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92 A Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections One–Twenty 101–102

Grammar for Section 5A–B

In this section you cover:
c Imperfect indicative, active and middle: ъ½̝̰̫̩, ̡ʰ½̝̰ң̨̣̩
c Augments
c Position of adjectives

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Ensure you know the meaning of:
̝Ѧ̯̥̫̭, ̞ҡ̫̭, ̟қ̨̫̭, ̠ҡ̦̣, ѓ̠ҥ̭, ѧ½½̫̭, Ѳ̡̱ҡ̴̧, ½̝̯ҟ̬, ̧̦̫қ̴̢, ̩ҝ̫̭, ½̡ҡ̨̤̫̝̥

THE IMPERFECT TENSE

Imperfect indicative active
101. The forms of the imperfect active are as follows:

ἔ-παυ-ον ‘I was stopping’
ъ-½̝̰-̫̩ ‘I was stopping, I used to stop, I stopped’
ъ-½̝̰-̡̭ ‘you (s.) were stopping, used to stop, stopped’
ъ-½̝̰-̡(̩) ‘he/she/it was stopping, used to stop, stopped’
̡ʰ-½̝̰ʞ-̨̡̫̩ ‘we were stopping, used to stop, stopped’
̡ʰ-½̝̰ʞ-̡̡̯ ‘you (pl.) were stopping, used to stop, stopped’
ъ-½̝̰-̫̩ ‘they were stopping, used to stop, stopped’

Imperfect indicative middle
102. The forms of the imperfect middle are as follows:

εʰ-παυ-όμην, ‘I was stopping (myself)’
̡ʰ-½̝̰-ң̨̣̩ ‘I was stopping, I used to stop, I stopped (myself)’
̡ʰ-½̝̰ʞ-̫̰ ‘you (s.) were stopping, used to stop, stopped (yourself)’
̡ʰ-½̝̰ʞ-̡̯̫ ‘he/she/it was stopping, used to stop, stopped (him/her/itself)’
̡ʰ-½̝̰-ң̨̡̤̝ ‘we were stopping, used to stop, stopped (ourselves)’
̡ʰ-½̝̰ʞ-̡̡̮̤ ‘you (pl.) were stopping, used to stop, stopped (yourselves)’
̡ʰ-½̝̰ʞ-̫̩̯̫ ‘they were stopping, used to stop, stopped (themselves)’

Form
(a) Note the prefix of the stem, ц-. This is called the augment (104–5).
(b) Look back at 52. There it was asserted that there were two forms of the
middle ending, one being:
© -̨̝̥ -̮̝̥ -̯̝̥ -̨̡̤̝ -̡̮̤ -̩̯̝̥

Downloaded from Cambridge Books Online by IP 137.132.123.69 on Thu Jun 27 15:11:50 WEST 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511814129.003
Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press, 2013

‘I used to stop’ or simply ‘I stopped’. the use of the imperfect implies that ‘I stopped’ (i. http://dx. Rather. So here: the 2s. then. ц̨̝̩̤қ̨̡̩̫̩ 2. ̡̧̡̦̰ʞ̴ ĺ ̡ʰ-̡̦ʞ̧̡̰-̫̩. ‘I was going. ah. the augment takes the form of ̡ʰ-. e.g. used to go. ‘used to stop’ or ‘kept stopping’) on a continual basis or more than once. that in the last case. though.123. The new tense you meet in this section is called the imperfect. ъ½̝̰̫̩ (the imperfect of ½̝̰ʞ̴) could be translated ‘I was stopping’. c Depending on context. Translate into English. recall. ъ̡̱̬̫̩ (two possibilities) 5.is NOT added.102–104 Grammar for Section 5A–B 93 Here. the inter- vocalic ̮ dropped out leaving ц½̝ҥ-̡-̫. repeated or uncompleted actions in the past – something that was happening. ordered’ ̞̝ҡ̴̩ ĺ ъ-̞̝̥̩-̫̩. however. which contracted into ц½̝ҥ̫̰. ‘I was ordering.g.69 on Thu Jun 27 15:11:50 WEST 2013.e.org/10. used to order. went’ n Augments as lengthened vowel (b) If the verb starts with a vowel. The word ‘imperfect’ comes from a Latin word meaning ‘incomplete’.doi. ̡ʰ. ъ½̡̝̰ 4. n Augments in ц- (a) When the verb begins with a consonant. e.003 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press. ‘Augment’ means ‘growth’ or ‘increase’ and is so named because the addi- tion of an augment generally causes the verb to increase in size. was originally ц½̝ҥ-̡-̮̫. (d) There were also wise words at 52 about the 2s. ц̧қ̨̡̞̝̩̭ Form n The augment 104. then convert into the middle equivalent: 1. ц̸̡̡̤̯ 3. ‘I stopped him going into the house every day.g.1017/CBO9780511814129. c The imperfect is used to describe continuing. is the second: © -̨̣̩ -̮̫ -̯̫ -̨̡̤̝ -̡̮̤ -̩̯̫ (c) Note the recurrence of the thematic vowels ̫ ̡ ̡ ̫ ̡ ̫ (16b). © The distinguishing mark of an indicative verb in the past is the pres- ence of an augment at the front of the verb. c Note. Downloaded from Cambridge Books Online by IP 137.132. 2013 . and intervocalic sigmas which you will well. began to happen or kept happening. e. Meaning 103.’ E X ER C I S E 5A–B: 1. used to happen. this initial vowel will lengthen if it can. then.

Learn the most common example.g. used to set free. ъ̲̫̰̮̥̩ 5. ̡҂̲̫̩̯̝̥ 3. Translate and convert the following presents into the equivalent imper- fect form: 1. imperfect: ̡Ѩ̲̫̩. enjoyed’ Augment summary 105. ‘I have’. e. iota is traditionally written subscript after a long vowel (e.69 on Thu Jun 27 15:11:50 WEST 2013. used to live. listened’ ̡ʰ̧̡̡̰̤̬ң̴ ĺ ̣ʰ̧̡̡̰̤ʞ̬̫̰̩ ‘I was setting free. had’. Ԕ).003 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press. used to listen. The following chart summarises the rules of augmentation for verbs begin- ning with vowels: unaugmented vowel augmented vowel ! ̝ ̣ ̡ ̣ ! ӛ Ӫ ̝̥ ̡̥ ̫ ̴ ! ̴ ̡̰ ! ̝̰ ̣̰ E XE RC I S E 5A–B: 2.123. Ѳ̡̱ҡ̧̡̥ 2. used to have. lived’ (i) Note that. ѓ̮̰̲̝ʞ̴̢ ĺ ѓ̮̰ʞ̢̲̝̫̩ ‘I was keeping quiet.has the augment ̡̥ʰ. as in the last example. this vowel simply remains long in the imperfect too. set free’ oѢ̡̦ʞ̴ ĺ ӌ̦̫̰̩ ‘I was living.org/10. ‘I was having. (c) If a verb already begins with a long vowel.132. used to enjoy.94 A Grammar. (ii) A handful of verbs beginning in ̡ʰ. which is ъ̴̲. used to keep quiet.(rather than ̣ʰ). http://dx. 2013 . Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections One–Twenty 104–105 ̝ʰ̦̫ҥ̴ ĺ і̦̫̰-̫̩ ‘I was listening. kept quiet’ ї̨̠̫̝̥ ĺ ѓ̠ң̨̣̩ ‘I was enjoying. Ѳ̧̫̱ҥ̡̡̬̮̤ Downloaded from Cambridge Books Online by IP 137.1017/CBO9780511814129. Ӫ.g.doi. ж̦̫ҥ̨̡̫̩ 4.

ж½Ӭ̟̫̩ (two possibilities) THE IMPERFECT OF CONTRACT VERBS 106. NOT to any prefixes it may have acquired. ** Note that ̡ʰ̦.69 on Thu Jun 27 15:11:50 WEST 2013. do’. http://dx.105 Grammar for Section 5A–B 95 Augment and prefix There is an important rule applying to augment and prefixes: © The augment is added to the base verb. the prefix recovers its basic form ̡ʰ̩.003 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press.132. contract verbs (such as ½̡̫̥ʞ̴. Translate and convert into the equivalent present forms: 1.1017/CBO9780511814129.g. Remember that these contractions follow predictable patterns (see 25): Downloaded from Cambridge Books Online by IP 137. *** Note that with e. ж½ҝ̡̡̦̯̥̩̭ 5.changes to ̡ʰ̪.123. 2013 . The exception to the above rule is ½̡̬̥-. Observe how other prefixes react to the addition of an aug- ment: ̝ʰ½̫̞̝ҡ̴̩ ̝ʰ½̫* + ъ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ĺ ̝ʰ½̡ʞ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ̡̥ʰ̮̞̝ҡ̴̩ ̡̥ʰ̭ + ъ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ĺ ̡̥ʰ̡̮ʞ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ̡ʰ̦̞̝ҡ̴̩ ̡ʰ̦** + ъ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ĺ ̡ʰ̡̪ʞ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ̡ʰ̨̞̝ҡ̴̩ ̡ʰ̩*** + ъ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ĺ ̡ʰ̡̩ʞ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ̡ʰ½̥̞̝ҡ̴̩ ̡ʰ½̥* + ъ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ĺ ̡ʰ½̡ʞ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ̦̝̯̝̞̝ҡ̴̩ ̦̝̯̝* + ъ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ĺ ̡̦̝̯ʞ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ½̡̬̥̞̝ҡ̴̩ ½̡̬̥* + ъ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ĺ ½̡̡̬̥ʞ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ½̬̫̞̝ҡ̴̩ ½̬̫* + ъ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ĺ ½̡̬̫ʞ̞̝̥̩̫̩ or ½̬̫҂̞̝̥̩̫̩ ̨̡̯̝̞̝ҡ̴̩ ̨̡̯̝* + ъ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ĺ ̨̡̡̯ʞ̞̝̥̩̫̩ ̡ʰ̧̡̟̦̝ʞ̴ ̡ʰ̩*** + ц̧̦̘̫̰̩ ĺ ̡ʰ̡̧̩̦̘̫̰̩ * Note that all two-syllable prefixes ending in a vowel drop their final vowel before an aug- ment. ̨̯̥̝ʞ̴.org/10. ‘I honour’ and ‘̧̠̣ң̴’. ̡̡̠̥̱̤ҡ̨̡̬̫̩ 2. E XER CI S E 5A–B: 3. reveal’) also contract in the imperfect. ̦̝̯ҝ̡̞̝̥̩ 4.before a vowel. Thus ̠̥̝̞̝ҡ̴̩ becomes ̠̥-̡ʞ-̞̝̥̩̫̩ in the imperfect and ̡̥ʰ̮̞̝ҡ̴̩ becomes ̡̥ʰ̮-̡ʞ-̞̝̥̩̫̩. ‘I make.doi. ̡ʰ̴̨̛̞̝̩ and ̡ʰ̴̧̟̦̝̙. ̡Ѣ̡̮̱ҝ̡̡̬̯ 3. ½̬̫.also can stay unchanged. As in the present. ‘I show.

made’ ἐ-ποίε-ες > ἐποίεις ‘you (s. honoured’ ἐ-τῑ´μα-ε > ἐτῑ´μα ‘he/she/it was honouring. honoured’ ἐ-τῑ´μα-ες > ἐτῑ´μας ‘you (s. showed’ ἐ-δηλό-ετε > ἐδηλοῦτε ‘you (pl. used to make. revealing’ (ο-contract verb) ἐ-δήλο-ον > ἐδήλουν ‘I was showing. ‘I was showing. honoured’ ἐ-τῑ´μα-ον > ἐτῑ´μων ‘they were honouring. used to make. made’ ἐ-ποιέ-ετε > ἐποιεῖτε ‘you (pl. used to make.96 A Grammar. used to honour.) were honouring.) were honouring. made’ ἐ-ποίε-ον > ἐποίουν ‘they were making. used to show. used to make. showed’ ἐ. used to show.δήλο-ες > ἐδήλους ‘you (s. used to honour. used to show.doi. used to show.) were showing. used to honour.1017/CBO9780511814129. http://dx. doing’ (ε-contract verb) ἐ-ποίε-ον > ἐποίουν ‘I was making. used to show.123. showed’ ἐ-δήλο-ε > ἐδήλου ‘he/she/it was showing. used to honour. ‘I was honouring’ (α-contract verb) ἐ-τῑ´μα-ον > ἐτῑ´μων ‘I was honouring.) were making. made’ ἐ-ποίε-ε > ἐποίει ‘he/she/it was making.) were making. made’ ἐδήλουν. Note once more that these verbs contract in the imperfect in the same way as in the present (53). Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections One–Twenty 106–107 Active contract verbs ἐτῑ´μων. showed’ ἐ-δήλο-ον > ἐδήλουν ‘they were showing.132. showed’ Middle contract verbs 107.org/10. honoured’ ἐ-τῑμά-ετε > ἐτῑμᾶτε ‘you (pl. honoured’ ἐποίουν ‘I was making.003 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press. used to honour. 2013 .69 on Thu Jun 27 15:11:50 WEST 2013. showed’ ἐ-δηλό-ομεν > ἐδηλοῦμεν ‘we were showing. used to make. used to make. made’ ἐ-ποιέ-ομεν > ἐποιοῦμεν ‘we were making. used to show. The forms of the imperfect middle contract verbs are as follows.) were showing. used to honour. ‘I was watching’ (α-contract verb) ἐ-θεα-όμην > ἐθεώμην ἐ-θεά-ου > ἐθεῶ ἐ-θεά-ετο > ἐθεᾶτο ἐ-θεα-όμεθα > ἐθεώμεθα ἐ-θεά-εσθε > ἐθεᾶσθε ἐ-θεά-οντο > ἐθεῶντο Downloaded from Cambridge Books Online by IP 137. honoured’ ἐ-τῑμά-ομεν > ἐτῑμῶμεν ‘we were honouring. ἐθεώμην.

but what would it be in the present? c The answer is that it could represent α. to form the imperfect you add an augment to the beginning of the verb and the correct imperfect personal ending.123. the present stem of the verb may be more difficult to ascertain.132. ἠκούομεν has the ending -ομεν (‘we’). but what of ἠ-κού-? c The initial ἠ. ‘I was enslaving’ (ο-contract verb) ἐ-δουλο-όμην > ἐδουλούμην ἐ-δουλό-ου > ἐδουλοῦ ἐ-δουλό-ετο > ἐδουλοῦτο ἐ-δουλο-όμεθα > ἐδουλούμεθα ἐ-δουλό-εσθε > ἐδουλοῦσθε ἐ-δουλό-οντο > ἐδουλοῦντο Identifying imperfects: removing the augment 108. http://dx. Downloaded from Cambridge Books Online by IP 137. you will need to be able to work out its present form in order to look it up in the dictionary. διέβαινες = δι-έ-βαιν-ες from διαβαίνω. ‘I/they say. n Verbs augmented with ἐ- ἐ. ἐκου.doi.69 on Thu Jun 27 15:11:50 WEST 2013.1017/CBO9780511814129.or ἠκου-.must represent the augment.g. In other words. speaking’.augments should generally be easy to deal with: ἔλεγον = ἔ-λεγ-ον from λέγω. So if you meet an unfa- miliar verb in the imperfect. etc.003 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press. Now the dictionary form of any verb is the present.107–108 Grammar for Section 5A–B 97 ἐφοβούμην. speak’ Therefore ἔλεγον = ‘I was/they were saying. e. ‘I was fearing (ε-contract verb)’ ἐ-φοβε-όμην > ἐφοβούμην ἐ-φοβέ-ου > ἐφοβοῦ ἐ-φοβέ-ετο > ἐφοβεῖτο ἐ-φοβε-όμεθα > ἐφοβούμεθα ἐ-φοβέ-εσθε > ἐφοβεῖσθε ἐ-φοβέ-οντο > ἐφοβοῦντο ἐδουλούμην. ε or η in the present (105). you will have to reverse the process of forming the imperfect from the present: you must learn to form the present from the imperfect. n Verbs augmented with a long vowel If the imperfect form begins with a long vowel. 2013 . As you have seen. the present stem of the verb could be ἀκου-. ‘I go through’ Therefore διέβαινες = ‘you were going through’. The imperfect is based on the present stem of the verb.org/10. c Therefore. etc.

Learn the irregular past of the verb ‘to be’: ἦ or ἦν ‘I was’ ἦ or ἦν ‘I was’ ἦσθα ‘you (s.) were’ ἦν ‘he/she/it was’ ἦμεν ‘we were’ ἦτε (ἦστε) ‘you (pl. or put another way an incomplete rather than a completed action. etc. ἐμένομεν 6. The more you study the language. ἐγίγνωσκεν 12. ἠλευθέρουν (two ways) 3. listen (to)’. ἐποίει Downloaded from Cambridge Books Online by IP 137. Different meanings of the imperfect 109. no alternative but to hunt under all the possibilities in your dictionary (in the above case. You may find.69 on Thu Jun 27 15:11:50 WEST 2013. http://dx. unfortu- nately. e.132. ἦν (two ways) 2. which allows you to work out that: ἠκούομεν = ‘we were hearing. Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections One–Twenty 108–110 c No doubt you recognise one of these stems as belonging to a verb with which you are familiar. ὤφειλες 4. The past of ‘to be’ 110. ἐκου.003 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press. you do not recognise any of the stems you are left with! In that case there is. The imperfect tense can be translated in the following ways: ‘I was ------ing’ ‘I kept on ------ing’ ‘I used to ------’ ‘I tried to ------’ ‘I continued ------ing’ ‘I began ------ing’ © Note that all these meanings denote an action which the speaker wishes to characterise as continuing or repeated in the past: a process rather than an event.98 A Grammar. listening to’. ἀκούει 5. ἐτιμῶμεν 8. ἔπαυε 7. of course. ἐδήλους 10.g.and ἠκου-) until you find a suitable can- didate. ‘I hear.) were’ ἦσαν ‘they were’ E XE RC I S E S 5A–B: 4.1017/CBO9780511814129. ἐποίουν (two ways) 9. ἀκου-. κολάζεις 11. namely ἀκούω. 2013 .org/10. Translate: 1.123. the more you will develop a good instinct for where to look first.doi. that. when you have removed the augment.

Observe the subtle Greek use of the position of the adjective in relation to its noun + definite article to indicate a slightly different meaning: (a) ὁ σοφὸς ἀνήρ or ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ σοφός ‘the wise man’ BUT: (b) σοφὸς ὁ ἀνήρ or ὁ ἀνὴρ σοφός ‘the man [is] wise’ The distinction applies to all cases of the noun. κωλύω. φαίνομαι. ἐδουλοῦντο 12. 1.110–111 Grammar for Section 5A–B 99 5A–B: 5. 2013 . They were conversing (διαλέγομαι) ’PREDICATIVE’ ADJECTIVES 111. ‘the expense she caused was great’ Downloaded from Cambridge Books Online by IP 137. He used to be afraid 5. You (pl.1017/CBO9780511814129.) were ordering 3. I was preventing 2. You (pl. We were calling to witness 8. We were fighting 5A–B: 8. Translate into Greek using one word only: 1. πείθομαι.) were conversing 3. μάχονται 3. She continued making (middle: (ὀφείλω) ποιέομαι) 5. ἐπαύετο 7. http://dx. πάσχω. 1. ἐτρεπόμεθα 5. τιμάω. Translate: 1. φοβούμεθα 10. They were enslaving (middle: παύομαι) δουλόομαι) 3. ἦσαν 11. e. ἐπεκαλούμην 4. ἐπείθου 8.) were owing 9. ‘much the expense she caused’. πολλὴν τὴν δαπανὴν εἰσέφερεν lit. He was preventing (κωλύω) 6. Translate into Greek using the following verbs: διαλέγομαι. I tried to hear (ἀκούω) 10.003 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press. He used to stop (middle: 7. φοβέομαι. He used to suffer 5. ὀφείλω. διελέγοντο 9. μάχομαι. They were honouring 4.132.g. They were obeying 4. I kept on honouring (middle: (ἐπικαλέομαι) τιμάομαι) 4. ἐφαίνου 6.123.) began to shout (βοάω) 2.org/10. i. ὠλοφύρετο 5A–B: 7. You (s. I was seeming 2. We were owing 5A–B: 6. Translate into Greek using the following verbs: κελεύω.doi. You (pl.69 on Thu Jun 27 15:11:50 WEST 2013. ἐφοβεῖτο 2.e.

it will carry this so-called ‘predicative’ meaning. penalty.) διότι because δυστυχής unlucky εἰσφέρω (εἰσενεγκ-) bring in. http://dx.de-augment to? What ἠ-? Downloaded from Cambridge Books Online by IP 137. for example.) χρήματα. ὁ young man (1d) νέος ᾱ ον young οἰκέτης.100 A Grammar. almost τότε then υἱός.132.123. fine. 2013 . Do you understand the idea of the imperfect tense and know its endings? Can you therefore spot one at a hundred paces? 2. obey (+dat. or is not linked with it by a preceding definite article (as in [b] above). τά money (3b) χρηστός ή όν good.69 on Thu Jun 27 15:11:50 WEST 2013. carry in ἔνειμι be in ἡδύς sweet. τά debts (3c uncontr. ὁ father (3a) παύω stop πείθομαι (πιθ-) trust.) exact one’s due. ἡ lawsuit. ὁ house-slave (1d) ὅλος η oν whole of οὐδέπω/οὔπω not yet ὀφείλω owe πατήρ (πατ(ε)ρ-). fix βαθύς deep βαρύς heavy βίος. Can you confidently de-augment an imperfect verb to find its dictionary form? What. fasten.org/10. ὁ marriage (2a) διαλέγομαι converse δίκη. livelihood (2a) γάμος. could ὠ. ὁ son (2a) φής you (s. do harm to κολάζω punish νεᾱνίᾱς. means. nearly. ὁ horse (2a) κακὰ/κακῶς ποιέω treat badly. pleasant ἵππος. guilty (of) ἅπτω light. punish (παρά + gen.003 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press. serviceable TA K ING STOC K 1. justice (1a) δίκην λαμβάνω (λαβ. Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections One–Twenty ←111 112→ When the adjective stands outside the definite article + noun phrase. ὁ life.doi.) σχεδόν near. S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 5 A – B αἴτιος ᾱ oν responsible (for).1017/CBO9780511814129.) say χρέα.

1017/CBO9780511814129.132. ἐπείθου. ἡ γυνή. ἐφοβοῦ. d english into greek Translate these pairs of sentences: 1. where there is ambiguity): διελεγόμεθα. 2. 5. oἱ γεωργοὶ ἀεὶ τοὺς θεοὺς ἐτίμων. e. 2.org/10. or pl. ἐθεώμεθα. d. ἀεὶ γὰρ πικρὸν ποιεῖ τὸν γάμον ἡ γυνή. ἐπεκαλούμην. Translate each verb. οὐ φοβοῦνται τοὺς δεσπότας oἱ δοῦλοι. I was sleeping deeply but my son did not stop shouting. Translate each sentence. ἔπαυες τὴν γυναῖκα κολάζουσαν τοὺς oἰκέτας. ἐφοβοῦντο. Young men used to be good. ηὐχόμεθα πρὸς τὴν θεάν. ὁ μὲν νεανίας ἐβόα. b. καθεύδω ἐγώ.123. then change the verbs from the present to the imper- fect tense: a. τίς αἴτιός ἐστιν.003 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press. but the slaves mistreated us. ἦν. ἀεὶ γὰρ λαμβάνει τὸν υἱὸν καὶ διαλέγεται περὶ τῶν ἵππων. οὐδὲ πείθονται. c. νέοι ἐσμὲν καὶ κολάζομεν τοὺς oἰκέτας. ὁ δὲ ναύτης οὐκ ἐπαύετο διώκων. 3. We would shout and stop the slaves conversing. http://dx. ὁ γάμος ὡς πικρός ἐστιν.←111 112→ Revision Exercises for Section 5A–B 101 REVI SI ON EXERCIS ES F OR S EC TI O N 5A –B b/c word shape and syntax 1. ἀλλὰ οὐκ ἐθύομεν θυσίας. 4. oἱ υἱοὶ ὤφειλον πολλὰ χρήματα. ἀλλ᾽ ἔτι διώκουσί με oἱ ἄνδρες οὗτοι. We used to give orders.doi. εἰσέφερον (3). ὤφειλες. The father always punished his son. ἔπαυον (1). ἐθεᾶσθε. ἐνῆμεν. and obey. Downloaded from Cambridge Books Online by IP 137. οὕτως γὰρ χρηστοὶ γίγνονται oἱ oἰκέται. 2013 . ἐθεᾶτο.69 on Thu Jun 27 15:11:50 WEST 2013. then change to s. as appropriate (numbers in brack- ets indicate which person.