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EMBRACING THE LATEST IDEAS CARRIED OUT IN THE LEADING EMPORIUMS OF FASHION OF PARIS. LONDON. AND NEW YORK. M. AND SIMPLIFIED SYSTEM OF DRESS CUTTING.. MASS. TO WHICH IS APPENDED AN ORIGINAL.: G. POINTS IrESS iUTTlNG AND f ITTING. BY /. GREENWOOD. o>»<c BOSTON. r 890. EMBODYING ALL THE POINTS. COMPLETE. GREENWOOD & CO. ./' G. M.

S. Boston. greenwood. Copyright. M. Pkesswork by Berwick & Smith.. . Boston. 1890. Gushing & Co. Typography by J. By G.

recognized The more the subject was considered. Complexion. Special study has been given to a clear and concise presentation of the French bias. l)N(5I^0DiJQ50I^r. scalings. for such a work to be success- unremitting labor ful must be concise. On the subjects of Color — its Bearing on Dress. and Haneis have been largely ^^""" "P°"- G. but continue to the teachings point where the professional cutter would find value in its — would be to accomplish a work for which a demand has long existed. Story. I undertook the work. notwithstanding the method has been so imperfectly understood. and in order to reach a more universal patronage. W. The works number of writers have been consulted. This called for hours of spent in selecting and condensing that which appeared to have the greatest value. the more was it that a treatise on dress. M. How far I have been successful the public will judge. Of these. Again. of seasons At the solicitation of leading dressmakers who constituted my patrons. the question of space arose. Ornamentation and Material — my labors have of a very large been almost entirely those of a compiler. As the book advanced. offering attractions of additional value. nor end there. rHE present work was suggested during a given to teaching Points on Cutting and number Fitting. Line and Proportion. presenting new features. . Charles Blanc- Planche. the plan unfolded itself. GREENWOOD. Chevreuil. and chartings one that — until would be self-instructing and take the beginner step by step the perfect draft was completed . the beauties of which are so thoroughly appreciated. combining with the points a system of cut- ting free from all complications. W.

. 56 The Sleeve 57 . <sof(xEf(j5- o»4c PAGE Art in Dress I Fashion The Dressmaker Color ... 45 Draft of Front 48 The Darts 48 Correcting Drafts 53 To Draft one Dart . Effects of Light on Color 14 14 Material 20 Trimming 23 Line and Proportion 24 Points in Cutting and Fitting 27 Boning 27 Hip Effects 28 Difficult Forms to be fitted 30 The French Bias 32 Design in Stripes 36 To Draft a Basque 41 Rules for Measurement 41 Drafting a Basque 44 Draft of Back .

dent make room for what was to be a the world of to-day what changes seemed to present an epitome of : of forever pursued by the sp. skill And the web is woven finer. And as the homes of a people exhib. of the old. the looms of the of new fash- each season sees the birth art brains kept designing. fairer. skilled the filmy fabric falls into while from the ponderous loom that captivates gives poetry to drapery hands. For these. in order to had been erected as a palace a palace of to-day. The advance of art in other fields. and the color richer. town. The mc. the her skill For these.t than it did a decade ago. found in the one reflects itself dress has kept pace with the That the development of art in can be no question. and hamlet the old is giving way to unrest of the past are the commonplaces of the the new The luxuries and wealth is a present Wealth and art are taking giant strides. so too will . I beheld workmen few years ago. In every city. science surrenders her learning. into every life. art enters more fully Into every home. means of art. and putting away and man his strength and store.nt we are undergoing how man is. /^RT 'f i^R^^^' -ooXfcio fashionable quarter of a a short time ago in a STANDING demolishing a building that creat city. the raiment they wear the refinement cultivated taste. earth gives up her ions. there adorn the windows and counters wonderfully ingenious fabrics that of the demand created by the of our great stores are evidences votaries of fashion who do homage to inventive modiste and the world are kept weaving. in the other. whose artistic touch .

without any pre-arranged plan. though I shall not pursue it." The despairing poet evidently . Art rests upon law. and all that goes to make attire attractive. it speaks of neglect. as of the making of books. for should not she know whether the style is becoming or otherwise. taste and prejudices. "Fashion. until a season ends and newer fashions come." writes Oscar Wilde.2 Art in Dress. the drapery. FASHION. the line. Would that the comparison might end here. What a parterre of loveliness ! What a revelation ! What order out of chaos ! It remains with the indi- vidual to do her part. there is no end. And this brings with it the thought that. Art is eternal. the color ill-suited. Let us suppose that by some preconcerted movement every woman in our land having a garment to purchase should. The fault is not alone her dress- maker's . "rests upon folly. and style became her best. and however far short it may fall of reaching its aim. of the wearer by it. Unfortunate the woman whose attire misleads us in this. on some given day. such a world of color. such a latitude of styles from which to select. color. so of the making of dresses. Dress voices the wearer . Fashion is ephemeral. start out and make their purchases with this one object as a rule before them : each one to study what material. it might be answered : Fashion is the expression of a desire to reach the beautiful . the women of our day have no excuse to offer for the unending display of tastelessly gotten-up garments that are daily seen upon our promenades. an offence to art and good taste ? With such a variety of fabric. If disregarded. A fash- ion is merely a form of ugliness so absolutely unbearable that we have to alter it every six months. If the definition of Fashion was asked. and I could say that the dresses are all good. we read character by it. — but candor forces the confession that the analogy can be carried farther. yet the tribute to beauty remains. We form an opinion of the rank or station.

" The fashion ! exclaimed the lady. * Madame. she wants to look — the fashion. no silent coming and vanishing of shapely young women. different from anything. Her rooms were models of taste. . a picture of Art in despair.-' She does not want to look distin- guished . something grand. impressive . too. can you not design me something new." And Madame sank back in her /auUtn/. being a Parisian by birth. and admire. Then. And then she will order a robe like those book-plates on the news-stand. because she wants — the fashion. they want the same fashion. until the fashion becomes exaggerated. so becoming and so artistic ! And the American. unbearable. it was in Madame's elegantly appointed loarlors. oh. no sign of rush. let us be thankful that the forms present themselves in such variety that we have still the privilege of displaying our taste in selecting the least unbearable. There was one thing that impressed me most agreeably about Madame and her establishment . no talk of pressure of engagements. as if in deprecation. some- thing exquisite. — the lady was entitled to the Madame. If it is true that fashion is a form of ugliness. uncommon . and be enraptured with it. these accessories. And all the others. as well as the one in New York. resorting to her vinaigrette. Art in Dress. it may be Madame no longer needed. "the fashion!" repeating the words with a fall- ing accent. A Parisian lady comes to me and says. 3 had a warm sympathizer in one of New York's leading modistes. and having an establish- " ment in Paris. so much and then ! she will turn and ask. from anybody . ' Madame. had she ever done so. an entire absence of shop . entering under the gauzy pretext of "The cutter's awaiting further orders. she will look at it.'' ' But the Ameri- can lady comes to my rooms. is it the fashion What can I ? ' say . who beguiled me of my hours one bright day in June . " In America I hear of nothing but the fashion." and then posing long enough to display an exquisite model of gown. or like something you see in the shop-windows. it was the ease and quietness with which all things were done. striking. and to her I exhibit a confection .

as the bustle to the flat skirt. Nor are these the exceptions that prove the rule. her figure. which has no j'aison d'etre. bad in art. any part of dress. After all. and what also will best preserve her better points or charms.er. Its function is to arrange and display what gives agreeable impressions. second. and to suppress what gives disagreeable ones. the designs are invariably of a high order. is ungraceful and uncomfortable- looking.'' Of course it is most desirable that we possess good taste. and the standard of excellence always sustained. Indeed. — » • For my part. which will call for such of the prevailing styles as. No sooner does one style give place to anoth. I am again and again confronted with the most charming designs. If some of these are made so attractive that they compel all to admire. or one be forbidden to partake of the luscious fruit . — in fact. In turning to the magazines of fashion. are not these unfortunate selections but tributes paid by the wearer to the designer ? Must one's cheeks vie with the color of the peach. Natural taste will detect at once any flagrant breach of nat- ural law . those of the highest rank. and called upon to pay homage to the skill of those whose conscientious labors make the world of fash- ion indebted to them. will best conceal those defects. — ' the faculty. than all the talents of these great designers are turned to producing the most graceful lines possible under the new order of things. it must be expected that some will purchase. I do not hold it true that our fashions are in so deplorable a condition. of distinguishing between the agree- able and disagreeable. and form part of an harmonious whole. if the patron is very defective in fair jDroportions. like any part of architecture. and this is why nothing that is purposeless is in any high sense beautiful . In the usual recourse to fashion-plates the difficulty in selecting will be greatly lessened by first considering the age of the customer. regardless of the eternal fitness of things.4 Art in Dress. Presence is here to be studied and life given to .' as Haweis writes. and does not form part of the rest.

as vivacity in its place is an attraction' too much of. can yet. that ease. but to avail success. down sufficiently to prevent it run- vivacity can very well be toned toned down for such a ning into anything like loudness. in the knowledge of being cor- calm rectly dressed. suitable fashion. make herself contrast of age in the cos- appear younger than her attire. that religion can never give. as its effect upon the beholder will be to force the conviction stopped at the cutting of a that the education of the dressmaker some system. The first sign and pliancy beauty and must be studiously avoided." oft- To produce what we often hear spoken of as a glove-fit is yourself of every seam and times a very easy matter. satisfaction. but without seeming to waist should fit. Having decided on the material and the most tested in the fitting and the artistic skill of the modiste will next be woman of fashion who draping. It cannot be taken too thoroughly to in a dress are essential to art and beauty. softness. youthful hat. 5 much quietness while an extreme those who are burdened with too . that comes to one. A of stiffness destroys all drawing. whose heart. as observed before. and only that cannot be made reason. No more can be made than to dress serious error are honorable but beneath one's years. not only without given to any drapery that have draw. dart and make art lines of them is to be a A perfect-fitting bodice should not be accompanied by a neglected sleeve. a Hned and aged face beneath a for youth. Age. the ingenuity basque. while the tume of youth is ghastly. are execra- burdened with fashionable trimmings intended An elderly person dressing as becomes her age ble in the extreme. must in a measure determine what they shall wear. Old age and gray hairs . or the body grey hairs. Art in Dress. a sort of uttered the words of worldly wisdom. and no lines should ever be . by a tasteful selection of color and material. Cherish the observation of the " There is a comfort. and that she must have employed of inventor was not equal to making a sleeve.

Dra- pery is the touchstone that tests all. and the shading unusually fine. It is the handling of these to an end . does not apply here. to try some other. yet with these few touches he has given beauty to a mouth. A touch of an artistic hand. something our finer faculties sense. By this I do not mean that when you have succeeded in securing an effect. that gave life where life was wanting. What is the secret ? It is simply soul. that you should destroy it. gives an imperceptible touch here. the brush seems hardly to bear upon the canvas. the suppression of one there. the lifting of a fold here. We go into an art school and pass among the students. the moulding to an outline that carries with it an art condition. indeed. just as there are thousands of such that we cannot associate with art . The master comes to our side. and a soul to the portrait it never possessed before. —• • the appearance of dragging or restricting in any way the movements of the Hmbs. — these can make or mar a dress. darkens a line there . that your success in this instance should act as an incentive to higher attainments . but our igno- rance of art cannot fix with a name. looking at the result of their studies . Be not satisfied with having done well enough . a true artist will never be entirely satisfied. A true artist should never be entirely satisfied . an expression to the features. The features appear accurate. life to the eye. he looks upon his pupil's work. we pause before the work of one who has drawn a head or a face. The artist had the soul within him. A puff. for a picture it seems excellent. So too with drapery. let well enough alone. yet somehow but a picture. " That which you have clone but earnest of the things that you shall do." . there is something lacking . and the garment gains an expression it could never have had but for these. the old saying. There is much to commend . the slightest loop. he takes palette and brush. Draping is not the piUng up of mountains of material or revelHng in labyrinths of lace. but rather. the faintest line.6 Art in Dress. the color good. It is the finishing lines that are to tell of the art of the modiste.

you have the knowledge that you are ele- vating your labor to an art. and culti- vated taste will eventually find one out. It may not come to-day or to-morrow . Aside from the gratification of feeling yourself a success. Art in Dress. but the lovers of the artistic and the beautiful are watching and waiting. but art dressmakers are few. . There are dressmakers by the thousand. fame and fortune soon follow them. 7 The reward is certain to follow. Once known.

5|iE DI^ESS/ri/^}\EI^. paraphrase the well-known lines of the great poet " Some To women are born dressmakers. it being mostly. with which we who are older are familiar. I can still offer you my blessing. my answer would be in the words of the cynic to the young man who sought his counsel about getting married. as bless- ings form a very small part of the business. and you are to meet them all. You will findmany who might well go to you for instruction. and are determined to go to the dressmaking in your own way. done for cash. offering you their advice many who have poor taste . to bor- row a dramatic expression. and you will find your temper subjected to some very. Despite your best effort . : and some have dressmaking thrust upon them. some achieve dressmaking. will pass off with an eclat that is the share of all young debutantes. Your first appearance. with no taste at all : and these people will insist that you put your 8 . notwithstanding the slight rebuff. May it be long before its lustre dims. Confident in my own case that the advice would not be heeded." Should any woman ask my advice as to taking up dressmaking for a business. and that the fair questioner would hurry away to order cards for an " opening. The opening will be as all others. Don't. crosses will come. there are many types of femininity. if you are wise. or that you feel the yoke that the calling has put upon you. extend further counsel and say : Since you have set your mind on this thing." I would. and woman — well. many more . Man is a peculiar ani- mal . which you may cherish for future use. very severe strains.

fine work into their bad selections . you will meet some who are actuated by a sin- cere desire to see you succeed others again. in the thousands. : alone shirk assuming it. is but one course to pursue. and you will be paid when you receive their check. — at least. and what is not. I am fully aware that there are customers always insist on deciding for themselves with such there who will . takes form and and becomes a thing of beauty and a joy forever. becoming to her. these patrons have more favorable facilities for observing and catch- ing the fashions as they rise. No great height in any art pursuit is ever attained unless the aspiration is born of the soul. It is a duty the dressmaker owes her patrons to make the art of improvements of the dress a complete study. life. rough from the common laborer. If you knowledge is will remember that while your occupation confines you to your room. : I refer to those having the entree of the best set. value of the service rendered. In the hands of the one its value is increased a mere trifle under . This much in starting. let us hope that you will. These patrons can assist you. A block of granite. it is her prerogative the weak assume the responsibility . On the other hand. the spell of the other its worth will be estimated What is true of the block of granite is equally true of a piece of . and with his rude quarry. She is under obligation to the refined world to see that culti- vated taste is not offended. falling into the hands of a sculptor. — let them. . falls into the hands of a for a implements he hews out an ordinary building stone or flagging walk the same block of granite. to be well up in all times. their motives but both capable of rendering you great assistance. people who have a of all that passing in the fashionable world. with more of self in . It is the duty of the dressmaker to indeed. If an the customer cannot fail to recognize the the dressmaker is artist. and in so refined a way that you cannot fail to appreciate they will do it its value. The Dressmaker. The patron who puts herself in the hands of an artist should allow that artist to decide what is.

—all these in the highest degree. that do not environ the European. It calls for the eye of the sculptor for line and drapery. and the mastering of a thousand and one details.lo The Dressmaker. would be almost impossible. They are barriers standing not alone in the progress of art. Let us now consider the barriers to art for the American dress- maker. and all incentive is lost. his or her privileges restricted. the American . and beyond these a patience becoming a saint. the experience of years. of line and proportion. but take both. That both England and France excel in the production of dress fabrics we cheerfully concede . the possibilities lying within it for becoming a thing of artistic elegance are limited only by the soul of the dressmaker. — the Anglo-mania and the Franco-mania. yet all of which were so needed in form- ing a complete whole. the harmony of things as felt by the musician. It can be readily understood that a state of things where an individual's independence is lost. Reward and recognition. are about the most unfavorable conditions under which one could labor. these are what most mortals toil for . placing limits on the development of art here. and nothing remains to stimulate either artist or artisan. These are about the conditions which our American dressmakers find. the careful study of light and shade. to describe which. but why. the painter's delicate discrimination of tone and color. Art and inventive skill must be untrammelled. dress goods . but in the progress of a fuller develop- ment of American industries. after the goods are placed on the common market.. and investigation handicapped with the knowledge that any results of its researches shall be submitted to a prejudiced censorship. there are two distinct types. The first of these barriers might truthfully be called the foreign craze. they want both : take away one. Hers is an art embracing all other arts. so time. As in the life of an artist. or to single out. and the other will suffice . indeed. study. and experience can alone com- plete the dressmaker.

the of of the many. These tourists. and luxuries bemg the The civil taxation. and exist more on senti- they are now artificial rather than still new and our nation ment than on fact. and from . a trip to Paris meant a knowl- and the prestige that a foreign trip edge gained of French methods. when they were natural only haying little : natural. the envy discovered that for what the few But it was not long before the few over the counter of the American the imported material cost them could dealer. to secure state-rooms in out-gomg increasing. i ^ modiste. advertise French fashions and would give. at a each year forei-n tour. Then foreign ideas to amaze and she was seized with the fever. our people drew on undeveloped here. and England that we could obtain those rich and rare fabrics with which to adorn our homes and persons. The Dressmaker. or stand second dressmaker should give place to the French there is no equitable reason. and of both. in order summer season. that is. the opportunity our large establishments. No manufactures and luxuries that were still was only from the looms of longer than a quarter-century ago it France. While our country was older nations and countries for those yet young. purchase their goods where manufactured. and have for- saving that paid the cost of their eign workmen make them. Germany. of those conditions left. these foreign manufactures natural and legitimate objects of almost prohibitory for the were taxed to a point making their cost goods stood upon the counters of masses. to abroad came the literature and fashion- foreign importations. war called for a higher revenue. and. travellers must notify the com- steamers during the panies' agents weeks in advance. and from the hands of the American dressmaker. there was a time barriers are both natural and artificial . We accepted they continue the supply their goods and adopted their fashions. brought back their foreign dresses and dismay the American dressmaker. when imported. returning. These to the English dressmaker. And thus the European exodus set in. and she returned. they go abroad. To her. until to-day.

in a larger measure. I am continually hearing of French fitting and seeing advertised French systems . Our American women are only of late years waking up to the fact of their deficiency in form as compared with some other nation- alities. American dress cutting and fitting stands far in advance of all other. she lost all that knowledge of art that comes to one who designs and originates. It is in the manufacturing on immense scales of ladies' wraps. in this one branch. and do not let us take leave of common sense. need ask no favors from her foreign rivals. These manufactured outer-garments appeal most strongly to that class who must count the cost of their apparel. in compari- son with American fitting. The French cutter has a far larger percentage of good forms to fit to in a given number of women than has the Ameri- can. Again. the American dressmaker. and outside garments. mantles. the one is. that they stand in the large warerooms. and then accepting a wrap or gown that has been made for somebody else ? Yet this is not uncommon. these models and fashions set the bounds beyond which her individual taste dare not o'erstep. even though some can be found who forget the defini- tion of patriotism. almost as much a humbug as the other. allowing for the difference in the forms to be fitted. next. owing to other conditions that space here does not allow of enumeration. wraps. I say.1 The Dressmaker. And. Many of these cloaks. Satisfied with imitating and duplicating. having said this. not until a woman formed and of the bearing for whom such a particular gar- . The evil is in the fact that they are made in such vast numbers . partly owing to the neglect of a proper study of the subject. and. I can add that there is also much to be acquired and improved upon. and mantles are made after very attractive models and designs. Can there be anything more absurd than beholding a woman ordering her gloves to be made. Another and growing barrier to the development of art in dress is found at our own doors. even in the cutting of a dress. plates that were to guide her and be her model in making her cos- tumes. so as to fit her hand. There is no question about it .

It may appear to some that the fact of these manufactured garments. However. It must go with them to their homes. and art is sacri- ficed. and he must keep what he does not sell. He manufactures to sell. . that individuality and character. not to keep. be found in a garment or mantle manu- factured on some lay figure. Occasionally a person can be suited as well in buying this way as by a dressmaker. The Dressmaker. if found. it is of no moment. and each new style is a new risk. Let them learn that the purchase made at a sacrifice of taste and art is a form of economy that impoverishes. who cannot then suffer from the condition of things here stated. should be specially made for the person who must wear it. the one unending parade of a few stereotyped styles. Dress of any form. but to be disposed of to the first buyer without regard to any suitability or fitness. it is the public who are to blame. that it is from the masses that taste and art must come. resent every exhibition of false taste. through the lower prices asked for them. does not prevent the women of wealth patronizing the fashionable modiste. whether for out-door or the home. appealing more to the masses. 13 ment was originally intended appears. It is not sufficient that they behold it on the street or places of amusement. or dispose of them at a loss. Replying to such objec- tors. for the dealer will not assume too many risks. I would say. Let them understand that things bought because they are cheap — are cheap. but the risk is hardly worth hazarding. So a limit is placed on the variety. The correct style and fit. if the lady who buys in this way is willing to be duplicated and to duplicate others. The fre- quency with which they are seen on the street. and become a part of their home existence. As far as the dealer is concerned he is right . Rarely can that fine effect. That a value must be on everything. that natural moulding to the line of a person's form. will only be the exception that proves the rule. robs even the best of all charm. But it cannot be otherwise . Let them be so nurtured that they will be sensitive to every infringement of art.

form the designs. There are some stuffs which appear to be of two tones of the same scale of color. and sometimes also of two tones of two contigu- ous scales. although the weft and the warp of these stuffs are of the same tone and the same color. for we can easily understand that it is less marked when the stuffs are less bright and of dark colors. are in a different direction to the threads which constitute the ground of the stuff. the more it will reflect white and colored light. and in sky-blue . The spiral thread of a piece of twisted silk or wool held perpen- dicularly before the eye. ($OCOI^. whatever may be the position of the spectator with regard 14 . the effect is particularly remarkable in yellow silk stuffs. the more highly the surface of a polished. appears in the part opposite to the light of a much more decided color than on the rest of the surface. the first parts will appear in most cases of a more intense tone of color than the second. The white light reflected by a colored body may be of sufficient intensity to render the color of the body in some of its parts imperceptible. The cause of this appearance is very simple . the threads which. a>Oic EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON COLOR. parallel to each other. OTHER body is things being equal. Hence. The folds of bright draperies present the same modification to an eye properly placed . When the eye sees certain parts of the surface of a polished or uniformly colored object which reflects to it proportionally to the col- ored light less of white light than the other parts.

. Yellow rays falling on Black make it appear Yellow-olive. White u u u j^e(j Red u u u Redder. the threads of the design will always reflect colored and white light in a different proportion to that reflected by the threads of the ground. a a u More Orange vivid. Light Blue ( Gray. Violet Modifications produced by Orange Light. the design will appear to be lighter or darker than the ground. White u u a Orange. slightly. and. u u u Red Scarlet. or Car- Black make it appear { . Deep " " " ^ Blue ( Orange-gray. . Yellow (((((( Yellow-orange. Modifications produced by Colored Lights. Indigo Blue '< " " Orange-maroon. u u u Purple.. Deep Green " « " Orange-gray. Color. according to the position of a spectator. Light Green " " " Reddish gray. Orange rays falling on ( Maroon. Light Blue " " " Violet. " « " Deep Green Red-black. Violet " " " Red-maroon. Modifications produced by Yellow Light. 1 —•m — • to the stuff. Yellow u a u Orange. Light Green " " " Rusty green. " " " Yellow-green. ( melite-brown. Red rays falling on Black make it appear Purple-black. Orange ^ « a Redder.

" " " Greenish yellow. Green " " " Yellow-green. Indigo II u ti Bluish green. Green Indigo u u (I Park blue. « . Green rays falling on Black make it appear Greenish brown. Brown. Violet Modifications produced by Blue Light. Modifications produced by Green Light. " " " Orange. according a a a Green j . ( I brilliant. Yellow tt u u Blue-green. a a a j)^\\ Green. « u a Brown.. Black rays falling on White make it appear Blue.r^ » { Greener. . Modifications produced by Black Light.i6 Color. Violet. Blue rays falling on Black make it appear Blue-black. f to Its depth.. Yellow " " '•' Orange-yellow. u u u Green. . More intense and Green ^ <. Red ( Faint Yellow. . Indigo Violet " " " Yellow. " " " Orange-yellow. Violet u u u i3ark blue. Indigo.maroon.. White make it appear Light Yellow. Red Orange " " " Yellower. Light Blue Deep Blue " " " Green-slate. White u u u Green.. a Orange " ^^ « ^ J ( v i htde Green. Blue u a a More vivid.

and the kind of scale to which the colored stuff and that of the transmitted colored light respectively belong. the more or less intense color of the stuff. with a very ^ Yellow « « ( slight tint of Red. Blue a « a Yine Blue. . u u u ( Purple. Color. Rose- red. ^ ( Red-violet. Rose-red cannot be put in contact with even the rosiest com- plexions without causing them to lose some of their freshness. Violet. . because the red they add to this . favorable to all fair com- plexions which are deficient in rose. » » » Brown. having a pale Orange _ ^ ^ j I tint of Violet. and which may have more imparted to them without disadvantage. ( Very faint Violet- Black make it appear \ ' black. . maroon. Green u u u Ljg^^ Purple.. Violet rays falling on ^. Violet. we must take into account the facility with which colored light penetrates every kind of glass. 1 » Red make it appear Violet. But it is not favorable to complexions that are more red than rosy. It is understood that in order to represent the preceding phe- nomena exactly. Juxtaposition of Draping with Complexion. nor to those that have a tint of orange mixed with brown. and light crimson have the serious disadvantage of rendering the complexion more or less green. White « a << Violet. Orange » u . Red . on the contrary. u u u • Violet Deeper Violet. Modifications produced by Violet Light. Delicate Green is. Ljg^^ ^^^^ u ( Brown. Indigo a a a Bcep Blue.

It produces this effect on the black-haired type. appear more gray than white. but this combination is very dull and heavy for a fair com- plexion. Orange is too brilliant to be elegant . because white always exalts all colors by raising their tone . is one of the least favorable colors to the skin. produces contrary effects . This. Blue is thus suitable to most blondes. without having this disagreeable tint. and in this view it is less favorable than the delicate green. thus it imparts some greenish-yellow to fair complexions. Very Light White draperies. and gives a green hue to those of a yellow tint. it aug- ments the yellow tint of yellow and orange skins. and in this case justifies its reputation. The little blue there may be in a complexion it makes green-violet. To those skins which are more yellow than orange it imparts white . very nearly approach it. which have already a more or less determined tint of this color.1 Color. We must thus regard every white drapery which allows the light to pass through its interstices. but it is unsuit- able to complexions which have a disagreeable tint. it makes fair complexions blue. assorts well with a fresh complexion. which combines favorably with white. and which is . of which it relieves the rose color . the complementary of yellow. It will not suit brunettes. and it is thus that it suits bncncttcs. such as muslin or lace. —• • tint will be of a brick-red hue. since they have already too much of orange. In the latter case a dark green will be less objectionable than a delicate green. at least when it is not sufficiently deep to whiten the skin by contrast of tone. we can make it rosy by neutralizing the yellow. such as cambric muslin. whitens those which have an orange tint. Lustreless White. Blue imparts orange. When the skin is tinted more with orange than yellow. and the light flesh tints of fair complexions. then. Violet. Yellow imparts violet to a fair skin. consequently it is unsuitable to those skins which.

Color. The harmonies of analogy. For the colors for dress of women we must begin by establishing certain distinctions. give rise only to a harmony of analogy. and eyelashes. the color of the skin. it will follow that. The one with light hair and blue eyes. by lowering the tone of the colors with which they are in juxtaposition. with skins more or less white and rosy. but if the vermilion or rosy parts are somewhat distant from the drapery. eyebrows. The color of light hair being essentially the result of a mixture of red. the eyebrows. but also with the red parts. although lowered in tone. yellow. yet produce a disagreeable effect with the skin. eyelashes. The hair. either of scale or of hue. and brown. and eyes contrast in tone and color. That of the two types. which in this type are . not only with the white of the skin. we must consider it as a veiy pale. subdued orange-bro%v7i . with the rest of the skin. Blue eyes are really the only parts of the fair type which form a contrast of color with the whole . Black draperies. although a lower tone. or at most a contrast of hue and not of color and the parts of the skin contiguous to the hair. whiten the skin . only a harmony of analogy of hue. whether pertaining to the hair or to the complexion . 1 —«—•—• only apparent to the eyes by the surface opposed to that which receives incident light. then. is analo- gous to it except in the red parts. The type with black hair shows the harmonies of contrast pre- dominating over the harmonies of analogy. they appear relatively to the white parts of the skin contiguous to the same drapery redder than if not con- tiguous to the black. That of the juxtaposition of the articles of the toilet. The other with black hair and black eyes. evidently predominate in the fair type over the harmonies of contrast. for the red parts produce. for a color may contrast favorably with the hair.

There is. — • m • — really redder. are far from producing a bad result. long esteemed to accord favorably ivith black hair — yelloiv and red. The modiste has before her two tasks. selecting material.20 Material. so. in mixing with the tint of the hair. a sympathy in goods. Textures assimilate with the light of day. and are to be avoided. contrasting by color and brilliancy with black. beauty unadorned. the age. associated with black. Materials of widely different cost seldom look well. and we must not forget that a decided red. Two colors. are precisely those which produce great contrasts . thus. the complexion. The colors which are usually considered as assorting best with light or black hair. gives to the latter the character of an excessiveljf deep color. or less roseate. sky-blue. the value of elegant laces and high collars will be readily appreciated. Woollen textures . In the same way colors harmonize. if I may be allowed the expression. and the position in life and individuality of the wearer. Yellow and orange-red. to display and to conceal : as an elegant throat can be left to prove the truth of the adage. and art teaches us that the incongruous is not a source of delight. than in the blonde type . as in sealskin and silk. violet and blue-green. -«-^t^»«^5«£^ /n/^5^i^i/»c. so also does material : and harmony cannot be disturbed. known to accord well ivith blondes. which is the basis of the color of their hair and complexions. either blue or green. and the figure are INthe first to be considered . more or less orange — contrast in the same manner with them. when time has laid relentless lines upon it. is the color that approaches the nearest to the complementary of orange. They force upon us a sense of incongruity . and their complementaries. then the time and occasion for which it is intended.

Material. brought in this way : the stripe slanting from the shoulder toward the centre or front. When carried on the straight on a tall and slender form. while these are again affected by their arrangement. velvet subdues them. Vertical stripes elongate. as stripes demand smooth fitting. Plain material. 21 absorb rays. and the crease gives line. are capable of producing most gratifying sensations. variety is given to the character of the material by its being plain or figured. Both the shadow cast by the overlying plait gives color. demand- ing more care and study in the selection of the material. So a sash gathered and wound around the waist breaks length. and gives width. For such figures the stripe should be on the oblique or bias. They have the property of changing the style of the goods. Color next enters. when used with rare good taste. as soon as it is folded or plaited. modest or obtrusive. the result will be both aCTeeable and attractive. and cloth deadens them. the width always being determined in proportions conformable to the height and figure of the wearer. and this characteristic is changed again as these stripes or figures are large or small. the effect is to give the wearer the appearance of much greater width and fulness of bust. Again. practically becomes striped. Narrow stripes should be avoided when a pronounced effect is sought. . and if cut according to the instructions given under the division of Points on Fitting. In this way materials derive their characteristics from light. as lively or severe. as well as the figure of the wearer. A stripe from one to two inches in width has character. and horizontal stripes widen. whether representing order by being regularly placed or by being carelessly placed representing confusion. they have little to recommend them. These effects can only be shown to great advantage on fine forms. striped or checked. or figures that have had their deficiencies of contour supplied. and we come to regard them as grave or gay. Stripes. satin reflects them. Stripes that alternate in either texture or color can in the mak- ing either make or mar the dress waist.

can spend no more profitable hour than in the experimenting with material of this design. and the first line three times wider than the second. and then disappear. and running purposelessly into anything at the basque. — > • Though we are daily beholding such evidences of false taste. The rule given for these conditions is. It is where two stripes cut at right angles one. and unity in a measure is restored. while in a shght measure showing an improvement. but their labor. becoming a check at the bodice. still leaves a waist that is more an advertisement of their mechanical skill than any recommendation of taste. the squares in a degree are lost. either through depth of tone or width of line. like all other plagues. the texture then appears shaded. and while I fear that the amateur cutter will never forgive me for direct- ing attention to this abuse of both design and material. subdue the other . by cutting the material on the bias and having every part carefully matched . I have endeavored to lessen these faulty occurrences in the arti- cle already referred to on Points in Fitting. while the grandest effects can only be obtained by leaving out darts entirely. a modification. are broken off short long before they have carried out the object for which they were selected. The darts destroy all purpose . Plaids and checks are to be forsworn if dignity is to be consid- ered. that a waist having vertical stripes is simply ruined when two darts are taken. that one of the shades must be three times deeper than the other. There is one exception to this. whether professional or amateur. and emphasize the statement.22 Material. and the painful spectacle is presented of a waist of stripes as far as the line of bust. At long intervals they put in their unhealthy appearance. At the present time of writ- ing they are somewhat worn. the lines. They have never been considered suitable for any but chil- dren. . whether vertical or oblique. and the cutters have striven to over- come the square effect that cutting on the straight gives. or. Bear well in mind that for stripes one dart is sufficient. I am com- pelled to remark. I might say. and the dressmaker.

a sash. silk-faced. . 64 " heavy. 27 Undressed 22 Poplins : Irish. There is no excuse or pallia- tion for concealins: a good form beneath a bad fashion. The aim ot trimming is to improve the line. the second column for larger size. 23 —> • TRIMMING. Again must we repeat. They have their uses. watteau plaits. 18 Pongee and Foulard .. \ViDTHS OF Material. 22. 20. 28 " all wool 27 Drap d'6t6 48 Velvet 20. 21 " 22 " " "19 " 22 " 23 " 24 " " ''18 " 22 '' . 18 to 20 inches wide from 20 to 25 yards. 54 Reps. but not here.." Plastrons. . a bow. 22 Number of Yards required to make a Dress from Material of Different Widths. . 24 inches.. blouses. There are forms that demand trimming. 20 Ladies' Cloth. and the like. a scarf... should be relegated to the closet. graceful form or the well-rounded figure need little or no trimming to their waist . Material. The slight. a bit of ribbon to relieve color or give color — these are all that is needed. 18. all wool. 24 Summer and Japanese . 32 Velours. . Trimmings seen on a perfectly formed figure only seem to advertise somebody's bad taste or worse fitting. .. French. "beauty unadorned is adorned the most. Colored and Plain (French) . 24 inches . Iks: Black (French) 18. 24 American . The first figures in numbers of yards being for persons of medium size.

24 Line and Proportion.

27 to 30 inches wide from 15 to 20 yards.
"
" 14 " 20

Line and Proportion. 25

velvet. Alternation is less elevated in its character than repetition ;

the latter ftiay be almost sublime, the former never passes the Kmits
of beauty ; so we may say, alternation has charm, repetition has
grandeur.
Symmetry.

The original meaning of the word symmetry, according to its

Greek etymology, meant the state of a body of which all the members
have a common measure amongst themselves that is to say, it signi- ;

fied what we mean by proportion indeed, the words symmetry and
;

proportion are almost interchangeable, because a symmetrical animal
is always well proportioned, and a well-proportioned animal is always
symmetrical.
Contrast.

Contrast is the highest degree of alternation. If you make a red
stripe follow an orange stripe, you simply produce alternation ; but if

the stripes so placed are the complementary colors one of the other,
as orange and blue, yellow and violet, red and green, you will have a
most lively contrast. In the same way a series of circles and ovals
would only produce alternating forms, while a circle and rectangle, a
cube and sphere, would be decidedly contrasting forms.
To adorn a person or a thing is not simply to cause them to be
seen, but it is to cause them to be admired. Contrast should only
be used as a means of rendering the whole more powerful, brilliant,

and striking.

If orange must predominate in a decoration, let blue be mingled
with it, but sparingly, so that the complementary color of orange may
be its auxiliary and not its rival. A contrast of round and angular

shapes would be displeasing in the highest degree if one of these
forms competed with the other in importance, in volume, or in extent.

Vertical and Horizontal Lines.

The vertical line raises itself, the horizontal line extends itself;

therefore it is natural that these two lines should be connected with

26 Line and Proportion.

totally different ideas. The repetition of vertical lines on a surface

gives height, because it divides the width ; the repetition of horizontal
lines give width, because it divides the height.
While little is left for the dressmaker but to follow the prevailing
fashion, the consideration of amplitude, as affecting dress, will be
carried out, subject to the limits that any particular fashion may pre-

scribe. It may be well for her, however, to keep in mind that ampli-
tude produces an aesthetic effect in the art of dress as in other arts.

A certain presumption of dignity is attached to width, which enlarges,
because it is the opposite of scantiness, which diminishes. To run
to excess in width, to exaggerate it, is to miss the goal by overstep-
ping it. The condition of fulness in dress is, that it does not alter
the natural shape of the human body, the outline of which ought
always to give boldly the all-prevailing direction of height. Confined
within these bounds, amplitude produces an illusion of size, not only
because it enlarges the image presented to our sight, but because it

makes us instinctively attribute increased importance to a person

amply dressed, by augmenting the place that it occupies in the mind,
by reason of the space that it fills in reality.

Too much value cannot be set upon the possibilities of lines.
They produce beauty, they produce symmetry, and the symmetrical
is always beautiful. Their power to do this is carried even beyond
the boundaries of truth and fact, and we see objects, not as they
exist, but as the}/ appear through the tendency of lines to direct our
thoughts to height or width, accordingly as they may run. Take,
for example, two' circles, and cross one with vertical, and the other
with horizontal, lines ; these repeated, the first will have the appear-
ance of greater height, the second that of increased width, while both
will have the appearance of ovals. The same will be the result where
squares or ovals are employed.
Lines can be broken by color, by trimmings and where so broken,
;

the effect will be to lessen the height if vertical. Oblique lines
express motion. They are suited to all figures, and, whether obtained

a give and preserve shape to use of bones and steels to THE waist is a more important study than ever. or over holding it for a moment bo°. impression ot freedom. Shape it then cool the temper is until thoroughly heated. the steel can be '"men the watch-spring steels - the following processes and tempered by either of : flame spirit lamp (alcohol). it at a point where over a lamp. 27 Points in Cutting and Fitting. mark- comes. flat bones are fastened. convey an waist should never be lengthened at the di-nity to the gown.*:c BONING. where the buttons Bec^inning at the front line or are used should be inserted. sion of short limbs. poiflT$ 'H Q^TT'HC f^P F's^'HC' o. Use a novv out. The the stitch gave the point in.mpres- ex°pense of the skirt. the bone including the centre seam of in every dart and seam down and shaped with the others. a cherry-red heat. happy mean should be aimed A will well repay the study devoted thereto. used for this the best whalebone can be contour of the waist. . A long waist and short skirt at. Only annealed are used. Pass the steel through the . curve. the fi ter When the waist is being tried on for the of wa>st hne the most pronounced curve should take a stitch to mark bone. Then remove each at each point where boning of curvmg. and. and when pass it through the flame. and lend in the shaping or draping. which can be carried well of last time.e is then shaped by conformmg to the the edge of a hot iron then curving it to a shape . quickly plunge m water. The gives an . a round bone back. secured. lo conform to the figure again . it is .

Shape it to the desired curve. the boning holds that fit to its shape. 2. A very good plan. will bow out. HIP EFFECTS. as shown in the cuts and taught in the System. is to use a spring steel in the following way : — Measure a distance from the bottom of waist (between second dart and side seam) . insuring an accuracy and smoothness that can never be attained by them. that will be one-third of an inch shorter than the extreme ends of the steel. then remove quickly and plunge in water.28 Points in Cutting and Fitting. The steel. The method for cutting on the hips. gives a uniform heating to the steel. It is now annealed. It may be well. lead being subject to but one height of temperature. and put it back in the lead. Cross-Boning. the steel shapes to the line of the figure. Fasten the steel firmly at both ends. to say that these errors arose from the fault of the old teachers in studying the human form from the . It must be firmly fastened to the under- arm seam about one inch below arm circle. an extra bone can be carried from the side seam of front. and the waist is held down firmly. moreover. where it can be secured. Bones can be placed between all seams. then remove and allow it to cool. Put the steel in a pot of hot lead . Always remember that the cut gives the fit . if correctly carried out. The lead keeps 'the steel from warping . letting it remain five minutes . is a great improvement over the old ways. let it remain five minutes. crossing the second dart down to the bottom of waist. fastened at top and bottom only. in starting out. The bone should be a fine one and cased. In order to preserve the shape to the waist. being longer than the line of cloth on which it is fastened. But when the waist is put on the wearer and buttoned.

both in its relation to the cutting of the under-arm piece and centre of back patterns. the system teaching it is at fault. when. (A surface can be flat and slope at the same time. They only saw the figure as it presented itself to them. to the straight front seam of under-arm piece as shown in the dia- grams. The straight edge of the ribbon will be seen to follow the seam. they beheld an outline sloping at the side and springing at the hip. standing full in front. in teaching. 29 wrong standpoint. and the ribbon mould to the form. heretofore appears to have been overlooked. Now if a curve or dart is cut where no reason for it exists. The side of a person presents for a certain width the same flat surface as does the back. as the spring of hip in front of basque. Points in Cutting and Fitting. though this. At no point can an excess of cloth be taken but at the loss of some other point requiring it.) This principle has been carried out in this system. and this without any dart or curve being cut. when the scientific point is being considered. Observe that // is not the edge of the ribbon that moulds to the figure. by taking a strip of cloth or ribbon about one inch wide. putting all the spring on the front line. For even while a piece so curved may be stretched into shape or fitting. and carry it down the back. Bear well in mind that the dif- ference between the bust and waist measures gives the exact amount of cloth to be taken out. when standing for a side view. the edge of the ribbon on a straight line with the centre seam of back. Again. consequently at the expense of a perfect fit. consequently at the sacrifice of the fitting at some point at which a dart was required. That this was a mistake the reader can easily prove. and drafting the line joining it straight. and standing behind some friend. brings the material well over the hip. they fell into the very easy error of mistaking the slope of the back as a fact that could be treated by sloping the centre seam of back in their drafting and fitting. or. yet a dart has been taken where not called for. the straight line of one . but the flat surface shapes itself . pin the ribbon at the collar line.

and enables the cutter to correct the draft before cutting out the material. Where the measure of width of back on waist line has not been taken. in basing the widths of back. while all systems will be found at fault. In this case the waist is short from the line of bust to shoulder seam. 2. The 7th measure taken by this system provides for this. that letting out the shoulder seam will remedy the defect. this new method will be followed. holding the other well back. no really practi- cal results can be obtained from a draft for such a figure.30 Points in Cutting and Fitting. Where stripes are to be matched to follow out the line. As most systems are based on some principle of proportions of the human form. The following are the causes of some of the most frequent occur- rences of misfitting : — 1. DIFFICULT FORMS TO BE FITTED. and having the added effect of bringing the seam more in a straight line. on some proportion to the bust or waist measure. and which is fully explained in the article thereon. it naturally follows that where. a figure is found differing in a great measure from these proportions. one may require four inches on width of waist line back. When a person measures an extreme length from the promi- nent bone at back of neck to the point of bust. While two people may correspond in waist measures. If the system of scaling allows five inches. both at waist line and across shoulder. while doing away with the painfully offensive bunchiness seen in all basques where the lines are cut in corresponding curves. The only deviation from this rule for cutting the hip seams is where stripes are to be matched to a V. and it is fortu- nate for the individual if her dress has been so cut. where the person to be fitted comes out of the quality of ratios on which such scaling is calculated. as shown in the illustration. while the other require five. the one . but a scaling followed. One of the gravest faults of such systems is.

draft a line in front From your new centre of the This rule will always apply where and form a new point and curve. and 9th measures are all for the class of figures to which we measures in correcting any draft are referring. 6th. The 6th measure and the result would be anything but called for by this system obviates any such mistake.et sufficient fulness at the amount you have added on waist hne Increase your first dart by enlarged dart. This would require letting out at the satisfactory. The handsome shape of the one has of the other. at the back. that was theirs symmetrical back and slender. and if any. waist in front. fleshiness at the back. while her waist would not come together front and taking in at the back. 5th. for the front. can be taken out in the first . follow this and where more cloth is required and carry the added width all Mark out for it on the line of bust to neck and in a slant from point of bust the way down on front line. an excessive fulness is . and tape meas- intelligence of the cutter with a preferring to trust to the propor- risk the disaster that is the fate of scalings and ure. who have retained the 3 There is a very large number of women waist at back. this work. rule. bust. These forms have paired in the splendid development any. These forms when subjected to these the dressmaker. found at the front and at the point of bust. safely drafted for where cloth ber that cloth can always be . which drafts a back for a back. For of anxiety systems are an unending source tx> again direct attention to the System accompanymg there we must front for a front. if in no way changing the con- found above the line of shoulder-blades. 3^ Points in Cutting and Fitting. calling for four inches would have an inch of loose cloth by that amount in the front. than tions when appUed to the human form. scahng tour of the waist. let him or her remem- Whatever system the is needed. sloping the fulness to bust and increased before time had added the rounding not been im- size of waist. of service as test The 4th. order to m curve The cloth you have added to the dart. it will be acquired little. cutter may be using.

The origin of the so-called French Bias came in taking a gore from the arm circle in an oblique line to the top of the second dart. Simply unfasten from point up. above the line of bust. see that the customer stands erect. All seams should be joined at arm circle and baste down . with your fingers inside of neck curve. and admit of no criticisms until the waist is on and fitted. the second dart was cut from bottom to top through the centre . the lining being fitted before the outside was cut. this as each pin is fastened. The change should be made entirely from the front when the fault is in front. mark with a pin for change at that point. the purpose for which the gore was taken being to get rid of the super- fluous cloth or looseness caused by the hollowness that is found just above the bust and near the arm circle. This gore was taken in the lining. and watching that the shoulders at arm circle allow of freedom in pinning up. and bring the two fronts evenly together and pin a new slope for front. draw well down at every point and watch the effect. if any fulness or wrinkle remains at shoulder seam.32 Points in Cutting and Fitting. Refitting. do not try to correct by pulling away toward point of shoulder. THE FRENCH BIAS. In trying on. It is the system that tests the measurements. pulHng the waist well on. as it were. the front . should be corrected by opening the shoulder seam and short- ening the distance between those points. In order that the lining should lie flat and smooth when used for a pattern on the cloth. After pinning up snugly. Should there be any fulness in front from point of bust to neck. or at shoul- ders. Any wrinkle or looseness across back. not the measurements the system. After the waist or lining is on. Pin from neck down. As you proceed. otherwise the concave shape given to the lining by the gore . Remember that a misfit is more likely to imply an error in the taking of measures or drafting than in the system. do not join at waist line. lightly lift.

when the realized until striped material the large manipulation of the cloth. and This very elegant effect was certain of cutting turned their minds to find- both dressmakers and teachers both amusmg and ing the way the thing was done. caused by the came prominently into notice. I. dart of attracting attention.haDed from arm circle to top of illustrated in effected from the original pattern is Thelange Plate No. cut from a pomt in the wide at arm circle. however. They arrived.ch was^ lamentable. The results were conclusion. abandoned maker. looseness it added. 33 Points in Cutting and Fitting. V <. then through the second dart tern of a front. dismayed with the to make. an extra the idea. How efficient method is to take the paper pat- Thesimplest and most from bottom to top. But the value of cloth. and a new side seam established by drafting he under-arm L the new width former line or seam ended. and handsome bias. pattern being cut. The dart will run obliquely. was no getting rid of the superfluous of Cutting. at waist line to the point at This was a success so far arm as circle ringm where the the second dart was concerned t>"t ^o cal- the stripes on a bias into cloth naturally ad e . . the French Bias.s method origin o£. at one up much move could be obtained by takmg that the appearance taken was made up cloth in the second dart. Such was the would have prevented an accurate th. wh. and the dress- fulness was found at this bust hne. a^ It Jhaving been made for the extra pomt. and such is. from for the cause. aside from its came to be cut in th>s way. The extra amount so the waist line) to the seam that jomed wUh or by adding cloth (on piece. for any but an expert The error was a natural one mistaking the effect arose from starting from the wrong end. and take up a dart one inch formed by arm circle inches from the angle about two afm ircle seam. TO OBTAIN THE FRENCH BlAS. where it ends at line of under-arm dart.

I. — French Bias..34 Points in Cutting and Fittino. Plate No. .

— Draft of French Bias. 2. 35 Plate No.Points in Cutting and Fitting. .

and dot. Place your rule. From this dot to top of second dart draft new curve for dart. 2. Stripes are purposeless unless matched and the matching carried out in every part. answering the dart taken in arm circle as shown in Plate i. Measure on line 10 the distance from the centre line of original second dart to the point where line T' touches on line 10. Measure double this distance from line 9 towards line 8 (or beyond). Then from the point where line TT' ends on line 10. From this point draft line TT' to the point on line 5 where line TT touches. to line 9. To draft the new width of basque at hip. To DRAFT THE FRENCH BlAS. while the stripes of the under-arm piece are also brought to a V where it joins the front. as . measure the same number of inches toivards dart. Measure from the right-hand seam of second dart. and below if required.36 Points in Cutting and Fitting. and dot. This line must intersect line 7 where it is crossed by line T. Have the width of skirt of new pattern correspond with the width of old. the front forming a V. 4. Plate No. as shown in the illustration. DESIGN IN STRIPES. 3. The hip effect taught in the system cannot be carried out here. crossing at line 7. Measure the distance from the point where line T' touches on line 10. with its edge touching this dot. These rules apply to any correct system. Plates 3 and 4 exhibit a pattern in stripes. and draft line TT from arm circle to the dot. Draft a line from where the new curve of second dart ends on line 5 to this dot. This becomes the dart for arm circle. form a V. on line 5. The lines T and TT. to the right of line T. and dot on line 10. 1. lyi inches. and dot. 2 exhibits the draft of the French bias. Measure on line 5. 1% inches.

Where the stripes are made to follow their not needed. shows the correct method of cutting for round-shoul- Plate No. spreading the open- ing to a which can be held down by gumming paper thereto. and can only be supplied and properly fitted in this way. as the represented just as they should come in each piece. reversing. the indi- The back should be made one inch shorter than draft of vidual's length of back measurement. 5 dered persons. The appearance of the seam and lengthens the centre seam of back. After the ordinary draft of back has been made. The curve of with the line of the under-arm piece on back and side form back should be brought on a line. cut first. a dart. This inch is afterwards sup- plied in the part where most needed. length of shoulder seam front must be made to correspond The with that o^f the back. its front line. stripes are The plates will be found of great assistance. Round Shoulders. altered pattern is shown in the same plate. follow the curved line of the shoulder seam back. This shortens the shoulder BB. is taken up in the shoulder seam. In order to offset the concave shape and give a flat pattern. arm piece is matched to the front. . Points in Cutting and Fitting. the line AA is made and cut open. from The front of the basque or waist is being brought on a line with the stripe. this is back. The under- neck to point. as shown by the side form back and centre of line. 37 the matching of the stripes to a V on i:he hip requires both sides to be equal to each other. To match the side form must lay straight form to the under-arm piece the line of the side the goods. V shape. In basting.

— Design in Stripes (Front). . 3. Plate No.38 Points in Cutting and Fitting.

Plate No. 4. —Design in Stripes. (Back.Points in Cutting and Fitting.) .

40 Points in Cutting and Fitting. — Draft for Rounding Shoulders. 5. "A A Plate No. .

They avoiding trimmed waists. or length. Pass the tape around the waist . 6.) 2. well down. 4 to 4. Pass the tape around the fullest part of bust. 6 should be taken over illustrates the method of taking measures. LengtJi of Back. take fairly snug. 7. Measure from the neck in front in a straight line down to point of bust. Measure from hollow of the arm to waist line. o>^c RULES FOR MEASUREMENT. Measure the desired width at this point. straight across back. to conform to the shape of back at this point. PLATE No. 3. Waist Measure. Stand behind the person. Across back from arm circle to arm circle. Measure across chest from arm circle to arm circle. 4. belts and ornaments. bring forward over the shoulder. placing her before a mirror. about four inches below neck. Take the measures in the following way : 1. 5. Do not allow the waist worn to be a guide. 41 . and down to point of bust as shown in illustration 6 to P. Be careful to observe how far the tape goes below the horizontal line of waist that is. Width of Back at Waist Line. (See plate. Place the tape on the promi- nent bone at back of neck. TV to P. Width of Front. 7 to 7. 3 to 3. TO Di^/^pT f\ Bj\^qu^. This is another essential measure and governs the fit for length from waist line to neck. the centre seam of back and seam of side form must be carried below draft of waist line. See that the person being measured stands erect. 2 to 2. From back of neck measure well down full length. Neck to Point. on a line where the under-arm . 9. The accuracy of fitting depends on the careful consideration of this point. This will show the drop of back. Width of Back. i to i. rather close to the neck. piece ends at waist. Bust Measure. 8. Back of Neck to Point of Bust. take extremely snug. as perfect a fitting waist as attainable. 5 to 5. having the width symmetrical with the width of shoulder. Under-Arm Length.

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43 10 Plate No. . — Outline of Draft. To Draft a Basque. 7.

and the reader will find it explained in the article on Points. 2. and dot. basque. From this dot to the point where line 2 joins line i is the length of line i . 10. or sel- vage of material. line No. the under-arm piece. DRAFTING A BASQUE. Draft line 7. from i to 4. The square. that number is used here. and at right angles with line i. One-half the basque alone being drafted. Dot.e. Find your 8th measure (under-arm length). 2 will be one-half the bust measure. i. 7 shows the outline of the work. lines 3 and 4. at right angles with it. gives the lines within which all the work is confined. dot. From these points draft line 10 — parallel with lines 5 and 2. The length of line No. The space between vertical lines I and 9 will constitute the front that between vertical lines 8 and 9 . This point when carried out will give you your waist line. and mark 5. 4. 2. line of bust two inches below under-arm line. 1. all the measurements of circumference will be one-half of the actual measurements. As the greatest circumference of hip measurement is gener- ally four inches below the waist line. i. Draft from the right of line No.. 3. parallel with lines 2 and 5. from dot 5. Complete the square by drafting the two sides.) The average length from the under-arm line to line of bust being about two inches. 3. This when carried out will be your under-arm line. Draft line No. and coming between them. 8. — An exact measure can be taken for this. parallel with it. under-arm line. 6. Those of length will be drafted full length. Draft line 5. 7. and measure that number of inches on line i to the left of dot 5. or side and that between 8 and 4 the back of . (Note. . measure that number of inches on lines i and 4 to the right of line 5 (waist line). and mark 6. 2. i about two inches from edge of paper. Line 5 extends from i to 4. i.44 To Draft a Basque. 4. 9. or waist. Draft line 6. and measure that number of inches on line i to the left of dot 6. 5. waist line. Plate No. Now find one-fourth of the bust measure. parallel with line 2. Measure on line i to the left of line 2 the number of inches you have decided on for length of basque. length of front.

the number of 3 Measure on line 5 (width of back on waist line).Q \ i<^(^f.. through and dot Draft vertical line 9 between these gives the side or space for 5. the side form will have 2% side form. slightly slanting 5. inches taken by 6th measurement the distance you and dot On the same line. Mark your lines C and C line A intersects 6 With your pencil slightly curve from where c 8. der seam of back. Mark this line A. This i no.Plate (bee riate. DRAFT OF BACK. second From the angle formed by lines 6 and 8 draft line ^ to 5 to the left from dot on line Continue the line. points draft vertical line 8. measuring from line 4. angle formed by lines lines' 9 and 6 right-hand side of line 9 to the . The distance of line 9 the number number on Hne 6 between i and 8. two-thirds" of the distance between (waist line). To Draft a Basque. this point. (5th measurement. measure the to the side-form width. 2 Beo-in where it is crossed by hne A. and dot. Plate No. to line 2. parallel with line 8. A and line 6. dves give ">the curve to arm- line 8 downangle 6. lay it on the draft 4 Use the piece marked curve for andj^ its pointed end (top) touching the dot on line 8 between ^ nearest line and draft edge of curve to the dot on hne 5.ect1ng line 8. Brine the 4. . and 10. inches. 45 will always be one-hal the 1 1 distance of line 8 from line 4 The Measure one-half the width of width" of back. 8 shows the draft of starting from the angle formed by 1 Draft the oblique line A. at waist measures yA to That is. Measure of inches take one-fourth of this lines i and 8. ^ measure . if the width of back -^1/ inches. a back of waist. under-arm piece. 6. inter. from line 8 will be one-fourth the I. waist down to curve B With your rule continue straight line from parallel with line 4. from line 4. of inches on line 6 between from line 8 ^o-ard Jine i measurement and measure on lines 2 and 3 lines points. between line 4 and width of centre of back at waist haveTust measured. Mark your B and B' lines Une 2. about as i ^'"^ Vo'^TE -The centre width is. to circle back. This is your shoul- 3 and 4. and on line 8. and the centre one mch. This 7.) and between these back on lines 2 and 3.

6 .46 To Draft a Basque.

To Draft a Basque. 47 10 Plate No. . 9. — Draft Showing Front of Basque.

and draft the shoulder seam and neck curve at the same time. Of the under-arm piece the spring for hip remains to be drafted. — If the bust measure is 36 the point on line 9 to the angle formed by i and 7 will be 12 inches. This dot gives the inside curve of arm circle. including the intersecting lines 5. to the angle formed by lines 9 and 6. obliquely. and draft the arm circle. and draft a line to a point on line 3 which will measure one-third of bust meas- ure. Measure to the right of line 8. THE DARTS. Mark it L. Measure the distance on line 9 from where K touches. line S. Place your rule in the angle formed by lines i and 7. then subtract the sum from one-half the waist . find the I. on line 10. and dot half-way between.) 5. This will be completed farther on. Undcr-arvi Piece. Mark the shoulder seam M. 7 and line 10 (shown in cut. carrying the curve naturally to point K on line 9. the pattern being the space occupied between the vertical lines 8 and 9 and the horizontal lines 2 and 6. to the width of back at waist line. The curved . Take the piece marked "neck. From this point measure to the left 2^ inches. and draft an oblique line to a point on line 9 that will measure one-third the number of inches of bust measure. Plate No. Place your rule in the upper angle of lines 6 and 8. (See Plate. and dot.48 To Draft a Basque. dot. — The length of shoulder is not marked. and neck N. mark O. Draft from this dot to the angle of lines 8 and 5. three inches." see that its upper point touches and its right-hand end touches line 3 at Z. Add the width of under-arm piece. as the front will determine what it shall be. Place the piece marked " curve for arm circle " with its lower curved edge touching line 6. The under-arm piece is really drafted in great part already. 4. Where the line ends on line 9 mark it K. To number of inches to be taken out in the darts. DRAFT OF FRONT. bringing its upper curve touching O. line 9 at K. 2. curve and shoulder. 9 shows draft of front of waist. 1.piece will give the correct bearing if placed as instructed. Note. but now to be drafted). Note. 3. at waist line. and dot.

the first could be allowed i}{ inch. on line 5. — If the width of under-arm piece is 3 inches. To draft the dart measure from line i. . The space between the front line(i) and the first dart must always allow for button holes on ordinary figures is a good allowance. on line 5. If the form curves in front and flattens at the side the greatest amount of cloth will be taken in the first dart. or side seam. Take your curve pieces for darts. If the figure is very uniform. parallel with line I and running from line 2 through lines 10 and 5 to within three- quarters of an inch of line 7 (bust line). three-quarters of an inch. Now measure the amount to be taken out in first dart. leaving about one-half inch width between them where they touch on line 2. and draft the curved lines. five is. which subtracted from one-half the waist measure (say 12 inches) leaves five inches . Measure from right-hand side of the first dart. With your straight rule con- tinue the lines. Then if the width on line 5. Find the number of inches on line 5 between lines i and 9 from that subtract the number of inches needed in front to complete the size of waist. and width of back on waist line 4 inches. as shown in Plate. then the second dart and side seam will have large darts and very little will be taken out in the first. therefore. then each dart will have an equal amount. the second dart ij4 inch. and the remainder will be the number of inches to be taken out in the darts. from the top of line just drawn to the dots on line 5. If the person is very flat in front and curving at the side. For practice. and dot. i}4 inch. Example. supposing 3^^ inches was allowed for the darts. these added give 7 inches. The amount to be taken out in each dart will be governed by the conformation of the figure. This is always considered in this S3^stem. the side seam being one. the number of inches of material required to complete the size of waist. This will be . i}4 inch I. To Draft a Basque. Practically there are three darts. . and the third. three-quarters of an inch. and dot. draw a vertical line. 2. 49 measure and the remainder will be the number of inches needed in front to complete the size of waist. and dot centrally. between these dots. is 9 inches. between lines i and '9. subtract the inches found above from the 9 inches and the remain- 5 der is 4 inches therefore 4 inches must be taken out in the darts.

Z ' 2. 10. Plate No. Appearance of Front and Back when drafted together.50 To Draft a Basque. .

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to carry out at this point. at line 2. and draft line + from curve at neck to line 7. to the left of line 9. where it touches on line i. Measure the number of inches on shoulder seam front. Place your rule with its edge touching this dot and the dot out from line 7. corresponding with line ^S" as shown in line T' of plate. the dart being entirely on the front. Draft of Back. same as the spring to under- arm piece. beginning at line 2 and line. as in drafting the first dart. left it out. . as well as secure the accurate fit. the same is obtained by carrying out a line. the remaining number of inches to come out in the darts. between these dots. and dot. Measure from curve of arm circle (letter O) toward line I one-half the measure taken for width of front (3d measure- ment). there is a lost space. and observe that on bust line (7). This is the point or swell of bust. As the length of line 7 is just one-half the actual bust measurement. Continue from line 7. as ending at line 7. then turn to draft of back and measure the same . The draft being scientific. the correct bust measurement. and dot. your space between first and second dart. between line 8 and line C of side forni. as shown in the plate. Carry out the curved lines. Continue and carry out the spring for hip below waist line. line M. above line 5. and dot centrally. If any great fulness is required at the front of basque below waist line. and continue the straight lines to line 2. the under-arm piece being allowed to continue straight down on line 8. This gives the slope of front from neck to point. the waist would be too tight if this lost space was not made up. From this point draft line 7" to the angle where line 6 joins line 9. A very handsome slope is obtained by making the distance between the first and sec- ond dart. Turn to plate No. to the left of line i. The remaining number of inches to be taken out will be taken at the side seam. then meas- ure the number so obtained as a continuation of line 7. draft an oblique seen in the Plate. and dot. Measure the amount to be taken out in second dart. Measure the distance on line 7 between lines 8 and C. Length of SJiouldcr for Back. 8. about one-quarter inch more than the distance between them on line 5. To complete the length of shoulder for draft of back.52 To Draft a Basque. as in dotted line of plate. Measure on line 5. because the cloth was not has demanded and places it where required. a slightly curved line to a point on line i.

Whatever length is desired at hip below waist line. place your rule on point of bust (line 7. 53 number of inches on line A. 1 1 exhibits the four sections of basque when cut out. as shown by dotted line above in the diagram. and draw horizontal line V (back of neck). This measure is taken from the point of bust the same as the other. The three plates. M If lesswas required the dotted line would come below A'l. and line ^'. Measure the desired length of front on line i. down) corre- spond in length. The correction shown in dotted lines of . Draft the line for bottom of basque from this point to where V touches on hip line. the dotted lines showing the seams. When the draft is completed. beginning where line A intersects line 8. The length of line BB^ (spring of side form back). or to the point you have marked for length at hip line. is the test for correcting the height of neck. to the point nearest where neck curve joins shoulder seam front. The 4th measurement. 12 shows a front of basque with corrected lines. The measures taken from the prominent bone at back of neck to point of bust and from neck to point are the test measures for front of waist. as illustrated on plate 10. Plate No. with a tracing-wheel mark out each section separately. For certain material it is very essential that the draft should be as nearly perfect as possible. continuation of back. Plate No. Plate No. are made separately to prevent confusion in the mind of the learners. CORRECTING DRAFTS. beginning at Hne 5. 7. Dot. and 9 having shown the drafting at different steps. beginning at line 5. and measure the length of 9th measure. continuing to or beyond line 10. Measure the length of line and V make the front seam of under-arm piece (line 9 from 5. must be the same. Make lines C and 6" correspond in the same way. To Complete the Draft of Basque. particularly where stripes or figures are to be matched. measure that number of inches on lines 8 and 9. continuing to or beyond line 2. neck to point. (J/ joins N) If the tape or rule calls for more length. less i^ inches. For the 9th measurement. 10 exhibits the draft as it will appear when made in one drafting. To Draft a Basque. 8. They are applied in this way. then the shoulder seam {M) must be carried out. and allow for seams when cutting out.

Plate No. .54 To Draft a Basque. Corrected Draft of Front. 12.

13. 55 Plate No. To Draft a Basque. . — Corrected Draft of Back.

TO DRAFT ONE DART. and avail- able in every basque. The cut of side form on this plate also shows a dotted curved line C. For all outside garments and jackets this is the correct cutting. using the curve piece to shape the dart. Draft centre line. while line BB of side form must conform to the changed line B. above or below Fas the measure would determine. or shortened. then the draft should be made from a point one inch lower than customary. and dot. neck curve illustrate that the line has been dropped. The dotted lines in upper points of darts show they have been lowered as well as let out . Plate No.56 To Draft a Basque. that consideration must be given to the fact in making the draft. To draft with one dart the amount to be taken out will be the same as when drafting with two darts. with very little flare. The curving of line BB at waist as illustrated by the dotted lines is another point in artistic fitting. . The same in the hip seam T'. the slanted line of cut showing how. showing a drop of i inch below line of waist. Then measure the amount to be taken out in the dart. same as in drafting the other darts. If the back measured 16 inches. where it ends above hip joint. Measure 2 inches from line i on line 5 and dot for first sewing line. Plate No. The advantages of one dart in cutting stripes has been fully dwelt upon in another part of the book. and about one-half inch more dart taken at line T (side seam) than when cutting two darts. It is a good plan to follow in all cases. Or measure 15 inches (i inch less than actual measurement). though a slight curving will be allowed at front. Line B would also be changed as shown in dotted lines of diagram. 14 shows the method of drafting with one dart. If more length had been required it would have been carried above line N. 13 shows a corrected draft back and side form. The greater part will be taken out in the regular dart. of If in taking the measure the length of back is found to run down below a line horizontal with the waist line. from line 5 to line F. those in the darts of basque portion indi- cate that more fulness was required there. it naturally follows. giving a very pretty effect.

Measure from this dot on line B. and mark C. Plate No. measure the inside length of upper-arm . near A. T. B measurement around the hand (3d measure). where sleeve joms waist to I From elbow. (See in illustration. sleeve.) A 2. two-thirds of 2d measure (fore-arm) dot. and measure the inside "^^'^fon H. line length of fore-arm (7th measure). draft Hne to a point on line 2. measuring two-thirds of on draft line i? to a point on line 3. r . (6th measure). B. 4 On line i. and dot. ^''6^'Vri^ on line i draft line B. On line i. the circumference 8. 57 THE SLEEVE. .^ a point in arm-circle back. C. Plate No. measure 2 inches. easily. measure the inside 3'. 6. Around fore-arm below elbow. measures.. . D to E. line i. *. and mark BB. E to F. . A measure can be taken from the line of where A passes around the arm to top of sleeve. draft a line to point A. and 3. 7 On line B. draft line mea!!idng^from line V. ^ ^ on line 2 tS the left of line 2. . to the left of arm (yth measure). 7 Inside length of fore-arm. 6 shows the method of taking 1. On line i. ^ . i. Rules for Measurement. length of fore- A. measuring two-thirds of measurement around the upper-arm (ist Fto a point where "'Ttrom 'ptinf ^^ (end of line B). if desired. on line i. to the left of C. and dot. . G to H. from line i. measuring from point A. to left of B. rio-ht angles with it line 2. From elbow to wrist. and at I With your square i. 5. and mark B. Around hand. inches long. Around fullest part of upper-arm. 15 represents the draft of a draft line about 24 inches long. measure the length of '^^f 'Onte'^i? ^^T3"V4mThrrL^nt'°i. and draft hne ^ j. about 14 ^ measure 2^ mches and mark A. To Draft a Basque. 5. Drafting the Sleeve. H to K. Inside length of upper-arm. ^"'lO^From pomt C. Q From point A. parallel with lines 2 foLtB measure 2>^ inches.

14. — Draft of Basque having One Dart. .58 To Draft a Basque. Plate No.

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pin it in. and then cut out each section. and bring the fore-arm at right angle with the upper-arm. so no notch is given. cut it out. 15. and satisfactory results will be obtained. then raise the arm. This preserves the curved lines H and HH. 19. and mark. from line i. from the dot on H X. 16. Fitting the Sleeve. 20. To use the large plate.6o To Draft a Basque. draw it well up on the arm. There is no point at which a sleeve should be set in. Smooth the sleeve toward shoulder. Place the pattern over a sheet of paper and run your tracing- wheel over the lines constituting the under side of sleeve. 18. from line H. Draft a line from the point where line E touches on line 3 to the dot on line F. and dot. and mark FF. In basting. Observations. Draft line K. Draft line L. line E. from line H. Measure one-third of circumference of upper-arm (ist meas- ure) on line E. line J/ making it about 4 inches in length. Measure one-third of circumference of fore-arm (2d measure) on line K. 23. top of sleeve. thence to dot on D^ and mark L. and dot. Shape your sleeve to conform to the lines shown in the plate of the perfected sleeve. and mark HH. The draft gives top and under side together. 17. Draft circle N'. Measure one-third of circumference of hand (3d measure) on line D. and you have the pattern. On the conformation and muscular movement much will depend. sew toward notch. to the dot on Hne H. 22. Line M is the height to top of sleeve measure from centre of . and when it is feeling comfortable. 21. and the curve to inside of arm circle as shown in plate. and gather fulness at elbow.o the dot on F. intersecting line 3. join points marked X and O. from dot on E to dot on K. and dot. paste it on cardboard. and note if the elbow is right. To fit the sleeve. All seams must be allowed for. Follow the directions here given. ~Ll 13' . Draft a line from point C. on line i.