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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values



The measurement of insulation resistance is a common routine test performed on all types of electrical wires and cables. As a
production test, this test is often used as a customer acceptance test, with minimum insulation resistance per unit length often
specied by the customer. The results obtained from IR Test are not intended to be useful in nding localized defects in the insulation
as in a true HIPOT test, but rather give information on the quality of the bulk material used as the insulation.

Even when not required by the end customer, many wire and cable manufacturers use the insulation resistance test to track their
insulation manufacturing processes, and spot developing problems before process variables drift outside of allowed limits.

Selection of IR Testers (Megger):

Insulation testers with test voltage of 500, 1000, 2500 and 5000 V are available.
The recommended ratings of the insulation testers are given below:

Voltage Level IR Tester

650V 500V DC
1.1KV 1KV DC
3.3KV 2.5KV DC
66Kv and Above 5KV DC
Test Voltage for Meggering:

When AC Voltage is used, The Rule of Thumb is Test Voltage (A.C) = (2X Name Plate Voltage) +1000.
When DC Voltage is used (Most used in All Megger), Test Voltage (D.C) = (2X Name Plate Voltage).

Equipment / Cable DC Test

Rating Voltage
24V To 50V 50V To 100V
50V To 100V 100V To 250V
100V To 240V 250V To 500V
440V To 550V 500V To 1000V
2400V 1000V To 2500V
4100V 1000V To 5000V
Measurement Range of Megger:

Test voltage Measurement

250V DC 0M to 250G
500V DC 0M to 500G

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1KV DC 0M to 1T
2.5KV DC 0M to 2.5T
5KV DC 0M to 5T

Precaution while Meggering:

Before Meggering:

Make sure that all connections in the test circuit are tight.
Test the megger before use, whether it gives INFINITY value when not connected, and ZERO when the two terminals are
connected together and the handle is rotated.

During Meggering:

Make sure when testing for earth, that the far end of the conductor is not touching, otherwise the test will show faulty insulation
when such is not actually the case.
Make sure that the earth used when testing for earth and open circuits is a good one otherwise the test will give wrong information
Spare conductors should not be meggered when other working conductors of the same cable are connected to the respective

After completion of cable Meggering:

Ensure that all conductors have been reconnected properly.

Test the functions of Points, Tracks & Signals connected through the cable for their correct response.
In case of signals, aspect should be veried personally.
In case of points, verify positions at site. Check whether any polarity of any feed taken through the cable has got earthed

Safety Requirements for Meggering:

All equipment under test MUST be disconnected and isolated.

Equipment should be discharged (shunted or shorted out) for at least as long as the test voltage was applied in order to be
absolutely safe for the person conducting the test.
Never use Megger in an explosive atmosphere.
Make sure all switches are blocked out and cable ends marked properly for safety.
Cable ends to be isolated shall be disconnected from the supply and protected from contact to supply, or ground, or accidental
Erection of safety barriers with warning signs, and an open communication channel between testing personnel.
Do not megger when humidity is more than 70 %.
Good Insulation: Megger reading increases rst then remain constant.
Bad Insulation: Megger reading increases rst and then decreases.
Expected IR value gets on Temp. 20 to 30 decree centigrade.
If above temperature reduces by 10 degree centigrade, IR values will increased by two times.
If above temperature increased by 70 degree centigrade IR values decreases by 700 times.

How to use Megger:

Meggers is equipped with three connection Line Terminal (L), Earth Terminal (E) and Guard Terminal (G).

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(h ps://

Resistance is measured between the Line and Earth terminals, where current will travel through coil 1. The Guard terminal is
provided for special testing situations where one resistance must be isolated from another. Lets us check one situation where
the insulation resistance is to be tested in a two-wire cable.
To measure insulation resistance from a conductor to the outside of the cable, we need to connect the Line lead of the megger to
one of the conductors and connect the Earth lead of the megger to a wire wrapped around the sheath of the cable.

(h ps://

In this conguration the Megger should read the resistance between one conductor and the outside sheath.
We want to measure Resistance between Conductor- 2To Sheaths but Actually Megger measure resistance in parallel with the
series combination of conductor-to-conductor resistance (Rc1-c2) and the rst conductor to the sheath (Rc1-s).
If we dont care about this fact, we can proceed with the test as congured. If we desire to measure only the resistance between the
second conductor and the sheath (Rc2-s), then we need to use the meggers Guard terminal.

(h ps://

Connecting the Guard terminal to the rst conductor places the two conductors at almost equal potential. With li le or no
voltage between them, the insulation resistance is nearly innite, and thus there will be no current between the two conductors.
Consequently, the Meggers resistance indication will be based exclusively on the current through the second conductors
insulation, through the cable sheath, and to the wire wrapped around, not the current leaking through the rst conductors
The guard terminal (if ed) acts as a shunt to remove the connected element from the measurement. In other words, it allows you
to be selective in evaluating certain specic components in a large piece of electrical equipment. For example consider a two core
cable with a sheath. As the diagram below shows there are three resistances to be considered.

(h ps://

If we measure between core B and sheath without a connection to the guard terminal some current will pass from B to A and from

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A to the sheath. Our measurement would be low. By connecting the guard terminal to A the two cable cores will be at very nearly
the same potential and thus the shunting eect is eliminated.

(1) IR Values For Electrical Apparatus & Systems:

(PEARL Standard / NETA MTS-1997 Table 10.1)

Max.Voltage Megger Size Min.IR

Rating Of Value

250 Volts 500 Volts 25 M

600 Volts 1,000 Volts 100 M

5 KV 2,500 Volts 1,000 M

8 KV 2,500 Volts 2,000 M

15 KV 2,500 Volts 5,000 M

25 KV 5,000 Volts 20,000 M

35 KV 15,000 Volts 100,000 M

46 KV 15,000 Volts 100,000 M

69 KV 15,000 Volts 100,000 M

One Meg ohm Rule for IR Value for Equipment:

Based upon equipment rating:

< 1K V = 1 M minimum
>1KV = 1 M /1KV

As per IE Rules-1956:

At a pressure of 1000 V applied between each live conductor and earth for a period of one minute the insulation resistance of HV
installations shall be at least 1 Mega ohm or as specied by the Bureau of Indian Standards.
Medium and Low Voltage Installations- At a pressure of 500 V applied between each live conductor and earth for a period of one
minute, the insulation resistance of medium and low voltage installations shall be at least 1 Mega ohm or as specied by the Bureau
of Indian Standards] from time to time.

As per CBIP specications the acceptable values are 2 Mega ohms per KV

(2) IR Value for Transformer:

Insulation resistance tests are made to determine insulation resistance from individual windings to ground or between individual
windings. Insulation resistance tests are commonly measured directly in megohms or may be calculated from measurements of
applied voltage and leakage current.
The recommended practice in measuring insulation resistance is to always ground the tank (and the core). Short circuit each
winding of the transformer at the bushing terminals. Resistance measurements are then made between each winding and all other
windings grounded.

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(h ps://

Windings are never left oating for insulation resistance measurements. Solidly grounded winding must have the ground removed
in order to measure the insulation resistance of the winding grounded. If the ground cannot be removed, as in the case of some
windings with solidly grounded neutrals, the insulation resistance of the winding cannot be measured. Treat it as part of the
grounded section of the circuit.
We need to test winding to winding and winding to ground ( E ).For three phase transformers, We need to test winding ( L1,L2,L3 )
with substitute Earthing for Delta transformer or winding ( L1,L2,L3 ) with earthing ( E ) and neutral ( N ) for wye transformers.

IR Value for Transformer

(Ref: A Guide to Transformer Maintenance by. JJ. Kelly.

S.D Myer)

Transformer Formula
1 Phase Transformer IR Value (M) = C X E /
3 Phase Transformer IR Value (M) = C X E (P-n) /
(Star) (KVA)
3 Phase Transformer IR Value (M) = C X E (P-P) /
(Delta) (KVA)
Where C= 1.5 for Oil lled T/C with Oil Tank, 30 for Oil
lled T/C without Oil Tank or Dry Type T/C.
Temperature correction Factor (Base 20C):

Temperature correction Factor

OC OF Correction

0 32 0.25

5 41 0.36

10 50 0.50

15 59 0.720

20 68 1.00

30 86 1.98

40 104 3.95

50 122 7.85

Example: For 1600KVA, 20KV/400V,Three Phase Transformer

IR Value at HV Side= (1.5 x 20000) / 1600 =16000 / 40 = 750 M at 200C
IR Value at LV Side = (1.5 x 400 ) / 1600= 320 / 40 = 15 M at 200C
IR Value at 300C =15X1.98= 29.7 M

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Insulation Resistance of Transformer Coil

Transformer Megger Size Min.IR Value Min.IR

Liquid Filled Value Dry
Coil Voltage T/C Type T/C

0 600 V 1KV 100 M 500 M

600 V To 5KV 2.5KV 1,000 M 5,000 M

5KV To 15KV 5KV 5,000 M 25,000 M

15KV To 69KV 5KV 10,000 M 50,000 M

IR Value of Transformers:

Voltage TestVoltage Test Min IR

(DC) LV Voltage Value
side (DC) HV
415V 500V 2.5KV 100M
Up to 6.6KV 500V 2.5KV 200M
6.6KV to 11KV 500V 2.5KV 400M
11KV to 33KV 1000V 5KV 500M
33KV to 66KV 1000V 5KV 600M
66KV to 132KV 1000V 5KV 600M
132KV to220KV 1000V 5KV 650M
Steps for measuring the IR of Transformer:

Shut down the transformer and disconnect the jumpers and lightning arrestors.
Discharge the winding capacitance.
Thoroughly clean all bushings
Short circuit the windings.
Guard the terminals to eliminate surface leakage over terminal bushings.
Record the temperature.
Connect the test leads (avoid joints).
Apply the test voltage and note the reading. The IR. Value at 60 seconds after application of the test voltage is referred to as the
Insulation Resistance of the transformer at the test temperature.
The transformer Neutral bushing is to be disconnected from earth during the test.
All LV surge diverter earth connections are to be disconnected during the test.
Due to the inductive characteristics of transformers, the insulation resistance reading shall not be taken until the test current
Avoid meggering when the transformer is under vacuum.

Test Connections of Transformer for IR Test (Not Less than 200 M):

Two winding transformer:

1. (HV + LV) GND

2. HV (LV + GND)
3. LV (HV + GND)

Three winding transformer:

1. HV (LV + TV + GND)
2. LV (HV + TV + GND)
3. (HV + LV + TV) GND
4. TV (HV + LV + GND)

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Auto transformer (two winding):

1. (HV + LV) GND

Auto Transformer (three winding):

1. (HV + LV) (TV + GND)

2. (HV + LV + TV) GND
3. TV (HV + LV + GND)

For any installation, the insulation resistance measured shall not be less than:

HV Earth 200 M
LV Earth 100 M
HV LV 200 M

Factors aecting on IR value of Transformer

The IR value of transformers are inuenced by

surface condition of the terminal bushing

quality of oil
quality of winding insulation
temperature of oil
duration of application and value of test voltage

(3) IR Value for Tap Changer:

IR between HV and LV as well as windings to earth.

Minimum IR value for Tap changer is 1000 ohm per volt service voltage

(4) IR Value for Electric motor:

For electric motor, we used a insulation tester to measure the resistance of motor winding with earthing ( E ).

For rated voltage below 1KV, measured with a 500VDC Megger.

For rated voltage above 1KV, measured with a 1000VDC Megger.
In accordance with IEEE 43, clause 9.3, the following formula should be applied.
Min IR Value (For Rotating Machine) =(Rated voltage (v) /1000) + 1

(h ps://

As per IEEE 43 Standard 1974,2000

IR Value in M
IR (Min) = kV+1 For most windings made before
about 1970, all eld windings, and
others not described below

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IR (Min) = 100 M For most dc armature and ac

windings built after about 1970
(form wound coils)
IR (Min) = 5 M For most machines with random
-wound stator coils and form-
wound coils rated below 1kV
Example-1: For 11KV, Three Phase Motor.
IR Value =11+1=12 M but as per IEEE43 It should be 100 M
Example-2: For 415V,Three Phase Motor
IR Value =0.415+1=1.41 M but as per IEEE43 It should be 5 M.
As per IS 732 Min IR Value of Motor=(20XVoltage(p-p/(1000+2XKW))

IR Value of Motor as per NETA ATS 2007. Section 7.15.1

Motor Name Plate TestVoltage Min IRValue

250V 500V DC 25 M
600V 1000V DC 100M
1000V 1000V DC 100M
2500V 1000V DC 500M
5000V 2500V DC 1000M
8000V 2500V DC 2000M
15000V 2500V DC 5000M
25000V 5000V DC 20000M
34500V 15000V DC 100000M
IR Value of Submersible Motor:

IR Value of Submersible Motor

Motor Out o Well (Without IR Value

New Motor 20 M
A used motor which can be 10 M
Motor Installed in Well (With
New Motor 2 M
A used motor which can be 0.5 M

(5) IR Value for Electrical cable and wiring:

For insulation testing, we need to disconnect from panel or equipment and keep them isolated from power supply. The wiring and
cables need to test for each other ( phase to phase ) with a ground ( E ) cable. The Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association
(IPCEA) provides the formula to determine minimum insulation resistance values.

R = K x Log 10 (D/d)

R =IR Value in Ms per 1000 feet (305 meters) of cable.

K =Insulation material constant.( Varnished Cambric=2460, Thermoplastic Polyethlene=50000,Composite Polyethylene=30000)
D =Outside diameter of conductor insulation for single conductor wire and cable

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( D = d + 2c + 2b diameter of single conductor cable )

d Diameter of conductor
c Thickness of conductor insulation
b Thickness of jacket insulation

HV test on new XLPE cable (As per ETSA Standard)

Application Test Voltage Min IRValue

New cables Sheath 1KV DC 100 M
New cables Insulation 10KV DC 1000 M
After repairs Sheath 1KV DC 10 M
After repairs 5KV DC 1000M
11kV and 33kV Cables between Cores and Earth (As per ETSA Standard)

Application Test Voltage Min IRValue

11KV New cables Sheath 5KV DC 1000 M
11KV After repairs Sheath 5KV DC 100 M
33KV no TFs connected 5KV DC 1000 M
33KV with TFs connected. 5KV DC 15M

(h ps://

IR Value Measurement (Conductors to conductor (Cross Insulation))

The rst conductor for which cross insulation is being measured shall be connected to Line terminal of the megger. The remaining
conductors looped together (with the help of crocodile clips) i. e. Conductor 2 and onwards, are connected to Earth terminal of
megger. Conductors at the other end are left free.
Now rotate the handle of megger or press push bu on of megger. The reading of meter will show the cross Insulation between
conductor 1 and rest of the conductors. Insulation reading shall be recorded.
Now connect next conductor to Line terminal of the megger & connect the remaining conductors to earth terminal of the megger
and take measurements.

IR Value Measurement (Conductor to Earth Insulation)

Connect conductor under test to the Line terminal of the megger.

Connect earth terminal of the megger to the earth.
Rotate the handle of megger or press push bu on of megger. The reading of meter will show the insulation resistance of the
conductors. Insulation reading shall be recorded after applying the test voltage for about a minute till a steady reading is obtained.

IR Value Measurements:

If during periodical testing, insulation resistance of cable is found between 5 and 1 M /km at buried temperature, the subjectcable
should be programmed for replacement.
If insulation resistance of the cable is found between 1000 and 100 K /km, at buried temperature, the subject cable should be
replaced urgently within a year.
If the insulation resistance of the cable is found less than 100 kilo ohm/km., the subject cable must be replaced immediately on
emergency basis.

(6) IR Value for Transmission / Distribution Line:

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Equipment. Megger Size Min IR Value

S/S .Equipments 5 KV 5000M
EHVLines. 5 KV 10M
H.T. Lines. 1 KV 5M
LT / Service Lines. 0.5 KV 5M

(7) IR Value for Panel Bus:

IR Value for Panel = 2 x KV rating of the panel.

Example, for a 5 KV panel, the minimum insulation is 2 x 5 = 10 M.

(8) IR Value for Substation Equipment:

Generally meggering Values of Substation Equipments are.

.Typical IR Value of S/S Equipments

Equipment Megger Size IRValue(Min)

(Phase-Earth) 5KV,10 KV 1000 M

Circuit Breaker (Phase-Phase) 5KV,10 KV 1000 M

Control Circuit 0.5KV 50 M

(Pri-Earth) 5KV,10 KV 1000 M

CT/PT (Sec-Phase) 5KV,10 KV 50 M

Control Circuit 0.5KV 50 M

(Phase-Earth) 5KV,10 KV 1000 M

Isolator (Phase-Phase) 5KV,10 KV 1000 M

Control Circuit 0.5KV 50 M

L.A (Phase-Earth) 5KV,10 KV 1000 M

ElectricalMotor (Phase-Earth) 0.5KV 50 M

LT Switchgear (Phase-Earth) 0.5KV 100 M

LTTransformer (Phase-Earth) 0.5KV 100 M

IR Value of S/S Equipments As per DEP Standard

IR Value at IR Value at
Equipment Meggering Commissioning Maintenance
Time (M) Time(M)

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HV Bus 200 M 100 M

Switchgear LV Bus 20 M 10 M

LV wiring 5 M 0.5 M

Cable(min 100 HV & LV (10XKV) / KM (KV) / KM


Motor & Generator Phase-Earth 10(KV+1) 2(KV+1)

Transformer Oil HV & LV 75 M 30 M


HV 100 M 25 M
Transformer Dry
LV 10 M 2 M

Fixed Phase-Earth 5K / Volt 1K / Volt


Movable Phase-Earth 5 M 1M

Distribution Phase-Earth 5 M 1M

Main Circuit 2 M / KV
Circuit Breaker
Control Circuit 5M

D.C Circuit- 40M


LT Circuit- 50M
Relay Earth

LT-D.C Circuit 40M


(9) IR Value for Domestic /Industrial Wiring:

A low resistance between phase and neutral conductors, or from live conductors to earth, will result in a leakage current. Thiscause
deterioration of the insulation, as well as involving a waste of energy which would increase the running costs of the installation.
The resistance between Phase-Phase-Neutral-Earth must never be less than 0.5 M Ohms for the usual supply voltages.
In addition to the leakage current due to insulation resistance, there is a further current leakage in the reactance of the insulation,
because it acts as the dielectric of a capacitor. This current dissipates no energy and is not harmful, but we wish to measure the
resistance of the insulation, so DC Voltage is used to prevent reactance from being included in the measurement.

1 Phase Wiring:

The IR test between Phase-Natural to earth must be carried out on the complete installation with the main switch o, with phase
and neutral connected together, with lamps and other equipment disconnected, but with fuses in, circuit breakers closed and all
circuit switches closed.
Where two-way switching is wired, only one of the two stripper wires will be tested. To test the other, both two-way switches

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should be operated and the system retested. If desired, the installation can be tested as a whole, when a value of at least 0.5 M
Ohms should be achieved.

(h ps://

3 Phase Wiring:

In the case of a very large installation where there are many earth paths in parallel, the reading would be expected to be lower. If
this happens, the installation should be subdivided and retested, when each part must meet the minimum requirement.

(h ps://

The IR tests must be carried out between Phase-Phase-Neutral-Earth with a minimum acceptable value for each test of 0.5 M

IR Testing for Low voltage

circuit voltage Test voltage IRValue(Min)

Extra Low Voltage 250V DC 0.25M
Up to 500 V except for 500 V DC 0.5M
500 V To 1KV 1000 V DC 1.0M
Min IR Value = 50 M / No of Electrical outlet. (All Electrical Points with ing & Plugs).

Min IR Value = 100 M / No of Electrical outlet. (All Electrical Points without ing & Plugs).

Required Precautions:

Electronic equipment like electronic uorescent starter switches, touch switches, dimmer switches, power controllers, delay timers
could be damaged by the application of the high test voltage should be disconnected.
Capacitors and indicator or pilot lamps must be disconnected or an inaccurate test reading will result.
Where any equipment is disconnected for testing purposes, it must be subjected to its own insulation test, using a voltage which is
not likely to result in damage. The result must conform with that specied in the British Standard concerned, or be at least 0.5 M
Ohms if there is no Standard.

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About Jignesh.Parmar
Jignesh Parmar has completed M.Tech (Power System Control), B.E(Electrical) from Gujarat University. He has more than 14 years
experience in Power Transmission-Power Distribution-Electrical energy theft detection-Electrical Maintenance-Electrical
Projects(Planning-Designing-coordination-Execution). He is Presently associate with one of the leading business group as a Deputy
Manager at Ahmedabad,India. He is Freelancer Programmer of Advance Excel and design useful Excel Sheets of Electrical
Engineering as per IS,NEC,IEC,IEEE codes. He is technical Author for Electrical Mirror and Electrical India Magazines. He is
Technical Blogger and Familiar with English, Hindi, Gujarati, French languages. He wants to Share his experience & knowledge and
help technical enthusiasts to nd suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics.

158 Responses to Insulation Resistance (IR) Values

modupalli says:
March 23, 2012 at 10:16 pm
Outstanding Stu. Thanks For Sharing..

Deja jacob says:
March 25, 2014 at 1:01 am

Jignesh.Parmar says:
March 25, 2014 at 4:10 pm
GOOD means. ALL suspected value according to equipments are already given

mahesh chander gupta says:

June 28, 2015 at 3:50 pm
i wish to contact mr parmar by e mail

July 2, 2015 at 4:07 pm
Thanks for your information

13 of 29 7/10/17, 2:39 PM
Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

How to measure the IR value across the (XLPE, 1.1 kV grade) straight through joint?


February 12, 2016 at 8:55 am
Thanks for sharing information and knowledge on the topic. These information is useful to even technician level for
understanding the theory of testing using Megger. I like to understand the information and knowledge thoroughly. Thanks
for the dedication exhibited.

vilas K. says:
April 11, 2012 at 8:30 am
Dear Sir Hats O !! & many thanx for your invaluable contribution in enriching the experience of Elect. Engineers & making them
available the fabulous data at a glance.. Pl keep posted. If U can throw some light on selection of MCB/MCCB & contactors in
relation to their di characteristics.

Jignesh.Parmar says:
April 11, 2012 at 2:19 pm
You can nd Type of MCB/MCCB and Char of All type of Contactor from ELECTRICAL NOTES page of this Blog

mahesh chander gupta says:
June 28, 2015 at 3:52 pm
i wish to contact mr j.parmar by e mail. pl send your e mail to me

varghese says:
April 15, 2012 at 12:25 pm
dear sir is a great work. thanks

could u pls explain the eects of rise in temperature on insulation resistance of transformer.

Barun Majumder says:
May 7, 2012 at 10:48 am
Dear sir many many thanks for sharing valuable article of electrical engineering . I want to know more about electrical design
(Distribution, industrial & commercial ) and protection system from your end point to point . If you have any book/site for those
design please let me know the name.
I am working as a design engineer but i am not enough condent about my design and protection system. i want your valuable
assistance in this eld .

Thanking you
Yours faithfully
Barun Majumder


kumereshan P S says:
May 13, 2012 at 4:17 am
great work,i want to know the IS standards for IR value of Sub station equipment

With regards


anand says:
October 5, 2012 at 8:19 am
thank for good infrm abot elecyrhghc

Tuulia Paloranta says:

14 of 29 7/10/17, 2:39 PM
Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

May 29, 2012 at 5:49 am

Honestly i am not quite good on electric thing and this one is very good for me to study so well and learn a lot many thanks for this

keyur says:
June 8, 2012 at 2:53 pm
Thanks for sharing your valuable exp. and it is very helpful for me because I am diploma holder and I am working in gulf country as
electrical supervisor so it is useful for me and

June 14, 2012 at 5:20 am
Dear sir

I need calculation formula of IR Values of an elect drives

Madanmohan says:
June 16, 2012 at 5:50 am
Wonderful explanation. Really very much useful document. Thnak you very much

sathesh says:
July 9, 2012 at 5:59 pm
Very nice sir.. Thanku..

rehan says:
July 13, 2012 at 9:58 pm
good information, thanks for your time.

custom milagros says:
July 15, 2012 at 4:20 pm
2 thumbs up.

Gurmeet Singh says:
July 20, 2012 at 4:49 am
Very -2 Thanks sir

preeti says:
July 25, 2012 at 11:52 am
thanks, very good information

osarenkhoe nosa glory says:
August 11, 2012 at 9:15 am
this is absolutely nice. a well wri en document. thanks.

Naveen says:
August 12, 2012 at 6:23 am
Thank you Sir, much appreciated

A. Hasasn says:
August 12, 2012 at 2:15 pm
Dear Sir;
Really your this article is very very important for electrical related people.Your this contribution is excellant. A lot of thanks sir.
Kind Regardrs

15 of 29 7/10/17, 2:39 PM
Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

K.M.Pandey says:
August 18, 2012 at 5:04 am
Respected Sir.

This article very important and useful for all those person who are related with Electrical eld. Thanks a lot for sharing your
knowledge with all people. Really you are nice and gentleman.
With regards,

subodh kumar pandey says:
August 26, 2012 at 1:20 pm
very very important for electrical engineers.
lot of thanks

ahmed nawaz says:
September 21, 2012 at 3:40 pm
Ch.Ahmed Nawaz

thanks sir for giving very usefull information.

radhakishan pawar says:
September 30, 2012 at 6:28 am
thanks sir i have no word to explain how much it is useful to student.
thanks again

October 5, 2012 at 1:17 pm

Vilas G. says:
October 11, 2012 at 11:01 am
Thanks . valuable note for electrical engineers.

Steve Arreola says:
October 23, 2012 at 8:44 pm
Thank you much for taking the time to share this information

Mr. Judy Diano says:
October 31, 2012 at 11:45 am
Thank you so much,for sharing Sir, I learned a lot of your link GOD BLESS

arshad says:
November 30, 2012 at 6:23 pm
thanks for beautiful notes

Jet Paliangayan says:
December 3, 2012 at 12:11 pm
how to do IR test for single core pvc/xlpe/pvc cables

jamestryre says:
December 12, 2012 at 2:49 am
great info, thx


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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

Thiyaga says:
December 19, 2012 at 10:41 am
Incredible work. Hats o for your awesome articles. pl keep posting more and more

sambasivarao chagantipati says:
December 25, 2012 at 7:46 pm
Very useful information

rohtash verma( Himachal pradesh) says:
December 29, 2012 at 2:02 am
Thanks parmar ji very use full information regarding IR value of electric motors

M.Zaman says:
January 8, 2013 at 10:56 am
thanks for valuable information.

FELIX Jr. says:
January 10, 2013 at 7:44 am
Please, you must also include here the Polarization Index (PI) as well for its signicance and explain why it is required with respect
to the IR test being done on the electrical equipment and the electrical cables and installations, as an additional information for the
new commissioning engineers and enthusiasts. Supressing other comments are not at all interesting and helpfull.

Jignesh.Parmar says:
January 10, 2013 at 2:38 pm
Yes You are right PI value is as important as IR Value specially HV Equipments.
Here I gave only Overview of IR Testing and its value.
To rise comment is totally depend upon the reader.
In near future I will denitely cover the Topic of PI.

deepak parmar says:
June 6, 2013 at 12:18 pm
I want to know the acceptable leakage current values in the HV testing as per IEC standards.

And thanks for the info provided above

sateesh says:
January 21, 2013 at 11:18 am
excellent explanation about IR test
thanks a lot.

vincent says:
February 4, 2013 at 7:23 pm
Good knowledge.thank you.

Anderson says:
February 6, 2013 at 5:41 pm
Excelente trabajo, quiero saber cuales son las normas que rigen estas pruebas y si existe alguna estandarizacin de resultados.

Debra Scriver says:
February 11, 2013 at 10:53 pm
Thanks for such a great article. Very interesting and informative. Thanks Buddy

Diganta ku. Ray says:
February 23, 2013 at 3:12 pm
Thank you so much sir,this help me a lot in my eld.its very very useful for those are in electrical line.

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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

February 28, 2013 at 4:57 am
how many Insulation Resistance of the Whole Installation permissible ?
how many Insulation Resistance Between Conductors ?
how many Insulation Resistance Between Each Conductor & Earth ?

honest forex signals says:
March 4, 2013 at 5:26 am
Hello very nice blog!! Man .. Excellent .. Amazing .. I will bookmark your web site and take the feeds additionally?

I am glad to nd numerous helpful info here in the put up, we want work out more strategies on this regard, thank you for sharing.


fayyaz says:
March 10, 2013 at 10:12 pm
thks good information can you mail me how to check insulation of dc 24 volt system.
also i want to know how insulation monitor works.

khan wasim says:
March 11, 2013 at 5:01 pm
Thanks a lot

sonu kumar says:
March 14, 2013 at 2:40 pm
thanks for this valueable data.

Ashok O Kale Kale says:
March 21, 2013 at 12:05 pm
Thanx .

April 2, 2013 at 5:10 pm
Excellent information. Really appreciate the knowledge you have shared with readers.
Sir can you pls tell me what should be minimum value of IR for PVC make busboot used for 11 KV , 22 KV , 33 KV and 66 KV.

Debashish Bha acharya

Gerald says:
April 3, 2013 at 10:50 am
Thanks for sharing

CPR vi al says:
May 1, 2013 at 12:46 pm
excellent article.
the formula for insulation resistance of a cable per 1000 ft.
how to calculate it per meter or per feet.
pl explain

jigyesh sharma says:
May 8, 2013 at 1:49 am
what precautions i should take when CT is connected in HT board and i have do megger.?

ibnu says:

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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

May 11, 2013 at 2:53 am

lightning cable for crane there are 2 point earth terminal, each has individual ground cable, i meggar 1kV both cable, gives
dierent reading 200Mohm & almost innity for another one. why? can accept the value?

ibnu says:
May 11, 2013 at 2:57 am
can 11kv cable, meggar at 1kv only, during before & after hipot test? (hipot at 30.5kv)

parveen kumar says:
May 11, 2013 at 2:33 pm
dear sir i want to know why used in transformer secondary side very thin wire

FELIX Jr. says:
May 12, 2013 at 4:57 am
Yes, you can use 1kV DC- MEGGER TESTER prior to HIPOT Testing if your electrical cable is rated 11kV and HIGHER and if it
has 130 % rated insulation. After HIPOT test, if successful, you can megger it again with 1kV only at no more than 1 minute just to
make sure no damage has occurred during and after HIPOT TEST.

By FMSJr. / Abu Dhabi, UAE

Nasurudheen Kamal Basha says:
May 13, 2013 at 9:22 am
Useful stu.. Thanks for sharing!!

June 17, 2013 at 11:02 am

Pushkar Singh says:
June 23, 2013 at 11:12 am
Thanks for sharing excellent information.
Pushkar Singh ONGC

A V N Phanindra says:
July 4, 2013 at 7:01 am
thank u so much sir its very brief and simple to understand clearly.

ASMA says:
July 20, 2013 at 10:16 am

FELIX Jr. says:
July 21, 2013 at 5:29 am
GOOD DAY ! Your posted question about the MEGGER result for a good condition for 25kVA Transformer is very general as
you did not specify the input and output voltages of this electrical equipment and if it is oil immersed or dry type. At anyrate,
assuming its oil lled step-up transformer, outdoor pole mounted, for a good IR result for primary winding, normally it should
not be less than 500Megaohm and the secondary windings IR reading should be not less than 300Megaohm with respect to
earth and higher between windings. Again, these are assumptions only and the higher the voltage rating of the transformer the
higher IR reading should result. Defective insulations will read low values of IR readings and contaminated oil insulation, for oil
immersed type transformers. For dry type Transfomers, the good IR readings of the windings are also in that vicinity but lower
than oil immersed type.

J.R Bohra says:
July 20, 2013 at 11:48 pm
very very helpful

19 of 29 7/10/17, 2:39 PM
Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

J,R Bohra
Unique Engineer Noida

Diptiranjan Nayak says:
July 23, 2013 at 5:10 am
Thank u sir,
I am clear about IR value.

raghav says:
July 26, 2013 at 4:37 am
dear sir,
i need more information about how to calculate ir values and what principle it requires to calculate ir values?

Musa says:
August 22, 2013 at 3:25 am
Anybody can answer my query?

We have 25kV AC system for Overhead Line Equipment (OHE). This system is installed for Electried Train system (Railway

We have conduct IR testing before charging the lines for each electrical subsection (the longest section about 20km). The result we
achieved 0.5MOhm 5MOhm (taken during night time) and 200MOhm 700MOhm (taken during night time). The temperature
during night time is around 27 28 degree Celsius (in Malaysia).

We injecting megger size 5kV and result achieved as above. As mentioned in the article (i think it is similar to our system IR value
for transmission/ distribution line) which is stated Min. IR values shall be 10MOhm.

Is it the result we achieved okay, especially the result taken during night time?

sampath says:
September 3, 2013 at 6:28 am
thank for more information now i harry to check insulation resistance long 132Kv transmission line & will have called you after

SYAM says:
September 4, 2013 at 9:00 am
Dear Jignesh,

Just for curiosity can you please tell me what is the full form of DEP standards which you have mentioned under the section IR
Value of S/S Equipments As per DEP Standard.

Hope you will reply



Sekar Ram says:
September 12, 2013 at 12:58 pm
Mr Jignesh
This is one of the greatest seless eorts I have seen. This is pure social service. Hats o!!

Stephen says:
September 13, 2013 at 1:46 pm
Hello. Question, if we have 5 conductors per phase on a lugs and we want to megger the groups, ie: phase to phase and phase to
ground and the readings are above 1 M ohm, is that OK? We had previously meggered all the cabels individually prior to installing.
The job was shut down for a while, and this is for a precaution, prior to re-energizing.


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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

vijay says:
September 25, 2013 at 11:39 am
dear jignesh sir,

Can i have the entire notes in site in form of book? How much does it cost?

vijayendrarao kv says:
November 2, 2013 at 10:48 am
very very useful and very thanks for made me doubt clear..

Michel says:
November 29, 2013 at 10:49 am
thanks Bro that is too goooooooooooooood for us

December 5, 2013 at 5:16 am
the explanation is excellent

rahul jangme says:
January 5, 2014 at 2:41 pm
thank you sir

ali says:
January 12, 2014 at 1:18 pm
thank you so much Dr

Doma Hudu says:
February 8, 2014 at 2:26 pm
thank sir. I need a copy via my e-mail. please am wait for your response Sir.

Srinivasan says:
February 12, 2014 at 3:40 am
Thank you sir. Useful detail information.

aby says:
February 20, 2014 at 10:17 am
appreciate your ideas and procedures.
May i know ,whether there is any necessity or mandatory rules saying that the speaker cables to be meggered?
if yes,then what should be the applied voltage?

roop says:
February 23, 2014 at 6:17 am
dear mr Parmar rst of all thanks for sharing the information

roop says:
February 23, 2014 at 6:22 am
we are building a 9 km road tunnel, we usually facing problem with ht cable, whenever it is damaged it took 3 to4 hour for jointing,
lot of production loss please advise any alternate means of transmission of ht cable or any ht joint available around the world to do
the jointing quickly.

Felix Jr San Buenaventura says:
March 26, 2014 at 4:44 am

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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles


SB says:
March 27, 2014 at 7:26 am
Thank you ever so much! For sharing such good info, extremely relevant.

rd says:
June 14, 2014 at 8:28 am
What is the minimum acceptable insulation resistance for 1.8 kv DC cables? temperature is around 50 deg C. My understanding is
that IR decreases when there is increase in temperature. So how do i calculate Insulation resistance considering the temperature?

jake says:
July 30, 2014 at 6:29 am
what can we expect for transformer being energize not meeting the minimum standard for insulation resistance?the future eect of

golfziimo says:
August 4, 2014 at 12:38 pm
thank you for good information

Aen Bali says:
August 14, 2014 at 6:36 am
Plz tell me CTPT value in HT & LT side proper load

50 Hp

reshi says:
August 28, 2014 at 12:50 pm
Dear sir ,
we have hayward tyler 480V, 60HZ , 100HP submersible pump motor in out facility used for boiler water circulation. The demin
water is used for the stator cooling in the closed loop means water is directly entering the stator winding.

The motor was send to workshop for mechanical repair. After installing back The I.R value is 0.3MOhm , can we test the motor and
run it.

For your suggestion Thanks in anticipation.

praneeth says:
September 4, 2014 at 3:34 pm
thank U for the post,very helpful
very few people share their knowledge.
hats o.

Abdul Hameed says:
September 18, 2014 at 6:36 am
good information. appreciate it very much. thanks to all

nacykoe says:
September 25, 2014 at 11:17 am
IR instrument from IEC or IEEE standard?

Jagadish says:
October 1, 2014 at 3:31 am
What should be the minimum value of Insulation resistance for Low Voltage Switchgear panels?

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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

V V G says:
October 12, 2014 at 6:01 am
Dear Sir
In our one of the applications we need to check the High Voltage test in our product,(Automotive part).where customer is asking
ask to check the HV test with 1.5KV

As per customer demand,now we need to make a HV instrument to detect the current leakage when applyinh High volt(1.5KV)
between two terminals.(open circuit)
Customer requirement is that when the distance between the terminals if it is less than 1.2mm our instrument must detect it.
Now we are facing the problem as how to derive the resistance between two terminals(in air) when we applying high volt.Kindly
help us


dipti says:
October 27, 2014 at 2:01 pm
very good stu,so usefull

nikesh srst says:
December 5, 2014 at 3:03 am
thanks for help us. to write about its

Sam says:
December 10, 2014 at 1:47 am
Hello Jignesh Parmar,

Many thanks for your above useful article.

I have a quick question and will appreciate it if you can help me to nd the answer please. It is about IR Value for Electrical 11kV
and 22kV cables with XLPE insulation. As far as I know, there is a min value for IR in ambient temperature, but my question is : is
there any high limit for this value in ambient temperature?

I am asking this question because I have got a test result from a factory with very very high values more than usual for IR in ambient

Thanks and looking forward to receive your answer.


ashish says:
December 29, 2014 at 6:50 pm
132/33kv transformer the LV resistance is.02 per unit resistance referred to HV

himanshu patel says:
January 5, 2015 at 2:39 am
such a knowledgeable thing about our work for reference to introduce us in smart work

Asif says:
January 5, 2015 at 8:05 am
Dear all,

A question is that what is the IR acceptance criteria for bus bars which are installed in MCC panels?

K.Raghuveer says:
January 7, 2015 at 4:32 pm
Dear sir,

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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

Thanks for the information,


kushru says:
January 17, 2015 at 8:49 am
I would like to know if a wire rated for 1100v ac can withstand a breakdown voltage of 4 kv

karan jani says:
January 24, 2015 at 9:31 am
sir Thank you for sharing your Knowledge i just have one query related to the H.v Cable test. Is is mandatory to have PI Test on H.v
Cables along with the Ir value?

Akhtar K says:
January 24, 2015 at 11:07 am

Very nice and good information of electrical- IR.

Thanks for sharing the all necessary technical information.

With all respect;

Akhtar Khatib

Sujeet Dubey says:
April 14, 2015 at 6:47 am
Thanks Sir
Its very complicated share.

lalit Kalihari says:
April 16, 2015 at 3:08 pm
Hello Mr. Jignesh Parmar,

Please let me know the documentary evidence of acceptable IR limits refering to IEC 61439 standard.

Thanks & Regards,

Lalit KK

Owais says:
April 30, 2015 at 8:30 am
Please give IR value information of Core-Earth, Frame-Earth, Core-Frame.Also give their correction factor as per temperature. Also
please indicate whether the Temperature dierence is of Insulation or Ambient.

E. Eng. Ghanim says:
May 5, 2015 at 5:21 am
I want to know the value measurements of resistance for motor it is capacity is 1MW & the applied voltage is 600V because I have a
re-winding motor and I want to comparing the results with slandered values

NAEEM says:
May 9, 2015 at 12:03 pm
dear what should be the minimum insulation Resistance (IR) of AC Generator in accordance to IEC standards both at the time of
Commissioning and at the time of Maintenance

govindarajan gs says:
May 28, 2015 at 11:05 am
very valuable writeup with lot of experience behind it


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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

jangchu Sinhgye says:

June 5, 2015 at 7:43 am
Sir what is the minimum megger value of IR for 120kN disc insulator ?

Ksalvi says:
June 7, 2015 at 4:50 am
Can we do meggering of Power cables in Sand storm. If not then why??

mahalingam says:
June 18, 2015 at 7:28 pm
very thank you sir, very useful my carrier

June 24, 2015 at 7:45 pm
i have a challenge with my megger. I disconnected the cables to be meggered. and set my test voltage to 500V. But when i start my
test i get my test voltage decreasing.and eventually an IR reading in Kilo ohms whilst my expected value is at least 1 Giga Ohm.
kindly advice. Thanks

pradeep says:
June 30, 2015 at 7:42 am
what is the dierence between insulation resistance and PI test

PLJ says:
July 1, 2015 at 1:51 am
Very useful document. Thank you

zen says:
July 7, 2015 at 8:53 am
not megger should be insulation resistance meter

S.G.Jayakumar says:
July 11, 2015 at 10:07 am
whict type of wires are used to IR test.PVC,PUR,Teon insulation wires.Please send the reply I am struugling the one project

Phu Ta Quoc says:
July 13, 2015 at 3:43 am
Ok, Thank you very much.

kesarinath ullengal says:
July 16, 2015 at 5:46 pm
Your information regarding allt the test is very much usefull.Is there any app for this for andriod so it wll help to easy view and
information.Thanks once again
kesari ullengal

Raj Kumar says:
August 12, 2015 at 4:40 am
Thanks for such valuable data shared.

Ronal Manuel says:
November 9, 2015 at 5:59 am
Does anyone know how to compute the minimum recommended value for busbars. lets say from generator to transformer.

Rajashekar.V says:

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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

November 27, 2015 at 5:44 am

Hello Jignesh Parmar,

Many thanks for your above useful article.

I have a quick question and will appreciate it if you can help me to nd the answer please. It is about megger instrument which
haveing (analog instrument with hand generater) the analog reading needel inthe right and moves to left but in all the instruments
it will in left to right Why?

Thanks and looking forward to receive your answer.


raj says:
December 31, 2015 at 11:37 am
thank you so much

arif says:
January 26, 2016 at 11:47 pm
Dear sir
what is the minimum insulation resistance value is acceptable for 415 volt LV cable

ghanim yousif says:
February 7, 2016 at 6:13 am
Dear Sir The minimum insulation resistance value acceptance for 415V should be at least 1KV & not more than 2KV BR Ghanim

On Thu, Feb 4, 2016 at 4:04 PM, Electrical Notes & Articles wrote:

> arif commented: Dear sir what is the minimum insulation resistance value > is acceptable for 415 volt LV cable >

Nitin vishwakarma says:
February 19, 2016 at 5:02 am
thank you sir vary information.

bharat says:
March 11, 2016 at 7:04 am
explanation good

Kiran Ufade says:
March 24, 2016 at 11:11 am
useful information sir thanks

Saurabh Gupta says:
March 29, 2016 at 12:04 pm
I want to know IR value for 160 KN & 210 KN Composite Polymer Long Rod Insulators using in Transmission line tower

Saurabh Gupta says:
March 29, 2016 at 12:07 pm
Jignesh Sir, I want to know IR values of 160 KN and 210 KN composite polymer long rod insulators, which we are using now a days
instead of Porcelain types.

ajojacob says:
April 9, 2016 at 8:42 am
what is the IR acceptance criteria for LV to earth in transformer


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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

Magdy souror says:

April 20, 2016 at 9:35 am
very useful information.
Thanks for the eort done

Asif Nazir says:
May 16, 2016 at 10:01 am
Great work

Zaine Binti Abdul Karim says:
May 25, 2016 at 2:26 am
Hi Mr.Jignesh Parmar, thank you for your technical write-up it is very useful. However, I would like to ask what is the
recommended IR value for a Fuel Gas Superheaters (powered from 400V AC, load is 550kW). Heaters IR is not covered in your
article, can you assist me on this, because we do have some issues with our present installation.

For the rest of readers, kindly chip in too if you guys know the answer to my question above. Thank you all.

Amila De Silva says:
May 25, 2016 at 3:10 pm
Hi, one of our drainage pump installed in a dry well caught to ood. now when we megger it including the cable ( now the well is
dry) it shows zero. what can be the reason.

Please advise

Raja pandiyar says:
June 11, 2016 at 6:12 pm
Good details for us

Manish Gupta says:
June 16, 2016 at 8:52 am
Hi , what is the hipot test voltage for 24VDC eld wire line to secondary side ( for an digital IO card) used in PLC product. I believe
it is 500Vrms or 707 VDC, can you please conrm.

sreedevi says:
June 17, 2016 at 10:09 am
How much dc voltage has to be applied in megger for measuring IR in 4 pair cable harness

June 21, 2016 at 4:22 am
Ive seen other ppl doing megger test where they short L1,L2,L3,N to E and get the ohm value.
Is this the correct method? if so how does it work? mind to share? TQ

Warmest Regards,

Danny Yee

Tushar Mahajan says:
June 22, 2016 at 2:16 pm

Nilesh Amrelia says:
July 15, 2016 at 4:59 am
Interesting information shared. Thanks

Aman says:
July 19, 2016 at 4:10 pm

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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

how many Ir Value of 120 & 210kn insulator

Martin says:
July 20, 2016 at 7:34 am
Dear Parmar..

Thanks for the Usefull Post..

Its very Helpfull for the Beginner level of the Megger Tester

Keep it Up

IEC says:
August 6, 2016 at 7:13 am provide easy way to get IEC within 3 to 7 working days. if you are looking iec consultant in India, Please call us
today +91 9540195222

Gaurav Shah says:
August 20, 2016 at 3:41 am
Thanks Jigneshbhai

Ganesh Nama says:
September 6, 2016 at 2:16 am
dear sir, this information is very use full for us people, about basic knowledge.

thank you very much.

fendi says:
April 13, 2017 at 5:57 am
Can we use 5 kV DC to check the insulation value of inductive voltage transformer? Can we assume the acceptable value must be
more than 1000Mohm?

PC YADAV says:
April 29, 2017 at 6:56 am
Dear sir, this information is very useful for me and to increase my knowledge.

thank you very much.

rajesh Thapa says:
May 11, 2017 at 1:55 pm
can any one explain me the dierent between 1.1kV for 220/ 415 V and 1kV for 220/415V since some suggest 1.1 volt grade cable to
select and some said to go for 1.0kV for internal house wiring cable selection. Normally i used to go for 1.1kV for LT cable. Can any
one explain & clarifyplease. me

rajesh Thapa says:
May 11, 2017 at 2:02 pm
Reasons for using dierent kV rating for selecting house wiring cables, which to go for 1.1kV or 1.0 kV rating for 200 to 440 V .
please leave valuable comments and suggestion .

Dipankar Sharma says:
May 23, 2017 at 5:18 am
I would like to get a Test result of a 2000KG Lift Installation:

1. Insulation Resistance for the whole installation,

2. Between Phases,
3. Between each phase and earth,

4. Resistance of each electrode for earthing system,

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Insulation Resistance (IR) Values | Electrical Notes & Articles

5. Maximum earthing resistance of installation.

Can any one please help me what would be the values I suppose to get.

This required for reference purpose.

Nht Thin says:
June 19, 2017 at 1:02 pm
Hi sir, this information is very useful for me and to increase my knowledge.

thank you so much.


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