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of attendees will be almost the same number with those of the APEC Summit.

As earlier announced by the White House, US President Donald Trump will definitely attend the 40th anniversary of
the ASEAN-US but is skipping the EAS. Membership of EAS consists of ten ASEAN member states, (Brunei
Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines and
Vietnam), Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, the Russian Federation and US.

State Department Secretary of State Rex Tillerson would represent the US instead at the EAS while Trump goes
back to the Washington ahead. The Philippines will be the last stop of Trump’s Asian tour, which include trips to
China, Japan, South Korea and Vietnam. Trump will fly to the Philippines from Vietnam which is hosting this year’s
APEC Leaders’ Summit.

Trump will attend the special gala celebration of the 50th anniversary of ASEAN on Nov. 12. President Duterte is
slated to hold four-eyes talks with Trump at a “sideline meeting” during the ASEAN Summit on Nov. 13.

Lessons learned from the APEC Summit, Paynor cited, the administration of President Duterte is making sure our
country’s hosting of this international event would not be at the inconvenience of many Filipinos, especially in terms
of disrupted flights and traffic mobility.

Thus, President Duterte declared no work, no classes at all levels in both private and public from Nov.13-15. Paynor
clarified the period of suspension of classes is extended during the arrival and departure of Leaders whose planes
will all be coming in and out through the Clark Airport in Angeles City, Pampanga and travel by road to Manila and
elsewhere under strict security convoy protocols.

Like any other international events, Paynor noted with deep concern “lone wolf” attack with no motive or instigation
as the gravest security threat second to Islamic State (IS) terrorists’ threats. A particular example, he cited, was the
gambling addiction-disturbed The Philippines plays host again to a world event where no less than political leaders
from 20 countries and international groups are coming to attend. Fifteen months into office, President Rodrigo
Duterte will have this opportunity to show Filipino hospitality even to its worst critics abroad.

As of this writing, all 21 political leaders and heads of governments have already confirmed their participation of
international summit meetings taking place in our country next month. This was the headcount made by Ambassador
Marciano Paynor Jr., head of National Organizing Committee (NOC) for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) Leaders’ Summit.

In brief, Paynor is satisfied with the preparations so far done for the holding of the ASEAN Leaders’ Summit, then
later with dialogue partners in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and later the East Asia Summit (EAS), all taking
place here one after the other from Nov. 13 to 15.

Also attending these gatherings as guests of President Duterte are the respective heads of the United Nations (UN)
and the European Union (EU). Both world bodies have been critical of the human rights issues in the Philippines
under the Duterte administration.

The Philippines is this year’s chairman of the ASEAN Leaders’ Summit which coincided with the 50th founding
anniversary of the bloc. The Philippines is one of the founding fathers of the ASEAN.

It’s been a long while since Amb. Paynor first appeared as guest in my weekly Kapihan sa Manila Bay on Oct.28,
2015 when he headed also the NOC for the APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Leaders’ Summit held in
November that year in Manila.

More or less, we can perhaps expect the upcoming ASEAN Summit to hew closely with the template for the APEC
Summit that was considered a success in terms of its being undisturbed by any nasty event. The same security
lockdowns in all venues of the international gatherings are being put again.
At the breakfast forum last Wednesday at Cafe Adriatico in Remedios Circle in Malate, Paynor confirmed there
would be a total of 21 political leaders (10 from ASEAN heads of states) and 11 more heads of states and political
leaders from ARF Dialog Partners and the EAS. So the number gunman who single-handedly caused the death of 28
people in the Resort World incident. The casualties and injured were caused by the fire he set at the casino-hotel in
Pasay City.

But everything else, Paynor believes the Philippines is ready and well prepared with every contingency plans to
meet projected scenarios.

Now at 50 years old of existence, Paynor noted with concern that the awareness and appreciation of Filipinos about
the importance ASEAN are wanting.

Paynor specifically alluded to the survey on “the awareness and attitudes” of university students in ten-member
states of the ASEAN done by Singapore-based Yusok Ishak Institute. In that survey, Paynor disclosed the
Philippines placed 9th and followed by Myanmar among the ten ASEAN states in terms of lack of awareness of the
people about their regional bloc.

Funded by the ASEAN Foundation, the survey found out, among other things, most students acknowledged that
ASEAN provides numerous benefits and opportunities for them, their country, and the region.

The survey noted much of the enthusiasm for ASEAN is strongest among students from Cambodia, Laos, and
Vietnam. On a lesser scale, the students from Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand also
demonstrated substantial knowledge of the regional bloc.

Definitely, however, ASEAN awareness is higher among the business leaders of the member states.

The survey was based from responses of 4,623 students among 22 universities in the ten ASEAN member states.
The sample size for each university is 200 to 220 with roughly equal numbers of males and females respondents.
Our students from University of the Philippines and the Mindanao State University represented our country.

Thus, Paynor could only mutter the wish that all of us Filipinos, not only students and businessmen, would embrace
ASEAN to be part of our daily living.
Freud's psychoanalytic theories

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) is considered to be the founder of the psychodynamic approach
to psychology which looks closely at the unconscious drives that motivate people to act in certain ways.

The role of the mind is something that Freud repeatedly talked about because he believed that the mind is
responsible for both conscious and unconscious decisions based on drives and forces. Unconscious desires motivate
people to act accordingly. The id, ego, and super ego are three aspects of the mind, Freud believed to make up a
person's personality. Freud believed people are "simply actors in the drama of [their] own minds, pushed by desire,
pulled by coincidence. Underneath the surface, our personalities represent the power struggle going on deep within
us".[1]

The Unconscious Mind

Freud believed that the answers to what controlled daily actions resided in the unconscious mind despite alternative
views that all our behaviors were conscious. He felt that religion is an illusion based on human values that are
created by the mind to overcome inner psychological conflict. [4] He believed that notions of the unconsciousness and
gaps in the consciousness can be explained by acts of which the consciousness affords no evidence. The
unconscious mind positions itself in every aspect our life whether one is dormant or awake. [5] Though one may be
unaware of the impact of the unconscious mind, it influences the actions we engage in.[6] Human behavior may be
understood by searching for analysis of mental processes. This explanation gives significance to verbal slips and
dreams. They are caused by hidden reasons in the mind displayed in concealed forms. Verbal slips of the
unconscious mind are referred to as a Freudian slip. This is a term to explain a spoken mistake derived from the
unconscious mind. Traumatizing information of thoughts and beliefs are blocked from the conscious mind. Slips
expose our true thoughts stored in the unconscious.[7] Sexual instincts or drives have deeply hidden roots in the
unconscious mind. Instincts act by giving vitality and enthusiasm to the mind through meaning and purpose. The
ranges of instincts are in great numbers. Freud expressed them in two categories. One is Eros the self-preserving life
instinct containing all erotic pleasures. While Eros is used for basic survival, the living instinct alone cannot explain
all behavior according to Freud.[8] In contrast, Thanatos is the death instinct. It is full of self-destruction of sexual
energy and our unconscious desire to die.[9] The main part of human behavior and actions is tied back to sexual
drives. Since birth, the existence of sexual drives can be recognized as one of the most important incentives of life.
Freud's Psychosexual Stages

Freud’s theory of psychosexual development is represented amongst five stages. According to Freud, each stage
occurs within a specific time frame of one’s life. If one becomes fixated in any of the five stages, he or she will
develop personality traits that coincide with the a specific stage and its focus.

Oral Stage

The first stage is the oral stage. An infant is in this stage from birth to eighteen months of age. The main
focus in the oral stage is pleasure seeking through the infant’s mouth. During this stage the need for tasting
and sucking becomes prominent in producing pleasure. Oral stimulation is crucial during this stage; if the
infant’s needs are not met during this time frame he or she will be fixated in the oral stage. Fixation in this
stage can lead to adult habits such as thumb-sucking, smoking, over-eating, and nail-biting. Personality
traits can also develop during adulthood that are linked to oral fixation; these traits can include optimism
and independence or pessimism and hostility.

Anal Stage

The second stage is the anal stage which lasts from eighteen months to three years of age. During this stage
the infant’s pleasure seeking centers are located in the bowels and bladder. Parents stress toilet training and
bowel control during this time period. Fixation in the anal stage can lead to anal-retention or anal-
expulsion. Anal retentive characteristics include being overly neat, precise, and orderly while being anal
expulsive involves being disorganized, messy, and destructive.

Phallic Stage

The third stage in psychosexual development is the phallic stage. This stage begins at 3 years old and ends
when the child reaches six years of age. The phallic stage focuses on the genitals as pleasure seeking areas
of the body. Boys in this stage experience the Oedipus complex while girls experience the Electra complex.
In both cases the child develops incestuous feelings for the parent of the opposite sex. Children tend to
develop characteristics of the same-sex parent during this stage. Fixation in the phallic stage has different
personality traits depending on one’s gender. Males may take great pride in their masculinity and their
sexuality while women may become flirtatious and promiscuous. In both instances, these personality traits
are a sign of low self-esteem and self-worth. This also leads to an Oedipal Complex.

Latency Stage

The fourth stage is the latency stage which begins at the age of six and continues until the age of eleven.
During this stage there is no pleasure seeking region of the body; instead all sexual feelings are repressed.
Thus, children are able to develop social skills, and find comfort through peer and family interaction.

Genital Stage

The final stage of psychosexual development is the genital stage. This stage commences at the age of
eleven, lasts through puberty, and ends when one reaches adulthood at the age of eighteen. The onset of
puberty reflects a strong interest from one person to another of the opposite sex. If one does not experience
fixation in any of the psychosexual stages, once he or she has reached the genital stage, he or she will grow
into a well-balanced human being.