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50 Acer park perimeter adaptive and

all-inclusive dirt/gravel trail

Katrina Furness, Oksana Jessica Gritsan, Jeff McGlocklin,
Tierra White

Table of Content
Project Overview………………………………………………………………….3
Needs Assessment……………………………………………………………….5
Capital Budget…………………………………………………………………….10
Facility Budget…………………………………………………………………….11
Environmental Universal Design………………………………………….12
Risk Management……………………………………………………………….14
Site Map……………………………………………………………………………..15
Appendix: Completed Surveys…………………………………………….17

Project Overview
Introduction: Having an All-Inclusive Trail
When this group formed, we all had one common goal: we all wanted to help people. By
looking around Cheney, knowing little bit history of the area, and having unique personalities
we came to the conclusion that a running/walking trail would be a good addition to the 50 acre
park (a park that is currently on hold yet in process of being developed), and we believe would
change the overall culture of Cheney Wa. We developed a plan so this trail would
accommodate needs for everyone in Cheney as well as draw people from outside of the area.
Cheney is a college town which consists of students/faculty and families from numerous
backgrounds and cultures. Because of the variety of people we have in Cheney, there are
several groups and organizations who would benefit from the trail year-round including: 10
public schools (k-12), Christian Schools, senior and assisted living organizations, special needs
groups, Cheney running club (Flightless Birds), as well as Cheney Parks and Recreation. Also,
the location of the trail is within radius of two expanding neighborhoods such as the Eagle Point
Apartment complex , and a new neighborhood connected to eastside of the park.
In order to be an all inclusive trail, we believe that using perimeter dirt/gravel would be
the best choice for the trail because of the easy maintenance and flat surface for wheelchairs to
smoothly roll through. We also believe that this design could be used as a US trial model for the
growing adaptive recreation industry that already has hundreds of all-terrain wheelchairs
developed monthly for anyone with or without life barriers. This is where we step in and can
create something very special which is an all-inclusive trail.
Industry Statistics:

There are many factors to consider in the making of this trail: types of surfaces, benefits of
the trail, populations it will attract, and grant opportunities. A lot of our ideas came from online
journals and public trade press articles that we have researched. We found several trail surface
options that we could use if we wanted to innovate the trail in the future such as Bonded
Woodcarpet and crushed rocks. “Bonded Woodcarpet would provide a smooth surface for
those in wheelchairs, strollers, and bikes while giving the trail a nature-like feel to it” (Dandes,
2013). “Crushed rocks would also be efficient since it would prevent future damage by allowing
water to pass through”(Beck, 2009). We also found out the impact our trail would have on the
overall health for those who use it. Being physically active not only promotes physical strength
but also emotional health “such as increased higher-level functioning, competition, self-esteem,
and overall enjoyment” (Anderson, 2009). Our industry research also shows that the more you
use a trail, the less likely a person would be prone to future health problems. So on the health
and money the “showing a 2:1 ratio” (Wang, 2005). From both research (articles and surveys)
and personal observation, we believe that our trail would attract most of the Cheney
community, especially near schools. The journal “Enhancing community capacity to support
physical activity: the development of a community-based indoor-outdoor walking program.”,
stated evidence on the successfulness of having a trails next to schools and how schools would
actually use it for their events/programs. Our trail would also provide a safer alternative to

main roads such as Washington and Betz st in which we noticed is used by many runners. The
final reality of building a trail in a park is the overwhelming support across the nation. Just by
using google, we have found local, regional, and national funding for projects; using one
example “17 regional recipients that received small grants from the International Mountain
Bike Association (IMBA)” (Brooks, 2014). Thus this is not an “if you build it, they will come
project” (Costner) Field of Dreams but this project is more focused on the high need/demand of
the local community.

Our mission it to set up a safe and soft surface trail around the 50 acer Park in Cheney
Washington accessible to all people including wheelchairs and any other special needs. We also
hope to promote fitness both mentally and physically by using parks in this local region.

That this trail in 50 Acer Park can change the culture of Cheney, influence region, and even
nation to a better way of life, regardless to what challenges have happened in the past.

We value of low stress, great life through “taking time to stop and smell the roses” relaxation

Goals and Objectives
Goals: build a trail that does little to no harm on the environment even with human and animal
impressions. Objective: Create a safe all-inclusive trail that can be used by multiple people, hold
events, and be a positive tool as the community grows.

Needs Assessment
Our mission it to set up a safe and soft surface trail around the 50 acer Park in Cheney
Washington accessible to all people including wheelchairs and any other special needs. We also
hope to promote fitness both mentally and physically by using parks in this local region.
Please put an “x” in the box that applies best to you and your family.
How old are you?
0-18 19-25 26-30 31-40 41-50 51+

Gender: male female

Are you employed right now? Yes No
If you work what is (are) your work shift(s)?
Day swing nights
Please circle how many people are in your family
1 2 3 4 5 6+
Would you use a walking path/trail in a local park? Yes No
Do you like to run/walk in groups or pairs? Yes No
Do you live in the Cheney area? Yes No
If you’re not local, would you still use a trail in Cheney? Yes No
Do you take your pets to the park? Yes No
Do you know someone who is in a wheelchair who would use a park trail?
Yes No
How much time would you spend on a park trail?
0-30 30-60 60-90 90+
Thank you for your honesty

Executive Summary:
According to the survey results, all 20 of the people we surveyed said they would use
our trail including local and non-local surveyors. Our survey results also show a wide range of
age groups meaning that, if we get this plan to work, the trail would benefit a wide range of
ages ranging from 0-18 to 50+years. 17 out of 20 surveyors said they would run in groups or
pairs, and 7 of them knew at least 1 person in a wheelchair who would use the trail which also
means that they know other people who would possibly use this trail which increases the need
for our trail design. The community and the school age children who took the survey were
excited and hoped that the City of Cheney would develop this trial.
The purpose of this survey was to determine if a walking trail would be beneficial to the
community. The city of Cheney has a 50 acre lot which needs to be developed. We asked the
community what they would like to see within the walking trail. The conclusion of the survey
confirmed the community and schools age kids would like to have this trial and it would
promote a healthy lifestyle to all ages and to individuals with impairments or wheelchair bound.

Overview of Methods and Procedures:
Since our group are taking this trail plan seriously, in hope that it could be constructed
in the future, we tried to get as much data as possible with little time taken away from the
surveyors. We made sure to provide the simple and straight-to-the-point questions by making
assumptions on what we expected to see and write questions that would either confirm or
reject our assumptions. We also wanted to target the community as a whole and made sure to
get random samples from a variety of areas in Cheney, not just targeting populations like EWU
students or a running team. We achieved that by asking in different public areas such as stores,
schools, and libraries.


Ages Employment

3 10
0-18 19-25 26-30
31-40 41-50 51+ Yes No

Gender Work Shift

11 3 8

Female Male Day Swing Night

Number of People in Number of people who
Family would use park trails

4 20

1 2 3 4 5 6+ Yes No

Run in Groups or Pairs Non-Locals use Cheney

3 12

Yes No Yes No

Live in Cheney Area How much time spent on
Park Trail
3 1.2

3 2

17 13

Yes No 0-30min 30-60min 60-90min 90+min

Know someone in
Take Pets to The Park
Wheelchair who would
use trail

7 10 10


Yes No Yes No

The people we interviewed seemed enthusiastic about the trail idea. All 20 surveyors
said they would use the trail and most would run in groups or trails. People seems to like our
idea of an all-inclusive trail wide enough to fit several wheelchairs in a row or groups of
runners. This trail will benefit everyone within the community despite of age, impairment,
wheelchair bound or fitness level.
Build a trail in the 50 Acer Park.

Capital Budget
Capital Budget
Trail Cost Price per Mile Mile Estimated Cost Actual Cost
On Site Design Cost $100.10 1 $100.10 $100.10
Clearing and brushing $3,200.00 1 $3,200.00 $3,200.00
Grading and natural-surface trails $6,200.00 1 $6,200.00 $6,200.00
Total Building Cost $9,500.10
Material Price per Unit Unit Estimated Cost Actual Cost
Sand/Gravel/stone base mix $13.00 1070 tons $13,910.00 $13,910.00
Recycled Crushed stone $7.45 535 tons $7,975.00 $7,975.00
Extra Material(keeping the gravel
in place) 2% of trail cost N/A $731.65 $731.65
Total Material Cost $22,616.65
Items for the trail Price per Unit Unit Estimated Cost Actual Cost
$629.00 3 $1,887.00 $1,887.00
Trash cans $592.00 3 $1,776.00 $1,776.00
Movable Park Benches $273.99 3 $821.97 $821.97
Additional Line Trimers $399.99 2 $799.98 $799.98
Additional leaf Blowers $499.00 2 $998.00 $998.00
Additional Landscape Rakes $58.95 2 $117.90 $117.90
Additional Shovels $33.74 2 $67.48 $67.48
Measuring Wheel $139.99 2 $279.98 $279.98
Map, Rules, Warnings: Sign/with
labor/concrete $448.99 1 $448.99 $448.99
Total Item Cost for the Trail $7,197.30
Total Cost of Project $39,314.05

 Detailed descriptions: The overall budget will include design of the trail, the process of building
the trail from using machines to clearing the path, grading and putting in the base and crushed
stone, to rolling and compacting the stone itself for a finished product. Then adding in the trash
cans, park benches that can be moved during a cross country race, adding a large sign at the trail
head, and added extra tools for maintenance. Total Project Cost: $39,314.05
 Fixed assets: The fixed asset is the land itself that has been already purchased by the city of
Cheney used by the Park and Recreation sector. We will not be adding or taking away any of the
buildings, piping, and/or electrical. Cost: $0.00
 Estimated labor cost: The labor cost included the machinery the labor cost was included came
included with the construction of the trail. Because this is a smaller project with a distance of
ruff single mile the crew would be small and labor cost would be small. Total Cost: $9,500.10
with machinery.

Facility Budget
Facility Budget
Pay per hours per Weeks in the
Overhead Cost hour week year Totals
Maintenance $15.00 3 52 $2,340.00
Event coordinator $15.00 15 3 $675.00
Total Overhead $3,015.00

Items Price Units Sub-Totals Totals
replacement gravel $7.45 267.5 $1,993.75 $1,993.75
Total Item Cost $1993.75
Total Cost for the year $5,008.75

 Maintenance should include 3 weekly hours of maintaining trail including: empting the
trash, fixing any hazards or erosion control, line trimming and weed control if needed,
leaf blowing if need be, snow clearing if need, safety inspection/trail closing or opening.
Also will be responsible for replacement gravel over the year.
 Event Coordinator will be used 3 times a year setting up event calendars, fundraisers
events, timing events throughout the year.

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Environmental Universal Design
US Green Building Council LEED standards

 Sustainable site development: Yes, 50 Acer Park is already in existence.
 Water saving: efficient crushed rocks improve trail drainage (Betz, 2009) There is
already an water run off pond in the South West lowest part of the pond
 Energy Efficiency: it is all natural materials as well as absorbs sunlight and is effective
for the natural surrounding environment
 Materials Selection: wood, gravel, slate, sand

Ada standards
302.1 General. Floor and ground surfaces shall be stable, firm, and slip resistant and shall comply with 302.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. within animal containment areas, floor and ground surfaces shall not be required to be stable, firm, and slip resistant.

2. Areas of sport activity shall not be required to comply with 302.

Advisory 302.1 General. A stable surface is one that remains unchanged by contaminants or applied force, so that when the contaminant or
force is removed, the surface returns to its original condition. A firm surface resists deformation by either indentations or particles moving on
its surface. A slip-resistant surface provides sufficient frictional counterforce to the forces exerted in walking to permit safe ambulation.

ABA Standards Chapter 4: Accessible Routes

401 General

401.1 Scope. The provisions of Chapter 4 shall apply where required by Chapter 2 or where referenced by a requirement in this document.

402 Accessible Routes

402.1 General. Accessible routes shall comply with 402.

402.2 Components. Accessible routes shall consist of one or more of the following components: walking surfaces with a running slope not
steeper than 1:20, doorways, ramps, curb ramps excluding the flared sides, elevators, and platform lifts. All components of an accessible route
shall comply with the applicable requirements of Chapter 4.

Advisory 402.2 Components. Walking surfaces must have running slopes not steeper than 1:20, see 403.3. Other components
of accessible routes, such as ramps (405) and curb ramps (406), are permitted to be more steeply sloped.

403 Walking Surfaces

403.1 General. Walking surfaces that are a part of an accessible route shall comply with 403.

403.2 Floor or Ground Surface. Floor or ground surfaces shall comply with 302.

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403.3 Slope. The running slope of walking surfaces shall not be steeper than 1:20. The cross slope of walking surfaces shall not be steeper than

403.4 Changes in Level. Changes in level shall comply with 303.

403.5 Clearances. Walking surfaces shall provide clearances complying with 403.5.

403.5.1 Clear Width. Except as provided in 403.5.2 and 403.5.3, the clear width of walking surfaces shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum.

Figure 403.5.1 Clear Width of an Accessible Route

403.5.2 Clear Width at Turn. Where the accessible route makes a 180 degree turn around an element which is less than 48 inches (1220 mm)
wide, clear width shall be 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum approaching the turn, 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum at the turn and 42 inches (1065
mm) minimum leaving the turn.

EXCEPTION: Where the clear width at the turn is 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum compliance with 403.5.2 shall not be required.

 Accessible routes: trail will be 6 to 9 feet wide in most places and flat enough with a very
low grade of up and down hill for wheelchair accessibility, the trail heads will be
connected to the park parking lot which is ADA approved.
 General Site and buildings: Parks and Recreation buildings are already at the park having
bathrooms that are ADA approved.
 Communications Elements and Features: Signage at the trail heads of map, description,
usage and rules.
 Recreation Facilities: Way for all people to enjoy the environment in a park setting.
 Due to the fact the park will have sports recreation the trail does not have to comply with
3.02 surfaces.

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Risk Management
The risk management is medium to moderate. We have evaluated a list:

 Structure of the trail hazards: pot holes, water pooling, animal damage, vandalism, or
trash on the trail, working with tools by maintenance could all be hazards on the trail.

 Tripping falling while using the trail could including bandages to minor emergency trips.

 Future concerns: trees and bushes are inserted near the trail for tripping hazards, any
construction on the park could include hazards.

How to mitigate the Risk:

 For maintenance: we can schedule the crews to work during the low popular times and
provide safety courses to the maintenance workers to prevent potentially dangerous
situations such as proper storage of tools.

 Graffiti remover just in case.
 Provide warning sign that states the risks.

 Create a map plan with an Arbiculturist showing safe locations of tree planting so that
there is an adequate amount of space between trees and path.

Site Map

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Anderson, D., Wozencroft, A., Bedini, L. A., (2009). Adolescent Girls' Involvement in Disability

Sport: Implications for Identity Development. Journal of Sport & Social Issues,33(4),


Beck, S., Trail Maintenance and Management. Retrieved from. (September 2009).


Brooks, M. (2014, August 8). IMBA gives $9600 to Support Trail Building: Bike Magazine.

Retrieved from


Dandes, R. (2013). Trail Blazers. Recreation Management Magazine, 34

Riley-Jacome,M., Gallant,M., Fisher, B., Gotcsik,M., Strogatz,D., (2010, February 6). J Primary

Prevent (2010). 31:85-95. DOI 10.1007/s10935-010-0204-x.Enhancing Community

Capacity to Support Physical Activity: The Development of a Community-Based

Indoor-Outdoor Walking Program.

Wang, G., Macera, C. A., Scudder-Soucie, B., Schmid, T., Pratt, M., Buchner, D. (2005, April 1). A
Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Physical Activity Using Bike/Pedestrian Trails. Health
Promotion Practice. Retrieved from

Action Materials
Common Ground Works

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Black Diamond Construction
Mega Print Inc. (Online:

Appendix:Completed Surveys

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