sea. (Fig. Marine Environmental High macro-fauna – any animal that is Risk Area – see MEHRA. but management is based.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 63 line can range from 2-300 m to several unofficial procedure adopted at a km in high seas long-line fisheries – Council of Ministers meeting where the snoods are longer and set (Luxembourg 1956) under which the rather further apart. illness (eg parasite load). calcified red algae MNR. the proportion of the the management unit includes two or population killed each year by more stocks. requirements. engine power etc) that they must meet. be ‘against the national interest’to Luxembourg Compromise – an adopt the proposal under discussion (see Holden 1994). area around the south-west peninsula of England. prohibited. that act as keystone species and form a Marine Protected Area – see particular habitat. in other cases one stock predation. and extending into the mariculture – marine aquaculture . usually to meet political age etc. the instantaneous rate of management unit – is a fishery natural mortality (the natural logarithm exploiting a species of fish living in a of the change in abundance due to defined area upon which (eg) EC natural causes per unit of time). In some cases more simply. Each from such sustainable fisheries will be member state has targets for fleet permitted to carry an ‘eco-friendly’ seal reduction (vessel numbers. 6) within which directed fishing for mackerel by purse Marine Consultation Area – see seiners and pelagic trawlers is MCA. legally binding. Council would not proceed to a vote if a member state declared that it would LPUE – see landings per unit of ef fort. MAGP x – the EU Multi-Annual Marine Stewardship Council – a non-governmental organisation that Guidance Programme (where x is a encourages consumers to purchase fish particular programme lasting 3-5 taken only from environmentally re- years). readily visible to the naked eye. tonnage. Marine Nature Reserve – see maerl – twig-like. aim is to sponsible and sustainable fisheries.

acceptable limit: an estimate of spawning stock biomass below which ICES recommends it should not be allowed to fall for fear of imminent recruitment failure and stock collapse. 10). eg herring and that are considered particularly mackerel. (MMS). ‘migratory 54 . It identifies areas of nature conservation interest for which widespread consultation is desirable before any development takes place. (See also SMA.) MEHRA – marine environmental high mid-water trawl – a trawl that is risk area: a UK designation proposed designed specifically for the capture of Figure 10: An extrapolation of the yield- in the Donaldson Report following the per-recruit model to describe various wreck of the oil tanker Braer. from oil spills or other noxious migratory fish – a high proportion cargoes. It works most successfully in their life-history. if not seasonally. (See also square MSY (also Fig. mesh.) MCA – marine consultation area: a non-statutory nature conservation designation for Scotland. For example. The efficiency of trawl mesh On a yield-per-recruit (YPR) curve the selection varies enormously as the MEY is found at a slightly lower level shape of the meshes change in of fishing mortality (F) than is the response to changing loads while maximum sustainable yield (MSY). Shetland. (See also limit reference points .) MBAL – minimum biological MEY – see maximum economic yield. conditions in the development of a fishery They will be sea areas with high marine traffic densities adjacent or close to coastal or shallow-water areas pelagic species. however. In UK legislation. towing. and is towed in mid water vulnerable to environmental damage rather than across the seabed. increases the cod-end maximum sustainable yield – see meshes tend to close.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 64 maximum economic yield – the free hanging nets such as drift nets maximum. most cost-effective yield (eg and gill nets . (See also PSSA) of the commercially exploited species mesh selection – the process by in the North Atlantic undergo which fish above a certain size are migrations (directional movements unable to pass through the meshes of a over anything from a few hundred to fishing net but fish below that size can tens of thousands of kilometres) during do so. as catch. but trawls are also tonnes per unit of effort ) that can be regulated by minimum mesh size taken on a sustainable basis (Fig. and hence drag. 8 & 10).

tunas.) mobile fishing gear – any gear that is towed or otherwise moved through mixed fishery – a fishery that takes the water. the smallest length at which it is legal to term tends to describe species with retain a fish or offer it for sale. UK (stretched mesh). seines.) tend to take relatively ‘clean’ single species catches whereas multi-species 55 . skates and rays (MLS) to pass through the mesh. Strangford taken but quota is still available in an Lough MNR (Northern Ireland). eg trawls. anglerfish. sites designated widespread when the quota for a already are: Lundy MNR (England).) MNR – marine nature reserve: an area of sea and seabed (which can include misreporting – the inaccurate intertidal areas) designated under the recording of catches in EU fishing log Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981) books or comparable reporting for the purpose of conserving marine systems. (See also pressure stocks and non-pressure stocks . sea trout (Salmo trutta) and eels MLS – minimum landing size: the (Anguilla anguilla). reach sexual maturity. and related Acts): salmon ( Salmo salar). The MMS is set to licensing was introduced) but are now allow at least 50% of the target under quota. Among the more common flora and fauna or geological or practices are under-reporting the physiographic features of special quantity of fish caught or reporting the interest and/or providing opportunities catch as being taken in a different area for study and research. (See also under- reporting and black-fish. eg North Sea prawns species at their minimum landing size (Nephrops). MMS – minimum mesh size: the smallest size of mesh that can be used miscellaneous species – are stocks legally in any given type of net. oceanic migrations moving through it is the minimum length at which not several jurisdictions in the course of a less than 50% of a given species first year. Ideally. adjacent Division. The designation from the one in which it was actually can be applied throughout UK made.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 65 fish’ are those named in the Salmon catches are more frequent in demersal and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 – fisheries. crabs. species in one ICES Division has been Skomer MNR (Wales). dredges multi-species catches. Pelagic fisheries etc. (MAFF 1999). In practice it sailfish etc. swordfish. minimum mesh size – see MMS. It is not subject to quota management (eg measured either down one side of the mullet. Internationally. tends to be set at a level influenced by market acceptability and is frequently minimum landing size – see MLS. The latter example is most territorial waters. (See also fixed/static gear. whelks). eg blue sharks. plus some mesh (knot-to-knot) or – more usually - stocks which were not subject to across the diagonal under tension quotas in 1984 when broad-scale. less than the biological optimum.

It is widely used in the (Fig. fauna . eg gill recruitment. (See SVPA. twine or rope. eg trawler-purse reserved by law or other effective seiner. netting for static gear . years than in others). procedure by which to construct monitoring – the regular and population life-tables of inter-related systematic collection of environmental populations. which has been opportunities change. material are twisted together more or less tightly. bivalves. It is Multi-Annual Guidance usually expressed as an instantaneous Programme – see MAGP. eg population analysis: a mathematical squid and cuttlefish. 8). cephalopods. historical and type of fishing gear as the seasons or cultural features. and therefore. eg MSVPA – multi-species virtual cockles and mussels. vessels that are equipped or can be together with its overlying water and readily adapted to work more than one associated flora. Also known as maximum equilibrium catch (Ricker mortality – the death of organisms 1975). or fishing (F) etc. Monitoring realistic basis for assessing the current provides information on current status. crabs and multi-monofilament – a system in lobsters. many year and the number at the start of the strands of natural or man-made year (Ricker 1975). The monofilament strands are twisted new shell is soft at first to allow loosely together before making up expansion but hardens rapidly. eg tangle nets . difficult to existing environmental conditions see in water. It aims to provide a more and to agreed standards. (See also monofilament. eg predation. through natural causes (M). cast their hard shell which a small number of periodically to increase in size. as well as the more obtained by taking fewer fish in some commonplace fishing line for anglers. 56 . whelks and winkles.) moulting – the process by which Crustacea such as shrimps. (For species with fluctuating manufacture of static gear nets.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 66 molluscs – all animals in the Phylum means to protect part or all of the Mollusca including: gastropods . including predator-prey and biological data by agreed methods relationships. MPA – marine protected area: any multi-purpose fishing vessels – area of intertidal or subtidal terrain. crabber-liner. status of stocks than do single species trends and compliance with respect to assessments carried out by VPA or declared standards and objectives. the maximum might be nets. eg enclosed environment (Kelleher 1999). also surveillance.) MSY – maximum sustainable yield: monofilament – a single strand of the largest average catch that can be nylon (or similar) line that is often taken continuously from a stock under translucent. rate: the natural logarithm (with sign changed) of the ratio of number of multifilament – the most common animals surviving to the end of the form of line.

2). h. beyond coastal states’ (and EU) 200 Eno et al. 57 . the sea. ie: Species ICES Division neritic zone – the area of sea encompassing non-oceanic waters. a the Habitats Directive (SAC) . dredge in which the tooth bar across the lower edge of the dredge mouth is native species – self-sustaining spring-loaded to minimise snagging on populations that can be rare or the seabed.1). more generally. Some of the animals are Megrim Vb.1). (See also (including deep water fisheries) alien species and introduced species .) agement measures must not discriminate against. fleets and nations. In practice. (See principle of the CFP is that any man- also non-native species. unrestricted fishing (MAFF 1999). or be in favour of. VIIh. IV. commonplace but have not been introduced by man’s intervention. the continental shelf (Fig. UK in 1984 (when broad-scale.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 67 N NAO – see North Atlantic Newhaven dredge – a scallop Oscillation. its role is population in an area beyond its limited to the high seas fisheries normal geographic range. VIIa. area must apply to all scallop dredgers from all ports. the waters covering Sole VI. NEAFC – North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission. This applies equally to EU and under the Birds Directive (SPA) and national legislation. j k. VI. nektonic but most are planktonic Sprat VIId. 1997) mile fishery limits . (Fig. or Plaice IIa. notionally the non-native species – any organism international fisheries commission with that has been introduced deliberately responsibility for fishery conservation or accidentally by human activity and and fishery management in the north. Natura 2000 – The EU-wide one group of fishermen rather than network of protected sites established another. The EC represents non-pressure stocks – are stocks member states on the Commission for which the quota allocated to the (Fig. e. ban on scallop dredging in a specified natural mortality rate – see M. non-discriminatory – a basic either deliberately or accidentally. neuston – plants and animals that live in the surface few centimetres of Whiting VII. UK nekton – animals that can swim licensing was introduced) were against the current rather than drift like considered large enough to allow the plankton. (See also French dredge ). j. has established a self-sustaining east Atlantic. Cod VIIa. k. For example.

producer organisation (PO) .) industrial fishing (for Norway pout) is prohibited to protect juvenile haddock non-sector fishery – that part of the (Fig. VI. It may also influence phosphorus. and hence. Most of NTZ – no take zone. to the marine sea temperatures. trawlers. non-target species – any species number at age – the estimated number of fish caught each year by that form part of the by-catch but are individual age groups. annual variations in the pressure ratio between the low pressure that tends to many estuaries form bass nursery areas. sandy bays on the east coast of be centred on Iceland and the England frequently provide plaice prevailing high pressure system over the Azores. (See also beam-trawl catches but there is not a directed turbot fishery by beam length-cohort analysis ). The ratio appears to follow nursery areas. nursery – an area readily identified as North Atlantic Oscillation – one of particular importance. agri- understood than those of the el Niño chemical and slurry run-off from phenomenon and anchovy stocks in estuary and riverside farm land. Commission – see NEAFC.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 68 Pollack Vb. but details are less well activities. national fishing fleet whose participants are not members of a No Take Zone – see NTZ. 6)). For example. a marine the national quota for each species is distributed among the PO but a small protected area (MPA) from which the removal of any resources. mostly nitrogen and vary significantly. for juvenile fish. year-on- year. These data are not (one of) the principal species that the fishery is exploiting. living or proportion is retained for the non- dead (eg marine aggregate) is sector fleet and is managed by the government fishery departments. values. 58 . prohibited. VII. can lead to enhanced algal growth North East Atlantic Fisheries including harmful algal blooms (HAB) . environment as a result of man’s fish stocks . while The Wash and Thames Estuary are important sole a long-term cycle of higher and lower nurseries. VII. VI. the basis upon which analytical stock assessments such as virtual population turbot are a valuable by-catch in analyses (VPA) are made. currents. For example. Nephrops Vb. This the southern Pacific. Norway pout box – an area of the (See also miscellaneous species and north-eastern North Sea within which pressure stocks . eg sewage discharge. causing both the average annual air temperature and nutrient enrichment – the addition precipitation in northern Europe to of nutrients.

power of enforcement stems. Objective 2 Supports the economic and social OSPAR – a combination (1992) of redevelopment of areas previously two earlier conventions (Oslo and dependent on what is now a Paris) to create the Convention for the declining or redundant industry Protection of the Marine Environment (including fisheries). the fish that are discarded when fish Annex II prevention and are gutted. meet the provisions of the Habitats Directive or OSPAR Annex V. Annex IV assessment of the offshore marine protected areas quality of the marine environment. It is widely thought that the elimination of pollution by total quantity of offal discarded has dumping or incineration. support requirements to participate although is available for: they may still be subject to TAC and quota management. otolith – a free-floating bony structure in the middle ear of a fish open access fishery – a national or that forms part of its balance sensory international fishery for which there system. Annexes to Objective 3 Combats long-term the convention address specific issues: unemployment and helps the Annex I prevention and young find work. the primary legislation from which the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. Objective 1 Promotes the development and structural Order in Council – an order issued adjustment of regions whose by the Privy Council that gives the development is less well advanced force of law to administrative than elsewhere in the EU (ie the regulations. in the North Sea.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 69 O Objective x funding – classes of are no restrictions or licensing the EU Structural Funds . Thus. It grows annually by 59 . eg fulmars offshore sources. eg parts of Wales. elimination of pollution from land- offal – the intestines and other parts of based sources. usually drawn up by UK local gross domestic product government departments. The order parts of NE England (until 2006). without the (GDP) is less than 75% of the EU need for parliament to amend the average). is often issued in the form of a Statutory Instrument. of the Northeast Atlantic. – marine protected areas (MPA) that Annex V protection and might be established beyond the conservation of ecosystems and Territorial Sea (12 nautical miles) to biological diversity. stimulated the increase in abundance Annex III prevention and of many scavenging birds in the last elimination of pollution from quarter of the 20 th century.

P pair fishing/trawling – a method trawls. The the bloom dies. eg phytoplankton – microscopic plants herring. sustainable yield (MSY). (See also when moulting.1). (See also capture in mid water by pelagic plankton and zooplankton. net funnel. A second some circumstances can reach (loose net) funnel leads the animal into nuisance proportions. In many fish. 5). widely used by boats engaged in pelagic trawl – an otter or pair fishing for pelagic species. Phaeocystis can create initial entrance may be either a rigid floes of creamy-brown foam that in plastic or loose.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 70 alternating winter-summer additions of over-fishing – any fishery where the opaque and translucent layers of total fishing effort is greater than is material. ovoviviparous – see live bearers. (See also demersal trawl . When netting stretched over 3-4 hoops. phytoplankton and benthos. sprats and mackerel are all floating in the water column that drift pelagic species that are vulnerable to to-and-fro with the tides. eg maximum enable the fish to be aged. but roost each night on the sea are no trawl doors. the loss of its hard shell and intertidal areas. eg fulmars and petrels (Fig.) 60 . escape (but see escape gap). ie there breed.) held open laterally by otter boards or ‘doors’ (Fig. Pelagic birds are species that where two boats tow a trawl between do not return to land.) pelagic – relating to mid water. towing across the seabed. particularly in shallow water following. In the UK fleet it is surface. or immediately seabed.) Particularly Sensitive Sea Area – see PSSA Phaeocystis – a colonial phytoplankton organism (Phaeocystis parlour pot – a rectangular crab and pouchetti) that is naturally abundant in lobster trap with two chambers of coastal waters during the spring. phytobenthos – microscopic plants peeler crab – a crab that has gone that live in the surface layers of the soft preparatory to. trawl that is towed in mid water and is Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning – neither designed nor suitable for see PSP. eg as a the ‘parlour’ from which there is no consequence of nutrient enrichment. other than to them to hold it open laterally. these appear as required to meet or match a specific annual rings under a microscope and management objective. (See also otter trawl – a demersal trawl that is growth overfishing and recruitment overfishing.

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 71

Pinnipedia – marine mammals that precautionary approach – a
come ashore to give birth, eg seals and decision to take avoiding action based
walruses. on the possibility of significant
environmental damage, even before
Plaice Box – introduced in 1989 to there is conclusive evidence that
protect juvenile plaice. It extends damage will occur (DOE 1992). This
along the coasts of the Netherlands, approach requires fishery managers to
Germany and Denmark and covers the pay due regard to the uncertainties of
main plaice nursery area for the stock assessment and management.
southern and central North Sea (Fig 6). They must implement the appropriate
Fishing with beam trawls by vessels precautionary action if limit reference
more powerful than 220 kW (300 hp) points are reached.
is prohibited within this area.
precautionary principle – the
plankton – the animals and plants principle of safeguarding the marine
that float in mid water and drift to-and- ecosystem by reducing emissions of
fro with the tides. (See also nekton.) hazardous substances at source and
PO – producer organisation: minimising physical disturbance of
associations of individuals, companies marine habitats caused by human
and other bodies within the fishing activities using appropriate
industry intended to optimise supply technologies and measures.
and increase efficiency of marketing – This applies to all human activities for
both fundamental objectives of the which there exists a scientific basis for
CFP. Some POs also manage the believing that damage to living
quotas awarded, under licence, to resources is likely to result. Measures
members’ boats. (For further information adopted should be based on
see References – EC Current.) pessimistic assumptions regarding
uncertainties in the measurement and
pots – a general term to describe
prediction of effects on the marine
traps used to catch crabs, lobsters,
environment (Gray & Bewers 1996).
larger species of prawns, eg Nephrops,
and some molluscs, eg whelks and ‘…by virtue of which preventive
octopus. (See also creel, inkwell pot measures are to be taken when there
and parlour pot .) are reasonable grounds for concern
that substances or energy introduced,
potter – a fishing vessel engaged in directly of indirectly, into the marine
fishing for Crustacea by using pots environment may bring about hazards
rather than nets. to human heath, harm living resources
prawn – a colloquial name for and marine ecosystems, damage
amenities or interferes with legitimate
Crustacea larger than shrimps but
smaller than lobsters The fishing uses of the sea, even when there is no
industry use ‘prawns’ as a name for conclusive evidence of a causal
relationship between inputs and the
Nephrops (ie scampi, Dublin Bay
prawn, Norway lobster, langoustine). effects’ (OSPAR).


Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 72

precautionary TAC – a total territory (Habitats Directive).
allowable catch that is set for a priority species – are endangered
particular stock or species but for
species for which the EU has particular
which a full analytical stock
responsibility for their conservation in
assessment (eg virtual population
view of the proportion of their natural
analysis, VPA) is not possible or has
range that falls within member states’
not been made. It may be set on the
territory (Habitats Directive).
basis of the average catch over the
previous 5 years, for example, as a Producer Organisation – see PO.
safeguard against over-exploitation.
productivity – the total biomass
pressure stocks – are those for generated by a population, stock or
which the quotas allocated to the UK species each year as a result of growth
in 1984 (when broad-scale UK and reproduction – less the quantity
licensing was introduced) were lost through mortality .
considered insufficient to allow
unrestricted fishing by the UK fleet. property rights – legal ownership of
Only vessels <10 m or those holding a a particular property or resource.
Class A licence can fish pressure Generally speaking, Magna Carta
stocks, ie: (1215) excluded ownership or
exclusive rights to any fish in tidal
Species ICES Areas & Divisions waters. However, ownership rights to
Herring All named shellfish species in a defined
Mackerel All area can be allocated through
Saithe All Regulating and Several Order
Haddock All
Hake All PSP – paralytic shellfish poisoning,
this can result from eating bivalve
Anglerfish All except IVa, b, c
molluscan shellfish that have
Cod All except VIIa accumulated toxins from the
Whiting IIa, IVa, b, c, Vb, VI Alexandrium spp. dinoflagellates in the
Plaice Vb, VI, VIIa, d, e, f, g phytoplankton. When toxins are
Sole IIa, IV, VIIa, d, e, f, g detected above 80 mg/100 g of
shellfish flesh the shellfish may not be
Megrim VII.
harvested commercially or offered for
(See also miscellaneous species and sale. The toxins are heat stable and
non-pressure stocks .) can result in mild symptoms of
numbness in tongue or lips or in very
priority habitats – are natural extreme cases lead to death through
habitats in danger of disappearance for respiratory paralysis.
which the EU has particular
responsibility for their conservation in PSSA – Particularly Sensitive Sea
view of the proportion of their natural Area: an area recognised by the
range that falls within member states’ International Maritime Organisation


Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 73

(IMO) as an area of ecological, to close the bottom of the cylinder. At
sociological or scientific significance the same time, the net is progressively
that may be vulnerable to damage by hauled aboard to concentrate the fish
maritime traffic. alongside the boat in the final bight of
netting – the ‘purse’. The fish are
purse seine – a deep curtain of pumped from the purse into the hold
netting that is shot in a circle to form (CSW or RSW tanks if the fish is
an enclosing cylinder around shoals of intended for human consumption).
pelagic fish. A ‘pursing wire’ attached
to the end and lower edges is drawn in


qualified majority voting – the Sixty-two of the total of 87 votes carry
European Union (EU) Council of a motion with a qualified majority.
Ministers has a range of voting systems quota – a fixed proportion of the TAC
to meet specific circumstances. If no
allocated to each fishing nation. (See
alternative is stipulated in the Treaties,
also relative stability .) This national
a simple majority is sufficient. For
quota allocation is further sub-divided
matters of constitutional importance, a
into quotas for specific areas, seasons,
decision must be unanimous in
fisheries or organisations, eg producer
Council and then ratified by each
organisations (PO) .
member state’s government. Most
frequently, however, decisions are quota hopping – a colloquial
reached by ‘qualified majority’. Voting description for vessels registered in one
is weighted such that Germany, country of the European Union (EU) ,
France, Italy and UK each have 10 and fishing against that country’s
votes; Spain 8, Belgium, Greece, quota, but ultimately owned by a
Netherlands and Portugal 5 each; company in another member state, and
Austria and Sweden each have 4; often landing most of its catch in the
Denmark, Finland and Ireland 3 each owner’s country. (See also flag ship.)
and Luxembourg 2.

Ramsar Convention – the importance can be designated as
international Convention on Wetlands Ramsar sites but they do not normally
of International Importance especially exceed 6 m in depth. During the
as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar, Iran 1990s the convention was amended to
1971). Coastal waters of particular broaden its application to embrace,


reminiscent of a cut-throat razor blade. eg thornback ray. 2000). spawning stock biomass (SSB) down to rarity – a rare habitat is one that is a level where it cannot produce sufficient juveniles each year (recruits) restricted to a limited number of to replace the total annual losses locations or to small. bottom–dwelling the World Conservation Union (IUCN Current). cuckoo ray. most frequently it is implies management targeted more represented by beach and boat precisely to meet local needs and angling. refrigerated seawater tanks – see recreational fisheries – any fishery RSW. A activities can be curtailed by quota corollary of this approach also assumes restrictions. They recruit numbers. the needs of fish with recruitment overfishing – the an associated move towards closer situation that results from fishing the involvement with fishery management . greater devolved powers for fisheries to recruit – a young fish joining the be managed at a local level with greater participation by fishermen and exploited or spawning stock for the other groups with an interest in first time. elasmobranch fish. that is undertaken for pleasure rather regionalisation – a concept that than income. and skates. Recreational sea fishing is not conditions rather than assuming a licensed but it is subject to minimum single. sustainable fisheries and their recruitment – the number of young management. fish joining the stock each year. few and scattered through fishing (F) and natural causes locations in UK waters. general approach is equally landing size (MLS) regulations and its applicable throughout EU waters. to the spawning stock once they reach sexual maturity. In the north- east Atlantic it usually refers to the long (ca 10-25 cm). eg Solen spp. registered fishing vessel – any Juvenile fish recruit to the exploited European vessel that fishes stock once they have grown to a commercially must be registered with length greater than the minimum its national fishery department and landing size (MLS) and/or they move display port registration letters and onto the fishing grounds. eg LO 62. blond ray. Regulating Order – a variation in the public right to fish for molluscs 63 . ‘endangered’ species maintained by rays – flat. redfish – the colloquial name for a razor fish – bivalve molluscs with number of red species. narrow shells bathypelagic species Sebastes marinus. is one that is sessile or has limited mobility and occurs in a limited Red Data Book – a worldwide list number of locations in UK waters of ‘vulnerable’.. Ensis spp.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 74 among others. ‘threatened’ and (Laffoley et al. A rare species (M).

(See also selection curve . The relevant authority – any public method of implementing the legislation body that has a function or duty in is not left to each member state to relation to a marine area but decide. The Order is usually granted to a public body. habitat complexes. requires the relevant authority to Rio Convention – UN Convention establish a (single) management on Biodiversity (UNCED 1992). net.legislation that has the TAC. Regulations (SAC) – see species.) deterioration to the habitat(s) or responsible fisheries – fisheries disturbance of species for which the combining respect for ecosystems and site has been selected. eg Sea Fisheries relative stability – the principle Committee (SFC) . as with Directives . The species CFP (Council Regulation 3760/92) covered by each order are named. record of catches from the area to justify allocating them a quota from Regulation (EU). that does not implement a Regulation (See also Conservation Regulations . scheme for the protection of each 65 . natural characteristics that are typical and representative (Laffoley et al Regulation 33 – the paragraph in 2000). Portugal. Any state provisions of the Habitats Directive . within the current formulation of the stock mollusc fishery. equal and binding effect throughout all member states. immediate. Sweden and Finland the public right to fish within the from fishing in the North Sea.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 75 otherwise guaranteed by Magna Carta European marine site. 7). as they do not have a track in the order.) can be reported to the Court of Justice . operations that may cause a trap etc). (1215). biodiversity with the needs of Regulation 34 – the paragraph in consumers and the interests of the the UK Conservation Regulations that fishery sector (EC 1999). biotope types. The order does not affect Spain. to manage a wild. representivity – an area that most probably by the Commission (EC). named species within the area covered This principle blocks countries such as by the order. which guarantees that each EU Licences are then issued to individuals member states’ quota for each species granting them the right to fish the is a constant proportion of the TAC. the UK Conservation Regulations that requires nature conservation bodies to retention curve – the relationship advise relevant authorities as to the between the size of a fish and the conservation objectives for a European probability that it will be captured and marine site and notify them of any retained by a fishing gear (hook. or other Conservation Regulations. ecological processes. for regulated area for species not named example. (See also Directive). contains examples of habitat or and fined (Fig. but is particularly a site designated under the specified in the Regulation.

The through the discs off centre. A how rough the seabed is relative to a second wire ‘groundrope’ passes standardised calibration site. (See Serchuk & Grainger 1992). this information can be stored and prevents the discs from rotating freely. site designation specified in the this equates with a stock being above Habitats Directive . advantage of sudden changes in environmental conditions. Eventually. haddock. 5) with rubber discs or system that distinguishes how hard and ‘wheels’ fitted to the groundrope . The Directive requires a approach to fishery management and management plan to be prepared and the application of limit reference implemented for each SAC to ensure points. rock. Each site is the ‘minimum biologically acceptable designated for one or more of the level’ (MBAL). hake. The concept is habitats and species listed in the fundamental to the ICES precautionary Directive . ie short landed before gutting in contrast to the generation time. sand obstruction the discs try to turn and the and mud. ambient (see CSW). these measure specific features. In combination with of environmental or biological data to special protection areas (SPA). average network. invertebrates but also small fish such as sprats and sand eels. eg cod. eg. second wire gets wound around the groundrope and acts as an RSW – refrigerated seawater tanks: accumulator spring. 65 . rounders – demersal fish such as r-selected species – a species with cod. the the fish holds on pelagic fishing vessels tension becomes too much and as it is are flooded and the waters cooled to a released the trawl ‘hops’ free of the temperature significantly less than obstruction. displayed in plan format on a ‘monitor’ If the groundrope snags a seabed to show areas of. gravel.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 76 rock-hopper trawl – a demersal RoxAnn® – an echo-sounder otter trawl (Fig. haddock and flatfish that are a high reproductive rate. eg sites contribute to the Natura 2000 temperature or salinity regime. eg many whiting. the favourable conservation status of the habitats or species for which it was sampling – the systematic collection designated. size or abundance. These round-fish – demersal species of fish species are usually small with a other than flatfish. and is able to take normal practice of gutting them at sea. (See also K- selected species.) S SAC – special area of conservation: a safe biological limits – in essence. relatively high fecundity.

Sea Fishery Inspectors – the eg inaccessible rocky areas or wrecks. some Fisheries – see STECF. seaweeds. selectivity – a measure of a gear ’s ability to target and capture a species 67 . (See also closed area and enforcing fishery legislation around the NTZ. basking shark. a net that are retained by a given mesh to. Economic Committee on including commercial fish. juvenile animals ‘planted out’ invertebrate species and two for on-growing. in basic design to an otter trawl . in of the UK Biodiversity Action Plan Scotland and Northern Ireland they are (UKBAP) to protect UK priority species part of the devolved governments’civil and habitats . Marine priority species service. eg monitoring the whereabouts of purse seine and beach seine. eg the 500 m radius Sea Fisheries Committee – see exclusion zone around an oil rig. Technical and for any area that can offer any species. measure of protection. In England and Wales the inspectors (British Sea Fishery Officers SAP – species action plans form part – BSFO) are employed by MAFF. small dolphins. In England and Wales. Sea for which plans have been published Fisheries Committees’ (SFC) fishery (UKBG 1999) include: officers also have enforcement powers baleen whales. marine nature reserve (MNR).) ‘selected commercial fish species’. toothed powers of a BSFO. January 2000 by DG Fisheries for vessels over 24 m in length. Some are statutory.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 77 sanctuary area – a colloquial name Scientific. native molluscan shellfish cultivation oyster. The selection curve – the relationship system has the potential capability to describing the rise and subsequent fall monitor whether or not a vessel is in the proportion of fish encountering engaged in fishing. 12 non-commercial industry. limits and fishery protection vessels . seine net – an encircling net that satellite surveillance – a system for may be either a curtain of netting.) Importance. or similar individual fishing vessels in real time. (See also fishery whales. eg The basic system was introduced in demersal seine. Others may occur through nature or chance. or a SFC. is steaming. common skate (Raja batis).) UK coast. (See also mesh selection and SCI – see Site of Community retention curve . or laid. branches of the Government’s fishery either of which can prove a hazard to departments with responsibility for fishing. seed – a colloquial term used in the ‘selected deep-water fishes’. marine turtles. (or fish-hook) size as the fish increase in size. harbour (common) within their individual committee’s district but they do not have the full porpoise.

subject from human activities and is expected to ratification by MAFF. and include a representative of Several Order – an order removing the Environment Agency and someone the public right to fish for named with expertise relevant to nature shellfish normally guaranteed by conservation and environmental Magna Carta (1215). in the broadest sense. It has affected very easily by factors arising the powers to make byelaws. Kent and Essex. fishery management within its district – out to 6 nautical miles from Sensitive Marine Area – see SMA. The order does not fish with a hard outer case or shell.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 78 of fish while allowing juveniles and conservation of local fish stocks and non-target species to escape. m and some over 26 m can fish in the Cornwall. the seabed while it is fishing. All island vessels less than 26 Wales. Shetland Box – an area off the SFC – Sea Fisheries Committees that Orkney and Shetland Isles (Fig. affect the public right to fish within the shellfish poisoning – see ASP.) Half the analysis – see SVPA. Germany and UK fishing for demersal Each committee has responsibilities for species. The chosen method of management is SFI – see Sea Fishery Inspectors . The Order assigns protection. and is both a to recover over a very long time relevant and competent authority with period. vessels from Belgium. MAFF appointees are drawn from the nets. Southern. DSP. 6) operate in 12 ‘districts’ around the within which priority to fish is given to coasts of England and Wales: vessels whose home port is in the Cumbria. recognition of the islanders’ 68 . The Environment Agency exclusive rights to an individual or exercises the authority of a sea organisation to improve and manage fisheries committee in the Severn. baselines. or not at all. North West and North islands. These restrictions are in representing the local fishing industry. tangle and trammel nets . Isles of Scilly. (See also separable virtual population Conservation Regulations . order. T. an area of seabed and ownership of Welsh Dee and Taw-Torridge Estuaries. enhancement. France. area for species not named in the PSP. including responsibility to sensitivity – a very sensitive habitat manage fisheries with due regard to or species is one that is adversely the environment and wildlife. Devon. local fishing industry. usually through cultivation (mariculture ) but it includes stock shellfish – molluscs and Crustacea. membership of each committee is appointed by the coastal local set net – any net that is attached to authorities and the other half by MAFF. area plus 128 ‘Shetland Box’ licensed Sussex. eg J-. respect to the management of special areas for conservation (SAC). South Wales. named species of shellfish living on it. North Eastern. Northumberland. Eastern.

It side-scan sonar – a form of echo.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 79 dependence on fishing for a living. manufacturing methods produce SMA – sensitive marine area: a non. without square mesh – traditional first bringing them aboard. desirable before any development Modern net-making machinery can takes place. into a shrimp trawl to allow shrimps to side-trawler – a traditional design of fall back into the cod-end but diverts many fish to an escape panel in the trawler from which the trawl is top of the trawl.) Directive to safeguard birds. deployed over the side rather than from the stern. 69 . It identifies a tendency for the meshes in diamond- areas of nature conservation interest mesh trawls to close and reduce the for which widespread consultation is effectiveness of mesh selection. – see SSSI. a member of the ray family ( Rajidae). Species Action Plan – see SAP. contributes these sites contribute to the Natura significantly to the maintenance or 2000 network. soak time – a measure of effort (See also derogation and Hague applicable to static/passive fishing gear Preference . but particularly a purse seine. a rare (UKBAP) species. (See also stern. netting that falls most naturally into a statutory nature conservation diamond shape.) SPA. vertical echo-sounder. (See also Special Protection Area – see rays. set nets and pots. in the biogeographic special areas of conservation (SAC). as has been more usual SPA – special protection area: a since the 1960s. and their habitats . Special Area of Conservation – skate – eg common skate (Raja batis) see SAC.) produce square-mesh netting which is less prone to closure under tension. region to which it belongs. In combination with – is a site which. Under tension there is designation for England.) (and Species) Directive . slipping – releasing fish from any net. (See species scheduled in the EU Habitats also seed. restoration at a favourable conservation status of a habitat or spat – juvenile bivalve molluscs. Spawning Stock Biomass – see Site of Special Scientific Interest SSB.) such as drift nets. Site of Community Importance particularly migratory species. (See also MCA. designation specified in the Birds trawler . obliquely and has greater power to discriminate detail than a sorting grid – a rigid grid inserted conventional. is the period of time between the gear being set in its fishing position and sounder that views the seabed being hauled to remove fish.

eg abundance. including ICES’. 2). the STEFC is survival of the stock. The probability is that a wide variety of intertidal nets. It is the (Fig. set nets . number of recruits joining that stock in stake net – a colloquial term for a later years. expected to consider the socio- depends. Ireland is Area of Special Scientific stock and recruitment – the Interest (ASSI). Unlike total weight of all sexually mature fish ICES working groups and ACFM in a population or stock. relationship between these two extremes is not well understood. Technical and Economic Committee on Fisheries of SSB – spawning stock biomass: the the EC. an area of land notified under the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981) as stern-trawler – a trawler that shoots being of special nature conservation or and hauls its net from the stern rather geological or physiographic interest. DG Fisheries (Fig. economic implications of modifying or varying scientific. Crustacea pots. 3) which only consider stock sexually mature part of an exploited assessments and management from a population upon which the future scientific perspective. than over the side as was more usual The designation SSSI applies up to the 1960-70s. depleted stock will produce fewer including salmon traps. and its fishery. ie distribution. throughout Great Britain. stock biomass – the total weight of Statutory Instrument – a all fish of all ages in a given document bringing into force. SSSI – site of special scientific interest: advice. long-lines.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 80 There are an increasing number of variation to existing legislation without management measures that require the need for Parliament to amend the square-mesh panels to be built into the primary legislation. traps . investigation. as a result of an Order in Council . The equivalent designation in Northern stock – see fish stock . moved through the water. analysis and numerical description of the recent history and static gear – any form of fishing gear current state of a fish stock and the that operates without being towed or fishery that exploits it. STECF – the Scientific. size or age structure. usually population or stock. a 70 . fishing effort. Sites are notified by the notional relationship between the size appropriate nature conservation of the (parent) spawning stock and the agency. standing stock – the total number or biomass of a population at a given stock assessment – the time. catch rates etc. that are held in recruits than an abundant stock of the shape and position by stakes driven same species but the nature of the into the seabed. top of demersal trawls to facilitate the escape of juvenile and undersize fish.

advantages and disadvantages of alternative actions (IUCN 1980). of the living and national quota is taken. surplus production – the quantity Development integrating into all the of fish resulting from growth plus relevant sectoral policies. in particular by surveillance (fishery) – the allotting a value to environmental operational activities of Sea Fish resources in order to identify and 71 . surveillance.) Crustacea and molluscs. and of the suction dredge – see hydraulic long-term as well as short-term dredge and air-lift . and seeking to satisfy available to support a sustainable the needs of the present and future fishery. non-living resource base. the quantity of fish lost through natural implications of economic growth on mortality (M). sustainability – meeting the needs of Structural Funds – the EU multi. Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish (See also monitoring and sampling. as well catches and closing fisheries once the as economic ones. the present without compromising the annual budget for reducing social and ability of future generations to meet economic inequality across the their own needs (WCED 1987 – the Community.) sustainable development – sublittoral – depths greater than the development that meets the needs of intertidal zone (Fig.) Stocks (1995). monitoring national social and ecological factors. surveillance (scientific) – the conduct straddling stocks – any stock of fish of field surveys with post hoc detection that migrates regularly across of trends followed by explanation of international jurisdictional boundaries those trends. Their sufficient rigour and regularity to detect management is covered by the any change in the attribute or species provisions of the UN Convention on for which a site has been designated. particularly salmon.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 81 stock enhancement – any measure Inspectors and fishery protection that will improve the abundance of the vessels to ensure that national and EU stock but more generally applied to fishery regulations are observed and hatchery rearing and release to the implemented. (See also Objective x Brundtland Report). the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet subsidiarity – devolution by the EU their own needs (WCED 1987 – The of responsibility to national or local Brundtland Report). funding. generations equitably. but particularly highly migratory monitoring and/or sampling with species such as tunas. 1). (See also satellite wild of fish. Also (nature conservation). It is the quantity of fish the environment. at national recruitment each year that exceeds the and international level. government for meeting and enforcing Development that takes account of EU policies.

) the effects of time (trends) from current activity in estimating fishing mortality rates (F). can escape – (see gill nets) while others. (See also optimum mesh selection of whiting relative stability and track record. attached to a headline much shorter marketable whiting could escape. Dover sole. net hangs in loose folds. (See also model differs from VPA by ‘separating’ environmentally sustainable fisheries . sustainable fisheries – fisheries sustainable yield – see sustainable with an annual catch.) stake-net salmon trap that is worked target species – the primary species on the east coasts of Scotland and NE of fish that a fishing vessel aims to England. eg cod and whiting quantity of fish that can be taken from or plaice and sole. the demersal fisheries. eg herring or mackerel. than the length of netting so that the Naturally. but it J-net ). Some fish are Similarly. EU member states are the optimum minimum mesh size allocated a fixed proportion of the TAC (MMS) in a cod fishery is too large for as their national quota. fish population life-tables as a basis for Fisheries can be sustainable at levels of assessing the current status of a stock stock significantly below the stock that and forecasting the probable would support MSY or MEY but only if consequences of adopting various managers pay full regard to limit fishery management options.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 82 evaluate the economic activities on the sustainable catch – see sustainable environment (EC 1999). each stock each year. including through much smaller meshes than can Crustacea . that does not exceed the surplus production of the stock (ie SVPA – separable virtual population annual growth plus recruitment less analysis: a procedure for constructing the annual natural mortality – M). ) which are a more slender and smaller tangle net – a bottom-set net that is species. which is an trapped by the operculum – gill cover extremely supple fish. This reference points . including fisheries. become enmeshed in the a plaice of the same length. T T-net – a type of intertidal / coastal loose netting. too many large. is usually a group of species in TAC – total allowable catch. The trap is set across the catch during a given fishing operation. the converse is also true. (See also species. Thus. For example. (See also trammel nets . fisheries. The figure is technical interactions – the inter- agreed by the Fisheries Council of action of one technical management Ministers each December for the measure with another. following year. discards. These 72 . outer end of a ‘leader’ wall of netting – In pelagic fisheries this can be a single thereby forming a ‘T’ shape.

Often a prerequisite to being fishing power. eg minimum mesh sizes similar. eg Norway. engine power. (See also Territorial Sea – the area of sea Graham’s Great Law . They penetrate soft fundamental shortcoming in single. (See also chain matrix . Throughout behind a tractor to gather cockles from the last quarter of the 20th century this the intertidal area at low water. plaice. and enter the trawl. a central sheet normally 12 nautical miles from (the lint) with small meshes baselines (Fig. This applies to all allocated a quota at national. Poland.) individual (eg scallop) dredges and the total mortality – see Z. seabeds and disturb – ‘tickle’ – flatfish species TAC-quota management and buried there and cause them to rise up mixed-fishery mesh regulations. (See also resource (fishery) that was open to all- elasmobranch. three layers of netting. through improved designs for tractor dredge – a modified propellers.) measures aimed primarily at the equipment used in fishing rather than tooth bar – the lower front edge to the time and place they fish or what the mouth of a scallop dredge or they catch. Otter trawls can be rigged with 2-3 tickler chains but a technical conservation heavy beam trawl may have as many measures – fishery management as twelve.) over which the coastal state exercises jurisdiction (as permitted by the UN trammel nets – set nets made from Convention on the Law of the Sea). ‘creep’ was estimated to average about 2-3% per year. It the mouth of a trawl in front of the becomes trapped – trammelled – in 73 . width of Newhaven dredge. number towed by one boat.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 83 technical interactions highlight a ground-rope . (1968) which argued that any natural eg herring. Mauritania small mesh layer through a mesh of etc.1).) track record – a record of catches taken or participating in a particular technical / technology creep – fishery going back a specified number the continual increase in efficiency of of years. sandwiched between two outer sheets (armouring) of large mesh netting.) comers was doomed to over- exploitation and collapse. to ever more precise and agricultural potato digger towed accurate navigation aids. (See also biological conservation measures . stronger twine in trawl construction. cod. the second large mesh layer to form a tickler chain – a heavy chain across pocket with the small mesh net. Tragedy of the Commons – the title of a seminal essay by Hardin teleost – a fish with a bony skeleton. A third country – countries that are fish swims through the first outer not members of the European Union layer’s meshes and pushes the inner (EU). (See also French and (MMS). regional aspects of fishing operations from or individual boat level.

turf community – the populations of animals (and plants) that often grow trawl – a large. within 200 miles of baselines over which the UK exercises certain rights under-reporting – failure to meet and jurisdictions. funnel-shaped net closely together and encrust rocks and (Fig. (See also transhipping – the process of demersal trawl and pelagic trawl . weights along the the centre by a shared bridle or at the groundrope and is pulled open wing ends. It is traps – any form of static gear that used to catch surface swimming catches fish by enclosing them and pelagic species such as mackerel and preventing their escape but without tuna. trolling – a method of hook-and-line Also known as klondiking.) passing fish from the catching vessel to a factory ship or carrier vessel off. 1). holding them fast as with gill nets or long-lines. ashore. The UK obligations under the UN Convention Government does not claim an on Biodiversity (1992) A wide range of exclusive economic zone (EEZ) (Fig. to fish side by side when towed by a single boat. The catch still counts against the catching vessel’s (national) quota. 5) that is towed through the water other habitats. action plans (SAP) are being implemented to help safeguard and UNCLOS – the UN Convention on improve the conservation status of the Law of the Sea that provides for the priority habitats and priority species . regulation and management of all UK Waters – include all tidal waters living resources and the establishment of exclusive economic zones (EEZ). the Government’s programme states under the UN Convention on the aimed at meeting some of its Law of the Sea (UKBG 1999). ) to the towing wires (warps) or two boats pulling one warp each.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 84 this pocket. trawler – a fishing boat that tows a shore without ever putting the catch trawl. The mouth of the net is held open by a beam twin rig – an arrangement of what is (beam trawl ) or floats along the essentially two otter trawls joined in headline. habitat action plans ( HAP) and species Ulim – see limit reference points. (See also gill nets and laterally either by the doors attached tangle nets. U UKBAP – the UK Biodiversity Action waters is subject to the rights of other Plan. fishing where the lines are trailed out behind a boat that is underway. by single or paired boats. The extent of the legal requirement under the CFP to potential action by the UK in these report fully and accurately all the fish 74 .

construct fish population life-tables as Annual Guidance Programme (MAGP). a formula (MAFF. but genetics etc).Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 85 that have been caught and landed. Most vagrant species (telson) of egg-bearing lobsters. eg cod. Participation is open to not the pelagic. any accredited scientist from any ICES member state. The notch is lost at moulting.45 engine power (kW) animals. oil-rich species.) currents. It is an offence for anyone to (See also misreporting and black-fish. (MLS).) retain or offer for sale undersize fish.) W warps – the heavy wires with which stocks (eg North Atlantic Salmon WG). 3) to assess the status of particular and sustainability. (See also keep box. a basis for assessing the current status vivier – a term used to describe boats of a stock and forecasting the probable consequences of adopting various and lorries that carry live fish. but fishery management options. (See also MNR. by migration or drift with marine nature reserve. beyond their natural range but have not established self-sustaining V-notch – a notch put in the tail fan populations. ecology. 5). or specific aspect of fishery science or white fish – any of the demersal technology (eg acoustics. to the sea but some Sea Fisheries Committees (SFC) have byelaws VCU – vessel capacity units: making it an offence to land such [length (m) x breadth (m)] + 0. Crustacea in particular. In found in UK waters are from warmer some areas there are voluntary waters to the south and west of the agreements to return notched animals British Isles. plaice. haddock. than the legal minimum landing size V vagrant species – species that have VMNR – voluntary (ie non-statutory) strayed. 75 . Participants are Working Group (ICES) – ad hoc expected to assess the available data committees convened by one or more impartially and give priority of the ICES standing committees consideration to stock conservation (Fig. species. fisheries (eg Arctic Fisheries WG). undersize fish – any fish that is less Upa – see limit reference points. boats tow trawls (Fig. 1999) standardising VPA – virtual population analysis: a different classes of fishing vessels as an mathematical procedure with which to aid to meeting targets of the Multi.

but more currents. ie Z = F + M. individual fish that is recruited to the exploited stock.) simply. eg the ‘1998 year-class’. total mortality (the natural logarithm of mostly microscopic.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 86 Y year class – all the fish in a yield per recruit – the mean long- population that were spawned in the term yield in weight from every same year. the instantaneous rate of zooplankton – all the animals. the proportion of the population dying each year through natural causes (M) and as a result of fishing (F). Z Z – formally. (See also phytoplankton . 76 . that swim in mid the change in abundance due to water but drift to-and-fro with the fishing per unit of time).

D. Allaby. 1995. Butcher. HMSO. No 1-2. K. Dictionary of Biology. Policy Appraisal and the Environment: a guide for government departments. A. K. Oxford University Press. G. The Concise Oxford Dictionary 6th Edition. 1998. 1999. In: Jamieson. 1995. Peterborough. Borchardt. C. 1993. Coffey.B. (ed). DOE. The Chambers Dictionary.. 1993. Marine protected areas in Britain: a conceptual problem? Ocean & Coastal Management Vol 27. Sustainable Development and the EC Fisheries Sector: an introduction to the issues. Oxford University Press.. Institute for European Environmental Policy. N. 1980. Chambers Harrap Publishers. Interactions between Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and cod (Gadus morhua) and their fisheries in the Irish Sea. Brussels. & Bourne. 1999. M. Anon. Anon. & Bennett. European Commission. London. Brander. CD-ROM. London. United Nations Conference of Environment & Development. Rio de Janeiro. 1997.. 1985. London. The ABC of Community Law. 1986. JNCC. HMSO.M. DOE. (eds. 1998. Reading England..-D.. Anon. Earll. The United Nations Convention on Biodiversity. The Precautionary Principle: making it work in practice.. 1992. Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press. The Trawlermen.. Biodiversity: The UK Steering Group Report – Volume I: meeting the Rio Challenge.S. R.. Dictionary of Ecology 2nd Edition.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 87 References and Further Reading Anon.. 1978. Workshop 77 . Dictionary of Law. Cole-King. Edinburgh.) North Pacific workshop on stock assessment and management of invertebrates. CBD 1992. D. 109-127. European Marine Sites Handbook: guidance on the management of marine Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and marine Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in the UK. Tops’l Books. Anon. Canadian Special Publication in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 92.

eu.htm. J. English Nature (UK Marine SACs Project) Graham. 1995. S. London.). English Nature (UK Marine SACs Project). & Knapman. P. Gubbay. N. Edward Arnold.. 1988. 1979. www. Gray.. The Mission of DG Fisheries and the Common Fisheries Policy.S. Eno. Graham. (Eds. Coastal directory for marine nature conservation.asp Fowler. L 206.L. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament/*Com/99/0363 final*/ EC. 1943. EC.europa. The Hungry Ocean. M. Joint Nature Conservation Committee.fao. 1996. FAO (Current). (Current). Gubbay. Fisheries Glossary. 1999. J. Faber and Faber. UK. London. Marine Conservation Society.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 88 Report.. 768-71. Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of Natural habitats and of Wild Flora and Fauna. London. EC... L. FAO. Peterborough. Ross-on-Wye. www. Clark. 1999. 1956. Marine Pollution Bulletin 32. Precautionary approach to fisheries Part 1: guidelines on the precautionary approach to capture fisheries and species introductions. Towards a scientific definition of the precautionary principle. Sceptre Paperbacks (Hodder & Stoughton). Guidelines for managing the collection of bait and other shoreline animals with UK European marine sites. Official Journal No. UK.M. S. 1997. Official Journal No. 78 .A.. The Environment Council. S. L 103. Fisheries Management and Nature Conservation in the Marine Environment. A review of the effects of fishing within the UK European marine sites. & Sanderson. 1992. R.A. 1999. Council Directive 79/409/EEC on the Conservation of Wild Birds.. S ea Fisheries: their investigation in the United Kingdom. & Bewers. The Fish Gate. 1999.C. G. EC. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 350/1 . Non native marine species in British waters: a review and directory.

FAO/UNESCO. Constable. D.. IUCN Red List Categories. Fisheries Ecologically Sustainable Development: Terms and Concepts. IUCN-UNEP-WWF. d’A. Blackwell Science. Gland.. Common Standards for Monitoring Designated Sites. 1998b. Jones. London. 1968. Science.iucn. Holden. & Bines. Study Group on the Biology and Assessment of Deep-Sea Fisheries Resources. conservation and protection. Peterborough. A recommended approach to their identification. M. ICES. Harden. Fishing News Books. IUCN. D. Cardiff and Edinburgh. 1994. 1963. www. habitats and species. 1998. Tasker. Joint Nature Conservation Committee Peterborough. Leftwich. 1998. Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development. Review of the Licensing of UK Registered Fishing Vessels: Report of a Joint Departmental/Industry Working Group. T.. 1999.L. MAFF. (Current) ACFM – Introduction to ICES Advice. www. English Nature Research Report 392. Institute of Antarctic and Southern Ocean Studies.ices. Report on the Precautionary Approach to Fisheries Management. 1996. Peterborough. World Conservation Strategy. 2000. The Common Fisheries Policy – the Tragedy of the commons.. Laffoley. K..Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 89 Hardin. Belfast. ICES. Luxembourg. 1998a.W. 1980. IUCN.W. ICES Council Meeting 1998 / ACFM: 12. G. ICES Council Meeting 1998 / ACFM: 10.htm. 79 . JNCC. Hobart. The European Union – a guide for students and teachers. A. Oxford. ICES. Prepared for the DETR Working Group on the Review of Marine Nature Conservation by English Nature and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee. (Current). Government Fisheries Departments London. M. Hiscock. Tasmania. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. 1994. Nationally important seascapes. Switzerland.pdf IUCN. F.R. 162. Joint Nature Conservation Committee. evaluation and future. A Student’s Dictionary of Zoology.htm/introduc. Maughan. J.

Science and Management of Protected Areas Association. Lowestoft. Europe from A to Z – Guide to European Integration. Tyler. Parliament – Great Britain. M. Luxembourg. HMSO. &c. Assessment Report on Fisheries and Fisheries Related Species and Habitat Issues. and Grainger. Statutory Instruments (1994 / 2716). UKBG. UK Biodiversity Group: Tranche 2 Action Plans – maritime species and habitats. 1981 Wildlife and Countryside Act (as amended 1985).. nova Soctia. Weidenfeld.). Canada. Wolfville. Parliament – Great Britain. 1997. Historical Background (1976-1990) and the new form of ACFM Advice (1991+). Science Series. N.E.. S. Schackell.. 1987. Fishing Gear in the European Community. 1975.. Parliament – Great Britain. H. 1985 Food and Environment Protection Act. A review of closed areas in the United Kingdom Exclusive Economic Zone.. W. 1997. London. (Eds. S. UK.L. 80 . & Willison. S. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 191. HMSO. CEFAS. Robin Teverson’s A-Z of Fishing Policy 1996. World Commission on Environment and Development. 1995. Norway. Dorchester. W. HMSO. F. European Commission. 1996. 1994 The Conservation (Natural habitats.Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 90 Nédélec.M. C.. Computation and Interpretation of Biological Statistics of Fish Populations.) Regulations 1994.H.. Liberal Democrat Publications. 1999. Svelle. 1992. Office for Official Publications of European Communities. London. Technical Report 106. and Øverland.M. English Nature. WCED. H. Brussels. J.. Aarefjord. Rogers. Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report). Serchuk. Peterborough. London. 1997.. ICES Council Meeting 1992 / Assessments: 20. Heir.R. Ricker. 1996. Marine Protected Areas and Sustainable Fisheries.I. J. Oslo. Oxford University Press.T. Ministry of Environment. Development of the basis and form of ICES Fisheries Management Advice. W and Wessels.

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 91 1 .

Glossary 1/3/02 11:25 am Page 92 1 .