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United States Department of Interior

Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
Biostratigraphic Chart of the Gulf of Mexico Offshore Region, Jurassic to Quaternary
Recent through Oligocene Eocene through Jurassic
Time Time
CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHY BIOSTRATIGRAPHY CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHY BIOSTRATIGRAPHY
(mya) BOEM (mya) BOEM
(not to Foraminiferal planktic & benthic regional and Calcareous nannoplanktic regional and CHRONOZONE (not to Planktic & benthic foraminifera & ostracod (O) Calcareous nannoplanktic regional and CHRONOZONE
System Subsystem Series Stage System Subsystem Series Stage
scale) local markers local markers scale) regional and local markers local markers
Holocene Globorotalia inflata 33.70 P Globorotalia cerroazulensis cocoaensis, Discoaster saipanensis,
Globorotalia flexuosa Emiliania huxleyi (base of acme) Hantkenina alabamensis Micrantholithus altus
Q Upper Pontosphaera indooceanica
PLU U
r
i Textularia hockleyensis Discoaster barbadiensis
Sangamon fauna Gephyrocapsa oceanica flood a Globorotalia cerroazulensis pomeroli

———0.20———
u I
o
Gephyrocapsa caribbeanica flood
p
p
b
o
Textularia dibollensis
EU
Helicosphaera inversa Globigerinatheka tropicalis / mexicana Chiasmolithus consuetus
n e
a P M
i i
Pseudoemiliania lacunosa "A"
Globorotalia truncatulinoides coiling change, right-to-left Pseudoemiliania lacunosa "B"
r
n
i
Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta
Camerina moodybranchensis, Cribrocentrum reticulatum
l d a
t e d n
Gephyrocapsa caribbeanica increase
Gephyrocapsa omega
PLM a
n
Camerina jacksonensis
Sphenolithus obtusus
i l ——37.00——

———0.78———
e s e
Trimosina "A" Gephyrocapsa parallela
Pseudoemiliania ovata
Nonionella cockfieldensis Micrantholithus procerus,
Chiasmolithus grandis,
t Stilostomella antillea Pseudoemiliania lacunosa "C" acme Pemma papillatum
r o C
Globorotalia incisa Gephyrocapsa aperta acme Truncorotaloides rohri
Sphaeroidinella dehiscens acme "A" Scyphosphaera pulcherima, B Discorbis yeguaensis Pemma basquensis
c
n e L
a
l
Trimosina "A" acme
Gephyrocapsa caribbeanica (large) a Eponides yeguaensis
Nodosaria mexicana
Pemma stradneri
r
o a
a n
e
w b
Angulogerina magna
Hyalinea balthica / Trimosina "B" PLL E
t
o
Ceratobulimina eximia
Morozovella lehneri
Pemma balium
e r o M
r r i
a
Globorotalia tosaensis tosaensis
Helicosphaera sellii T c i
d
n
i
Eponides guayabalensis
Globorotalia bullbrooki

y n Sphaeroidinella dehiscens acme "B" Lithostromation perdurum e d
a Truncorotaloides topilensis EM
———1.77———
Angulogerina "B"
Uvigerina hispida
Globorotalia crassula acme,
Calcidiscus macintyrei

Discoaster brouweri,
e P
n
e
l
e
n Clavulinoides guayabalensis
Operculinoides sabinensis
Orbulinoides beckmanni Sphenolithus radians
G
e
l
Globorotalia praehirsuta
Cristellaria "S"
Globorotalia menardii coiling change, left-to-right
Calcidiscus macintyrei increase
Discoaster brouweri "A"
——41.30——
r a
l L
Subbotina frontosa
Acarinina broedermanni
Cyclammina caneriverensis
Chiasmolithus solitus
Chiasmolithus gigas
Discoaster sublodoensis,
u
a
s
i
Globorotalia exilis
Globorotalia miocenica
Globorotalia pertenuis
Discoaster pentaradiatus t e
o
t
e
t
Discocyclina advena
Morozovella aragonensis
Sphenolithus spiniger

Rhabdosphaera inflata
i

i
a Bolivina imporcata / "P" Discoaster surculus a Haplocytheridea stenzeli (O)
n Lenticulina 1 g n Discoaster lodoensis
U ——49.00——
———2.60——— p
Textularia crassisepta / "P" e Y
Chiasmolithus californicus
p
e
r
P
i
Ceratobulimina pacifica
Cassidulina laevigata carinata acme / "L"
Haplophragmoides emaciatum
Discoaster asymmetricus
PU a n
e
L
o
p
r
Acarinina soldadoensis
Morozovella quetra
Acarinina angulosa
e
EL
r
P a Saracenaria "H" w Morozovella rex / subbotinae
s
c Globorotalia multicamerata Cycloperfolithus carlae, e Morozovella formosa formosa Tribrachiatus orthostylus
l e Discoaster tamalis r
i
Globorotalia wilcoxensis Toweius crassus
i a
n Globoquadrina altispira = Valvulineria "H" Morozovella acuta Tribrachiatus contortus
o
c
z
i
Cyclammina sp.
Arenaceous fauna
——54.50—— y n

Morozovella velascoensis
Discoaster multiradiatus
Fasciculithus tympaniformis
a Cibicides grosseperforatus Cytheridea sabinensis (O) Heliolithus kleinpellii
e n T
Sphaeroidinellopsis seminulina Discorbis washburni Heliolithus reidelii
n Textularia 1
h
Planulorotalites pseudomenardii
———3.58——— e a
Buccella (Eponides) hannai acme Sphenolithus abies P Toweius eminens
U n
Cibicides marsi Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilica, Chiasmolithus bidens
a p e
Discoaster intercalcaris, Morozovella angulata Discoaster diastypus
Z Dictyococcites antarcticus l p t
i
Planulorotalites pusilla pusilla LU
e
a Globorotalia margaritae e Planulorotalites compressa
L r a
o
n Uvigerina rustica Pseudosphenolithus abies "B" acme o n Vaginulina longiforma,
c Globigerina druryi / nepenthes "B" c Subbotina pseudobulloides
w
l Globigerina nepenthes PL Morozovella uncinata
e ——57.90—— e
i Buliminella 1 Sphenolithus abies "B" Vaginulina midwayana,
r n Selandian
a Siphotextularia jugosa / "J" Amaurolithus tricorniculatus Globorotalia inconstans
——60.90——
n Sigmoilina "P" / cf. schlumbergeri e L Globorotalia trinidadensis
Sphaeroidinellopsis multilobata o Globoconusa daubjergensis Cruciplacolithus edwardsii
Globigerinoides mitra Ceratolithus acutus w Danian Robulus pseudocostata LL
Globorotalia plesiotumida acme Discoaster quintatus e Markalius inversus astroporus
——-5.32———
M Globorotalia menardii coiling change, right-to-left Discoaster quinqueramus r Globigerina eugubina
e ——65.00——
Discoaster berggrenii M Micula decussata
s
s Globorotalia margaritae primitiva a Abathomphalus mayaroensis Micula prinsii FAD
i Globorotalia juanai Reticulofenestra rotaria a Globotruncana contusa Micula murus FAD
n s
i
Textularia "X" Discoaster berggrenii "A" t Watznaueria barnesae FAD
a Textularia tatumi r Nephrolithus frequens FAD
n Bolivina denticulata i Gansserina gansseri
———7.12——— c
Textularia 6 Discoaster neohamatus Rosita fornicata
h
Bigenerina irregularis / 6 t Globotruncana ventricosa Reinhardites levis
Discoaster loeblichii i Tetralithus trifidus
Globorotalia acostaensis coiling change, right-to-left a Tranolithus phacelosus
n
Planulina renzi Globotruncana lapparenti Aspidolithus parcus constrictus
——71.30——
Reophax davepopei, MUU Globotruncana calcarata Reinhardites anthophorus "A"
Robulus "E" Globorotalites micheliniana Eiffellithus eximius
Bigenerina floridana / "A" Minylithus convallis C Globotruncana elevata Aspidolithus parcus parcus
a
Cristellaria "K" Catinaster mexicanus Archaeoglobigerina bosquensis
m
Melonis pompilioides increase Discoaster bellus, Stensioina exsculpta exsculpta Reinhardites anthophorus "B"
p
N U Cibicides trincherasensis
Discoaster calcaris
a
Marginotruncana marginata
Lithastrinus grillii
KUU
n
e p
p T
Uvigerina carapitana
Amphistegina "E"
i
Marginotruncana coronata
Whiteinella baltica
o G a
o e
r r
Cyclammina 3
Discoaster prepentaradiatus u n Planoglobulina taylorana Bukryaster hayi
Broinsonia enormis
t
g o
Globorotalia lenguaensis,
Bolivina thalmanni
Discoaster prepentaradiatus increase
——83.50—— U
l
f S Dicarinella asymetrica
Marthasterites furcatus
n
e i
Discorbis 12
Bigenerina "B"
p i
a
n
Whiteinella inornata
Marginotruncana sinuosa
Eprolithus floralis
Zeugrhabdotus noeliae
n
a
n Eponides mansfieldi C p a t
o Hedbergella delrioensis
n n
Textularia "G" e i
Stensioina granulata granulata
e Globoquadrina dehiscens Discoaster bollii,
Catinaster calyculus r
a
n
Dicarinella concavata,
Marginotruncana renzi
Lithastrinus moratus

T Robulus 15 Discoaster hamatus
——85.80—— r Dicarinella imbricata Quadrum gartneri
Textularia "L" Coniacian Whiteinella paradubia
Catinaster coalitus MLU Hedbergella amabilis Stoverius achylosus

e Cibicides inflata
Cibicides carstensi,
Discoaster exilis
Helicosphaera walbersdorfensis
——89.00——
e T
u
Dicarinella hagni
Planulina eaglefordensis
Bigenerina 2 r Chiastozygus platyrhethum

r M
i
Globorotalia mayeri
Globorotalia siakensis
t
o
n Helvetoglobotruncana helvetica
Parhabdolithus achlyostaurion

Uvigerina 3, Coccolithus miopelagicus i Praeglobotruncana stephani, Calculites axosuturalis

——11.20—— t o
c
S
Cibicides carstensi increase
Globorotalia fohsi robusta Discoaster kugleri
——93.50——
a
n
Helvetoglobotruncana praehelvetica
Parhabdolithus asper
e Robulus 5 / 55 Microstaurus chiastius
a
i n
e
e
r
r
Textularia "W"
Globorotalia fohsi lobata
Discoaster kugleri acme
Calcidiscus premacintyrei MUM
C
e
n
Globigerinelloides bentonensis
Rotalipora cushmani
Axopodorhabdus albianus
Lithraphidites acutus
KLU
Globorotalia fohsi praefohsi Cyclicargolithus floridanus Rotalipora greenhornensis Lithraphidites pseudoquatratus

a M
a
v
a
Globorotalia fohsi fohsi
Globorotalia peripheroacuta
Discoaster sanmiguelensis
c
o
m
a
Rotalipora appenninica
Rotalipora reicheli
Coriollithon kennedyi

Bigenerina humblei Lenticulina gaultina,
l n
r i
d
d
l
i
Gyroidina miocenica
Globorotalia peripheroronda
MMM e
i
a
Fossocytheridea lenoirensis (O),
Favusella washitensis
a Cristellaria "I" Sphenolithus heteromorphus n Textularia rioensis
l

——14.80——
y e n

L
Praeorbulina glomerosa
Cibicides opima
Robulus 53
Discoaster petaliformis
Sphenolithus heteromorphus acme
Helicosphaera ampliaperta
——98.90——
C
Rotalipora gandolfii

Planomalina buxtorfi
Hayesites albiensis

a
n
Amphistegina "B" Discoaster deflandrei acme o o
Braarudosphaera africana
g Globorotalia siakensis coiling change, left-to-right m Rotalipora ticinensis
h Globigerinatella insueta MLM m A Ticinella roberti
i
Robulus "L" / 43 Discoaster calculosus a l Cythereis fredericksburgensis (O), Cyth. brevis (O) Braarudosphaera hockwoldensis KUL
——16.40——
a
n Cibicides 38 u n b Prediscosphaera columnata
Camerina 1, i Cytheridea goodlandensis (O), C. oliverensis (O) Crucicribrum anglicum
c a
Robulus 54B = Cristellaria 54 Biticinella breggiensis
B h
u
Saracenaria sp. / "D" Sphenolithus belemnos MUL s e
n Ammobaculites goodlandensis
Gyroidina "K" / 9 / 4 Reticulofenestra gartneri Dictyoconus walnutensis
r
Catapsydrax stainforthi Sphenolithus disbelemnos a Eocytheropteron trinitiensis (O) Rucinolithus irregularis
d
Catapsydrax dissimilis, Orthorhabdus serratus n Orbitolina texana KML
i
Robulus chambersi, Rehacythereis ? aff. R. glabrella (O)
g ——112.20——
Discorbis bolivarensis / "B", Ticinella bejaouaensis
a
Cristellaria "A"
L Planomalina cheniourensis Eprolithus antiquus
l
L i Marginulina ascensionensis / "A" Triquetrorhabdulus carinatus, MML o A Epistomina sp. Conusphaera mexicana,
o Triquetrorhabdulus challengeri p Globigerinelloides algerianus Micrantholithus obtusus
w
a
Globigerina binaensis Discoaster calculosus increase w t Globigerinelloides blowi Nannoconus kamptneri
n
e Gyroidina 8 e i Micrantholithus hoschulzii
r Siphogenerina fredsmithi a Schackoina cabri Nannoconus steinmanni
——20.52——
A Siphonina davisi Discoaster saundersi r n Globuligerina hoteriva Conusphaera rothii
q Planulina palmerae Hedbergella sigali
u Globigerinoides primordius Choffatella decipiens
i ——121.00—— C
Sphenolithus dissimilis Schuleridea lacustris (O) Nannoconus colomii
t
a
Lenticulina hanseni MLL o Clavihedbergella eocretacea Nannoconus abundans KLL
Barremian
n Lenticulina jeffersonensis, a Calcicalathina oblongata
i Cristellaria "R", Cyclicargolithus abisectus h Lithraphidites bollii
——127.00——
a Globorotalia kugleri, Helicosphaera recta Speetonia colligata
n Globigerina angulisuturalis
u Hauter.
Cruciellipsis cuvillieri
——23.80—— ——132.00—— i
Robulus "A" Dictyococcites bisectus Everticyclammina virginulina Tubodiscus verenae
Discorbis gravelli l Rucinolithus wisei
Valang.
Globigerina ciperoensis ciperoensis a Schuleridea acuminata (O) Diadorhombus rectus
Heterostegina texana Sphenolithus delphix, Micrantholithus speetonensis
——137.00—— n
Ericsonia fenestrata Hutsonia vulgaris / callahani (O) Polycostella senaria
Berriasian
C Cibicides jeffersonensis Pentaschuleridea pentagonalis (O) Polycostella beckmanni
——144.20——
h Bolivina perca Gallaecytheridea postrotunda (O)
U
a Marginulina idiomorpha Zyghrablithus bijugatus Buccicrenata italica increase Hexalithus noelae
p
t Marginulina vaginata Sphenolithus ciperoensis J U Tithonian Eoguttulina amygdalina,
p
t Marginulina howei OU u p Epistomina uhligi
e
i Camerina "A" Epistomina stellacostata
r
a Miogypsinoides "A"
——150.70—— r p Epistomina mosquensis Stephanolithion bigotii bigotii JU
P n Cibicides hazzardi e
Kimmer.
Alveosepta jaccardi Stephanolithion bigotii maximum
——154.10—— a
a O Globorotalia opima nana Sphenolithus distentus
r
Globuligerina oxfordiana
l Globorotalia opima opima s Oxfordian Lenticulina quenstedti Discorhabdus jungii
l Cristellaria "H"
s Paalzowella feifeli Stephanolithion speciosum
i Marginulina texana
——159.40——
Reinholdella crebra
e g Bolivina mexicana i Epistomina regularis
——28.50——
o o Nonion struma
c Middle Callovian Stephanolithion hexum JM
c Nodosaria blanpiedi Epistomina coronata
g e Discorbis "D" Sphenolithus predistentus 164.40 Watznaueria crucicentralis
Chiloguembelina cubensis
e n Textularia mississippiensis seligi BOEM Gulf of Mexico Resource Evaluation For public release May 1, 2003
n e Anomalina bilateralis Robert B. Witrock (504) 736-2718 or 1-800-200-GULF
R Globigerina ampliapertura
e L
u
p
Spiroplectammina mississippiensis Helicosphaera compacta
o Globorotalia increbescens
e
w
l
Textularia warreni Sphenolithus pseudoradians, OL
e Pseudohastigerina micra Reticulofenestra hampdenensis
i
r Loxostoma "B"
a
n Cibicides pippeni Reticulofenestra umbilica
Reticulofenestra hillae
Ericsonia formosa
Ericsonia subdisticha
Cibicides mississippiensis
Discoaster nodifer
33.70 Ismolithus recurvus

References used for Mesozoic and Cenozoic age determination and stratigraphic units
Depth
in
Armentrout, J. M., 1996, High resolution sequence biostratigraphy: examples from the Gulf of Mexico Frizzell, D. L., 1954, Handbook of Cretaceous foraminifera of Texas: Bureau of Economic Geology Report meters
Plio-Pleistocene, in J. A. Howell and J. F. Aitken, eds., High-resolution sequence stratigraphy: innovations of Investigations 22, 232 p. Sea Level 0
and applications: Geological Society Special Publication 104, p. 65-86. 100
Transitional – 200
Gradstein, F. M., 1976, Biostratigraphy and biogeography of Jurassic Grand Banks foraminifera: Maritime Inner Shelf Middle Shelf Outer Shelf
Ascoli, P., 1984, Epistominid biostratigraphy across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary on the northwestern Sediments Special Publication, v. 1B, p. 557-583. 1 2 3 Upper Slope 500
Atlantic shelf: Benthos 83, International Symposium on Benthic Foraminifera, Pau, p. 27-34.
4
Gradstein, F. M., F. P. Agterberg, and M. A. D'Iorio, 1990, Time in quantitative stratigraphy, in T. A. Cross, ed.,
Bathymetric Zonation Middle Slope
Ascoli, P., C. W. Poag, and J. Remane, 1984, Microfossil zonation across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary on Quantitative dynamic stratigraphy, p. 519-542. 1000
Code Zone Depth Range in meters 5
the Atlantic margin of North America, in G. E. Westermann, ed., Jurassic-Cretaceous biochronology and
paleogeography of North America: Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 27, p. 31-48. Gradstein, F. M., F. P. Agterberg, J. G. Ogg, J. Hardenbol, P. van Veen, J. Thierry, and Z. Huang, 1995, A 1 Transitional – Inner Shelf 0 – 20
1500
Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous time scale, in W. A. Berggren, D. V. Kent, M.-P. Aubry, and J. Hardenbol, 2 Middle Shelf 20 – 100
Bergen, J. A., and P. J. Sikora, 1999, Microfossil diachronism in southern Norwegian North Sea chalks: Valhall eds., Geochronology, time scales and global stratigraphic correlation: Society of Economic Paleontologists 3 Outer Shelf 100 – 200 Lower
and Hod fields, in R. W. Jones and M. D. Simmons, eds., Biostratigraphy in production and development and Mineralogists Special Publication 54, p. 95-126. 4 Upper Slope 200 – 500 Slope 2000
geology: Geological Society Special Publication 152, p. 85-111.
5 Middle Slope 500 – 1000 6
Jones, R. W., 1996, Micropalaeontology in petroleum exploration: Oxford, Oxford University Press, 432 p. Abyssal
6 Lower Slope 1000 – 2000
Berggren, W. A., D. V. Kent, C. C. Swisher III, and M.-P. Aubry, 1995, A revised Cenozoic geochronology and 7 2500
7 Abyssal >2000
chronostratigraphy, in W. A. Berggren, D. V. Kent, M.-P. Aubry, and J. Hardenbol, eds., Geochronology, Jones, R. W., and M. D. Simmons, eds., 1999, Biostratigraphy in production and development geology,
time scales and global stratigraphic correlation: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Geological Society of London Special Publication 152, 318 p.
Special Publication 54, p. 129-212.
Lawless, P. N., R. H. Fillon, and R. G. Litton III, 1997, Gulf of Mexico Cenozoic biostratigraphic,
Bolli, H. M., J. B. Saunders, and K. Perch-Nielsen, eds., 1985, Plankton stratigraphy, volume 1: planktic lithostratigraphic, and sequence stratigraphic event chronology: Gulf Coast Association of Geological
foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils and calpionellids: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 509 p. Societies Transactions, v. 47, p. 271-282.

Bolli, H. M., J.-P. Beckmann, and J. B. Saunders, 1994, Benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the south Lord, A. R., ed., 1982, A stratigraphic index of calcareous nannofossils: Chichester, British
Caribbean region: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 408 p. Micropalaeontological Society, 192 p.

Bralower, T. J., R. M. Leckie, W. V. Sliter, and H. R. Thierstein, 1995, An integrated Cretaceous microfossil Picou, E. B., Jr., B. F. Perkins, N. C. Rosen, and M. J. Nault, eds., 1999, Gulf of Mexico basin biostratigraphic LEGEND
biostratigraphy, in W. A. Berggren, D. V. Kent, M.-P. Aubry, and J. Hardenbol, eds., Geochronology, time index microfossils - a geoscientist's guide: foraminifers and nannofossils, parts I and II, Oligocene through
scales and global stratigraphic correlation: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Pleistocene foraminifers: Gulf Coast Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Foundation, All foraminiferal markers are extinction points (LADs) unless otherwise indicated.
Special Publication 54, p. 65-79. 215 p., 3 charts, 2 tables of synonyms (Text and CD-ROM). (O) indicates an ostracode species.
The calcareous nannoplanktic markers are mainly coccolith species LADs. Dinoflagellates and palynomorphs (pollen) are occasionally used.
Breard, S. Q., M. Nault, and A. D. Callender, 1994, Biostratigraphy and paleoecologic tolerances of Oligocene Prothero, D. R., 2001, Magnetostratigraphic tests of sequence stratigraphic correlations from the southern LAD: Last Appearance Datum
Paleocene foraminiferal assemblages of the Gulf Coast basin: Gulf Coast Association of Geological California Paleogene, Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 71, p. 526-536. FAD: First Appearance Datum
Societies Transactions, v. 44, p. 111-116. Species LADs separated by a virgule (the diagonal mark "/") indicates either synonymous species or synchronous species.
Simmons, M. D., W. D. Berggren, R. O. Koshkarly, B. J. O'Neill, R. W. Scott, and W. Ziegler, 1997, Species LADs separated by "=" indicates synchronous species.
Breard, S. Q., A. D. Callender, and M. Nault, 1997, Application of bathyal foraminiferal events to the Neogene Biostratigraphy and geochronology in the 21st century: Paleontology in the 21st century, an International Two or more species LADs separated by a comma indicate synchronous species LADs.
through Pleistocene biostratigraphic framework of the Gulf of Mexico basin: Gulf Coast Association of Senckenberg Conference and Workshop, reports and recommendations. (for example, Discoaster bollii, Catinaster calyculus are two separate but time-equivalent coccolith extinction points).
Geological Societies Transactions, v. 47, p. 66-73. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites//paleonet/paleo21/biostrat.html BOEM Chronozone: A body of rock formed during the same time span, bounded by biostratigraphic or correlative seismic markers.

Breard, S. Q., A. D. Callender, and M. Nault, 2000, Gulf of Mexico basin Late Tertiary deep-water biostratigraphic Stainforth, R. M., J. L. Lamb, H. Luterbacher, J. H. Beard, and R. M. Jeffords, 1975, Cenozoic planktonic forami-
zonation: relationship to standard shelf foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil marker terminology: Gulf niferal zonation and characteristics of index forms: University of Kansas Paleontological Institute, Article 62, 162 p.
Coast Section Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Foundation Twentieth Annual
Research Conference Deep-water Reservoirs of the World, December 3-6, 2000, Houston. Styzen, M. J., 1996, Late Cenozoic chronostratigraphy of the Gulf of Mexico: Gulf Coast Society of Economic
Paleontologists and Mineralogists Foundation, chart, 2 sheets.
Brenchley, P. J., and D. A. T. Harper, 1998, Palaeoecology: ecosystems, environments and evolution: London,
Chapman and Hall, 402 p. Total Biostratigraphic Services, 1994, Miocene/Oligocene biostratigraphic chart (Gulf of Mexico): Total
Biostratigraphic Services, Inc., New Orleans.
Catalano, R. E., E. Di Stefano, A. Sulli, F. P. Vitale, S. Infuso, and P. R. Vail, 1998, Sequences and system tracts
calibrated by high-resolution bio-chronostratigraphy: the central Mediterranean Plio-Pleistocene record, Waterman, A. S., 1999, Biostratigraphic chart, Gulf of Mexico Neogene (version 9909): Paleo-Data, Inc., New Orleans. References to this chart should be as follows:
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Publication 60, p. 155-177. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 84, p. 1905-1928. Louisiana.